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Facilities and Research Centers

Kappa Apex II Duo X-Ray Diffractometer

The Bruker Kappa Apex II Duo is the top-of-the-line solution for sealed tube chemical crystallography systems. It is equipped with Bruker’s latest four-circle goniometer which combines the gold-standard high precision D8 base with the most versatile Kappa stage available, the most sensitive Apex II CCD detector for crystallography, and the unique combination of a low powered Cu IµS microfocus source plus astandard sealed tube Mo X-ray source. The high brilliance Cu IµS microfocus source is suitable for absolute configuration and protein screening.

Sample Submission

Samples may be submitted to the facility for analysis using the sample submittion form below:

SCXRD - Sample Submission Form (pdf)

All samples must be accompanied by a completed submission form. For further information, such as servic charges and professional advic,e please contact Angel Ugrinov, Ph.D.

Instrument Usage and Training

Students are encouraged to learn to operate the instrument and to critically analyze and interpret the data so that they may perform their own experiments under the supervision of the facility manager, Dr. Angel Ugrinov. Training is a personal custom hands-on process. Which means that every single student who has a sample for analysis can ask the manager for help and the student will be personally trained on his/her own sample. Before using the facility every student needs to complete a safety training class for working with radioactive materials and should wear his/her own dosimeter badge (ring).

Please contact Mike Borr at the NDSU Safety Office to schedule a radiation training session.

On-Line Training Modules and Information

NDSU Safety On-Line Training Resources
Radiation Safety Information
Radiation Hazards Presentation (pdf)
Radiation Hazards Review Form (pdf)
Radiation Safety Handbook - 2004 (pdf)
Radiation Statement of Training and Experience (pdf)
Radiation Statement of Agreement (pdf)
Radiation Film/Badge Request Form (pdf)

Resources: Manuals, Link and Books

Programs for structure determination and visualization

Smart5 – User Manual (pdf)

SHELXL: a set of programs for crystal structure determination from single-crystal diffraction data.

WinGx: a MS-Windows system of programs for solving, refining and analyzing single crystal X-ray diffraction data for small molecules.

PLANTON: a versatile SHELX97 compatible multipurpose crystallographic tool.

Reflex: a program that simulates X-ray, neutron, and electron powder diffraction patterns based on models of crystalline materials.
It aids the determination of crystal structure, assists the interpretation of diffraction data, and is applied to validate the results of experiment and computation.

ORTEP-3 for Windows: a computer program, written in Fortran, for drawing crystal structure illustrations

Mercury: a comprehensive range of tools for structure visualization and the exploration of crystal packing.

Rastop: molecular visualization software adapted from the program RasMol

Balls and Sticks: a program designed to create 3D pictures and animations of crystals.

IUC Teaching Pamphlets by The International Union of Crystallographers.
Very nice tutorials for diffractions and crystallography.


Werner Massa, Crystal Structure Determination, 2nd edition, Springer 2004

P. Müller, R. Herbst-Irmer, A. L. Spek, T. R. Schneider, M. R. Sawaya Crystal Structure Refinement (A Crystallographer’s Guide to SHELXL), Oxford University Press 2007