Tables, Figures, Schemes, etc.
Tables, figures, schemes, and other non-text items should be integrated into the text of your disquisition. Ideally, a non-text item should be inserted on the same page where the item is first referenced in the text, or as close as possible to the first in-text reference.
For information about how to format tables, figures, schemes, and non-text items, refer to the style manual for your disquisition.
Example: For examples of how to use and format tables, figures, schemes, and non-text items in the disquisition, download this file.
- Citations – Academic honesty is essential in all disquisitions. If you use a table, figure, or non-text item that is not your original design, you must cite the original source of the item. You may use an in-text citation in the text of the title or caption of the item, or as a footnote under the item, or add an endnote to the end of the item title with an appropriate citation in the References/Bibliography section. Refer to the style manual of your discipline for more information about citations of non-text items.
If you have adapted the design of a figure or non-text item from another source’s original design, then you must include the citation of the original source in the title or caption of the image. You must also state that your figure or image has been adapted from the original source.
- Font – The font of the item titles must be same size and type as the rest of your disquisition. If the title for a non-text item is longer than one line, use single-spacing between the lines of the title.
Within tables, the font must be the same type as the rest of your disquisition. The size can smaller, if required to fit the table in the page margins.
Within figures, schemes, and other non-text items, the font can be different than the rest of your disquisition.
- Margins – Tables, figures, schemes, and non-text items must fit in the required 1-inch margins. Non-text items that are too wide to fit in the margins of the page in portrait orientation can be placed on their own page in landscape orientation. However, the page numbers must still appear in portrait orientation. (This requirement ensures that when your disquisition is printed, all of the page numbers will appear consistently and correctly.) For an example, download the example document above.
- Numbering – All tables, figures, schemes, and non-text items must be numbered sequentially based on the type of item (such as “Table 1” and “Figure 1”). For example, you can have a “Table 1” and a “Figure 1”, but you cannot have two tables named “Table 1”.
You can number the items sequentially according to the chapter in which they appear (such as 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and so on). Alternatively, you can number the items in the order that they appear, regardless of chapter or section (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on).
If you have tables, figures, schemes, etc. in your appendix or appendices, then the item number must begin with the letter of the appendix, and the numbering should begin from the start of each appendix. For example, the first table in Appendix A would be numbered as "Table A1". For more information about numbering appendix items, see the "List of Appendix Figures, Schemes, etc."
- Spacing – Minimize the amount of blank space that appears before and after tables, figures, schemes, and other non-text elements. However, tables and figures and the titles for those items should be clearly distinguishable from the paragraph text.
Try to insert an item as close to its first in-text reference as possible (but not before), and at a natural break on the page (at the top or bottom of a page, between paragraphs, or between pages). Do not insert items in the middle of a long paragraph when there is another natural break where it can be inserted. For examples of where to place items, download the example file above.
- Titles – All tables, figures, schemes, and non-text items must have a title and a number (such as “Figure 1”), and must be included in the appropriate lists in the prefatory material. For information about how to format titles for non-text items, including punctuation and location of titles, refer to the style manual of your discipline.
When the title for a table, figure, scheme, or other non-text item is longer than one line, you may use single-spacing between the lines of the title, unless otherwise directed by the style manual of your discipline.