## Physics

#### 211 Topics Detail

1. Introduction [typically includes:  definition of physics; scientific notation & significant figures; units, SI system, & unit conversions; vectors]
2. Motion, Forces, and Newton’s Laws [typically includes:  position, displacement, speed, velocity, & acceleration; inertia & Galileo’s experiments; net force & Newton’s first law; mass & Newton’s second law; force pairs & Newton’s third law]
3. Forces and Motion in One Dimension [typically includes:  motion with constant acceleration, gravitational force (weight) & normal force; drawing free-body diagrams; friction:  kinetic & static; free-fall motion; tension forces:  cables, strings, & pulleys; drag forces & terminal speed; bacterial motion]
4. Forces and Motion in Two and Three Dimensions [typically includes:  translational equilibrium; projectile motion; reference frames & relative motion; applying Newton’s laws]
5. Circular Motion and Gravitation [typically includes:  uniform circular motion:  period, centripetal acceleration, & centripetal forces; nonuniform circular motion; Newton’s law of gravity; Kepler’s laws]
6. Work and Energy [typically includes:  definition of work; kinetic energy & work-kinetic energy theorem; potential energy, gravitational potential energy, conservative & nonconservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy; spring force, Hooke’s law, & elastic potential energy; work done by friction & thermal energy; conservation of energy; power]
7. Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions [typically includes:  linear momentum (particle vs. system); impulse & impulse-momentum theorem; conservation of linear momentum; collisions:  inelastic & elastic; center of mass & motion of the center of mass]
8. Rotational Motion [typically includes:  angular position, angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, & period; motion with constant angular acceleration; relation between linear & angular variables; torque & Newton’s second law for rotation; moment of inertia (system of particles vs. extended object) & center of gravity; rotational equilibrium & statics; rotational dynamics & massive pulleys; smooth rolling motion]
9. Energy and Momentum of Rotational Motion [typically includes:  kinetic energy of rotation & kinetic energy of rolling; work-energy theorem for rotation; conservation of energy & rolling; angular momentum (particle vs. extended object); conservation of angular momentum]
10. Fluids [typically includes:  pressure, atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, & density; variation of pressure with depth; Pascal’s principle & hydraulics; buoyancy, Archimedes’s principle, apparent weight & floating; fluid dynamics:  equation of continuity & Bernoulli’s equation; real fluids]
11. Harmonic Motion and Elasticity [typically includes:  simple harmonic motion:  period, frequency, amplitude, velocity, &acceleration; relation between simple harmonic motion & uniform circular motion; Hooke’s law, relation between frequency, spring constant, & mass; simple pendulum & torsional pendulum; conservation of energy in simple harmonic motion; stress & strain:  tension/compression, shearing stress, volume stress]
12. Waves [typically includes:  transverse vs. longitudinal waves; wave function:  wavelength, frequency, period, & amplitude; speed of waves on a string; wave intensity; superposition & interference; reflection (at a boundary); standing waves on a string]
13. Sound [optional, but typically includes:  description of a sound wave & speed of sound; pressure amplitude, intensity, & decibel scale; Doppler effect]
14. Temperature and Heat [typically includes:  system vs. surroundings; distinction between temperature, thermal energy, heat, & internal energy; direction of heat flow, thermal equilibrium, & zeroth law of thermodynamics; temperature scales, gas thermometer & absolute zero; phases of matter & phase changes; specific heats, latent heats, & calorimetry; thermal expansion; heat flow:  conduction, convection, & radiation]
15. Gases and Kinetic Theory [optional, but typically includes:  Avogadro’s number & moles; ideal gases:  empirical gas laws & ideal gas law; relating temperature to average molecular speed; relating translational kinetic energy & internal energy to temperature; specific heats of ideal gases]
16. Thermodynamics [typically includes:  first law of thermodynamics & relation to conservation of energy; pV work & pV diagrams; thermodynamic processes:  isobaric, isothermal, isochoric, adiabatic, & cyclic; second law of thermodynamics:  reversible vs. irreversible processes, spontaneous processes, & direction of heat flow; heat engines, efficiency, & Carnot engine; refrigerators, coefficient of performance, & Carnot refrigerator; entropy]

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