A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and

Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada

Vers. 19

    This checklist consists of cumulative updates to the most recently published North American checklist by Esslinger and Egan (1995). The style and conventions for listings used there are also generally followed here. Within each genus the accepted names are given first and are in boldface. Names considered to be synonyms are given in normal font only. Significant changes made since the previous online version are given in blue font. As before, the following symbols are used to indicate the lichenicolous fungi and other allied fungi:

* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g., those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens.

    The first North American (north of Mexico) lichen checklist produced by Mason Hale and Bill Culberson in 1956 (Castanea 21: 73-105) listed 2,280 species in 193 genera (their count), and included few or no lichenicolous or allied fungi.  Almost forty years later, the first checklist version with which I was involved (Esslinger & Egan 1995) reported 3,580 lichen species and another 219 species of lichenicolous and allied fungi, all in 477 genera.  The count for this current online version (#19) is 5,393 total species in 704 genera, with an additional 46 subspecies, 56 varieties, and 2 forms.  The total number includes 512 lichenicolous fungi (*), 79 saprophytic fungi related to lichens/lichenicolous fungi (+), and another 62 species of varying and/or uncertain status (#).

    This list is updated at semi-regular intervals, usually about once each year, as changes accumulate in the literature. I would appreciate being informed of any oversights or omissions, and although not all taxonomic or nomenclatural differences of opinion will be easily or immediately settled, any polite opinions that users would like to share will be welcomed and taken under consideration. Additions or changes appearing in this on-line version of the checklist represent reports in the literature, and their presence here does not necessarily imply endorsement by the author. In addition to inviting comments or corrections, it would be very helpful if authors of publications containing additions to the North American lichen biota, or other taxonomic and nomenclatural changes that impact it, would provide me with copies. Many thanks to the many collaborators who do provide corrections and/or additions.

Please send comments and publications to:

Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger
Department of Biological Sciences
#2715, P.O. Box 6050
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050
E-mail: Ted.Esslinger@ndsu.edu

Suggested Citation: Esslinger, T. L.  2014.  A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming,
lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota
State University: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm (First
Posted 1 December 1997, Most Recent Version (#19) 23 March 2014), Fargo, North Dakota.

Previous versions of this on-line checklist are archived and available by clicking on the following:

Version #1 (First Posted 1 December 1997)
Version #2 (First Posted 17 February 1998)
Version #3 (First Posted 22 June 1998)
Version #4 (First Posted 19 July 1999)
Version #5 (First Posted 15 May 2000)
Version #6 (First Posted 26 February 2001)
Version #7 (First Posted 27 August 2001)
Version #8 (First Posted 17 July 2002)
Version #9 (First Posted 2 March 2004)
Version #10 (First Posted 14 June 2005)
Version #11 (First Posted 10 April 2006)
Version #12 (First Posted 2 April 2007)
Version #13 (First Posted 18 January 2008)
Version #14 (First Posted 8 October 2008)
Version #15 (First Posted 27 August 2009)
Version #16 (First Posted 18 June 2010)
Version #17 (First Posted 16 May 2011)
Version #18 (First Posted 13 December 2012)

Suggestions For Use: This web site consists of one large file (ca. 1.5 MB), and, depending upon your type of connection to the internet, it will take anywhere from a few seconds to a minute or two to load onto your computer. Once loaded, use of the alphabetic navigation bars provided below and throughout the document will allow efficient navigation within the document using most web browser software. The genera are listed in alphabetical order, as are the species lists within each genus. Click on the following letters to advance to the genera beginning with that letter or to the References Cited:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited


ABROTHALLUS De Not.
*acetabuli Diederich (Kocourkova et al. 2012)
*bertianus De Not.
*bryoriarum Hafellner
*caerulescens Kotte (Diederich 2003)
*cetrariae Kotte (Goward et al. 1996)
*cladoniae R. Sant. & D. Hawksw.
*halei Pérez-Ortega, Suija, D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Suija et al. 2011)
*hypotrachynae Etayo & Diederich (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
*microspermus Tul.
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold
*peyritschii (Stein) Kotte
*pezizicola Diederich & R. C. Harris (Diederich 2003)
*prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner
*secedens Wedin & R. Sant.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
*suecicus (Kirschst.) Nordin (Diederich 2003)
*tulasnei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*usneae Rabenh. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*welwitschii Mont. ex Tul.
*oxysporus Tul. = Phacopsis oxyspora
*usneae auct. non Rabenh. = Lichenostigma maureri

ABSCONDITELLA Vězda
amabilis T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
celata Döbbeler & Poelt (Spribille et al. 2009)
lignicola Vězda & Pisut (Nash et al. 1998)
sphagnorum Vězda & Poelt
trivialis (Willey ex Tuck.) Vězda

ACANTHOTHECIS Clem.
aurantiaca (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb  Syns.: Graphina intertexta, Graphis intertexta (Staiger 2002)
gracilis Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999)
leucopepla (Tuck.) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syns.:  Graphis leucopepla, Graphina abaphoides (Tripp et al. 2010)
mosquitensis (Tuck.) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syns.:  Graphis mosquitensis, Graphina subvirginalis (Tripp et al. 2010)
peplophora (M. Wirth & Hale) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn.:  Graphina peplophora (Tripp et al. 2010)
poitaeoides (M. Wirth & Hale) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn.:  Graphis poitaeoides (Tripp et al. 20010)
abaphoides
(Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999) = A. leucopepla
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb = A. aurantiaca

ACAROCONIUM Kocourk. & D. Hawksw.  (Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008)
*punctiforme Kocourk. & D. Hawksw. (Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008)

ACAROSPORA A. Massal.
affinis K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
americana H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
asahinae H. Magn.
badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr. 
Syn.: Sarcogyne athroocarpa (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)
brattiae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
brouardii
B. de Lesd. (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a)
calcarea K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
cervina A. Massal.
chrysops (Tuck.) H. Magn.  (Knudsen et al. 2008a)
citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr.
clauzadeana (Llimona) Casares & Hafellner  Syn.: Biatorella clauzadeana
coloradiana H. Magn.
complanata H. Magn.
contigua H. Magn. (Brodo et al. 2001, Knudsen 2007a)
dispersa H. Magn.
elevata H. Magn.
epilutescens Zahlbr. (Knudsen 2005a)
erythrophora H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
fuscata (Schrader) Arnold
fuscescens H. Magn.
glaucocarpa (Ach.)
Körber
heufleriana Körber
hilaris (Dufour) Hue
impressula Th. Fr.
#interjecta H. Magn.
janae K. Knudsen (Lumbsch et al. 2011)
macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl.
moenium (Vainio) Räsänen  (Nordin et al. 2009)
molybdina (Wahlenb.)
Trevisan
#nashii K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2011a)
nevadensis H. Magn.
nicolai B. de Lesd. (Knudsen & Morse 2009)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. nodulosa
novomexicana H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
obnubila
H. Magn.
obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Lecanora obpallens
oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold
orcuttii K. Knudsen  (Knudsen 2010 [2011])
oreophila K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
peliscypha Th.
Fr.
piedmontensis K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
robiniae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2010)
rouxii K. Knudsen, Elix & Reeb (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a))
rugulosa
Körber
saepincola H. Magn.
schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.
scotica Hue
sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körber
socialis H. Magn.
sparsa H. Magn.
sphaerosperma R. C. Harris & K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
#stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
succedens H. Magn.
terricola H. Magn.
thamnina (Tuck.) Herre
thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Lecanora thelococcoides, L. pleiospora, L. pleistospora
tongleti Hue
veronensis A. Massal.
aeruginosa Hasse = Caeruleum heppii
albida H. Magn. = A. epilutescens
albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. = A. elevata  (Knudsen 2007a)
amabilis H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
amphibola Wedd. = Myriospora smaragdula
amphibola sensu auct. = Myriospora rhagadiza
applanata H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
arenacea H. Magn. = Polysporina arenacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
arenosa Herre = Sarcogyne arenosa

asperata H. Magn. = A. obnubila (Koucorková et al. 2010)
bella (Nyl.) Jatta = A. rhabarbarina (Knudsen et al. 2008a)
boulderensis H. Magn. = A. badiofusca
bullata Anzi  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen et al. 2010)

caesiofusca (Müll. Arg.) H. Magn. = A. nicolai
californica Zahlbr. = A. badiofusca (Knudsen 2007a)
carnegiei Zahlbr. = A. obpallens  (Knudsen 2005b)
cartilaginea H. Magn. = A. fuscata
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
cineracea (Nyl.)
Wedd. = misidentification for North America
cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn. = A. americana (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
desolata H. Magn. = Sarcogyne desolata
dissipata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
evoluta H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
flava (Bellardi) Ach. = Pleopsidium flavum
gallica H. Magn. = A. janae for North American reports (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
geogena H. Magn. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
geophila H. Magn. = A. nodulosa
glebosa (Flotow) Körber = A. oligospora
hassei Herre (Knudsen 2007a) = Myriospora hassei
heppii (Nägeli ex Hepp) Nägeli ex Körber = Caeruleum heppii
immersa Fink = Caeruleum immersum
incertula H. Magn. = A. novomexicana (Knudsen 2007a)
instrata H. Magn. = A. obpallens (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
intercedens H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
interposita H. Magn. = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
interspersa H. Magn. = A succedens (Knudsen 2011a)
lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Sarcogyne lapponica (see note there)

*lapponica auct. N.A. = Polysporina subfuscesens
montana H. Magn. = A. rugulosa
nigromarginata B. de Lesd.
= A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
nitida H. Magn. (Weber & Wittman 2000) = A. elevata for North American records (Knudsen 2007a)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens Zahlbr.
= A. nodulosa
obscura H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
ocellata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium flavum
particularis H. Magn. = A. hassei (Knudsen 2007a)
peltastica Zahlbr. = A. strigata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
peltata Hasse = A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
pleiospora (Nyl.) Hasse. = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pyrenopsoides H. Magn.  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a)
radicata H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
reagens Zahlbr. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
rhabarbarina Hue (Knudsen et al. 2008a)  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
rimulosa H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
rubicunda H. Magn.
= A. heufleriana (Knudsen 2007a)
rufescens (Ach.) Bausch = Myriospora smaragdula
saxicola Fink = Glypholecia scabra
scabra (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra
scabrida Hedl. ex H. Magn. = Myriospora scabrida
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Myriospora smaragdula
smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harm. ex A.L. Smith) H. Magn. (Knudsen 2004a) = Myriospora smaragdula
squamulosa (Schrader) Trevisan = A. macrospora (Knudsen 2007a)
squamulosa sensu Th. Fr. = A. macrospora
stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue = Pleopsidium flavum
subalbida H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
subcontigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
subfuscescens (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Polysporina subfuscescens
subrufula (Nyl.) H. Olivier  (McCune et al. 1997)  Report based on a specimen of Myriospora smaragdula (Knudsen 2007b)
superfusa H. Magn. = A. americana (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011, Knudsen et al. 2011b)
tenebrica H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
texana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
thermophila Herre = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
tucsonensis H. Magn. = A. obpallens (Knudsen 2007a)
umbilicata Bagl.  (Harris & Ladd 2005) = Acarospora nicolai (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
utahensis H. Magn. = A. strigata  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
variegata H. Magn. = A. tongleti
washingtonensis H. Magn. = A. elevata (Knudsen 2007a)
weldensis H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta = misidentification for North America (Knudsen 2008a)

ACREMONIUM Link
*strictum W. Gams  (Spribille et al. 2010)

ACROCORDIA A. Massal.
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia cavata
conoidea (Fr.) Körber Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. Syns.: Arthopyrenia gemmata, A. alba, A. sphaeroides  (Lendemer & Harris 2014)
megalospora (Fink) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia macrospora, A. finkii, Pyrenula megalospora

ACROSCYPHUS Lév.
sphaerophoroides Lév.

ACTINOGYRA Schol. = UMBILICARIA
muehlenbergii (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
polyrrhiza (L.) Schol. = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza

ADELOCOCCUS Theissen & Sydow
*alpestris (Zopf) Theissen & Sydow

ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
kolaensis (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea conferenda
pilati (Hepp) Hertel & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea pilati, L. lyngeana, L. subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd.
sonorae
Hertel  (Hertel 2004)

AGONIMIA Zahlbr.
allobata (Stizenb.) P. James (Fryday 2001)
gelatinosa (Ach.) M. Brand & Diederich Syn.: Polyblastia gelatinosa (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda (Lendemer 2004c)
tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Polyblastia tristicula

AGRESTIA J. W. Thomson = CIRCINARIA
cyphellata J. W. Thomson = Circinaria hispida
hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Circinaria hispida

AGYRIUM Fr.
+rufum (Pers.) Fr.

AGYROPHORA (Nyl.) Nyl. = UMBILICARIA
leiocarpa (DC.) Gyelnik = Umbilicaria leiocarpa
lyngei (Schol.) Llano = Umbilicaria lyngei
rigida (Du Rietz) Llano = Umbilicaria rigida
scholanderi Llano = Umbilicaria scholanderi

AHLESIA Fuckel = THELOCARPON
sphaerospora (H. Magn.) G. Salisb. = Thelocarpon sphaerosporum

AHTIANA Goward
aurescens (Tuck.) Thell & Randlane Syn.: Cetraria aurescens, Tuckermannopsis aurescens (Thell et al. 1995)
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & Thell Syn.: Cetraria pallidula, Tuckermannopsis pallidula (Thell et al. 1995)
sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward Syn.: Parmelia sphaerosporella

ALECTORIA Ach.
fallacina Motyka
imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw.
lata (Taylor) Lindsay
ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. subsp. sarmentosa
sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw.
vancouverensis (Gyelnik) Gyelnik ex Brodo & D. Hawksw.
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) R. Howe = Nodobryoria abbreviata
achariana Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
altaica (Gyelnik) Räsänen = Bryoria nadvornikiana
ambigua Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. americana
americana Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. americana
bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Bryoria bicolor
boryana Delise = Gowardia nigricans
californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
capillaris (Ach.) Crombie = Bryoria capillaris
cervinula Motyka = Bryoria cervinula
cetrariza Nyl. = Kaernefeltia californica
chalybeiformis (L.) Gray = Bryoria chalybeiformis
corneliae Gyelnik = Bryoria fremontii
delicata Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
divergens (Ach.) Nyl. = Bryocaulon divergens
fremontii Tuck. = Bryoria fremontii
fuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
glabra Motyka = Bryoria glabra
haynaldii Gyelnik = misidentification for North America
implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Bryoria implexa
irvingii Llano = Bryoria nitidula
lanea auct. non (Hoffm.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
lanestris (Ach.) Gyelnik = Bryoria lanestris
luteola Mont. = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. = Pseudephebe minuscula
nadvornikiana Gyelnik = Bryoria nadvornikiana
nana Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria simplicior
nidulifera Norrlin = Bryoria furcellata
nigricans (Ach.) Nyl. = Gowardia nigricans
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
norstictica Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
oregana Tuck. = Nodobryoria oregana
positiva (Gyelnik) Motyka = Bryoria fuscescens
pseudofuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
pubescens (L.) R. Howe = Pseudephebe pubescens
setacea (Ach.) Motyka = Bryoria capillaris for North American records
simplicior (Vainio) Lynge = Bryoria simplicior
stigmata Bystrek = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Gyelnik = Bryoria subcana
subdivergens E. Dahl = Nodobryoria subdivergens
subsarmentosa Stirton = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
subtilis Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
tenerrima Motyka = Bryoria fremontii
tenuis E. Dahl = Bryoria tenuis
thrausta Ach. = Ramalina thrausta
tortuosa G. Merr. = Bryoria fremontii
vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb. = A. sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera
virens auct. = Bryoria fremontii for North American records

ALLANTOPARMELIA (Vainio) Essl.
almquistii (Vainio) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia almquistii
alpicola (Th. Fr.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia alpicola
sibirica (Zahlbr.) Essl.  (Spribille et al. 2009a)

ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
caesia Flotow = Chrysothrix caesia

ALLOCETRARIA Kurokawa & Lai
madreporiformis (Ach.)
Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Dactylina madreporiformis, Dufourea madreporiformis (Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
stracheyi (Bab.)
Kurok. & M. J. Lai (Thell et al. 2009)
cucullata (Bellardi) Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria cucullata
nivalis (L.)
Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria nivalis
oakesiana (Tuck.) Randlane & Thell = Usnocetraria oakesiana

ALYXORIA Ach. (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
bicolor (R. C. Harris & Lendemer) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Opegrapha bicolor
ochrocheila (Nyl.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Opegrapha ochrocheila
varia (Pers.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Opegrapha diaphora, O. varia

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
*adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia adjuncta (Hafellner 2004b)
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina cacuminum (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2002)
coniops (Wahlenb.) M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer  Syn.: Buellia coniops
dakotensis (H. Magn.) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina dakotensis, R. finkii, R. inaequalis, R. pennsylvanica, R. pyriniformis, R. subplumbea, R. subpyriniformis. (Sheard & May 1997)
efflorescens (Müll. Arg.) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
endachroa (Malme) Marbach (Lücking et al. 2011bb)
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)
leucomela (Imshaug) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Buellia leucoemela (Sheard & May 1997)
lignicola Tønsberg & Nordin (Tønsberg et al. 2012)
milliaria (Tuck.) P. May & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina milliaria (Sheard & May 1997)
polyspora (Willey) E. Lay & P. May Syn.: Buellia polyspora, Buellia punctata var. polyspora (Sheard & May 1997)
punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. Syn.: Buellia punctata, B. myriocarpa
subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
submontana Marbach (Marbach 2000)
insperata (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard (Lendemer et al. 2008c) = Orcularia insperata (Kalb & Giralt 2012)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Orcularia placodiomorpha (Kalb & Giralt 2012)
turgescens (Nyl.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Buellia badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)

AMELIELLA Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2008)
andreaeicola Fryday & Coppins

AMEROCONIUM U. Braun & Zhurb.
*cladoniae U. Braun & Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Braun 2013)


AMPHILOMA Nyl.
lanuginosum (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Lepraria membranaceum

AMYGDALARIA Norman
consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Brodo & Mas. Inoue
continua Brodo & Hertel
elegantior (H. Magn.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Huilia elegantior, Lecidea elegantior
haidensis Brodo & Hertel
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Lecidea panaeola, Huilia panaeola
pelobotryon (Wahlenb.) Norman Syns.: Lecanora pelobotrya, Aspicilia pelobotrya, Lecidea pelobotrya, L. "pelobotrion"
subdissentiens (Nyl.) Mas. Inoue & Brodo

ANAMYLOPSORA Timdal
pulcherrima (Vainio) Timdal Syns.: Lecidea pulcherrima, Psora pulcherrima

ANAPTYCHIA Körber
bryorum Poelt
crinalis (Schaerer) Vězda (Esslinger 2007)
elbursiana (Szatala) Poelt (Esslinger 2002a) Syn.: Physconia thomsonii
palmulata (Michaux) Vainio
ulotrichoides (Vainio) Vainio
appalachensis Kurok. = Heterodermia appalachensis
aquila (Ach.) A. Massal. North American records = A. palmulata
boryi (Feé) A. Massal. = Heterodermia boryi
casarettiana A. Massal. = Heterodermia casarettiana
chondroidea (W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi) Kurok. = Heterodermia chondroidea
ciliaris (L.) Körber = misidentification for North America
comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. North American records = Heterodermia galactophylla
corallophora (Taylor) Lynge = Heterodermia crocea (for North American records)
dendritica (Pers.) Vainio = Heterodermia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia diademata
domingensis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia albicans
echinata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) Trevisan = Heterodermia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevisan = Heterodermia galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia granulifera
heterochroa Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia obscurata
isidiza Kurok. (Yoshimura & Sharp 1973) = A. isidiata Tomin, but misidentification for North America (Esslinger 2007)
kaspica Gyelnik = A. setifera, but North American reports are A. crinalis
leucomela (L.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia leucomela
"leucomelaena" auct. = Heterodermia leucomela
major (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentification for North America
neoleucomelaena Kurok. = Heterodermia boryi
obscurata (Nyl.) Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
"palmatula" auct. = A. palmulata
pseudospeciosa Kurok. = Heterodermia pseudospeciosa
pseudospeciosa Kurok. var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok. = Heterodermia speciosa
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia albicans
setifera Räsänen   North American reports are A. crinalis
sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge = Heterodermia obscurata
speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa
squamulosa Degel. = Heterodermia squamulosa
stippaea (Ach.) Nádv. = A. bryorum
tropica Kurok. = Heterodermia tropica
wrightii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  North American report (Tuckerman 1882) is Heterodermia diademata (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)

ANDREIOMYCES Hodkinson & Lendemer (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2013)
morozianus (Lendemer) Hodkinson & Lendemer  Syn.: Lepraria morozianus

ANEMA Nyl. ex Forssell
progidulum (Nyl.) Henssen (Schultz 2002a)
dodgei Herre = Heppia despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
jenisejensis H. Magn. = misidentification for North America

ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
albisedum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis albiseda
ambiguum (Zahlbr.)
R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia ambigua, Ditremis ambigua
anisolobum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot Syns.: Arthopyrenia anisoloba, Ditremis anisoloba
aureopunctatum R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris non Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia biformis, A. parvula, A. conformis auct. N. Am., Ditremis biformis, Trimmatothele umbellulariae
biformoides R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
carinthiacum (J. Steiner) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia carinthiaca, A. dimidiata, Ditremis carinthiaca
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia distans, Ditremis distans
excaecariae (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: A. sanfordense, Arthopyrenia sanfordensis, Ditremis sanfordensis (Harris 1995a)
finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis finkii (Harris 1995a)
griffinii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
leucochlorum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia leucochlora, Ditremis leucochlora
[Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris]
phaeospermum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr Syns.: Ditremis nyssigena, Arthopyrenia willeyana (Barr et al. 1996)
quadricoccum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 1997)
quaternarium (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis quaternaria (Harris 1995a)
subnexum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia subprostans, Ditremis subprostans, Pyrenula subprostans.
tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tamarindi.
terminatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis terminata, Pleurotrema anacardii, Arthopyrenia anacardii (Harris 1995a)
tuckerae R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tuckerae.
feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = A. anisolobum
juistense (Erichsen) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
sanfordense (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae

ANOMALOBARIA B. Moncada & Lücking (Moncada et al. 2013)
anomala (Brodo & Ahti) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Pseudocyphellaria anomala (Moncada et al. 2013)
anthraspis (Ach.) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syns.: Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis, Sticta anthraspis (Moncada et al. 2013)


ANOMOMORPHA Nyl.
turbulenta (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Graphis turbulenta (Staiger 2002)

ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal.
australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot (Aptroot 2012)
pachycheilum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Pyrenula pachycheila (Tuckerman 1872)
prasinum (Eschw.) R. C. Harris
staurosporum (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr.
canellae-albae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Sulcopyrenula canellae-albae
corticatum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula confinis
falsarium Zahlbr. = Pyrenula schiffneri
leucostomum (Ach.) Malme = Pyrenula leucostoma
libricola (Fée) Müll. Arg. 
= probable misidentification for North American
maculare Zahlbr. = Pyrenula breutelii
mucosum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = probable misidentification for North American
nanum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = A. australiensis
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula ochraceoflavens
ochraceoflavum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ochraceoflava
pauciloculare Herre = identity uncertain
pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides
subglobosum Riddle = Sulcopyrenula subglobosa
thelomorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula thelomorpha
varians R. C. Harris = Pyrenula novemseptata

ANZIA Stizenb.
americana Yoshim. & Sharp
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb.  Syn.:  Parmelia colpodes
ornata (Zahlbr.) Asahina

ANZINA Scheid.
carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. (Goward et al. 1996)
carneonivea var. tetraspora Scheid.  (Spribille et al. 2010)

APATOPLACA Poelt & Hafellner = CALOPLACA
oblongula (H. Magn.) Poelt & Hafellner = Caloplaca oblongula

ARCTOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & Thell
andrejevii (Oxner) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria andrejevii, C. simmonsii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria nigricascens, C. elenkinii, C. sibirica

ARCTOMIA Th. Fr.
delicatula Th. Fr.
interfixa (Nyl.) Vainio

ARCTOPARMELIA Hale
centrifuga (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia centrifuga, P. aleuritica, Parmelia halseyana, Xanthoparmelia centrifuga
incurva (Pers.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia incurva, Xanthoparmelia incurva
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia separata, P. birulae var. grumosa, Xanthoparmelia separata
subcentrifuga (Oxner) Hale Syns.: Parmelia subcentrifuga, Xanthoparmelia subcentrifuga
aleuritica (Nyl.) Hale = A. centrifuga

ARCTOPELTIS Poelt
thuleana Poelt

ARRHENIA Fr.
*peltigerina (Peck) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syn.: Omphalina peltigerina (Redhead et al. 2002)

ARTHONIA Ach.
albofuscescens Tuck.
+albopulverea Nyl. 
(Grube 2007)
albovirescens Nyl.  Syn.: Arthothelium albovirescens
aleuromela Nyl.
*almquistii Vainio (Zhurbenko 2013)
anglica Coppins (Hodkinson et al. 2009, Lendemer et al. 2009c)
*anjutii S. Y. Kondr. & Alstrup (Kondratyuk 1996)
antillarum (Fée) Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
apatetica (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.
arthonioides (Ach.) A. L. Sm.
asteriscus Müll. Arg.
atomaria (Lynge) R. Kilias
atra (Pers.) A. Schneider  (Ertz et al. 2009) Syn.: Opegrapha atra
atrata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
+beccariana (Bagl.) Stizenb.  (Grube 2007)
*biatoricola Ihlen & Owe-Larsson  (Ihlen et al. 2004b)
bisepta Degel.
byssacea (Weigel) Almq.
calcarea (Turner ex Sm.) Ertz & Diederich (Ertz et al. 2009) Syn. : Opegrapha calcarea
caribea (Ach.) A. Massal.
+caudata Willey
*ceracea Etayo & Breuss (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
cinereopruinosa Schaerer
cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.
*clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr.
*colombiana Etayo (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
compensatula Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
complanata Fée
conferta (Fée) Nyl.
*coronata Etayo (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
cupressina Tuck.
cyrtodes Nyl. (Lendemer et al. 2009c)
+cytisi A. Massal.
didyma Körber
diffusa Nyl.
diffusella Fink
*digitatae Hafellner (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
*diploiciae Calat.
& Diederich (Grube 2007, Lendemer et al. 2009b)
dispersa (Schrader) Nyl.
dispersula Nyl.
eckfeldtii Müll. Arg.
*epicladonia (Nyl.) Alstrup & Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*epimela (Almq.) I. M. Lamb (Goward et al. 1996)
*epiphyscia Nyl.
erubescens Willey
erupta Nyl.
excedens Nyl.
*excentrica Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
exilis (Flörke) Anzi
*farinacea (H. Olivier) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fissurina Nyl.
floridana Willey
fuliginosa (Schaerer) Flotow
*fuscopurpurea (Tul.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*gelidae R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)
gerhardii Egea & Torrente (Grube 2007)
+glaucella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
glebosa Tuck.
granosa B. de Lesd.
gyalectoides Müll. Arg.
hamamelidis Nyl.
helvola (Nyl.) Nyl. (Harris 1977)
hypobela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
ilicina Taylor  Syn.: Arthothelium ilicinum
impallens Nyl.
incarnata Th.
Fr. ex Almq.
infectans Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
interveniens Nyl.  Syn.: Arthothelium interveniens
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
*intexta Almq.
kermesina R. C. Harris, E. Tripp & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup
lecanactidea Zahlbr.
*lecanorina (Almq.) Grube (Grube 2007)
*lethariicola Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
leucastraea Tuck.
leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq.
ligniariella Coppins (Spribille & Björk 2008)
*linitae R. Sant. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
luridoalba Nyl.
macounii G. Merr. (Kocourková et al. 2008) Syn.: Arthothelium macounii
macrotheca Fée  (Lücking et al. 2011b) Syn.:  Arthothelium macrothecum
madreana Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
mediella Nyl.
mesoleuca Nyl. 
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
microspermella Willey
mirabilis Grube  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
*molendoi (Heufl. ex Frauenf.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998; Hafellner et al. 2002)
muscigena Th. Fr. Syn.: Bryostigma leucodontis
neoni B. de Lesd.
*nephromaria (Nyl.) Nyl. ex H. Olivier
ochrocincta Willey
ochrodiscodes Nyl.
ochrolutea Nyl.
ochrospila Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
oxytera Nyl.
(Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
palmulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
patellulata Nyl.
*peltigerea Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerina (Almq.) H. Olivier
perminuta Willey
phaeobaea (Norman) Norman
*phaeophysciae Grube & Matzer (Hafellner et al. 2002)
phlyctiformis Nyl. subsp. californica Grube (Grube 2007)
+pinastri Anzi
platygraphidea Nyl.
platyspilea Nyl.
polygramma Nyl.
polymorpha Ach.
+pruinascens (Zahlbr.) Grube (Grube 2007) Syn.: Arthothelium pruinascens
pruinata (Pers.) Steud. ex A. L. Sm. (Grube 2007)
+pruinosella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
pruinosula Nyl.
punctiformis Ach.
pyrrhuliza Nyl.
+quintaria Nyl.
radiata (Pers.) Ach.
ravenelii Tuck.
redingeri Grube (Grube 2007)
reniformis (Pers.) Ach.
+rhoidis Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
rubella (Fée) Nyl.
rubrocincta G. Merr. ex Grube & Lendemer (Grube & Lendemer 2009)
rupicola Fink
+sanguinea Willey (Grube 2007) Syn.: Arthothelium sanguineum
septiseptella Nyl. (Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
+
sexlocularis
Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
siderea Degel.
simplicascens Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
spadicea Leighton
speciosa (Müll. Arg.) Grube (Grube 2007)
stellaris Kremp.
*stereocaulina (Ohlert) R. Sant. (Zhurbenko 2010)
subastroidella
Nyl.
subdiffusa Willey
subdispuncta Nyl.
*subfuscicola (Lindsay) Triebel
subminutissima Nyl.
subminutula Nyl.
subrubella Nyl.
susa R. C. Harris & Lendemer  Syn.: Arthothelium taediosum auct. N.A. (Lendemer et al. 2013)
taedescens Nyl.
terrigena Nyl.
+tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse (Grube 2007)
torulosa Fée
tremelloides Etayo (Grube 2007)
tuckermaniana Willey
varia (Ach.) Nyl.
*varians (Davies) Nyl. Syn.: Celidium varians (Hawksworth 2003)
vernans Willey
verrucosa Egea & Torrente (Grube 2007)
vinosa Leighton
viridicans Willey
*xanthoparmeliarum Etayo (Kocourková 2009)
xylographica Nyl.
alba Müll. Arg.
= a Stirtonia sp.
aspersa Leighton = A. arthonioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora
caesia (Flotow) Körber = Chrysothrix caesia
carneorufa Willey = Catillaria erysiboides
chiodectella Nyl. = A. pruinata (Grube 2007)
convexella Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus (Mycoporum sp.?)
epipastoides auct. N.A. non Nyl.
= A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp = A. lapidicola
galactitella Nyl. = A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
glaucescens Nyl. = Schismatomma glaucescens
glaucomaria (Nyl.) Nyl. = A. varians (Hawksworth 2003)
gregaria (Weigel) Körber = A. cinnabarina
gregarina Willey = Coniarthonia gregarina
impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer = A. pruinata
lecideella Nyl. ex Willey = Chrysothrix caesia (Lendemer 2008)
leucodontis (Poelt & Döbb.) Coppins = A. muscigena
lurida Ach. nom. rej. = A. spadicea
melaspora Tuck.
= Sporostigma melaspora (Grube 2001)
montagnei (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = uncertain species of Cryptothecia? (Lücking et al. 2011b)
pyrrhula Nyl.
= Coniarthonia pyrrhula
spectabilis Flotow = Arthothelium spectabile
+stictella Stizenb. = A. albopulverea (Grube 2007)
taediosa Nyl.  North American reports are Arthonia susa (Lendemer et al. 2013)
tumidula (Ach.) Ach. = A. cinnabarina
willeyi Tuck. = A. diffusa (Lendemer 2004a)

ARTHOPHACOPSIS Hafellner
*parmeliarum Hafellner (Diederich 2003, Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)

ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal.
+analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 2002a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallax
cerasi (Schrader) A. Massal.
cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
cinereopruinosa (Schaerer) A. Massal.
confluens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
degelii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
esenbeckiana (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
exasperata R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
lyrata R. C. Harris
majuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
malaccitula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
minor R. C. Harris
oblongens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
planorbis (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
+plumbaria (Stizenb. ex Hasse) R. C. Harris Syns.: Porina plumbaria, Pyrenula herrei
rappii Zahlbr.
+subcerasi (Vainio) Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
*texensis (Cooke) D. Hawksw.
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = Strigula affinis North American records are S. jamesii
alba (Schrader) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
ambigua Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anacardii Vainio = Anisomeridium terminatum
analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold = misidentification for North America
anisoloba Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium anisoloba
antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold = Mycoporum antecellens
atomarioides Müll. Arg. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora
bifera Zahlbr. = A. malaccitula
biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca J. Steiner = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Acrocordia cavata
conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America, mostly Anisomeridium biforme
conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia conoidea
dimidiata Fink = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium distans
epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
faginea (Schaerer) Swinscow = Strigula stigmatella
fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta
finkii Zahlbr. = Acrocordia megalospora
floridana Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides
fraxini A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe fraxini
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. = Acrocordia gemmata
halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold = Pyrenocollema halodytes
hyalospora (Nyl.) Fink = Lithothelium hyalosporum
lapponina Anzi = A. analepta
leucochlora Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
litoralis (Leighton) Arnold (Fink 1935) = Collemopsidium sublitorale (Santesson et al. 2004)
macrocarpa (Körber) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
macrospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
megalospora Lonnr. = Naetrocymbe megalospora
mycoporoides Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum mycoporoides
padi Rabenh. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
parvula Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium biforme
pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal. = A. cinereopruinosa
prospersella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenocollema prospersella
punctiformis (Schrank) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
quinqueseptata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Polymeridium quinqueseptatum
rhyponta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Aptroot 2002a) = Naetrocymbe rhyponta
salicis A. Massal. = Identity uncertain (Harris 1995a)
sanfordensis Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium excaecariae
sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
sublitoralis (Leighton) Arnold = Collemopsidium sublitoralis
submuriformis R. C. Harris = Strigula submuriformis
subprostans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium subprostans
subpunctiformis Nyl. = A. atomarioides
tenuis R. C. Harris = Strigula americana
tichothecioides Arnold = Pyrenocollema tichothecioides
willeyana R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori

ARTHOTHELIOPSIS Vainio
floridensis Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
planicarpa (Lücking) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)  A tentative report.

ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal.
abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
adveniens Nyl.
anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold
distendens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
norvegicum Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Williams 2006)
orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse
ruanum (A. Massal.) Körber
spectabile (Flotow) A. Massal. Syn.: Arthonia spectabilis
subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse
violascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink = Arthonia albovirescens
gregarinum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Coniarthonia gregarina
ilicinum (Taylor) P. James = Arthonia ilicina
interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Arthonia interveniens
macounii (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Arthonia macounii
+pruinascens Zahlbr. = Arthonia pruinascens (Grube 2007)
ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold = A. ruanum
+sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Arthonia sanguinea (Grube 2007)
taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.   North American reports are Arthonia susa (Lendemer et al. 2013)

ARTHRORHAPHIS Th. Fr.
*aeruginosa R. Sant. & Tønsberg
alpina (Schaerer) R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia alpina
citrinella (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Bacidia citrinella, B. flavovirescens
#grisea Th. Fr. Syn.: Lahmia fueistingii

ARTHROSPORUM A. Massal.
populorum A. Massal.
Syns.: Bacidia populorum, B. acclinis, Bilimbia acclinis
accline (Flotow) A. Massal. = A. populorum

ASAHINEA W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
chrysantha (Tuck.) W. L. Culb..
& C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chrysantha
scholanderi (Llano) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria scholanderi

ASPICILIA A. Massal.
albomarginata B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora albomarginata
[Lecanora albopruinosa Looman]
alboradiata (H. Magn.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora alboradiata
aliena (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora aliena
americana B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora americana
anglica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
annulata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora annulata
anseris (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Synonym: Lecanora anseris
aquatica Körber Syn.: Lecanora aquatica
arctica (Lynge) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora arctica
arizonica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
aurantiaca Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Knudsen et al. 2008b)
berntii A. Nordin, Tibell & Owe-Larsson  Syn. :  Lecanora mastoidea (Nordin et al. 2008)
boykinii
Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
brucei
Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
caesiopruinosa
(H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Lecanora caesiopruinosa
californica Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
candida (Anzi) Hue Syn.: Lecanora candida
cinerea (L.) Körber Syn.: Lecanora cinerea
cingulata (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora cingulata
composita (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora composita
concinna (J. W. Thomson) J. W. Thomson (Thomson 1997)
confusa Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
contigua (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
cuprea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
curvabilis (Nyl.) Hue (Hansen 2006)
cyanescens Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
determinata (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk. (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
disserpens (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora disserpens
elevata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora elevata
filiformis Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
fimbriata (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon Syn.: Lecanora fimbriata
fumosa Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
glaucopsina (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  (Knudsen 2005b, Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
grisea Arnold (Fryday 2001)
heteroplaca (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora heteroplaca
humboldtii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
karelica (H. Magn.) Oxner
knudsenii Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
laevata (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora laevata
laxula (H. Magn.) Brodo
lesleyana Darb. Syn.: Lecanora lesleyana
limitata (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora limitata
mashiginensis (Zahlbr.) Oxner
mazarina (Wahlenb.) R. Sant.
narssaquensis (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Lecanora basaltica, L. narssaquensis
nashii Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
nathorstii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
nikrapensis Darb.  Syn.: Lecanora nikrapensis
nordlandica (H. Magn.) Degel.
novae-semliae (Zahlbr.) Oxner
olivaceobrunnea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
olivaceopallida (H. Magn.) Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
pacifica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
peltastictoides (Hasse) K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)  Syn.: Lecanora peltastictoides
pergibbosa
(H. Magn.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora pergibbosa
perradiata (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Lecanora perradiata
pertusa (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora pertusa
phaea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
plicigera (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora plicigera
polychroma Anzi Syn.: Lecanora polychroma
praecrenata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  Syn.: Lecanora praecrenata (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
quartzitica W. A. Weber
reptans (Looman) Wetmore Syn.: Lecanora reptans:
rolleana Hue Syn.: Lecanora rolleana
rosulata Körber Syn.: Lecanora rosulata
ryrkaipiae (H. Magn.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora ryrkaipiae
santamonicae Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
sipeana (H. Magn.) Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin  Syn.: Lecanora sipeana (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
sorediza (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
sublapponica (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora sublapponica
submersa (Lamy) Hue
subplicigera (H. Magn.) Oxner
subradians (Nyl.) Hue Syns.: Lecanora stygioplaca, L. subradiascens, L. subradians
substictica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
supertegens Arnold Syn.: Lecanora supertegens
tenuis (H. Magn.) Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin  Syn.: Lecanora tenuis (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
verrucigera Hue  Syn.: Lecanora verrucigera
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina (Sommerf.) Arnold = Bellemerea alpina
bennettii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. mashiginensis
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell = Circinaria caesiocinerea
calcarea (L.) Mudd = Circinaria calcarea
cinereorufescens (Ach.) A. Massal. = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. = Circinaria contorta
desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk.  North American reports are Circinaria arida (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)
diamarta (Ach.) Boistel = Bellemerea diamarta
excavata G. Thor & Timdal = Acarospora moenium
flavida (Hepp) Rehm = Eiglera flavida
fruticulosa (Eversm.) Flagey = Circinaria rogeri for N.A. reports
gibbosa (Ach.)
Körber = Circinaria gibbosa
hispida Mereschk. = Circinaria hispida
lacustris (With.) Th. Fr. = Ionaspis lacustris
leprosescens (Sandst.) Hav. = Circinaria leprosescens
mastoidea
(Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. berntii (Nordin et al. 2008)
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (Wetmore 1967) = Sagedia mastrucata
melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia melanaspis
melinodes Körber = Porpidia melinodes
moenium (Vainio) G. Thor & Timdal = Acarospora moenium (Nordin et al. 2009)
myrinii (Fr.) Stein = Aspilidea myrinii
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia radiosa
rogeri Sohrabi (Sohrabi et al. 2013b) = Circinaria rogeri
sanguinea Kremp. = Bellemerea sanguinea
simoënsis Räsänen (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007) = Sagedia simoënsis
stygioplaca (Nyl.)
Hue = A. subradians
subradiascens (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. = Bellemerea subsorediza
uxoris (Werner) V. J. Rico (Shrestha & St. Clair 2009)  North American report = Teuvoa junipericola (Sohrabi et al. 2013a)

ASPIDOTHELIUM Vainio
cinerascens Vainio  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
geminiparum (Malme) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
scutellicarpum Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

ASPILIDEA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
myrinii (Fr.) Hafellner

ASTEROPHOMA D. Hawksw.
*mazaediicola D. Hawksw.

ASTEROTHYRIUM Müll. Arg.
decipiens (Rehm) R. Sant.
leucophthalmum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
rotuliforme (Mull. Arg.) Sérus. Syns.: Gyalectidium rotuliforme, Lopadiopsis floridana

ASTROTHELIUM Eschw.
cinnamomeum (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
confusum Müll. Arg.
diplocarpoides Müll. Arg. 
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
diplocarpum
Nyl. (Harris 1995a)
galbineum Kremp.
variolosum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Trypethelium catervarium
versicolor Müll. Arg.
conicum auct. = A. cinnamomeum
conicum Eschw. = (?) type not found
ochrothelizum Müll. Arg. = A. galbineum

ATHALLIA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
holocarpa (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca holocarpa
pyracea (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca pyracea
saxifragarum (Poelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca saxifragarum
scopularis (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca scopularis
vitellinula (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca vitellinula

ATHELIA Pers.
*arachnoidea (Berk.) Jülich (Haffelner et al. 2002)
+epiphylla Pers.
poeltii Jülich

AULAXINA Fée
microphana (Vainio) R. Sant.
quadrangula (Stirton) R. Sant.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

BACHMANNIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw.

BACIDIA De Not.
absistens (Nyl.) Arnold
aggregatula Malme
arceutina (Ach.) Arnold
[Bilimbia artyta (Ach.) Fink]
auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig.
augustinii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta
beckhausii Körber = misplaced here? (Ekman 1996)
biatorina (Körber) Vainio
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb
circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vainio) Malme
coprodes (Körber) Lettau (Llop & Ekman 2004) Syn.: Bilimbia pammellii, Bilimbia granosa, Bilimbia trachona auct.
coruscans S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
diffracta S. Ekman
flavens (Willey) Zahlbr. = a species of Lecania (Ekman 1996)
friesiana (Hepp) Körber
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio
helicospora S. Ekman
hemipolia (Nyl.) Malme (Weber & Wittman 2000, Czarnota & Coppins 2007)
herbarum (Stizenb.) Arnold
heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
hostheleoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia accclinis
igniarii (Nyl.) Oxner
illudens (Nyl.) Lynge
insularis Zahlbr.
ioessa Herre = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996, 2004a)
kekesiana R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
kingmanii Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. subsp. laurocerasi (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis (H. Magn.) S. Ekman
lobarica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2007)
medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) B. de Lesd. (Ekman 1996)  Syns.: Biatora molybditis, Bilimbia molybditis, Lecidea medialis (Ekman 1996)
mutabilis Malme
*peltigericola Vainio (Weber & Wittman 2000)
phyllopsoropsis R. C. Harris & Lendemer  (Harris & Lendemer 2006)
polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körber
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia ravenelii  Correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
reagens Malme
rosellizans S. Ekman (Ekman 2009)
rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
rubidofusca (Willey) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia rubidofusca   Possibly a species of Gyalidea (Ekman 1996)
russeola (Kremp.) Zahlbr.
salmonea S. Ekman
saxicola Looman = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
schweinitzii (Fr. ex E. Michener) A. Schneider Syn.: Biatora leucampyx (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
subgranulosa (Tuck.) Riddle  Erroneously listed as a synonym of Phyllopsora canoumbrina in the checklist; possibly belongs to Psorella (Ekman 1996)
subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold
suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider
veneta S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Ekman 1996)
viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997)
abbrevians (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = B. igniarii
abductans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = B. schweinitzii
accedens (Arnold) Lettau = Bilimbia accedens
accedens sensu Harris = unnamed species (Ekman 1996)
acclinis (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Arthrosporum populorum
affinis (Stizenb.) Vainio = B. subincompta
akompsa (Tuck.) Fink = a Lecanactis sp.
alaskensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Herteliana alaskensis
albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh = Bacidina phacodes, but misidentification for N.A. (Ekman 1996)
alpina (Schaerer) Vainio = Arthrorhaphis alpina
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica
arnoldiana Körber = Bacidina arnoldiana
arthoniza (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
assulata (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina assulata
atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körber = B. laurocerasi
aurantiaca Vězda = Fellhanera aurantiaca
bacillifera (Nyl.) Arnold = B. circumspecta
caloosensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. hostheleoides
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
chlorantha (Tuck.) Fink = Ropalospora chlorantha
chlorococca (Stenh.) Lettau = Scoliciosporum chlorococcum
chlorosticta (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Micarea chlorosticta
citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
clementis Hasse = Bactrospora patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
cuprea (A. Massal.) Lettau = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
cupreorosella (Nyl.) A. Schneider = Lecania cuprea
declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Catillaria nigroclavata
dryina (Ach.) Fink = Bactrospora dryina
effusa auct. = B. assulata
egenula (Nyl.) Arnold = Bacidina egenula
egenuloidea Fink = Bacidina egenuloidea
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea endocyanea
endoleuca auct. = B. laurocerasi
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Lettau = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
flavovirescens (Dickson) Anzi = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera floridana
fusca (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Mycobilimbia tetramera
fuscorubella (Ach.) Bausch = B. polychroa
globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V. Wirth = Biatora globulosa
granosa (Tuck.)
Zahlbr. = B. coprodes
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. =
Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
hegetschweileri auct. = B. vermifera (Ekman 1996)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio = B. subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold (Ekman 1996)
herrei Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Bilimbia sabuletorum
idahoensis H. Magn. = B. laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis
incompta (Borrer ex Hooker) Anzi = misidentification for North America
inundata (Fr.) Körber = Bacidina inundata
leucophyllina (Nyl.)
Fink = misidentification for North America
lignaria (Ach.) Lettau = Micarea lignaria
lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris
luteola "(Ach.) Mudd" = B. rubella
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Byssoloma meadii
melaena (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Micarea melaena
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Lettau = Bilimbia microcarpa
microphyllina auct. = Phyllopsora santensis
microphyllina (Tuck.) Riddle = misidentification for North America
minuscula Anzi = B. beckhausii
molybditis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. medialis
muscorum (Sw.) Mudd = B. bagliettoana
naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. = Lecania naegelii
nivalis Follmann = Stereocaulon nivale
obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia tetramera
pallens (Kullhem) Zahlbr. = Biatora pallens (Printzen & Otte 2005)
pammellii (Fink) Zahlbr. = B. coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
phacodes auct. N. Am. = Bacidina californica, in part
populorum (A. Massal.) Trevisan = Arthrosporum populorum
rosella (Pers.) De Not. = B. rosellizans for North American reports
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
sabuletorum (Schreber) Lettau = Bilimbia sabuletorum
sibiriensis (Willey ex Rothr.) Zahlbr. = Lecania subfuscula (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia pilularis
sphaeroides auct. non (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
stigmatella (Tuck.)
Zahlbr. = Lecania stigmatella
subfuscula (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Lecania subfuscula
tetramera (De Not.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia tetramera
trachona (Ach.) Lettau  North American reports are B. coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Hellbom) Zahlbr. = Micarea peliocarpa
umbrina (Ach.) Bausch = Scoliciosporum umbrinum
verecundula (Th. Fr.) = misidentification for North America (Ekman 1996)

BACIDINA Vězda
aenea S. Ekman
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia apiahica
arnoldiana (Körber) Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana
assulata (Körber) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia assulata, B. effusa
californica S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia phacodes auct. N.A., B. albescens auct. N.A.?
chloroticula (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt (Ekman 1996)
contecta S. Ekman & T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
crystallifera S. Ekman
delicata (Leighton) V. Wirth & Vězda (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
egenula (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia egenula
egenuloidea (Fink) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia egenuloidea
inundata (Fr.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia inundata
neosquamulosa (Aptroot & van Herk) S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004b)
pallidocarnea (Müll. Arg.) Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
phacodes (Körber) Vězda (Harris & Ladd 2005)
ramea S. Ekman
squamellosa S. Ekman
varia S. Ekman
phacodes (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina californica, in part, for N.A. records

BACTROSPORA A. Massal.
acicularis (C. W. Dodge) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004a)
brevispora R.C. Harris
brodoi Egea & Torrente
carolinensis (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
cascadensis
Ponzetti & McCune  (Ponzetti & McCune 2006)
denticulata (Vainio) Egea & Torrente
dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Bacidia dryina
lamprospora (Nyl.) Lendemer  Syns.: Gyalecta lamprospora, Melampylidium macrosporum (Lendemer 2004a)
myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente
patellarioides (Nyl.) Almq. Syns.: Lecanactis patellarioides, Bacidia clementis
spiralis Egea & Torrente
integrispora Seaver = B. denticulata (Harris 1995a)
macrospora R.C. Harris = B. lamprospora
mesospora
R.C. Harris = B. carolinensis
nematospora R.C. Harris = B. myriadea

BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb
curtisii (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia curtisii (Marbach 2000), Gyrostmum curtisii
imshaugiana
(R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia imshaugiana (Marbach 2000)

BAEOMYCES Pers.
carneus Flörke
placophyllus Ach.
rufus (Hudson) Rebent.
absolutus Tuck. = Dibaeis absoluta
fungoides (Sw.) Ach. North American reports are Dibaeis baeomyces
roseus Pers. = Dibaeis baeomyces

BAGLIETTOA A. Massal.
baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda (Breuss 2007a) Syn.: Verrucaria baldensis
calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux  Syn.:  Verrucaria calciseda (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)

BATHELIUM Ach. (Harris 1995a)
carolinianum (Tuck.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Trypethelium carolinianum
madreporiforme (Eschw.) Trevisan (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Laurera madreporiformis

BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Cl. Roux
alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Lecanora alpina, L. applegatei, Aspicilia alpina
cinereorufescens (Ach.)
Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens, Lecanora cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syn.: Aspicilia diamarta
sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia sanguinea, Lecanora sanguinea
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. Syns.: Lecidea subsorediza, Aspicilia subsorediza

BELLEMERELLA Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux
*ritae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2007)

BELONIA Körber ex Nyl. = GYALECTA (Baloch et al. 2013a)
americana Fink ex Hedr. = Robergea pupula, but excluded as a non-lichen
fennica Vainio = Gyalecta russula
russula Körber ex Nyl. = Gyalecta russula

BIATORA Fr.
aegrefaciens Printzen (Printzen et al. 2002)
alaskana Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
appalachensis Printzen & Tønsberg  (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
aureolepra T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Spribille et al. 2009)
caulophylla Tuck.   Possibly belongs to Lecanora (Ryan & Nash 1997a)
chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen in V. Wirth (Printzen 1995)
chrysanthoides Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
cuprea (Sommerf.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea cuprea
efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea efflorescens, L. epixanthoidiza
fallax Hepp (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavopunctata (Tønsberg) Hinter. & Printzen Syn.: Lecanora flavopunctata
globulosa (Flörke) Fr.  Syns.:  Bacidia globulosa, Catillaria globulosa, Lecidea globulosa, L. sylvana (Printzen 2004)
helvola Körber ex Hellbom  (Spribille et al. 2010) Syn.: Lecidea helvola
hypophaea Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
kodiakensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille et al. 2009)
longispora (Degel.) Lendemer & Printzen  Syn.: Lecidea helvola var. longispora (Lendemer 2004b)
meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa, L. minuta
meiocarpa var. tacomensis (Printzen & Tønsberg) Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)  Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa var. tacomensis
nobilis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
ocelliformis (Nyl.) Arnold (Printzen & Otte 2005)
oligocarpa Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
pallens (Kullhem) Printzen (Printzen & Otte 2005)  Syns.: Cliostomum pallens, Bacidia pallens
pausiaca Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
pontica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
printzenii Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2002)
pycnidiata Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
sphaeroidiza (Vainio) Printzen & Holien (Dillman et al. 2012)
subduplex (Nyl.) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea subduplex, L.apochroeiza, L. internectens
toensbergii Holien & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
vacciniicola (Tønsberg) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea vacciniicola
vernalis (L.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea vernalis
albohyalina (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia = Lecidea albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
amaurospoda Anzi = Lecidea pullata
anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner =
Carbonicola anthracophila
botryosa Fr. (Printzen 1995) = Hertelidea botryosa
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
cladoniscum Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
floridana Tuck. = Fellhanera floridana
franciscana Tuck. = Lecania franciscana
friesii (Ach.) Tuck. = Xylopsora friesii
furvonigrans Tuck. ex Willey =Lecidea furvonigrans
meadii Tuck. ex Willey = Byssoloma meadii
molybditis Tuck. = Bacidia medialis
papillariae Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
porphyrospoda Anzi = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
pullata Norman = Frutidella pullata
pullula Tuck. = Lecanora anopta
rufofusca Anzi = Myochroidea rufofusca
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
scrupulosa Eckf. = Fuscidea scrupolosa
sibiriensis Willey ex Rothr. = Lecania subfuscula (Ekman 1996, Dillman et al. 2012)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber = Mycobilimbia pilularis
turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. = Lecidea turgidula

BIATORELLA De Not.
camptocarpa (Tuck.) Fink (Tuckerman 1888, Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
conspurcans Norman (Dillman et al. 2012)
contigua N. S. Golubk. & Piin (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
cyphalea (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
floridensis H. Magn.
hemisphaerica Anzi
albidula (Willey) Zahlbr. = Myrionora albidula
campestris (Fr.) Almq. = Sarcosagium campestre
clauzadeana Llimona & Vězda = Acarospora clauzadeana
clavus (DC.) Th.
Fr. = Sarcogyne clavus
conspersa (Fèe) Vainio = Piccolia conspersa
fossarum (Dufour ex Fr.) Th. Fr. = B. hemisphaerica for North American records
geophana (Nyl.) Rehm (Fink 1935) = Steinia geophana
hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell =
Sarcogyne hypophaea
kulshanensis Herre = Sporastatia testudinea (Ketzner 2010)
leucampyx Tuck. = Bacidia schweinitzii (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
microhaema Norman = Strangospora microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Strangospora moriformis
nannaria (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Piccolia nannaria
ochrophora (Nyl.) Arnold = Picolia ochrophora
plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr. = Sarcogyne plicata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
pruinosa "(Körber) Mudd" = Sarcogyne regularis

rappii Zahlbr. = Ramonia microspora (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)

+
resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Sarea resinae
revertens (Tuck.) Herre (Tuckerman 1882, Fink 1935) = Polysporina simplex (Tucker & Jordan 1979)
simplex (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup = Polysporina simplex
terrena Hasse = Sarcogyne crustacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a)
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. = Sporastatia testudinea

BIATORIDIUM J. Lahm
delitescens (Arnold) Hafellner (Ekman 1996)
monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körber (McCune & Rosentreter 2014)

BIATOROPSIS Räsänen
*usnearum Räsänen

BILIMBIA De Not.
accedens Arnold  Syns.: Mycobilimbia accedens, Myxobilimbia accedens (Spribille et al. 2010)
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner & Coppins  Syns.: Mycobiolimbia lobulate, Toninia lobulata (Veldkamp 2004)
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.  Syns.: Bacidia microcarpa, Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Veldkamp 2004)
sabuletorum (Schreber) Arnold  Syns.: Bacidia sabuletorum, B. hypnophila, Mycobilimbia sabuletorum, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Veldkamp 2004)
acclinis (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Fink 1935) = Arthrosporum populorum (Ekman 1996)
caloosensis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia hostheleoides (Ekman 1996)
caudata (Nyl.) Fink = Ropalospora lugubris
cupreorosella (Nyl.) Bausch (Fink 1935) = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
declinis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Catillaria nigroclavata (Ekman 1996)
floridana (Tuck.) Riddle (Fink 1935) = Fellhanera floridana (Ekman 1996)
granosa (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
gyalectiformis Zahlbr. = Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Fink (Fink 1935) =
Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
lignaria (Ach.) A. Massal. (Fink 1935) = Micarea lignaria
meadii (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Byssoloma meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996)
melaena (Nyl.) Arnold (Fink 1935) = Micarea melaena
molybditis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia medialis (Ekman 1996)
naegelii (Hepp) Kremp. (Fink 1935) = Lecania naegelii
pammellii Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia ravenelii (Ekman 1996)
rubidofusca (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia rubidofusca (Ekman 1996)
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber (Fink 1935) =  Mycobilimbia pilularis (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides auct. = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida (Ekman 1996)
trachona (Ach.) Trevisan (Fink 1935)   North American reports are Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Nägeli) Arnold = Micarea peliocarpa (Santesson et al. 2004)
tricholoma (Mont.) Fink = Byssoloma tricholomum

BISPORA Fuckel
*christiansenii D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998) = Intralichen christiansenii
*lichenum Diederich (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Intralichen lichenum

BLASTENIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syns. Caloplaca ammiospila, C. cinnamomea, C. discoidalis
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Caloplaca ferruninea
furfuracea (H. Magn.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca furfuracea

atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Caloplaca atrosanguinea
crenularia (With.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén = Misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
diphasia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca diphasia
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) B. de Lesd. = Caloplaca fraudans
luteominia (Tuck.) Hasse =
Polycauliona luteominea
novomexicana Fink = a Caloplaca sp.?
rubrofusca B. de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.?
sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) A. Massal. =
Bryoplaca sinapisperma

BLENNOTHALLIA Trevisan (Otálora et al. 2014)
crispa (Hudson) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema cheilum, C. crispum
fecunda (Degel.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema fecundum

BOMBYLIOSPORA De Not. ex A. Massal. = MEGALOSPORA
domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis
pachycheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Megalospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) De Not. = Megalospora tuberculosa
vulpina (Nyl.) J. M. Burgess = nom. inval. = Letrouitia vulpina

BOTRYDINA Bréb. = LICHENOMPHALIA
botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
vulgaris Bréb. sens. str. = Lichenomphalia umbellifera

BOTRYOLEPRARIA Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona
lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona Syn.: Lepraria lesdainii (Canals et al. 1997)

BOTTARIA A. Massal. = MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
cruentata Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruentata

BRIANCOPPINSIA Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (Diederich et al. 2012)
*cytospora (Vouaux) Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (Diederich et al. 2012, Kocourková et al. 2012) Syn.: Phoma cytospora

BRIGANTIAEA Trevisan
fuscolutea (Dickson) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium fuscoluteum
leucoxantha (Sprengel) R. Sant. & Hafellner Syn.: Lopadium leucoxanthum
praetermissa Hafellner & St. Clair (Hafellner 1997)
purpurata (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Bellem. (Goward et al. 1996) = B. praetermissa (Hafellner 1997)

BRODOA Goward
oroarctica (Krog) Goward Syn.: Hypogymnia oroarctica.
atrofusca (Schaerer) Goward  Syns.: Hypogymnia atrofusca, Parmelia atrofusca. North American reports are probably misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica
intestiniformis (Vill.)
Goward  Syns.: Hypogymnia intestiniformis, H. encausta, Parmelia intestiniformis, P. encausta. North American reports are misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica

BRUCEA Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b) = BRUCEOMYCES Rikkinen (Tuovila et al. 2012)
+castoris Rikkinen = Bruceomyces castoris

BRUCEOMYCES Rikkinen (Tuovila et al. 2012)
+castoris Rikkinen

BRYOBILIMBIA Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman (Fryday et al. 2014)
ahlesii (Körber) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea ahlesii, L. delincta
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea ahlesii var. nemoralis, L. nemoralis
diapensiae (Th. Fr.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syn.: Lecidea diapensiae
hypnorum (Lib.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea hypnorum, L. fusca, L. templetonii, L. atrofusca, L. sanguineoatra sens. Nyl., Mycobilimbia hypnorum

BRYOCAULON Kärnefelt
divergens (Ach.) Kärnefelt Syns.: Alectoria divergens, Cornicularia divergens, Coelocaulon divergens
pseudosatoanum (Asahina) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cornicularia pseudosatoana

BRYODINA Hafellner
rhypariza
(Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk (Zhurbenko 2013)

BRYONORA Poelt
castanea (Hepp) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora castanea
curvescens (Mudd) Poelt Syn.: Lecania curvescens
pruinosa (Th. Fr.) Holtan-Hartwig
septentrionalis Holtan-Hartwig

BRYOPHAGUS Nitschke ex Arnold
gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold (fide J. Hafellner, see Appendix)

BRYOPLACA Søchting, Frödén & Arup (Arup et al. 2013)
jungermanniae
(Vahl) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca jungermanniae
sinapisperma
(Lam. & DC.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Blastenia sinapisperma, Caloplaca leucoraea, C. sinapisperma
tetraspora
(Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca tetraspora

BRYOPOGON Link
negativus Gyelnik = Bryoria lanestris
pacificus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens

BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
ambigua (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria bicolor
capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria capillaris, A. setacea for North American records
carlottae Brodo & D. Hawksw.
cervinula Motyka ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria cervinula
chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria chalybeiformis
fabiszewskiana Bystr. (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fremontii, A. corneliae, A. tenerrima, A. tortuosa
friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Holien, 1989, considers this taxon to be a synonym of and conspecific with B. implexa)
furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nidulifera, Cornicularia fibrillosa
furcellata subsp. hawksworthiana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fuscescens, A. positiva, Bryopogon pacificus
glabra (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria glabra
implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria implexa (See notes under B. friabilis and B. pseudofuscescens)
lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria lanestris, Bryopogon negativus
nadvornikiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nadvornikiana, A. altaica
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nitidula, A. irvingii, A. lanea auct.
pikei Brodo & D. Hawksw.
pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw.
pseudofuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria achariana, A. norstictica nom. nudum, A. subtilis nom.nudum (Holien, 1989, considers this taxon to be a synonym and conspecific with B. implexa)
salazinica Brodo & D. Hawksw.
simplicior (Vainio) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria simplicior, A. nana nom. nudum
spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw.
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria subcana
tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria tenuis
trichodes (Michaux) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. trichodes Syns.: Alectoria canadensis, A. delicata nom. nudum
trichodes subsp. americana (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria ambigua, A. americana
trichodes subsp. brodoana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
trichodes subsp. canadensis (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck. ex Willey) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria oregana
setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Not in North America.
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria subdivergens
tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fremontii (Velmala et al. 2009)
vrangiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. sens. str. is known only from Europe and is considered a synonym of B. implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. by Holien (1989).

BRYOSCYPHUS Spooner
*lichenicola Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

BRYOSTIGMA Poelt & Döbbeler
leucodontis Poelt & Döbbeler = Arthonia muscigena

BUELLIA
De Not.
abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Giralt et al. 2011, Knudsen & Kocourková 2010c)
aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.
arborea Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & McCune 2001)
arnoldii Serv
ít  Syn.:  Hafellia arnoldii
#badia (Fr.) A. Massal.  Syn.: Amandinea turgescens
bahiana Malme  Syn.: Hafellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotropa Malme
bolacina Tuck.
calcariaecola B. de Lesd.
callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner  Syn.:  Hafellia callispora
capitis-regum W. A. Weber
cedricola Werner (Nordin 1999)
christophii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004a)
concinna Th. Fr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
conspirans (Nyl.) Vainio (Bungartz 2004)
crystallifera (Vainio) Hav. (Goward et al. 1996)
curatellae Malme  Syn.:  Hafellia curatellae
disciformis
(Fr.) Mudd  Syn.:  Hafellia disciformis
dispersa
A. Massal.
eganii Bungartz (Bungartz & Nash. 2004a)
elegans Poelt
epigaea (Pers.) Tuck.
erubescens Arnold
[Hafellia fosteri Imshaug & Sheard]
georgei Trinkaus, H. Mayrhofer & Elix (Bungartz et al. 2007)
griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb.
halonia (Ach.) Tuck.
immersa Lynge
*imshaugii Hafellner
jugorum (Arnold) Arnold
lacteoidea B. de Lesd.
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)
lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck.
leptocline (Flotow) A. Massal.
maculata Bungartz (Bungartz 2004a)
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber  Syn.: Rinodina mamillana, R. thomae
maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl. (Bungartz et al. 2007)
mexicana J. Steiner (Nordin 2000)
microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina microbola
#miriquidica Scheid. (Fryday 2006)
muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg (Nordin 1999)
nantiana B. de Lesd.
nashii Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
navajoensis Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
nigra (Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina nigra
occidentalis Lynge (Lepage 1972)
ocellata (Flotow) Körber
oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Rhizocarpon oidaleum
parastata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Hafellia parastata
prospersa (Nyl.) Riddle (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
pullata Tuck. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
ryanii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
schaereri De Not.
sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)  Many previous reports are B. abstracta (Giralt et al. 2011)
sharpiana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2013a)
silicicola B. de Lesd.
smaragdula B. de Lesd.
spuria (Schaerer) Anzi
stellulata (Taylor) Mudd
stigmatea Körber
subaethalea B. de Lesd. (Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
subdispersa Mig. (Nordin 1999)
tesserata Körber (Rico et al. 2003)
triseptata A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
tyrolensis Körber (Bungartz 2004)
uberior Anzi
vilis Th. Fr.
*adjuncta Th. Fr. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Amandinea adjuncta
aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier = B. aethalea
alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum
ambigua (Ach.) Malme = Diplotomma ambiguum
amphidexia Imshaug ex R. C. Harris = Endohyalina circumpallida
atrata (Sm.) Anzi = Orphniospora moriopsis
badioatra (Flörke ex Sprengel) Körber = Rhizocarpon badioatrum
blasteniospora Zahlbr. = B. parastata
blumeri Zahlbr. = B. dispersa  
caloosensis Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
canescens (Dickson) De Not. = Diploicia canescens
catasema (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
chloroleuca Körber (Bungartz et al. 2007, Spribille & Björk 2008) = Tetramelas chloroleucus
chlorophaea (Hepp ex Leighton) Lettau = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
coccinea (Fée) Aptroot = Gassicurtia coccinea
colludens (Nyl.) Arnold = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amandinea coniops
contermina Arnold = B. uberior
coracina (Nyl.) Körber = Orphniospora moriopsis
curtisii (Tuck.) Imshaug = Baculifera curtisii
dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chrismofulvea dialyta
disciformis (Fr.) Mudd = B. disciformis
elizae (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia elizae
epipolia (Ach.) Mong. = Diplotomma epipolium
fimbriata (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. tesserata
geophila (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Lynge = Tetramelas geophila
glaucomarioidea Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora glaucomarioides
glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = B. mamillana
hassei Imshaug = B. griseovirens
imshaugiana R. C. Harris = Baculifera imshaugiana
*inquilina Tuck. = Dactylospora inquilina
insignis (Nägeli ex Hepp) Th. Fr. = Tetramelas insignis
isidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = excluded as doubtful
japonica (Tuck.) Tuck. (Sheard et al. 2008) = Sculptolumina japonica
lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria lauricassiae
lecanoroides H. Magn. = Diplotomma venusta (Bungartz et al. 2007)
lepidastroidea Imshaug ex Bungartz (Bungartz 2004) = B. sequax (Giralt et al. 2011)
leucomela Imshaug = Amandinea leucomela
malmei Lynge = B. aethalea
melanochlora (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria melanochlora
modesta (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.= Cratiria americana
moriopsis (A. Massal.) Th. Fr. = Orphniospora moriopsis
myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. = Amandinea punctata
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hertel ex Hafellner = Diplotomma nivalis
notabilis Lynge = Rinodina notabilis
novomexicana B. de Lesd.
= B. tyrolensis
pachnidisca R. C. Harris = Gassicurtia subpulcella
papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. = Tetramelas papillatus
parasema (Ach.) De Not. = B. disciformis
penichra (Tuck.) Hasse = Diplotomma penichrum
pertusariicola Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora pertusariicola
pinastri Erichsen (Erichsen 1940) = Chrismofulvea pinastri
placodiomorpha Vainio = Orcularia placodiomorpha
polyspora (Willey) Vainio = Amandinea polyspora
pruinella Imshaug = B. tesserata
pueblae B. de Lesd. = B. dispersa
pulchella (Schrader) Tuck. = Catolechia wahlenbergii
*pulverulenta (Anzi) Jatta = Tetramelas pulverulentus
punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Amandinea punctata
punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink = Amandinea polyspora
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
rappii Imshaug ex R.C. Harris = Endohyalina rappii
retrovertens Tuck. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2002)
rinodinoides Anzi = misidentification for North America
rinodinospora Riddle = B. parastata
rubifaciens R.C. Harris = Chrismofulvea rubifaciens
saurina W. A. Weber = Rhizocarpon saurinum
saxicola B. de Lesd. = B. sequax
scabrosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Epilichen scabrosus
semitensis Tuck. = B. concinna
stigmaea Tuck. = B. maculata
stillingiana J. Steiner = B. erubescens (Bungartz et al. 2007)
subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.  North American reports are B. maritima (Bungartz et al. 2007)
subpulcella Vainio = Gassicurtia subpulcella
tergestina J. Steiner & Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
terricola A. Nordin (Nordin 1999) = Tetramelas terricolus
thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. mamillana
tolucae B. de Lesd. (Nordin 1999) = B. mexicana (Bungartz et al. 2007)
triphragmioides Anzi = Tetramelas triphragmioides
tucsonensis Zahlbr. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2007)
turgescens Tuck. = B. badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)
turgescentoides Fink = B. badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)
venusta (Körber) Lettau = Diplotomma venustum
vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia vernicoma
verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea
verruculosa auct. = B. ocellata
wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard = Catolechia wahlenbergii
wheeleri R. C. Harris = Ciposia wheeleri
zahlbruckneri J. Steiner = B. erubescens
zahlbruckneri sensu Imshaug = mostly Tetramela chloroleucus (Bungartz et al. 2007)

BUELLIELLA Fink
*inops (Triebel & Rambold) Hafellner  Syn.:  Karschia inops (Hafellner 2004a)
*minimula (Tuck.) Fink
*physciicola Poelt & Hafellner (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*poetschii Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2008)
*trypethelii (Tuck.) Fink
*inquilina (Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora inquilina
*nuttallii (Calk. & Nyl.) Fink = Dactylospora lobariella
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink = Abrothallus parmeliarum
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Fink = Dactylospora saxatilis var. saxatilis
*usneae (Rabenh.)
Fink = misidentification for North America

BUELLIOPSIS A. Schneider = BUELLIA
papillata (Sommerf.) Fink = Tetramelas papillata
vernicoma (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Gassicurtia vernicoma

BULBOTHRIX Hale
confoederata (W. L. Culb..) Hale Syn.: Parmelia confoederata
coronata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia coronata
isidiza (Nyl.) Hale
laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigatula
scortella (Nyl.) Hale (Benatti & Elix 2012) Syn.: Parmelia njalensis, P. scortella
goebelii (Zenker) Hale  North American reports are B. scortella (Benatti & Elix 2012)

BULLATINA Vězda & Poelt
aspidota (Vainio) Vězda & Poelt = Calenia aspidotum

BUNODOPHORON A. Massal.
melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin Syn.: Sphaerophorus melanocarpus

BURGELLA Diederich & Lawrey (Diederich & Lawrey 2007)
*flavoparmeliae Diederich & Lawrey

BYSSOLOMA Trevisan
absconditum Farkas & Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
chlorinum (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vainio
marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia meadii, Biatora meadii, Bilimbia meadii
subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James
tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Bilimbia tricholoma
pubescens Vězda ex R.C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = B. meadii (Brodo et al. 2001)
rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. = B. subdiscordans

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

CAERULEUM K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Körber) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia  Syns.: Acarospora aeruginosa, A. heppii, Myriospora heppii
immersum (Fink) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia  Syns.: Acarospora immersa, Myriospora immersa

CALENIA
Müll. Arg.
aspidotum (Vainio) Vězda  Syn.: Bullatina aspidota (Lücking et al. 2007)

CALICIELLA Vainio = non-lichenized fungi

CALICIUM Pers.
abietinum Pers.
adaequatum Nyl.
adspersum Pers.
chlorosporum F. Wilson
corynellum (Ach.) Ach.
denigratum (Vainio) Tibell (McMullin et al. 2012)
glaucellum Ach.
hyperelloides Nyl.
lenticulare Ach.
leucochlorum Tuck.
montanum Tibell (Kolb & Spribille 2001)
parvum Tibell
pinastri Tibell  (Selva 2013)
quercinum Pers.
salicinum Pers.
sequoiae C. Williams & Tibell (Williams & Tibell 2008)
trabinellum
(Ach.) Ach
viride Pers.
albonigrum Nyl. = Mycocalicium albonigrum
#asikkalense Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
curtisii Tuck. = Phaeocalicium curtisii
*disseminatum Ach. = Microcalicium disseminatum
#floerkei Zahlbr. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
fuscipes Tuck. = Mycocalicium fuscipes
hemisphaericum Howard = C. adaequatum
hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. = C. viride
lentigerellum Tuck. = C. lenticulare
lichenoides (L.) Schumacher = C. salicinum
microcephalum (Sm.) Ach. = Sphinctrina anglica
minutissimum G. Merr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+populneum Brond. ex Duby = Phaeocalicium populneum
#pusillum auct. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
pusiolum Ach. = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
queenslandiae (F. Wilson) Tibell = C. chlorosporum
ravenelii Tuck. = Mycocalicium ravenelii
roscidum (Ach.) Ach. nom. superfl. = C. adspersum
roscidum var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaerer = C. trabinellum for North American records
sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach. = (?) C. lichenoides
#subpusillum Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
subquercinum Asahina = C. lenticulare
+subtile Pers. = Mycocalicium subtile
trachelinum Ach. = C. salicinum

CALLOME Otálora & Wedin (Otálora et al. 2014)
multipartita (Sm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema multipartitum


CALOGAYA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
alaskensis (Wetmore) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca alaskensis
arnoldii (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca arnoldii, C. arnoldii ssp. obliterata
biatorina (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca biatorina
decipiens (Arnold) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca decipiens
lobulata (Flörke) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca lobulata
pusilla (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca pusilla

CALOPADIA Vězda
editae Vězda ex Chaves & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
floridana Hodges & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
fusca
(Müll Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium fuscum
imshaugii Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lecanorella
(Nyl.) Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
perpallida (Nyl.) Vězda (Lücking et al. 2011b)
puiggarii
(Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium puiggarii
schomerae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
subcoerulescens (Zahlbr.) Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

CALOPLACA Th. Fr.
adnexa Vězda
ahtii Søchting
albovariegata (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore Syn.:  Pyrenodesmia albovariegata
alcarum Poelt
approximata (Lynge) H. Magn.
atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Lecania perproxima (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
atrocyanescens (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier  (Spribille et al. 2010)
atroflava (Turner) Mong.
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) I. M. Lamb  Syn.: Blastenia atrosanguinea
borealis (Vainio) Poelt
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. (Nash et al. 1998)
brunneola Wetmore
californica Zahlbr.
camptidia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
carolinae H. Magn.
cascadensis H. Magn.
catalinae H. Magn.
celata Th. Fr.
cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedwig) Th. Fr. (Laundon 2005)
chlorina (Flotow) Sandst.
cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.
conversa (Kremp.) Jatta
dakotensis Wetmore
demissa (Körber) Arup & Grube Syns.: Lecanora demissa, L. incusa, L. subolivascens (Arup & Grube 1999)
diphasia (Tuck.) Wetmore Syns.: Lecanora diphasia, Blastenia diphasia
diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta Syn.: Lecania arctica
dispersa B. de Lesd.
durietzii H. Magn
epiphora (Taylor) Dodge (Wetmore 2004a)
*epithallina Lynge
[Candelariella epixantha (Ach.) Sandst.]
erichansenii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, Kärnefelt & Elix  (Vondrák et al. 2011)
erythrantha (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2007b)
eugyra
(Tuck.) Zahlbr.
exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
feracissima H. Magn.
ferrugineofusca (Vainio) H. Magn.
floridana (Tuck.) S. Tucker Syns.:  Blastenia floridana, Lecanora floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier  Syn.:  Blastenia fraudans
fraxinea I. M. Lamb
fulvolutea (Arnold) Jatta (Thomson 1997)
granularis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2004b)
*grimmiae (Nyl.) H. Olivier
groenlandica Lynge
insularis Poelt
isidiigera Vězda (Šoun et al. 2011)
kamczatica (Savicz) Savicz  (Søchting 2004)
lecanorae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
lecanoroides Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2010)
lignicola Wetmore (Wetmore 2009)
lithophila H. Magn.
litoricola Brodo
livida (Hepp) Jatta
microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse
[Pyrenodesmia montana B. de Lesd.]
neonii B. de Lesd.
neotropica Wetmore
nivalis (Körber) Th. Fr.
[Blastenia novomexicana Fink]
obamae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2009)
obesimarginata Søchting  (Søchting 2004)
oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore Syns.: Apatoplaca oblongula, Lecidea oblongula
obscurella (Körber) Th. Fr.
oleicola (J. Steiner) van den Boom & Breuss (Goward et al. 1996)
oregona H. Magn.
parvula Wetmore
peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse  Syn.: Pyrenodesmia elaeodes
phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
phyllidizans Wetmore (Wetmore 2003)
pinicola H. Magn.
pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta
pratensis Wetmore (Wetmore 2009)
pygmaea Wetmore (Wetmore 2007a)
quercicola H. Magn.
reptans Lendemer & Hodkinson (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2012)
rubelliana (Ach.) Lojka
[Blastenia rubrofusca B. de Lesd.]
saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin
schaereri (Flörke) Zahlbr.
schoeferi Poelt (Wetmore 2007a)
sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sipeana H. Magn.
sonorae Wetmore (Wetmore 1996)
soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek (Wetmore 2009)
sorocarpa (Vainio) Zahlbr.
spaldingii Zahlbr.
spitsbergensis H. Magn.
stanfordensis H. Magn.
stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge  (Šoun et al. 2011, Arup et al. 2013)
subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr.
subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tornoënsis H. Magn.
turkuensis (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Šoun et al. 2011)
ulcerosa Coppins & P. James (Wetmore 2004b)
ulmorum (Fink) Fink  (Šoun et al. 2011)  But see also Wetmore 2007b
urceolata B. de Lesd.
verrucosa Hasse
wetmorei Nimis, Poelt & Tretiach
wrightii (Tuck.) Fink
yuchiorum Lendemer & C. A. Morse  (Lendemer & Morse 2010)
alaskensis Wetmore (Wetmore 2004b) = Calogaya alaskensis
alboatra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Flowers 1953/1954)  Misspelling of C. atroalba
amabilis (Fink) Zahlbr. = C. pellodella
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier = Blastenia ammiospila
arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg. = Rufoplaca arenaria
arizonica H. Magn. = Gyalolechia arizonica
arizonica E. Rudolph non H. Magn. = C. pellodella
arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. ssp. obliterata (Pers.) Gaya (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya arnoldii
aurantia (Pers.) Hellbom = Variospora aurantia
aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. =
Gyalolechia flavorubescens
austrocitrina Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010e) = Flavoplaca austrocitrina
biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya biatorina
bolacina (Tuck.) Herre = Polycauliona bolacina
bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. =
Polycauliona luteominea var. bolanderi
bracteata (Hoffm.) Jatta =
Gyalolechia bracteata
brattiae W. A. Weber = Polycauliona brattiae
bryochrysion Poelt =
Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea
caesiorufa (Wibel) Flagey = removed as a nomen confusum (Wetmore 1996)
caesiorufella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. phaeocarpella
callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. =
Variospora aurantia
castellana (Räsänen) Poelt  If treated as separate from C. invadens (=Pachypheltis invadens) as done by e.g. Alstrup (1991), this species has not yet been reported for North America
chrysodeta (Vainio ex Räsänen) Dombr. = Leproplaca chrysodeta
chrysophthalma Degel. = Solitaria chrysophthalma
cinnamomea (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier =
Blastenia ammiospila
cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Leproplaca cirrochroa
citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Flavoplaca citrina
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pachypeltis cladodes
constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Edrudia constipans
coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting = Polycauliona coralloides
crenularia (With.) J. R. Laundon =
Blastenia crenularia, but misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Knudsen & La Doux 2005) = Xanthocarpia crenulatella
decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forssell = Calogaya decipiens
diplacia (Ach.) Riddle = doesn't occur N of Mexico (Wetmore 1994)
discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. saxicola
discoidalis (Vainio) Lynge =
Blastenia ammiospila
discolor (Willey) Fink = C. xanthostigmoidea (Wetmore 2001)
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. =
Rusavskia elegans
epiphyta Lynge (Søchting & Tønsberg 1997) =
Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea
erythrella (Ach.) Kieffer =
Gyalolechia flavovirescens
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr. = Blastenia ferruginea
festiva (Ach.) Zwackh = Blastenia crenularia, but North American records incorrect according to Wetmore (1996)
flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Arup 2006) = Flavoplaca flavocitrina
flavogranulosa Arup = Polycauliona flavogranulosa
flavorubescens (Hudson) J. R. Laundon = Gyalolechia flavorubescens
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = Gyalolechia flavovirescens
fulgens (Sw.) Körber = Gyalolechia fulgens
furfuracea H. Magn. (Wetmore 2004a) = Blastenia furfuracea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Squamulea galactophylla
gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = C. cerina
gloriae sensu Aptroot (1996) non Werner & Llimona =
Polycauliona verruculifera (Arup 1997)
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Jatta = Flavoplaca granulosa
herbidella (Hue) H. Magn. = Blastenia herbidella, but a misidentification for North America (Wetmore 2004a)
herrei Hasse = C. atrosanguinea
holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A. E. Wade = Athallia holocarpa
ignea Arup = Polycauliona ignea
impolita Arup = Polycauliona impolita
inconspecta Arup = Polycauliona inconspecta
intermedia (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1999)
invadens Lynge (Thomson 1997) = Pachypeltis invadens
irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr. =
Squamulea subsoluta
jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr. = Bryoplaca jungermanniae
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = Xanthocarpia lactea
laeta H. Magn. =
Polycauliona luteominia var. luteominia
lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey =
Rufoplaca arenaria
leucoraea (Ach. ex Flörke) Branth =
Bryoplaca sinapisperma
lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Calogaya lobulata
ludificans Arup = Polycauliona ludificans
luteoalba (Turner) Th. Fr. = Cerothallia luteoalba
luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. luteominia = Polycauliona luteominia var. luteominia
luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup = Polycauliona luteominia var. bolanderi
marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup = Flavoplaca marina
marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta  (Knudsen & La Doux 2005) = Xanthocarpia marmorata
microthallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. = Flavoplaca microthallina
modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink =
Squamulea subsoluta
murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola
nashii Nav.-Ros., Gaya & Hladun (Kudsen & La Doux 2005) = Polycauliona nashii
obliterans (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = Leproplaca obliterans
oxfordensis Fink = Rufoplaca oxfordensis
parviloba Wetmore (Wetmore 2003) = Squamulea parviloba
paulsenii (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
persimilis Wetmore (Wetmore 2004b) = Gyalolechia persimilis
phlogina (Ach.) Flagey (Richardson et al. 2009, Vondrák et al. 2010) = Polycauliona phlogina

pusilla (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya pusilla
pyracea (Ach.) Zwackh (Arup 2009) = Athallia pyracea
rosei Hasse = Polycauliona rosei
sarcopisioides (Körber) Zahlbr. = C. obscurella
saxifragarum Poelt = Athallia saxifragarum
scopularis (Nyl.) Lettau = Athallia scopularis
scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn. = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Maheu & A. Gillet = Bryoplaca sinapisperma
sorediata (Vainio) Du Rietz = Rusavskia sorediata
splendens (Darb.) Zahlbr. =
Rusavskia elegans
squamosa (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Squamulea squamosa
stantonii
W. A. Weber ex Arup = Gyalolechia stantonii

stellata Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998) = Polycauliona stellata
stipitata Wetmore (Wetmore 1999) = Gyalolechia stipitata
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Candelina submexicana
subnigricans H. Magn. = C. atrosanguinea
subolivacea (Th. Fr.) Lynge =
Parvoplaca tiroliensis
subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2003) = Squamulea subsoluta
teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
tetraspora (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Bryoplaca tetraspora
texana Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998) = Wetmoreana texana
thallincola (Wedd.) Du Rietz  Not in North America
tiroliensis Zahlbr. = Parvoplaca tiroliensis
tominii (Savicz) Ahlner (Wetmore 2001) = Xanthocarpia tominii
trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Xanthomendoza trachyphylla
variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenodesmia variabilis
velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Variospora velana
verruculifera (Vainio) Zahlbr. = Polycauliona verruculifera
vicaria H. Magn. = C. kamczatica
vitellinula (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Athallia vitellinula
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr. = Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea

CALOPLACOPSIS (Zahlbr.) B. de Lesd. = CANDELARIELLA
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana

CALVITIMELA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
aglaea
(Sommerf.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea aglaea, L. aglaeida (Hertel & Andreev 2003), L. shushanii,Tephromela aglaea, T. aglaeida
armeniaca (DC.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea armeniaca, Tephromela armeniaca
melaleuca (Sommerf.) R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2011, Dillman et al. 2012)
talayana (Haugan & Timdal) Andreev (Hodkinson et al. 2009)
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea testaceoatra, L. arctogena, Tephromela testaceoatra

CAMPYLOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.
amylosporum (Vainio) R. C. Harris = Polymeridium proponens
nitidum Zahlbr. = Laurera megasperma

CANDELARIA A. Massal.
concolor (Dickson) Stein
fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
pacifica M. Westb. & Arup (Westberg & Arup 2011)
concolor
var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham = C. concolor (Lendemer & Westberg 2010)

CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg.
aggregata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
antennaria Räsänen
arctica (Körber) R. Sant.
aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
biatorina M. Westb. (Westberg 2007c)
borealis M. Westb. (Westberg 2007b)
californica M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
citrina B. de Lesd.
complanata M. Westb.
(Westberg 2007a)
coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.
corallizoides M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
corviniscalensis C. A. Morse & M. Westb. (Westberg et al. 2011b)
deppeanae M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
efflorescens
R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck
granuliformis M. Westb.  (Westberg et al. 2011b)
immarginata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
kansuensis H. Magn. (Westberg 2007a)
lutella (Vainio) Räsänen
minuta Reichert & Galun (Weber & Wittman 2000)
placodizans (Nyl.) H. Magn.
rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
subdeflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.
xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau
xanthostigmoides (Müll. Arg.) R. W. Rogers (Lendemer & Westberg 2010)
athallina (Wedd.) Du Rietz  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. (2011b)
cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. = C. aurella
crenulata (Wahlenb.) Zahlbr. = C. arctica
deflexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. aurella, but N. American reports are mostly C. antennaria (Westberg 2007a)
dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
epixantha auct. = C. aurella
epixantha (Ach.) Sandst. = a Caloplaca sp.
holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Solenopsora holophaea
hudsonica Hakul. = C. canadensis
kuusamoensis Räsänen var. areolata Hakul.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
luteoalba (Turner) Lettau =
Cerothallia luteoalba
medians (Nyl.) Sm. North American reports probably refer to Candelina submexicana
plumbea Poelt & Vězda  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau   = misidentification for North America (Westberg et al. 2007)
stenospora B. de Lesd.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
submexicana B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana
terrigena Räsänen = C. citrina (Westberg 2007a, Westberg 2009)

CANDELINA
Poelt
mexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt Syns.: Caloplacopsis submexicana, Candelariella submexicana, Caloplaca submexicana. North American reports of Candelariella medians (Nyl.) Sm. probably belong here.

CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale = PARMOTREMA  (Blanco et al. 2005)
conferenda (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema conferendum

haitiensis (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema haitiensis
neotropica (Kurok.) Elix = Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Elix = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Elix = Parmotrema subtinctorium

CANOPARMELIA Elix & Hale
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001) Syns: Paraparmelia alabamensis, Parmelia alabamensis, Pseudoparmelia alabamensis
amabilis Heiman & Elix (Heiman & Elix 1999)
amazonica (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia amazonica, Pseudoparmelia amazonica
caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia caroliniana, Pseudoparmelia caroliniana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia cryptochlorophaea, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia martinicana, Pseudoparmelia martinicana
salacinifera (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia salacinifera, Pseudoparmelia salacinifera
texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia texana, Pseudoparmelia texana
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale  = Crespoa crozalsiana

CAPRONIA
Sacc.
*peltigerae (Fuckel) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*thamnoliae Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko 2012)

CARBACANTHOGRAPHIS Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)
candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb  Syn.: Graphis candidata (Staiger 2002)
marcescens (Fée) Staiger & Kalb  Syn.: Graphina marcescens, G. plittii, Graphis marcescens (Staiger 2002)
muriformis E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp et al. 2010)

CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel
*aggregantula (Müll. Arg.) Diederich & Triebel (Goward et al. 1996)
assimilis (Körber) Hafellner & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea assimilis
atronivea (Arnold) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea atronivea
*intrudens (H. Magn.) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)  Syn.: Lecidea intrudens
latypizodes (Nyl.) Knoph & Rambold (Knoph et al. 2004) Syns.:  Lecidea austrocalifornica, L. subplebeia (Knudsen et al. 2008b),  L. subcontinuior, L. amabilis, Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica
*supersparsa (Nyl.)
Hertel (Diederich 2003)
*vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vorticosa
intrusa (Th. Fr.) Rambold & Triebel (Hinds et al. 2002) = Scoliciosporum intrusum

CARBONICOLA Bendiksby & Timdal (Bendiksby & Timdal 2013)
anthracophila (Nyl.) Bendiksby & Timdal Syns.: Biatora anthracophila, Hypocenomyce anthracophila, Lecidea anthracophila, Psora anthracophila
myrmecina (Ach.) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea

CATAPYRENIUM Flotow (Breuss 1996)
cinereum (Pers.) Körber Syn.: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein  Syn.: Dermatocarpon daedaleum
globosum J. W. Thomson
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Endopyrenium crustaceum, E. granulosum, Dermatocarpon granulosum
psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant.
squamellum (Nyl. ex Hasse) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Dermatocarpon squamellum
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides
andicolum Breuss = Placidium andicola
caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss = Placidium chilense
#compactum (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Verrucaria compacta (Breuss 2007b)
congestum Breuss & McCune = Heteroplacidium congestum
heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. = Placidium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss = Clavascidium lacinulatum
michelii (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Placidium michelii
norvegicum Breuss = Placidium norvegicum
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson (p.p.)
= Verrucaria inficiens (Breuss 1998)
podolepis Breuss = Placidium podolepis
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium rufescens
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant. = Placopyrenium coloradoense for North American reports
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium squamulosum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium arboreum
umbrinum Breuss = Clavascidium umbrinum
waltheri (Kremp.) Körber = Involucropyrenium waltheri
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium stanfordii

CATILLARIA A. Massal.
atomarioides (Müll. Arg.) H. Kilias (Kocourková et al. 2010)
chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.
contristans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Miller et al. 2005)
cupressi Zahlbr.
erysiboides (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Arthonia carneorufa (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavens (Willey) Fink
glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse
lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
*lobariicola (Alstrup) Coppins & Aptroot (Spribillle et al. 20120)
muscicola Lynge
nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler Syn.: Bacidia declinis, Bilimbia declinis, Lecidea declinis
picila (A. Massal.) Coppins (McCune & Rosentreter 2014)
*stereocaulorum (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier (Zhurbenko 2010)
subnegans
(Nyl.) Boistel
subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
terrena (Willey) Zahlbr.

arctica Lynge = Toninia philippea
athallina (Hepp) Hellbom = Toninia athallina
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Catinaria atropurpurea
bahusiensis (Blomb.) Th. Fr. = Tylothallia biformigera
biformigera (Leighton) H. Magn. = Tylothallia biformigera
bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei
columbiana (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Megalaria columbiana
crystallifera R. Kilias = Toninia lutosa
endochroma(Fée) Zahlbr. = Catillochroma endochroma
franciscana (Tuck.) Herre = Lecania franciscana
globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. = Biatora globulosa
graniformis (K. G. Hagen) Vainio = Cliostomum corrugatum
griffithii (Sm.)
Malme = Cliostomum griffithii
groenlandica Lynge = a Lecania sp.
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Körber = Megalaria grossa
*heerii (Hepp) H. Olivier = Scutula heerii
*herrii (Hepp) Fink (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant for C. heerii
jemtlandica Th.
Fr. & Almq. = Megalaria jemtlandica
kansuensis H. Magn. = Toninia philippea
laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Megalaria laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Riddle = Megalaria leptocheila
micrococca (Körber) Th. Fr. = Micarea micrococca (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
philippea (Mont.) A. Massal. = Toninia philippea (Thomson 1997)
prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Micarea prasina
pulverea (Borrer) Lettau = Megalaria pulverea
sculpturata H. Magn. = Toninia sculpturata
sphaeroides (A. Massal.) Schuler = Mycobilimbia pilularis
subnitida Hellbom = Toninia subnitida
subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = a European species
superflua (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = ?Megalaria grossa (Printzen 1995)
tricolor auct. = Cliostomum griffithii
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Arnold = Toninia subnitida

CATILLOCHROMA Kalb (Kalb 2007)
endochroma (Fée) Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.: Catillaria endochroma
albocincta (Degel.) Kalb = Megalaria albocincta  (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
leptocheila (Tuck.) Kalb = Megalaria leptocheila  (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)

CATINARIA Vainio
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Vězda & Poelt Syn.: Catillaria atropurpurea
subcorallina (Zahlbr.) Brako Syn.: Phyllopsora subcorallina
albocincta Degel. = Megalaria albocincta
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Vainio = Megalaria grossa
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Degel. = Megalaria laureri
leucoplaca auct. = Megalaria grossa
versicolor (Fée) Sipman = Megalaria versicolor

CATOLECHIA Flotow
wahlenbergii (Ach.)
Körber  Syns.: Buellia wahlenbergii, B. pulchella

CAVERNULARIA Degel.
hultenii Degel.
lophyrea (Ach.) Degel.  Syn.: Parmelia cavernularia

CECIDONIA Triebel & Rambold
*umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold  Syn.: Lecidea umbonella
*xenophana (Körber) Triebel & Rambold (Hinds et al. 2002)  Syn.: Lecidea columnata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)

CELIDIUM Tul. = ARTHONIA
*varians Arnold = Arthonia varians (Hawksworth 2003)

CELOTHELIUM A. Massal. (Harris 1995a)
aciculiferum (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)

CEPHALOPHYSIS (Hertel) H. Kilias
leucospila (Anzi) H. Kilias & Scheid. Syn.: Lecidea ultima

CERCIDOSPORA Körber
*caudata Kernst.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*cecidiiformans Grube & Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002, Spribille et al. 2010)
*cladoniicola Alstrup (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
#decolorella (Nyl.) O. E. Erikss. & J. Z. Yue
*epicarphinea (Nyl.) Grube & Hafellner
*epipolytropa (Mudd) Arnold
*exiguella (Nyl.) Arnold (Spribille et al. 2010)
*lobothalliae Nav.-Ros. & Calat.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)

*macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*ochrolechiae Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko 2013)
*punctillata (Nyl.) R. Sant.  (Zhurbenko 2013)

*soror Obermayer & Triebel  (McCune & Ponzetti 2005)
*stereocaulorum (Arnold) Hafellner (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*thamnoliae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*verrucosaria (Lindsay) Arnold  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*xanthoriae (Wedd.) R. Sant. (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)
*ulothii Körber = C. macrospora  (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 2004)

CEROTHALLIA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
luteoalba (Turner) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca luteoalba

CETRADONIA J.-C. Wei & Ahti (Wei & Ahti 2002)
linearis (Evans) J.-C. Wei & Ahti Syn.: Gymnoderma linearis, Cladonia linearis

CETRARIA Ach.
aculeata (Schreber) Fr. Syn.: Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata
arenaria Kärnefelt
ericetorum Opiz subsp. ericetorum
ericetorum subsp. reticulata (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica (L.) Ach. subsp. islandica
islandica subsp. crispiformis (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica subsp. orientalis (Asahina) Kärnefelt
kamczatica Savicz
laevigata Rass.
muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt Syn.: Coelocaulon muricatum
nigricans Nyl.
odontella (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Cornicularia odontella, Coelocaulon odontellum
agnata (Nyl.) Kristinsson = Melanelia agnata
alaskana W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Cetrelia alaskana
andrejevii Oxner = Arctocetraria andrejevii
arborialis (Zahlbr. ) Howard = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
atlantica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Platismatia tuckermanii
aurescens Tuck. = Ahtiana aurescens
californica Tuck. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen = Vulpicida canadensis
chicitae W. L. Culb.. = Cetrelia chicitae
chlorophylla (Willd.) Vainio = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
chrysantha Tuck. = Asahinea chrysantha
ciliaris Ach. = Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
ciliaris Ach. var. halei (W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.) Ahti = Tuckermannopsis americana
commixta (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella commixta
coralligera (W. A. Weber) Hale = Tuckermanella coralligera
crispa (Ach.) Nyl. = C. ericetorum subsp. ericetorum
cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. = Flavocetraria cucullata
culbersonii Hale = Melanelia culbersonii
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Nyl. = Cetrariella delisei
elenkinii Krog = Arctocetraria nigricascens
fahlunensis (L.) Schreber = Cetrariella commixta
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Cetrariella fastigiata
fendleri (Nyl.) Tuck. = Tuckermanella fendleri
glauca (L.) Ach. = Platismatia glauca
halei W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. = Tuckermannopsis americana
hepatizon (Ach.) Vainio = Melanelia hepatizon
herrei Imshaug = Platismatia herrei
hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella delisei
idahoensis Essl. = Esslingeriana idahoensis
inermis (Nyl.) Krog = Masonhalea inermis
juniperina (L.) Ach. = North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
lacunosa Ach. = Platismatia lacunosa
lacunosa Ach. var. atlantica Tuck. = Platismatia tuckermanii
merrillii Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia merrillii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin = Arctocetraria nigricascens
nivalis (L.) Ach. = Flavocetraria nivalis
norvegica (Lynge) Du Rietz = Platismatia norvegica
oakesiana Tuck. = Usnocetraria oakesiana
orbata (Nyl.) Fink = Tuckermannopsis orbata
pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Gray = Vulpicida pinastri
platyphylla Tuck. = Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
polyschiza (Nyl.) Jatta = Melanelia hepatizon
richardsonii Hooker = Masonhalea richardsonii
scholanderi Llano = Asahinea scholanderi
scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
scutata auct. = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
sibirica H. Magn. = Arctocetraria nigricascens
simmonsii Krog = Arctocetraria andrejevii
stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Platismatia stenophylla
subalpina Imshaug = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
tilesii Ach. = Vulpicida tilesii
tristis (Weber ex F. H. Wigg.) Fr. = Cornicularia normoerica (Santesson et al. 2004)
tuckermanii Oakes non Herre = Platismatia tuckermanii
tuckermanii Herre non Oakes = Platismatia herrei
viridis Schwein. = Vulpicida viridis
weberi Essl. = Tuckermanella weberi

CETRARIASTRUM Sipman = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
catawbiense (Degel.)
W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis

CETRARIELLA Kärnefelt & Thell
commixta (Nyl.) A. Thell & Kärnefelt (Thell et al. 2009)  Syns.:  Cetraria commixta, C. fahlunensis, Melanelia commixta
delisei
(Bory ex Schaerer) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria delisei, C. hiascens
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria fastigiata

CETRELIA W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
alaskana (C. F. Culb. & W. L. Culb.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria alaskana
cetrarioides (Duby) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
chicitae (W. L. Culb..) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chicitae
monachorum (Zahlbr.) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
Syns.: Parmelia olivetorum, P. olivaria

CHAENOTHECA Th. Fr.
brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe sulphurea
brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Coniocybe gracilescens
cinerea (Pers.) Tibell
erkahomattiorum Selva  (Selva 2013)
ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
floridana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
furfuracea (L.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe furfuracea
gracilenta (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & Middelb.  Syn.:  Cybebe gracilenta (Tibell 2001)
gracillima (Vainio) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe gracillima
hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hygrophila Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
laevigata Nádv.
nitidula Tibell (Tibell & Koffman 2002)
olivaceorufa Vainio (Rikkinen 1998)
phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
servitii Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
sphaerocephala Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
stemonea (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr.
trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
xyloxena Nádv.
carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau = C. chlorella
melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh = C. ferruginea
savonica (Räsänen) Tibell = Chaenothecopsis savonica
schaereri (De Not.) Zahlbr. = C. cinerea
sulphurea (Retz.) Middleborg & J.-E. Mattsson = C. brachypoda
trichialis var. cinerea (Pers.) Blomb. & Forssell = C. cinerea

CHAENOTHECOPSIS Vainio
amurensis Titov  (Selva 2013)
*arthoniae Tibell (Dillman et al. 2012)
+asperopoda Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*brevipes Tibell
*consociata (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt
+debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell
+diabolica Rikkinen & Tuovila (Tuovila et al. 2011, 2012)
*dibbleandersoniarum Selva  (Selva 2013)
+dolichocephala Titov (Selva 2010)
+edbergii Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*epithallina Tibell
+exilis Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+haematopus Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+irregularis Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*kalbii Tibell & K. Ryman (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
+marcineae Selva  (Selva 2013)
+montanum Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b)
+nana Tibell
*nigra Tibell (Harris & Lendemer 2005, Spribille & Björk 2008)
+nigripunctata Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003a)
+norstictica R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+oregana Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b, Tuovila et al., 2011, 2012)
*ochroleuca (Körber) Tibell & K. Ryman (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*pilosa Tibell & Kalb (Harris 1995a)
#pusilla (Ach.) A.F.W. Schmidt Syns.: Calicium pusillum, C. floerkei, C. subpusillum, C. asikkalense
#pusiola (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Calicium pusiolum, Mycocalicium pusiolum
+rappii (Nádv.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)  Syn.: Mycocalicium rappii
+resinicola Tibell & Titov (Selva 2010)
+rubescens Vainio
*rubina Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+savonica (Räsänen) Tibell Syns.: Mycocalicium savonicum, Chaenotheca savonica
+sitchensis Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
*subparoica (Nyl.) Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+tasmanica Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+tsugae Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
+ussuriensis Titov (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
*viridialba (Kremp.) A.F.W. Schmidt
#viridireagens (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt
#lignicola (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt = C. pusiola
#subpusilla (Vainio) Tibell = C. pusilla
+thujae Rikkinen (Selva & Tibell 1999) = C. tsugae (Selva 2010)
+zebrina Rikkinen & Tuovila (Tuovila et al. 2011) = C. oregana (Tuovila et al. 2012)

CHALARA (Corda) P. A. Saccardo
*lobariae Etayo (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)

CHAPSA A. Massal. (Frisch 2006)
alborosella (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Ocellularia alborosella, Thelotrema alborosellum (Frisch 2006)
chionostoma (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Mangold  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Graphina leptocarpa, Thelotrema leptocarpum (Frisch 2006)
platycarpa (Tuck.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Thelotrema platycarpoides, T. platycarpum (Frisch 2006)
platycarpoides (Tuck.) Breuss & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subpatens (Hale) Mangold  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

CHEIROMYCINA B. Sutton
flabelliformis B. Sutton (Tønsberg 2002)

CHIODECTON Ach.
malmei Thor
ochroleucum Zahlbr. = Paraschismatomma ochroleucum (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
californicum Tuck. = Schizopelte crustosa (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
inscriptum (Nyl.) Fink = Sclerophyton inscriptum
montagnaei auct. N.A. = Cryptothecia striata
perplexum Nyl. = Syncesia graphica (Tehler 1996)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Nyl. = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
sanguineum (Sw.) Vainio = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
sphaerale Ach.  = misidentification for North America (Harris 1995a)
subochroleucum Fink = Dendrographa franciscana (Kocourková et al. 2010; Ertz & Tehler 2011)

CHIONOSPHAERA Cox
*apobasidialis Cox (According to Diederich [1996, and pers. comm.], only non-lichenicolous specimens are known for North America, and the lichenicolous specimens from Europe may represent a distinct species.)

CHRISMOFULVEA Marbach
dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia dialyta (Marbach 2000)
pinastri (Erichsen) Marbach Syn.: Buellia pinastri (Marbach 2000)
rubifaciens (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia rubifaciens (Marbach 2000)

CHROMATOCHLAMYS Trevisan = THELENELLA Nyl.
muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt var. muscorum = Thelenella muscorum
muscorum var. octospora (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt = Thelenella muscorum var. octosporum

CHRYSOPSORA M. Choisy
testacea (Hoffm.) M. Choisy = Protoblastenia testacea , but not in North American flora.

CHRYSOTHRIX Mont.
caesia (Flotow) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Allarthonia caesia, Arthonia caesia, A. lecideella
candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lepraria candelaris, L. flava, L. citrina sens. lat.
chamaecyparicola Lendemer (Lendemer & Elix 2010)
chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: Lepraria chlorina
chrysophthalma (P. James) P. James & J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 2002)
granulosa
G. Thor  (Tønsberg 2004a)
insulizans R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
onokoensis (Wolle) R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
susquehannensis Lendemer & Elix (Lendemer & Elix 2010)
xanthina (Vainio) Kalb (Harris & Ladd 2008)
flavovirens Tønsberg (Harris & Lendemer 2005) North American report is C. chamaecyparicola


CIPOSIA Marbach
wheeleri (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia wheeleri (Marbach 2000)

CIRCINARIA Link (Nordin et al. 2010)
arida Owe-Larsson, A. Nordin & Tibell (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)  Syns.: Aspicilia desertorum, Lecanora desertorum (American reports only)
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia caesiocinerea, Lecanora caesiocinerea
calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia calcarea, Lecanora calcarea
contorta (Hoffm.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia contorta, Lecanora contorta
elmorei (E. D. Rudolph) Owe-Larsson, A. Nordin & M. Sohrabi (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)  Syn.: Lecanora elmorei
gibbosa (Ach.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia gibbosa, Lecanora gibbosa, L. gibbosula
hispida (Mereschk.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Agrestia hispida, A. cyphellata, Aspicilia hispida
leprosescens (Sandst.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syn.: Aspicilia leprosescens
rogeri (Sohrabi) Sohrabi (Sohrabi et al. 2013b)  Syn.: Aspicilia rogeri

CLADIDIUM Hafellner
bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan Syns: Lecanora thamnitis, L. bolanderi
thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner = C. bolanderi

CLADINA Nyl. = CLADONIA (Ahti & DePriest 2001)
aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia stellaris
alpestris (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia stellaris
arbuscula (Wallr.)
Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
beringiana (Ahti) Trass = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
ciliata (Stirton) Trass var. ciliata = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M. J. Lai = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
conspicua Ahti = Cladonia conspicua
evansii (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb..
= Cladonia evansii
impexa B. de Lesd. = Cladonia portentosa
leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
mitis (Sandst.) Mong. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis
pacifica (Ahti) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa (Dufour) Follmann = Cladonia portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
pseudoëvansii (Asahina) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia pseudoevansii
rangiferina (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia rangiferina
sandstedei (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia sandstedei
stellaris (Opiz) Brodo = Cladonia stellaris
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia stellaris
stygia (Fr.) Ahti = Cladonia stygia
submitis (A. Evans) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia submitis
subtenuis (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia subtenuis f. cinerea
tenuis (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
terrae-novae (Ahti) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Cladonia terrae-novae

CLADONIA P. Browne
abbreviatula G. Merr.
acuminans R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
acuminata (Ach.) Norrlin
alaskana A. Evans
albonigra Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
amaurocraea (Flörke) Schaerer
andereggii S. Hammer
anitae W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
apodocarpa Robbins
appalachensis Yoshim. & Sharp ex Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2013b)
arbuscula (Wallr.) Flotow subsp. arbuscula  Syn.: Cladina arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana Ahti  Syn.: Cladina arbuscula subsp. beringiana
arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.)
Ruoss  Syn.: Cladina mitis (Piercey-Normore 2010)
artuata S. Hammer
asahinae J. W. Thomson
atlantica A. Evans
bacilliformis (Nyl.) Sarnth.
beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio
bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaerer
borealis S. Stenroos
boryi Tuck.
botryocarpa G. Merr.
botrytes (K. G. Hagen) Willd.
brevis (Sandst.) Sandst.
buckii R. C. Harris
caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke
cariosa (Ach.) Sprengel
carneola (Fr.) Fr.
caroliniana Tuck.
cenotea (Ach.) Schaerer
cervicornis (Ach.) Flotow subsp. cervicornis
chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel
ciliata Stirton Syn.: Cladina ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti Syn.: Cladina ciliata var. tenuis
cinerella Ahti (Ahti  2000, Seavey 2010[2011])
coccifera (L.) Willd.
concinna Ahti & Goward (Ahti 2007)
coniocraea (Flörke) Sprengel
conista (Nyl.) Robbins (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012)
conspicua (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina conspicua
cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. cornuta
cornuta subsp. groenlandica (E. Dahl) Ahti
crispata (Ach.)
Flotow var. crispata
crispata var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vainio
cristatella Tuck.
cryptochlorophaea Asahina
cyanipes (Sommerf.) Nyl.
cylindrica (A. Evans) A. Evans
dactylota Tuck.
dahliana Kristinsson
decorticata (Flörke) Sprengel
deformis (L.) Hoffm.
didyma (Fée) Vainio
didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vainio
digitata (L.) Hoffm.
dimorpha S. Hammer
dimorphoclada Robbins
ecmocyna Leighton subsp. ecmocyna
ecmocyna subsp. intermedia (Robbins) Ahti
ecmocyna subsp. occidentalis Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
evansii Abbayes Syn.: Cladina evansii
extracorticata S. Hammer
farinacea (Vainio) A. Evans
fimbriata (L.) Fr.
firma (Nyl.) Nyl.
floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
floridana Vainio
furcata (Hudson) Schrader
glauca Flörke
gracilis (L.) Willd. subsp. gracilis
gracilis subsp. elongata (Jacq.) Vainio
gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti
gracilis subsp. vulnerata Ahti
granulans Vainio
grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst.
homosekikaica Nuno
humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon
hypoxantha Tuck.
imbricarica Kristinsson
incrassata Flörke
jacutica Ahti (McCune et al. 2009)
jaliscana Ahti & Guzm.-Dáv. (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
kanewskii Oxner
labradorica Ahti & Brodo
lacryma S. Hammer (Hammer 2001)
leporina Fr.
libifera Savicz  (McCune et al. 2009; Hansen & Ahti 2011)
luteoalba Wheldon & A. Wilson
macilenta Hoffm.
macilenta var. bacillaris (Ach.) Schaerer
macroceras (Delise) Ahti
macrophylla (Schaerer) Stenh.
macrophyllodes Nyl.
magyarica Vainio
maritima K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a)
mateocyatha Robbins
maxima (Asahina) Ahti
merochlorophaea Asahina
multiformis G. Merr.
nana Vainio
nashii Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
nipponica Asahina
nitens Ahti (Ahti 2007)
norvegica Tønsberg & Holien
novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
ochrochlora Flörke
oricola Ahti & S. Stenroos (Ahti & Stenroos 2008)
pachycladodes Vainio
parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.
perforata A. Evans
perlomera Kristinsson
petrophila R. C. Harris
peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon
phyllophora Hoffm.
piedmontensis G. Merr.
pleurota (Flörke) Schaerer
pocillum (Ach.) O. J. Rich.
poroscypha S. Hammer
portentosa (Dufour) Coem. Syn.: Cladina portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer
prostrata A. Evans
pseudalcicornis Asahina (Ahti 2007)
pseudoëvansii Asahina  Syn.: Cladina pseudoëvansii
pseudostellata Asahina (Spribille et al. 2010)
pulvinella S. Hammer
pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laundon
rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Cladina rangiferina
rappii A. Evans
ravenelii Tuck.
rei Schaerer  (Syrek & Kukwa 2008, Dolnik et al. 2010, Pino-Bodas et al. 2010)
robbinsii A. Evans
sandstedei Abbayes Syn.: Cladina sandstedei
santensis Tuck.
scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
scotteri Ahti & E. S. Hansen (Hansen & Ahti 2011)
simulata Robbins
singularis S. Hammer
squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm.
squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Vainio
stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda Syn.: Cladina stellaris
stipitata Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2009)
straminea (Sommerf.) Flörke (Timdal & Tønsberg 2012)
strepsilis
(Ach.) Grognot
stricta (Nyl.) Nyl.
stygia (Fr.) Ruoss Syn.: Cladina stygia
subcariosa Nyl. (Ahti 2000)
subfimbriata Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
subfurcata (Nyl.) Arnold
submitis A. Evans Syn.: Cladina submitis
subradiata (Vainio) Sandst.
subsetacea Robbins ex A. Evans
subsquamosa Kremp.
subtenuis (Abbayes) Mattick Syn.: Cladina subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea Ahti Syn.: Cladina subtenuis f. cinerea
subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg.
sulphurina (Michaux) Fr.
symphycarpa (Flörke) Fr. (Ahti 2000, Hansen & Ahti 2011)
terrae-novae Ahti Syn.: Cladina terrae-novae
thiersii S. Hammer
thomsonii Ahti
transcendens (Vainio) Vainio
trassii Ahti (Ahti 1998)
turgida Ehrh. ex Hoffm.
uliginosa (Ahti) Ahti (Ahti 1998)
umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti
uncialis (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg.
verruculosa (Vainio) Ahti
verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaerer (Ahti, in litt.)
wainioi Savicz
aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb.
= Cladonia stellaris var. aberrans
acuminata var. norrlinii (Vainio) Lynge = C. acuminata var. acuminata
alpestris (L.) Rabenh. = C. stellaris
alpestris f. aberrans Abbayes = C. stellaris var. aberrans
alpicola (Flotow) Vainio = C. macrophylla
anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James = C. ramulosa
arbuscula subsp. mitis = C. mitis
bacillaris (Ach.) Genth = C. macilenta var. bacillaris
balfourii auct. = C. subradiata
balfourii Crombie = C. macilenta
blakei Robbins = C. coccifera
borbonica (Del.) Nyl. = C. cylindrica  (Evans 1950)
calycantha Delise ex Nyl. = C. rappii for North American records.
capitata (Michaux) Sprengel = C. peziziformis
carassensis Vainio = misidentification for North America
cerasphora Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. stricta (Ahti 1998)
cerasphora auct. = C. trassii (Ahti, in litt.)
cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti = Cladonia verticillata (Ahti, in litt.)
cetrarioides Schwein. ex Tuck. (Fink 1935) = C. leporina (Lendemer & Hewitt 2002)
clavulifera Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
conistea auct. = C. humilis
conoidea Ahti = C. humilis
cornutoradiata (Leighton) Sandst. = C. subulata
corymbosula Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Apparent misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
degenerans (Flörke) Sprengel = C. phyllophora
delessertii Vainio = C. subfurcata
delicata auct.
= C. parasitica
diversa Asperges (Lendemer 2006) Misidentification for North America (Ahti, in litt.)

elongata auct. non (Jacq.) Hoffm. = largely misidentification for North America, possibly C. macroceras or C. maxima,
elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. = C. gracilis var. elongate
endoxantha Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. hypoxantha (Thomson 1967)
exasperatula G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = C. beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio (Thomson 1967)
flabelliformis Vainio = C. polydactyla
flavescens Vainio = misidentification for North America
foliacea (Hudson) Willd. = misidentification for North America
furcata subsp. subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata (Ahti, in litt.)
gonecha (Ach.) Asahina = C. sulphurina
gracilescens auct. = C. stricta
graciliformis Zahlbr.  North American reports are erroneous, mostly representing C. bellidiflora (Dillman et al. 2012)
gracilis subsp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti = C. gracilis subsp. elongata
hammeri Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002) = C. pulvinella (Pino-Bodas et al. 2013)
herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick = C. furcata
heteromorpha G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = Pycnothelia papillaria (Laundon 1986)
hookeri Tuck. = C. bellidiflora
hookeri sensu J. W. Thomson = C. graciliformis
humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer = C. conista
innominata Lendemer (Lendemer 2008) = C. conista (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012)
invisa Robbins = C. ochrochlora
japonica Vainio = C. crispata
lepidota auct. = C. trassii (Ahti, in litt.)
leptothallina G. Merr. = C. peziziformis
linearis A. Evans = Cetradonia linearis
macroptera Räsänen = C. scabriuscula (fide T. Ahti)
major (K. G. Hagen) Sandst. = C. fimbriata
merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea Sipman = C. novochlorophaea
metacorallifera Asahina = C. straminea (Timdal & Tønsberg 2012)
microphylliza G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = C. beaumontii (Thomson 1967)
mitis Sandst. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis
mitrula Tuck. = C. peziziformis
nanodes Robbins ex Sandst. = nom. invalid., identity uncertain
nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold = C. rei
norrlinii Vainio = C. acuminata var. acuminata
palamaea (Ach.) Fink (Fink 1935) = C. furcata (Thomson 1967)
paludicola (Tuck.) G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = incrassata (Thomson 1967)
papillaria (Ehrh.) Hoffm. = Pycnothelia papillaria
pityrea (Flörke) Fr.
= C. ramulosa
polycarpia G. Merr. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polycarpoides Nyl. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polydactyla (Flörke) Sprengel = misidentifications for North America, mostly refers to C. umbricola (fide T. Ahti)
pseudodigitata Gyelnik = C. coccifera
pseudohondoensis Asahina = misidentification for North America
pseudomacilenta Asahina = misidentification for North America
pseudorangiformis Asahina = C. wainioi
psoromica J. P. Dey = C. dimorphoclada Robbins (Ahti 2000)
pycnoclada (Gaudich.) Nyl.  = misidentification for North America (Ahti 1961)
rangiformis Hoffm. = not in North America
rappii var. exilior (Abbayes) Ahti = C. rappii var. rappii
reticulata (Russell) Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. boryi (Thomson 1967)
schofieldii Ahti & Brodo (Brodo & Ahti 1996) = C. pseudalcicornis
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) ined. = C. stellaris (Ahti, in litt.)
stenophyllodes Vainio (Fink 1935)  = misidentification for North America
stricta var. uliginosa Ahti = C. uliginosa
subcervicornis (Vainio) Kernst.
= misidentification for North America
subclavulifera Asahina = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
subrangiformis auct.
N. Am. = C. furcata
subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Crombie nom. illeg.
= C. squamosa var. subsquamosa
subsubulata Nyl. = misidentification for North America
sylvatica nom. utique rej. s. auct. = C arbuscula ssp. arbuscula (Ahti, in litt.)
theiophila Asahina = C. vulcani, but not present in North America
vulcani Savicz = misidentification for North America
vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi = C. didyma var. vulcanica
yunnana (Vainio) Abbayes ex J. C. Wei & Y. M. Jiang = misidentification for North America

CLADOPHIALOPHORA Borelli (Diederich et al. 2013)
*megalosporae Diederich (Diederich et al. 2013)

*parmeliae Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d) Syn.: Sclerococcum parmeliae

CLATHROPORINA Müll. Arg.
isidiifera R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
subpungens (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
tetracerae (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+amygdalina sensu Fink = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a).
confinis Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)
diphloea Zahlbr. = Laurera megasperma
+exiguella Zahlbr. = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a)
nuculastrum Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)

CLAUROUXIA D. Hawksw.
chalybeioides (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. (Fyday 2010)

CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellem.
immersa (Hoffm.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syn.: Lecidea calcivora
monticola (Ach.) Hafellner & Bellem.  Syns.: Lecidea monticola, L. fuscorubens, Protoblastenia monticola

CLAUZADEANA Cl. Roux
macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold (Hertel 1991) Syn.: Lecanora morioides

CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
lacinulatum (Ach.) M. Prieto var. lacinulatum (Prieto et al. 2012) Syns.: Catapyrenium lacinulatum, Placidium lacinulatum
lacinulatum var. atrans (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012)
lacinulatum var. erythrostrum (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012)
umbrinum
(Breuss) Breuss  Syn.: Placidium umbrinum (Prieto et al. 2012)

CLIOSTOMUM Fr.
corrugatum (Ach.: Fr.) Fr. Syn.: Catillaria graniformis
flavidulum Hafellner & Kalb (Tønsberg 1997)
griffithii (Sm.) Coppins Syns.: Catillaria griffithii, C. tricolor auct.
leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg
tenerum (Nyl.) Coppins & S. Ekman (Ekman 1997)  Syns.: Lecania tenera, Lecanora tenera
vitellinum Gowan
graniforme (K. G. Hagen) Coppins = C. corrugatum
luteolum Gowan = C. leprosum
pallens (Kullhem) S. Ekman = Biatora pallens

CLYPEOCOCCUM D. Hawksw.
*bisporum Zhurb.
(Zhurbenko 2009b)
*grossum (Körber) D. Hawksw.
*hypocenomycis D. Hawksw.
*epicrassum (H. Olivier) Hafellner & Nav..-Ros.  According to Hawkworth (1986), our records probably based on Polycoccum squamarioides

COCCOCARPIA Pers.
domingensis Vainio
erythroxyli (Sprengel) Swinscow & Krog
filiformis Arv.  (Kaminsky et al. 2013)
palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D. J. Galloway
pellita (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Kaminsky et al. 2013)
prostrata Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Lücking et al. 2007)
stellata Tuck. Syn.: Parmeliella stellata
asterella (Nyl.)
Vainio = C. stellata
cronia (Tuck.) Vainio = C. palmicola
incisa Pers. = C. erythroxyli
parmelioides (Hooker) Tuck. ex M. A. Curtis = C. erythroxyli

COCCOTREMA
Müll. Arg.
hahriae T. Sprib. & Tönsberg (Spribille et al. 2010)
maritimum Brodo
minutum (Degel.) R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)
pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo Syns.: Ochrolechia pacifica, Perforaria minuta

COELOCAULON Link
aculeatum (Schreber) Link = Cetraria aculeata
divergens (Ach.) R. Howe = Bryocaulon divergens
muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon = Cetraria muricata
odontellum (Ach.) R. Howe = Cetraria odontella

COENOGONIUM Ehrenb.
congense C. W. Dodge  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
disjunctum Nyl.
geralense (P. Henn) Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
implexum Nyl.
interplexum Nyl.
interpositum Nyl.
isidiigerum (Vězda & Osorio) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
isidiosum (Breuss) Rivas Plata, Lücking, Umaña & Chavez (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
linkii
Ehrenb.
luteocitrinum Rivas Plata, Lücking & Umaña  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking  Syn.: Dimerella lutea (Lücking & Kalb 2000), Microphiale lutea
missouriense J. Davis
moniliforme Tuck.
pineti (Schrader ex Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch (Lücking, Stuart & Lumbsch 2004)  Syns. Dimerella pineti, D. diluta, Microphiale diluta
subdentatum (Vězda & G. Thor) Rivas Plata, Lücking, Umaña & Chavez  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subfallaciosum (Vězda & Farkas) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

COLLEMA F. H. Wigg.
coniophilum Goward (Spribille et al. 2009)
curtisporum Degel.
fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Synechoblastus aggregates, S. fascicularis
flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Synechoblastus rupestris
furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz
furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel.
glebulentum (Nyl. ex Crombie) Degel.
kauaiense H. Magn.
leptaleum Tuck.  Syn.:  Synechoblastus leptaleus, S. microptychius
nigrescens (Hudson) DC.  Syn.:  Synechoblastus nigrescens
pulcellum Ach.
pulcellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel.
pulcellum var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel.
pustulatum Ach.
quadrifidum D. F. Stone & McCune (Stone & McCune 2010)
ryssoleum (Tuck.) A. Schneider  Syn.:  Synechoblastus ryssoleus
subflaccidum Degel.
subnigrescens Degel.
subparvum Degel.
tenax (Sw.) Ach.
tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel.
tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel.
tenax var. crustaceum (Kremp.) Degel.
tenax var. substellatum (H. Magn.) Degel.
texanum Tuck. Syn.: Synechoblastus texanus, S. laciniatus
thamnodes Riddle
apalachense Tuck. = Scytinium apalachense
arcticum Lynge =
Rostania ceraniscum
auriculatum Hoffm. =
Lathagrium auriforme
auriforme (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon = Lathagrium auriforme
bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. = Enchylium bachmanianum
bermudanum Tuck. ex Riddle = C. pustulatum (Degelius 1974)
bermudiana Tuck. ex Riddle (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant of C. bermudanum
callibotrys Tuck. = Rostania callibotrys
callopismum A. Massal. = Scytinium callopismum
callopismum var. rhyparodes (Nyl.) Degel. = Scytinium callopismum
cheileum (Ach.) Ach. =
Blennothallia crispum
ceraniscum Nyl. = Rostania ceranisca
coccophorum Tuck. = Enchylium coccophorum
conglomeratum Hoffm. = Enchylium conglomeratum 
conglomeratum var. corynesporum (Malme) Degel. = Enchylium conglomeratum
conglomeratum var. crassiusculum (Malme) Degel. = Enchylium conglomeratum 
crispum (Hudson) F. H. Wigg. = Blennothallia crispa
cristatellum Tuck. = C. tenax
cristatum (L.) F. H. Wigg. = Lathagrium cristatum
cristatum var. marginale (Hudson) Degel. = Lathagrium cristatum
cyrtaspis Tuck. =
Enchylium conglomeratum
dichotomum (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon =Lathagrium dichotomum
dubium B. de Lesd. =
Enchylium coccophorum
fayettense Fink = C. pustulatum
fecundum Degel. = Blennothallia fecunda
fluviatile (Hudson) Steudel =
Lathagrium. dichotomum
fragrans (Sm.) Ach. = Scytinium fragrans
furvum (Ach.) Ach. = C. fuscovirens
fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laundon = Lathagrium fuscovirens
glaucescens Hoffm. =
Enchylium limosum
granosum auct. = C. auriforme
laciniatum Nyl. = C. texanum
leucocarpum Hooker & Taylor = misidentification for North America
leucopeplum (Tuck.) A. Schneider = C. pulcellum var. leucopeplum
limosum (Ach.) Ach. = Enchylium limosum
microphyllum Ach.
= Scytinium fragrans
microptychium Tuck. = C. leptaleum
multipartitum Sm. = Callome multipartita
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Enchylium coccophorum
nylanderianum Zahlbr. = C. texanum
occultatum Bagl. = Rostania occultata
ohioense (Fink) Zahlbr. = Enchylium conglomeratum
plicatile (Ach.) Ach. =
Scytinium plicatile
polycarpon Hoffm. = Enchylium polycarpon
pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. = C. tenax
pycnocarpum Nyl. = Enchylium conglomeratum
rugosum Kremp.  Not known from North America.
stenophyllum Nyl. = Lathagrium dichotomum
subfurfuraceum Degel. = C. furfuraceum var. luzonense
subfurvum sensu Degelius = C. subflaccidum Degel.
subfurvum (Müll. Arg.)
Degel. = C. rugosum, but this taxon is not known from North America
tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. =
Lathagrium fuscovirens
undulatum Laurer ex Flotow = Lathagrium undulatum
undulatum var. granulosum Degel. = Lathagrium undulatum
verruciforme auct. = excluded as doubtful

COLLEMODES Fink = COLLEMA
bachmanianum Fink =
Enchylium bachmanianum

COLLEMOPSIDIUM Nyl.
angermannicum (Degel.) A. Nordin Syn.: Pyrenocollema strontianense (Nordin 2002)
bryospilum (Nyl.)
Coppins  (Fryday 2004a)
elegans (R. Sant.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Pyrenocollema elegans
foveolatum (A. L. Sm.) F. Mohr (Dillman et al. 2012)
halodytes (Nyl.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Arthopyrenia halodytes, Pyrenocollema halodytes
sublitorale (Leighton) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Arthopyrenia sublitoralis, A. litoralis auct., Pyrenocollema sublitorale

COLLEMOPSIS Nyl. ex Crombie
segregata Nyl. ex Hasse = Lempholemma chalazanum

COMBEA De Not.
californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer = Schizopelte californica

CONIAMBIGUA Etayo & Diederich
*phaeographidis Etay & Diederich (Diederich 2003)

CONIARTHONIA Grube
gregarina (Willey) Grube (Grube 2001) Syns: Arthonia gregarina, Arthothelium gregarinum
pyrrhula (Nyl.) Grube (Grube 2001) Syn.: Arthonia pyrrhula

CONIOCYBE Ach.
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Chaenotheca furfuracea
gracilescens Willey = Chaenotheca chysocephala (Selva 2004)
gracillima Vainio = Chaenotheca gracillima
nivea (Hoffm.)
Arnold non Tuck. & Mont. = Sclerophora nivea
pallida (Pers.) Fr. = Sclerophora nivea
sulphurea (Retz.) Nyl. = Chaenotheca brachypoda

CONIOCYBOPSIS Vainio
arenaria (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Vainio = Microcalicium arenarium

CONOTREMA Tuck.
albonigrum Zahlbr.
= Trinathotrema stictideum
urceolatum (Ach.) Tuck. = Stictis urceolatum

CORA Fr. = DICTYONEMA
pavonia (Sw.) Fr. = Dictyonema glabratum

CORISCIUM Vainio = LICHENOMPHALIA
viride (Ach.) Vainio = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana

CORNICULARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
normoerica (Gunn.)
Du Rietz
aculeata (Schreber) Ach. = Cetraria aculeata
californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia californica
divergens Ach. = Bryocaulon divergens
fibrillosa (Ach.) Halsey = Bryoria furcellata
muricata (Ach.) Ach. = Cetraria muricata
odontella (Ach.) Westend. = Cetraria odontella
pseudosatoana Asahina = Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum

CORNUTISPORA Piroz.
*ciliata Kalb (Cole & Hawksw. 2001)
*intermedia Punith & D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*lichenicola D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (Kalb et al. 1995)

CORTICIFRAGA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*chugachiana Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*fuckelii (Rehm) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. Syn.: Phragmonaevia fuckelii
*peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii Zhurb. & Zavarzin (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*scrobiculatae Pérez-Ortega (Spribille et al. 2010)

CRATIRIA Marbach (Marbach 2000)

americana (Fée) Kalb & Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia modesta

lauricassiae (Fée) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia lauricassiae
melanochlora (Kremp.) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia melanochlora

CRESPOA (D. Hawksw.) Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2012)
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson  2012) Syns.: Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Parmelia crozalsiana, Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana

CRESPONEA
Egea & Torrente
chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis chloroconia
flava (Vainio) Egea & Torrente (Harris 1995a)
leprieurii (Mont.) Egea & Torrente
premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis premnea
premnea var. saxicola (Leighton) Egea & Torrente
proximata (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente

CROCODIA Link (Galloway & Elix 2013)
aurata (Ach.) Link  Syns.: Pseudocyphellaria aurata, Sticta aurata

CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
gossypina (Sw.) A. Massal.
pyxinoides Nyl.
aliciae Hue =
Lepraria finkii (fide J. Lendemer)
alpina B. de Lesd. = Leparia neglecta
americana B. de Lesd. =
Lepraria finkii (fide J. Lendemer)
finkii B. de Lesd. = Lepraria finkii
moxleyi Plitt = non-lichenized Septobasidium sp.
neglecta (Nyl.) Hue = Lepraria neglecta

CRYPTOLECHIA A. Massal.
carneolutea (Turner) A. Massal. Syns.: Gyalectina carneolutea, Gyalecta carneolutea
nana (Tuck.) D. Hawksw. & Dibben  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

CRYPTOTHECIA Stirton
effusa (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
evergladensis
Seavey (Seavey 2009)
miniata
Vainio ex Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
punctosorediata Sparrius  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
striata
G. Thor  Syn.: Chiodecton montagnei sensu auct. N.A. (Thor 1991)
rubrocincta (Ehrenb. : Fr.) G. Thor = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
 

CRYPTOTHELE Th. Fr.
granuliforme (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Pyrenopsidium granuliforme
permiscens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Pyrenopsis phylliscina

CULBERSONIA Essl. (Esslinger 2000a)
nubila (Moberg) Essl. (Esslinger 2002b)
americana Essl.= C. nubila

CYBEBE Tibell = CHAENOTHECA (Tibell 2001)
gracilenta (Ach.) Tibell = Chaenotheca gracilenta (Tibell 2001)

CYPHELIOPSIS Vainio = THELOMMA
bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Thelomma mammosum

CYPHELIUM Ach.
brachysporum Nádv.
brunneum W. A. Weber
chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
inquinans (Sm.) Trevisan
karelicum (Vainio) Räsänen
lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forssell
pinicola Tibell
*sessile (Pers.) Trevisan
tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostrup) Erichsen
andersonii Herre = Thelomma californicum
caliciforme (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Thelomma occidentale for most North American records
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma californicum
carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma carolinianum
farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre = Thelomma californicum
occidentale Herre = Thelomma occidentale
ocellatum (Körber) Trevisan = Thelomma ocellatum
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Texosporium sancti-jacobi
tigillare subsp. notarisii (Tul.) W. A. Weber = C. notarisii
ventricosulum (Müll. Arg.)
Zahlbr. = C. inquinans

CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff (Diederich 1996)
*hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti (Diederich 1996)
*usneicola Diederich & Alstrup (Diederich 1996)

CYSTOCOLEUS Thwaites
ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites

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DACAMPIA A. Massal.
*engeliana (Sauter) A. Massal. (Henssen 1995)
hookeri (Borrer) A. Massal.
*lecaniae Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourkova & Knudsen 2010)
*rufescentis (Vouaux) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

DACTYLINA Nyl.
arctica (Richardson) Nyl.
beringica C. D. Bird & J. W. Thomson (Treated as subsp. of D. arctica by Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
ramulosa (Hooker) Tuck.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DACTYLOSPORA Körber
*aeruginosa Holien & Ihlen (Ihlen et al. 2004a)
*amygdalariae Triebel
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner Syn.: Karschia athallina
*attendenda (Nyl.) Arnold
*borealis Holien & Ihlen  (Ihlen et al. 2004a)
*deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel
*frigida Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)
*glaucomarioides (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia glaucomarioides, Leciographa “glaucomarioidea”
*inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia inquilina, Buelliella inquilina
*lobariella (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Buelliella nuttallii
*lurida Hafellner (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
*parasitica (Flörke ex Sprengel) Zopf Syn.: Leciographa inspersa, Sclerophyton occidentale
*parellaria (Nyl.) Arnold
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia pertusariicola, Leciographa pertusariicola
*pleiosperma Triebel  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*porphyrea Hafellner & Kalb (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*purpurascens Triebel
*rhyparizae Arnold (Zhurbenko 2013)
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Hafellner var. saxatilis Syn.: Buelliella saxatilis
*urceolata (Th. Fr.) Arnold Syn.: Leciographa urceolata

DEGELIA Arv. & D. J. Galloway
plumbea (Lightf.)
P. M. Jørg. & P. James Syn.: Parmeliella plumbea

DENDRISCOCAULON Nyl.
intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen Syns.: Leptogidium intricatulum, Polychidium intricatulum
umhausense (Auersw.) Degel. Syn.: Polychidium umhausense

DENDRISCOSTICTA B. Moncada & Lücking (Moncada et al. 2013)
oroborealis (Goward & Tønsberg) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Sticta oroborealis (Moncada et al. 2013)
wrightii (Tuck.) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Sticta wrightii (Moncada et al. 2013)

DENDRODOCHIUM Bonord
*subeffusum Ellis & Everh.

DENDROGRAPHA Darb.
alectoroides Sundin & Tehler (Sundin & Tehler 1996)
conformis (Tehler) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
leucophaea
(Tuck.) Darb. Syn.: Roccella leucophaea
minor Darb. = D. leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. (Sundin & Tehler 1996)

DERMATINA (Almq.) Zahlbr. = PEZICULA
"pyrenocarpa" (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mycoporum compositum

DERMATISCUM Nyl.
catawbense (Willey) Nyl. = Dermiscellum oulocheila

DERMATOCARPON Eschw.
americanum Vainio  (Hei
pmarsson & Breuss 2004)
arenosaxi Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
arnoldianum Degel.
atrogranulosum Breuss (Breuss 2003)
bachmannii Anders  (Hei
pmarsson & Breuss 2004)
dolomiticum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
intestiniforme (Körber) Hasse
leptophyllodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  (Hei
pmarsson & Breuss 2004)
linkolae Räsänen (Goward et al. 1996)
lorenzianum Anders
luridum (With.) J. R. Laundon
luridum var. xerophilum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
meiophyllizum Vainio  (Glavich & Geiser 2004)
miniatum (L.) W. Mann
moulinsii (Mont.)
Zahlbr.
muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Amtoft et al. 2008)
multifolium Amtoft (Amtoft et al.d 2008)
polyphyllizum
(Nyl.)
Blomb. & Forssell  (Heipmarsson & Breuss 2004)
reticulatum H. Magn.
rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
[Entosthelia saxicola B. de Lesd.]
schaechtelinii Werner  (Hei
pmarsson & Breuss 2004)

taminium Heipmarsson (Heipmarsson 2003)
tenue (Müll. Arg.) Hei
pmarsson  (Heipmarsson 2003)
tomentulosum Amtoft (Amtoft 2006)
vellereum Zschacke
acarosporoides Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. = D. luridum
arboreum (Schwein.) Fink = Placidium arboreum
cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
#compactum (A. Massal.) Lettau = Verrucaria compacta
daedaleum (Kremp.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium daedaleum
fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. = D. luridum
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium granulosum
hepaticum auct. = Placidium squamulosum
hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
heppioides Zahlbr. = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. = Placidium lachneum
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse = Placopyrenium lecideoides
leptophyllum (Ach.) Lång = D. miniatum
lyngei Servít  Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not U. S. or Canada
michelii (A. Massal.) Zwackh = Placidium michelii
novomexicanum ( B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr. = a sterile psoroid lichen; a misidentifcation for North America
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.)
Zahlbr. = Verrucaria inficiens
polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. intestiniforme
rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Placidium rufescens
rupicola (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Verrucaria othmarii (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
squamellum (Nyl.) Herre = Catapyrenium squamellum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.)
Zahlbr. = Placidium arboreum
vagans Imshaug = D. reticulatum H. Magn.
waltheri (Kremp.) Blomb. & Forssell = Involucropyrenidium waltheri
weberi (Ach.) W. Mann = D. luridum
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Placopyrenium stanfordii

DERMISCELLUM Hafellner, H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
oulocheila (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Dermatiscum catawbense, Opegrapha oulocheila (Lendemer 2003)
catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt = D. oulocheila

DESMAZIERIA Mont.
 cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.)
Trevisan = Vermilacinia ceruchis , but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
combeoides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia combeoides
evernioides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina lacera
homalea (Ach.) Mont. = Niebla homalea
peruviana (Ach.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina peruviana
testudinaria (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla homalea

DIBAEIS Clem.
absoluta (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl Syn.: Baeomyces absolutus
baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel Syn.: Baeomyces roseus
fungoides (Sw.) Kalb & Gierl = A tropical species, not in North America
rosea (Pers.) Clem. = D. baeomyces

DICTYOCATENULATA Finley & E. F. Morris
alba Finley & E. F. Morris  (Lendemer & Harris 2004)

DICTYONEMA
C. Agardh
glabratum (Sprengel) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Cora pavonia
moorei (Nyl.) Henssen
phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
sericeum (Sw.) Berk.
guadalupense (Rabenh.) Zahlbr. = D. sericeum
irpicinum Mont. = misidentification for North America
pavonium (Sw.) Parmasto = D. glabratum

DIDYMELLOPSIS (P. A. Saccardo) Clem. & Shear
*latitans (Nyl.) Clem. & Shear (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*pulposi (Zopf) Grube & Hafellner (Zhurbenko 2013)

DIDYMOSPHAERIA Fuckel
*epicrassa (H. Olivier) Vouaux = Clypeococcum epicrassum, but see note there

DIGITOTHYREA P. P. Moreno & Egea
divergens (Henssen) Moreno & Egea (Sweat et al. 2004)
polyglossa (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2002b)

DIMELAENA Norman
#californica (H. Magn.) Sheard
#lichenicola K. Knudsen, Sheard, Kocourk. & H. Mayrhofer  (Knudsen et al. 2013b)
oreina (Ach.) Norman Syns.: Rinodina oreina, R. hueana, R. novomexicana, R. suboreina
radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. (Matzer et al. 1996) Syns.: Buellia radiata, Rinodina radiata
tenuis (Müll. Arg.) H. Mayrhofer & Wippel (Beeching 2007)
thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Rinodina thysanota
weberi Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Mobergia angelica
chrysomelaena (Ach.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = Rinodina chrysomelaena
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = D. oreina
suboreina (B. de Lesd.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. = D. oreina

DIMERELLA Trevisan = COENOGONIUM (Lücking & Kalb 2000)
diluta (Pers.) Trevisan = Coenogonium pineti
lutea (Dickson) Trevisan = Coenogonium luteum
pineti (Ach.) Vězda = Coenogonium pineti

DIMIDIOGRAPHA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
longissima (Müll. Arg.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Graphis, atrorubens, Opegrapha longissima

DINEMASPORIUM Lév.
*strigosum (Fr.) Sacc. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

DIORYGMA Eschw.
antillarum (Vainio) Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Nelsen et al. 2012) Syn.: Herpothallon antillarum
junghuhnii (Mont. & Bosch) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Tripp et al. 2010)
microsporum M. Cáceres & Lücking (Lumbsch et al. 2011; Lücking et al. 2011b)
poitaei (Fée) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Kalb et al. 2004) Syn.: Graphina virginea
pruinosum (Ehrh.) Kalb  Syn.: Graphina platyleuca (Tripp et al. 2010)
reniforme (Fée) Kalb, Staiger, & Elix (Tripp et al. 2010)

DIPLOICIA
A. Massal.
canescens (Dickson) A. Massal. Syn.: Buellia canescens

DIPLOLAEVIOPSIS Giralt & D. Hawksw.
*ranula Giralt & D. Hawksw.  (Diederich 2003)

DIPLOSCHISTELLA Vainio

athalloides (Nyl.) Lücking, Knudsen & Fryday (Lücking et al. 2007)  Syn.: Rhizocarpon athalloides

DIPLOSCHISTES Norman
actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Urceolaria actinostoma
aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch
arabiensis Lumbsch
badius Lumbsch & Elix
bisporus (Bagl.) J. Steiner
caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vainio (Lumbsch 2002)
candidissimus (Kremp.) Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch Syn.: Urceolaria albissima
gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hypoleucus Zahlbr.
muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman Syn.: Urceolaria scruposa
albissimus (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. diacapsis
bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
canadensis Räsänen = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
straminescens Zahlbr. = D. hypoleucus

DIPLOTOMMA Flotow
alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flotow Syns.: Buellia alboatra, Rhizocarpon alboatrum
ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey Syn.: Buellia ambigua
chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leighton) Szatala Syns.: Rhizocarpon chlorophaeum, Buellia chlorophaea
epipolium (Ach.) Arnold Syns.: Buellia epipolia, Rhizocarpon cumulatum
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 1995) Syn.: Buellia nivalis
penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala Syns.: Buellia penichra, Rhizocarpon penichrum
venustum (Körber) Körber Syn.: Buellia venusta, B. lecanoroides
*pulverulentum (Anzi) D. Hawksw. (Molina et al. 2002) = Tetramelas pulverulentus

DIRINA Fr.
catalinariae Hasse
massiliensis Durieu & Mont. f. sorediata (Müll. Arg.) Tayloer (Harris & Ladd 2005)
paradoxa (Fée) Tehler
approximata Zahlbr. subsp. hioramii (B. de Lesd.) Tehler = D. paradoxa
calcicola Sparrius  (Sparrius 2004a) = Fulvophyton calcicola (Tehler et al. 2013)
californica Tuck. = Sigridea californica
franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre = Dendrographa franciscana
hassei Zahlbr. = Sigridea californica
rediunta Hasse = Schismatomma rediunta

DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
aegialita (Afz.) B. Moore Syn.: Physcia aspera
applanata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi
confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi
confusa D. D. Awasthi
confusa var. saxicola (Räsänen) D. D. Awasthi
frostii (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. Syns.: Physcia frostii, Pyxine frostii
leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi
neotropica Kalb  (Kalb 2004a)
papillulifera (Nyl.) D. D. Awasthi
picta (Sw.) Clem. & Shear Syns.: Physcia picta, Pyxine picta
purpurascens (Vainio) B. Moore
aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi = D. aegialita

DISCOTHECIUM Zopf = ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*gemmiferum Vouaux = an uncertain species of Endococcus

DISTOPYRENIS Aptroot
americana Aptroot
pachyospora Aptroot (Harris 1995a)
quercicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

DITREMIS Clem. = ANISOMERIDIUM
albiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium albisedum
ambigua (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium anisolobum
biformis (Borrer) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca (Steiner) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium distans
finkii R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium finkii
leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium aureopunctatum
nyssigena (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori
quaternaria R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium quaternarium
sanfordensis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium subprostans
tamarindii (Fée) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tamarindii
terminata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium terminatum
tuckerae (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tuckerae

DUFOUREA Ach.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Ach. = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DYPLOLABIA A. Massal.
afzelii (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Graphis afzelii (Staiger 2002)

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ECHINODISCUS Etayo & Diederich
*lesdainii (Vouaux) Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková et al. 2010)

ECHINOPLACA
Fée
areolata Lücking & W. R. Buck  (Lücking et al. 2007)
furcata Sérus. subsp. neotropica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2007)
intercedens Vězda
leucotrichoides (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lucernifera Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)
pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
similis Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)

ECHINOTHECIUM Zopf
*aerophilum Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*reticulatum Zopf = Sphaerellothecium reticulatum

EDRUDIA W. P. Jordan
constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jordan Syn.: Caloplaca constipans, Lecanora constipans

EIGLERA Hafellner
flavida (Hepp) Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora flavida, Aspicilia flavida

ELIXIA Lumbsch
flexella (Ach.) Lumbsch (Spribille & Björk 2008)

ENCHYLIUM (Ach.) Gray (Otálora et al. 2014)
bachmanianum (Fink) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin Syn.: Collema bachmanianum, Collemodes bachmanianum
coccophorum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema coccophorum, C. dubium, C. novomexicanum, Synechoblastus coccophorus
conglomeratum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema conglomeratum, Synechoblastus ohioense, S. cyrtaspis, S. pycnocarpus
limosum (Ach.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema glaucescens, C. limosum
polycarpon (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema polycarpon, Synechoblastus polycarpus, S. wyomingensis

ENDOCARPON Hedwig
adscendens (Anzi) Müll. Arg.
adsurgens Vainio
diffractellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Gueidan et al. 2007) Syns.: Staurothele diffractella, Verrucaria diffractella
lepidallum Nyl.
loscosii Müll. Arg. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidum Ach.
petrolepideum (Nyl.) Hasse
pseudosubnitescens Breuss  (Knudsen 2005b)
pulvinatum Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenothamnia brandegei, P. spraguei
pusillum Hedwig
schisticola B. de Lesd. (Breuss 2002a)
simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
subnitescens Nyl.
tenuissimum (Degel.) Lendemer & E. Tripp  Syn.: Staurothele tenuissima  (Lendemer et al. 2013)
tortuosum Herre
drummondii (Tuck.) M. Choisy = Staurothele drummondii
moenium Vainio = Acarospora moenium
monicae Zahlbr. = Staurothele monicae
*ochroleucum Tuck. = Heterocarpon ochroleucum
tuckermanii Rav. ex Mont. = Placidium arboreum (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
wilmsoides Zahlbr. = Staurothele drummondii

ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*apiciicola (J. Steiner) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
*incrassatus Etayo & Breuss (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b)
*macrosporus (Arnold) Nyl.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*matzeri D. Hawksw. & Iturr. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*nanellus Ohlert (Diederich 2003)

*oreinae Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*perpusillus Nyl.
*propinquus (Körber) D. Hawksw.

*rugulosus Nyl. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010b)
*stigma (Körber) Stizenb.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*thelommatis Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2011)

*verrucosus Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Ticothecium zahlbrucknerella
*buelliae (Dodge) Matzer (Matzer et al. 1996) = E. matzeri for North American reports

ENDOHYALINA Marbach

circumpallida (H. Magn.) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia amphidexia (Marbach 2000)
*insularis (Arnold) Giralt, van den Boom & Elix  Syn.: Rinodina insularis (Nadyeina et al. 2010)
rappii (Imshaug ex R. C. Harris) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia rappii (Marbach 2000)

ENDOPYRENIUM Flotow
americanum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria americana
bajadanae B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
crustaceum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
granulosum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
plumbeum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria inficiens
rupicola B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria othmarii
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Placidium arboreum

ENTEROGRAPHA Fée
anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger (Sparrius 2004b) Syn.: Schismatomma pallidellum auct.
bradleyana F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014)
caudata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014)
hutchinsiae (Leighton) A. Massal.  (Sparrius 2004b)
murrayana F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014)
nitidula F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014)
oregonensis Sparrius & Björk (Sparrius & Björk 2008)
*osagensis C. A. Morse  (Morse 2013)
pallidella (Nyl.) Redinger (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
quassiicola Fée
zonata (Körber) Källsten  Syn.: Opegrapha zonata (Ertz et al. 2009)
carnea (Eckf.) R. C. Harris = Mazosia ocellata
elegans (Eschw.) Tuck. = Sclerophyton elegans
lecanoroides
R. C. Harris = E. anguinella 

ENTEROSTIGMA Müll Arg.
montagnaei (Tuck) Fink (Fink 1935) = Cryptothecia striata(Thor 1991)

EOPYRENULA R. C. Harris
intermedia Coppins Syn.: Pyrenula leucoplaca var. pluriloculata
parvispora R. C. Harris & Aptroot
leucoplaca (Wallr.)
R. C. Harris = misidentification for North America (fide R. Harris)

EPAPHROCONIDIA Calatayud & V. Atienza
*hawksworthii Calatayud & V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)

EPHEBE Fr.
americana Henssen
hispidula (Ach.) Horw.  Syn.: Ephebeia hispidula
lanata (L.)
Vainio
ocellata Henssen
perspinulosa Nyl.
solida Bornet
mamillosum (Lyngb.) E. Fr.
(Fink 1935)  Possibly Stigonema mamillosum, a cyanobacterium

EPHEBEIA Nyl. = EPHEBE
hispidula (Ach.) Nyl. = Ephebe hispidula

EPICLADONIA D. Hawksw.
*sandstedei (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (Scholz 1998)
*simplex D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

EPICOCCUM Link
*purpurascens Schltdl. (Diederich 2003)

EPIGLOEA Zukal
intermedia Döbbeler (Lendemer & Harris 2004)
medioincrassata (Grummann) Döbbeler (Fryday 2004a)
pleiospora Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)
renitens (Grummann) Döbbeler (Spribille et al. 2010)
soleiformis Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)

EPILICHEN Clem.
#glauconigellus (Nyl.) Hafellner (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. Syn.: Buellia scabrosa
*stellatus Triebel

EPITHAMNOLIA Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*karatyginii Zhurb.

ERIODERMA Fée
mollissimum (Samp.) Du Rietz
pedicellatum (Hue) P. M. Jørg.
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.
boreale Ahlner = E. pedicellatum

ESSLINGERIANA Hale & M. J. Lai
idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria idahoensis

EUGENIELLA Lücking, Sérus. & Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leucocheila (Tuck.) Lücking, Sérus. & Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

EUOPSIS Nyl.
granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syns.: Pyrenopsis granatina, Lecanora granatina, Pannaria granatina
pulvinata (Schaerer) Nyl. Syn.: Pyrenopsis pulvinata

EVERNIA Ach.
divaricata (L.) Ach.
mesomorpha Nyl.
perfragilis Llano
prunastri (L.) Ach.
ceratea (Ach.) Zopf (Fink 1935) = Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, a misidentification for North America
esorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz = misidentification for North America (Bird 1974)
furfuracea (L.) W. Mann = Pseudevernia consocians and P. intensa for North American records
thamnodes (Flotow) Arnold = E. mesomorpha
vulpina (L.) Ach. = Letharia vulpina

EVERNIASTRUM Hale ex Sipman = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
catawbiense (Degel.) Hale ex Sipman = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis
sorocheilum (Vainio) Hale ex Sipman = Hypotrachyna sorocheila, but reports apparently based on H. catawbiense

EVERNIICOLA D. Hawksw.
*flexispora D. Hawksw.

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FARNOLDIA Hertel
hypocrita (A. Massal.) Frøberg Syns.: Lecidea hypocrita, L. lithospersa, L. ypocrita
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea jurana, L. albosuffusa, Tremolecia jurana, Melanolecia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea rhaetica, Melanolecia micropsis, Tremolecia nivalis, T. micropsis

FAYODIA Kühner
*leucophylla (A. Gillet) M. T. Lange
*striatula (Kühner) Singer

FELLHANERA Vězda
aurantiaca (Vězda) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia aurantiaca
bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda Syn.: Catillaria bouteillei
crucitignorum C. A. Morse & Ladd (Morse & Ladd 2013)
eriniae R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
fallax R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
floridana (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia floridana, Biatora floridana, Bilimbia floridana
granulosa R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
hybrida R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
minnisinkorum R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
montesfumosi R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
silicis R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
subtilis (Vězda) Diederich & Sérus. (Goward et al. 1996)

FELLHANEROPSIS Sérus. & Coppins
myrtillicola (Erichsen) Sérus. & Coppins (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
vezdae (Coppins & P. James) Sérus. & Coppins (Tønsberg 1997)

FIBRILLITHECIS  A. Frisch  (Frisch 2006)
insignis (Zahlbr.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)

FISSURINA Fée
aggregatula Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
analphabetica Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cingalina (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
columbina
(Tuck.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina columbina, G. virginalis, Graphis columbina, Phaeographina columbina (Staiger 2002)
confusa Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
crassilabra Mont. & Bosch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina cypressi (Lendemer 2007a)
dumastioides (Fink) Staiger Syn.: Graphina dumastioides, Graphis dumastioides (Staiger 2002)
egena (Nyl.) Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
humilis
(Vainio) Staiger  (Staiger & Kalb 2004)
illiterata (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphis illiterata (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
incrustans Fée Syns.: Graphina incrustans, G. glaucoderma, Graphis incrustans (Staiger 2002)
insidiosa C. Knight & Mitten  Syn.: Graphis beaumontii, G. insidiosa (Staiger 2002)
inspersa Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
insculpta
Mont.  Syn.:  Graphina babingtonii (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
leuconephela
Nyl.  Syn. :  Graphina leuconephela (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
mexicana (Zahlbr.) Lücking & Rivas Plata  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
nitidescens
(Nyl.) Nyl. Syns.: Graphina nitidescens, Graphis nitidescens (Staiger 2002)
pseudostromatica Lücking & Rivas Plata  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
radiata Mont.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
rufula
(Mont.) Staiger Syn.:  Graphis rufula (Staiger 2002)
scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Graphina scolecitis, Graphis scolecitis (Lendemer 2007a)  North American records of Graphina adscribens belong here
subcomparimuralis Common & Lücking (Lumbsch et al. 2011; Lücking et al. 2011b)
subnitida
(Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
subnitidula (Nyl.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina subnitidiula, Graphis subnitidula (Staiger 2002)
tachygrapha (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
tuckermaniana Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
varieseptata Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subcontexta (Nyl.) Nyl. = F. rufula  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

FISTULARIELLA Bowler & Rundel
almquistii (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina almquistii
dilacerata (Hoffm.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
geniculata (Hooker f & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina geniculata
inflata (Hooker f & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina inflata
minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina roesleri
scoparia (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina scoparia

FLAKEA O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)
papillata O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)

FLAVOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & Thell
cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Cetraria cucullata, Allocetraria cucullata
minuscula (Elenkin & Savicz) Ahti, Poryadina & Zhurb.
(Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Cetraria nivalis, Allocetraria nivalis

FLAVOPARMELIA Hale
baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale Syns.: Parmelia baltimorensis, Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia caperata, P. cylisphora, P. flavicans, P. herreana, P. negativa, Pseudoparmelia caperata
[Parmelia concreta Stizenb.]
rutidota (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rutidota, Pseudoparmelia rutidota, and P. conspersa var. subconspersa andXanthoparmelia subconspersa for North American records.
subcapitata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hale ex DePriest & B. Hale (Knudsen et al. 2005)  Syn.:  Parmelia subcapitata

FLAVOPLACA Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
austrocitrina (Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca austrocitrina

citrina (Hoffm.)
Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca citrina
flavocitrina (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca flavocitrina
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca granulosa
marina (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca marina
microthallina (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca microthallina

FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale
darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Hale Syns.: Parmelia darrowi, Punctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Hale Syns.: Parmelia flaventior, P. andreana, P. kernstockii, Punctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesignis, P. incorrupta, P. caperata var. incorrupta, Punctelia praesignis
soredica (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia soredica, P. ulophyllodes, P. manshurica, Punctelia soredica

FORAMINELLA S. F. Meyer = PARMELIOPSIS

FORSSELLIA Zahlbr. = PTERYGIOPSIS
minnesotensis (Fink) Fink = Lichinella minnesotensis

FRUTIDELLA Kalb (Kalb 1994)
caesioatra (Schaerer) Kalb (Kalb 1994) Syn.: Lecidea caesioatra, L. arctica
pullata (Norman) Schmull (Schmull et al. 2011)  Syns.:  Biatora pullata, Lecidea pullata

FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not. = GYALOLECHIA (Arup et al. 2013)
bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen subsp. bracteata = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) Poelt = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina
bracteata subsp. deformis Poelt  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. deformis
desertorum (Tomin) Poelt = Gyalolechia desertorum
fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin = Gyalolechia fulgens
subbracteata (Nyl.)
Poelt (Brodo et al. 2001, Kasalicky 2004) = Gyalolechia subbracteata

FULGIDEA Bendiksby & Timdal  (Bendiksby & Timdal 2013)
oligospora (Timdal) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce oligospora
sierrae (Timdal) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce sierrae

FULVOPHYTON Ertz & Tehler
calcicola
(Sparrius) Tehler & Ertz  Syn.: Dirina calcicola (Tehler et al. 2013)

FUSARIUM Link
*peltigerae Westend. (Spribille et al. 2010)

FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vězda
aleutica (Degel.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
appalachensis Fryday (Fryday 2008)
arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg
gothoburgensis (H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda (Fryday 2006)
intercincta (Nyl.) Poelt
lowensis (H. Magn.) R. A. Anderson & Hertel  Syn.: Lecidea lowensis
mollis (Wahlenb.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea mollis
praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea praeruptorum
pusilla Tønsberg
recensa (Stirton) Hertel, V. Wirth & Vězda Syns.: Lecidea recensa
recensa var arcuatula (Arnold) Fryday  Syns. Lecidea arcuatula, L. gyrodes (Fryday 2008)
scrupulosa (Eckf.) Fryday (Fryday 2008)  Syn.: Biatora scrupulosa, Lecidea scrupulosa, L. kochiana var. subreagens
texana
Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
thomsonii Brodo & Wirth (Brodo & Wirth 1998)
cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda  = misidentification for North America (Fryday 2008)
kochiana (Hepp) V. Wirth & Vězda   = misidentification for North America (Fryday 2008)
lightfootii (Sm.)
Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Tønsberg 2002, Fryday 2008)
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Brako = Lecidea subfilamentosa (Fryday 2008)
subreagens (H. Magn.) Oberholl. & V. Wirth = Fuscidea scrupulosa (Fryday 2008)

FUSCOPANNARIA P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria ahlneri
alaskana P. M. Jørg.
& Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
aurita P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cheiroloba (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2000c) Syn.: Parmeliella cheiroloba
confusa (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
convexa P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005)
coralloidea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
crustacea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b) Syns.: Pannaria cyanolepra, Parmeliella cyanolepra
incisa (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria laceratula
leprosa P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucostictoides
maritima (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Synyonym: Pannaria maritima
mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria mediterranea
pacifica P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria praetermissa, Parmeliella praetermissa, P. lepidiota
pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria pulveracea
ramulina P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
sorediata P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
thiersii P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
viridescens P. M. Jørg. & Zhurb. (Jørgensen & Zhurbenko 2002)
californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella californica
globuligera Fryday & P. M. Jørg. (Fryday 2004a) = Vahliella globuligera
hookerioides P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella hookerioides
labrata P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005) = Vahliella labrata
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg.
= Vahliella leucophaea
saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella saubinetii

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GASPARRINIA Tornab. = CALOPLACA

GASSICURTIA Fée
catasema (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia catasema, B. caloosensis (Marbach 2000)
coccinea Fée  Syn.:  Buellia coccinea (Marbach 2000)
elizae (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia elizae (Marbach 2000)
subpulcella (Vainio) Marbach Syn.: Buellia subpulcella, B. pachnidisca (Marbach 2000)
vernicoma (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia vernicoma, Buelliopsis vernicoma, Lecidea vernicoma (Marbach 2000)

GEISLERIA Nitschke (Aptroot et al. 2014)
sychnogonioides Nitschke  Syn.: Strigula sychnogonioides

GELATINOPSIS Rambold & Triebel
#geoglossi (Ellis & Everh.) Rambold & Triebel (Diederich et al. 2010)
*acarosporicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009a) = Llimoniella acarosporicola

GELTINGIA Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*associata (Th. Fr.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Lecidea associata

GLAUCOMARIA M. Choisy
rupicola (L.) M. Choisy = Lecanora rupicola
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Lecanora rupicola

GLAUCOTREMA Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Rivas Plata et al. 2012)
glaucophaenum (Kremp.) Rivas Plata & Lumbsch  Syns.: Myriotrema glaucophaenum, Ocellularia glaucophaena  Presence in N.A. is doubtful


GLOBOSPHAERIA D. Hawksw.
*jamesii D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

GLOEOHEPPIA Gyeln.
polyspora Henssen (Schultz 2002c)
squamulosa (Zahlbr.) M. Schultz  Syn. : Psorotichia squamulosa (Schultz 2007b)

GLYPHIS Ach.
atrofusca (Müll. Arg.)
Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cicatricosa Ach.
scyphulifera (Ach.) Staiger  Syn.: Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Staiger 2002, Lücking et al. 2011b)
substriatula (Nyl.) Staiger  Syn.:  Graphina substriatula (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
achariana Tuck. = G. cicatricosa
confluens Zenker = G. cicatricosa
favulosa Ach. = G. cicatricosa

GLYPHOLECIA Nyl.
scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg. Syns.: Acarospora scabra, A. saxicola

GOMPHILLUS Nyl.
americanus Essl.
calycioides (Duby) Nyl. (Buck 1998)

GONGYLIA Körber
muscorum Zschacke (North American only) = Protothelenella pluriseptata (Fryday 2004b)
nadvornikii Servít = Segestria mammillosa, but misidentification for North America (Fryday 2004b)

GONOHYMENIA J. Steiner = LICHINELLA
cribellifera (Nyl.) Henssen = Lichinella cribellifera
melamphylla (Tuck.) Henssen = Lichinella melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Henssen = Lichinella minnesotensis
nigritella (Lettau) Henssen = Lichinella nigritella

GOWARDIA P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen (Halonen et al. 2009)
arctica P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen
nigricans (Ach.) P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen  Syns.: Alectoria nigricans, A. boryana

GRANULOPYRENIS Aptroot
hymnothora (Ach.) Aptroot Syns.: Verrucaria hymnothora, Microthelia hymnothora, Sphaeria bignoniae

GRAPHINA Müll. Arg. = GRAPHIS (Lücking et al. 2007; Tripp et al. 2010)
abaphoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis leucopepla 
acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Graphis acharii
acrophaea Müll. Arg. = Graphis parilis
adscribens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina scolecitis for North American records
anguina (Mont.)
Müll. Arg. = Thalloloma anguinum
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = Graphis antillarum
babingtonii (Mont.) Zahlbr.
= Fissurina insculpta
colliculosa (Mont.) Hale = Platythecium colliculosum
columbina (Tuck.) M. Wirth & Hale = Fissurina columbina
cypressi Müll. Arg. = Fissurina cypressi
dimidiata (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
dumastioides (Fink) ined. = Fissurina dumastioides
floridana (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Platythecium floridanum
glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
incrustans (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
leprocarpa (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. = Chapsa leprocarpa
marcescens (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mendax (Nyl.)
Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America
nitidescens (Nyl.) Riddle = Fissurina nitidescens
leuconephela (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina leuconephela
parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Graphis parilis
peplophora M. Wirth & Hale = Acanthothecis peplophora
platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
platyleuca (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris 1995a) = Diorygma pruinosum
plittii Zahlbr. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
scolecitis
(Tuck.) Fink = Fissurina scolecitis
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Graphis sophisticascens
subnitida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitida
subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitidula
substriatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Glyphis substriatula
subvirginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis mosquitensis
virginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina columbina
virginea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.= Diorygma poitaei
xylophaga R. C. Harris = Graphis xylophaga

GRAPHIS Adanson
acharii F
ée  Syn. Graphina acharii   Presence in N. Am. uncertain (Tripp et al. 2010)
analoga Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
anfractuosa
Eschw.
antillarum Vainio  Syn.: Graphina antillarum
aperiens Müll. Arg.
appendiculata Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
argentata Lücking & Umaña  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
assimilis Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
botryosa
Tuck.
brittoniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
caesiella Vainio
caesiocarpa Redinger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
caribica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
chlorotica A. Massal. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
chromothecia R. C. Harris
cincta (Pers.) Aptroot (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
conferta Zenker  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
crebra Vainio (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
cupei Vainio ex Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
dendrogramma Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
desquamescens (Fée) Zahlbr. 
disserpens Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach.
elevata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
endoxantha Nyl. (Lücking 2009)
eulectra
Tuck. Syn.: Phaeographis eulectra
filiformis Adaw. & Makhija (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
furcata Fée (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
glaucescens Fée
haleana R. C. Harris
handelii Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
hinnulea F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
hodgesiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2010b)
hyphosa Staiger (Lendemer 2010b)
intermedians Vainio (Lendemer 2010b)
intricata Fée
inversa R. C. Harris
leptocarpa Fée
leptoclada Müll. Arg
librata C. Knight
lineola Ach.
longula Kremp.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lucifica R. C. Harris
lumbricina Vainio
modesta Zahlbr. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
neoelongata Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
oshioi M. Nakan.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
oxyclada Müll. Arg.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
parilis Kremp.  Syn.: Graphina parilis (Lücking et al. 2008)
pavoniana
Fée  North American reports uncertain (Lendemer 2010b)
pergracilis (Zahlbr.) Lücking & A. W. Archer (Lücking & McCune 2012)
pinicola Zahlbr. (Lendemer 2010b)
platycarpella Müll. Arg.
pseudocinerea Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
renschiana (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
rimulosa (Mont.) Trevisan
sauroidea Leighton  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
saxorum
Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1997)
scripta (L.) Ach.
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris & Ladd 2005; Tripp et al. 2010)
stellata
M. Cáceres & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
sterlingiana E. Tripp & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
striatula
(Ach.) Sprengel
subamylacea Zahlbr.
subflexibilis Lücking & Chaves  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
supracola A. W. Archer (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
tamiamiensis Lendemer (Lendemer 2010b)
tenella
Ach.
xanthospora Müll. Arg.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
xylophaga (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina xylophaga (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
afzelii Ach. = Dyplolabia afzelii
amicta Nyl. (1935) = Carbacanthographis amicta (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
anguilliformis Taylor (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain; probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
atrorubens Tuck. ex Fink = Dimidiographa longissima
balbisina Nyl. (Fink 1935) = G. implicate F
ée  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
beaumontii Tuck. = Fissurina insidiosa
candidata Nyl. = Carbacanthographis candidata
celtidis Müll. Arg. = G. librata
cinerea F
ée (Fink 1935)  Probably misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
diversa Nyl. (Fink 1935) =  Leiorreuma exaltata (Zahlbruckner 1924, Staiger 2002)
dumastii (F
ée) Sprengel (Fink 1935) = Fissurina dumastii Fée  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
dumastioides Fink = Fissurina dumastioides
floridana Tuck. = Platythecium floridanum
grammatis Fée = Platythecium grammitis
illiterata R. C. Harris = Fissurina illiterata
incrustans  = Fissurina incrustans
insidiosa (C. Knight & Mitten) Hooker f. = Fissurina insidiosa
intertexta Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
inustula Stirton (Stirton 1875) = Thalloloma anguinum
lactea (F
ée) Sprengel (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
leucopepla Tuck.
= Acanthothecis leucopepla
marcescens  = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mosquitensis Tuck. = Acanthothecis mosquitensis
nitida (Eschw.) Tuck. = Medusulina nitida
nitidescens Nyl. = Fissurina nitidescens
poitaeoides Nyl. =Acanthothecis poitaeoides
radiata (Mont.) Nyl.
(Fink 1935)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
rigidula Müll. Arg.  (Lendemer & Yahr 2004) = G. leptoclada (Lücking 2009)
ramificans Nyl. (Fink 1935)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
rufula Mont. = Fissurina rufula
scolecitis Tuck. = Fissurina scolecitis
scripta var. varia Ach. (Fink 1935) = G. scripta
subdiversa Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain ; a nomen nudum
subelegans Nyl. = G. endoxantha (Lücking 2009)
subnitidula Nyl. = Fissurina subnitidula
subparilis Nyl. = Fissurina rufula
turbulenta Nyl. = Anomomorpha turbulenta

GRAPHIUM Corda
*aphthosae Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

GYALECTA Ach.
erythrozona Lettau
carneola (Ach.) Hellbom  Syns. Pachyphiale carneola (Baloch et al. 2013a)
fagicola (Hepp ex Arnold) Zwackh.  Syns.: Pachyphiale fagicola (Baloch et al. 2013a)

flotowii
Körber
foveolaris (Ach.) Schaerer
friesii Flotow ex Körber
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Secoliga geoica
gyalizella (Nyl.) Baloch & Lücking  Syn.: Pachyphiale gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
herrei Vězda
jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr.
kukriensis (Räsänen) Räsänen
obesispora R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013a)
peziza (Mont.) Anzi
russula (Körber ex Nyl.) Baloch, Lumbsch & Wedin  Syns.: Belonia fennica, B. russula (Baloch et al. 2013a)
truncigena (Ach.) Hepp
carneolutea (Turner) H. Olivier = Cryptolechia carneolutea
farlowii Tuck. ex Nyl. = Petractis farlowii
lamprospora Nyl. = Bactrospora lamprospora
odora Ach. (Fink 1935) = Ionaspis odora
radiatilis Tuck. = Skyttea radiatilis

GYALECTARIA Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch (Schmitt et al. 2010)
diluta (C. Björk, G. Thor & T. B. Wheeler) Schmitt, T. Sprib. & Lumbsch (Schmitt et al. 2010)

GYALECTIDIUM Müll. Arg.
appendiculatum Lücking, Lendemer & E. Tripp (Lücking et al. 2007, Lendemer & Tripp 2008)
catenulatum (Cavalc. & A. A. Silva) L. I. Ferraro, Lücking & Sérus.  (Lücking et al. 2007)
filicinum Müll. Arg.
floridense Safranek & Lücking  (Safranek & Lücking 2005)
imperfectum Vězda (Ferraro, Lücking & S
érusiaux 2001)
tuckerae Lücking & Lendemer (Lücking et al. 2007)
ulloae Herrera-Campos & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
viride Lücking, W. R. Buck & Rivas Plata (Lücking et al. 2007)
yahriae W. R. Buck & Sérus. (Buck & Sérusiaux 2000)
rotuliforme Müll. Arg. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

GYALECTINA Vězda = CRYPTOLECHIA
carneolutea (Turner) Vězda = Cryptolechia carneolutea

GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vězda
asteriscus (Anzi) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2003)
fritzei (Stein) Vězda (Hutten et al. 2013)
hyalinescens (Nyl.) Vězda
lecideopsis (A. Massal.) Lettau ex Vězda
lecideopsis var. eucarpa (Servít) Vězda
lecideopsis var. kurdistanica (J. Steiner) Vězda
roseola (Arnold) Lettau (Brodo 1995)
dodgei Vězda = G. hyalinescens
lecideopsis var. convarians (Nyl.) Vězda = G. lecideopsis var. eucarpa

GYALIDEOPSIS Vězda
africana Kalb & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)
americana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
berenice (Ellis & Everh.) Lücking & W. R. Buck
buckii Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Tricharia vezdae
epicorticis (A. Funk) Tønsberg & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Microlychnus epicorticis
floridae Etayo & Diederich (Etayo & Diederich 2001)
helvetica van den Boom & Vězda (Spribille & Björk 2008)
lambinonii Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) 
macarthurii Lücking, Umaña & Aptroot (Lücking et al. 2007)
mexicana Tretiach, Giralt & Vězda (Lendemer 2011a)
moodyae Lendemer & Lücking (Lendemer & Lücking 2004)
ozarkensis Lücking, W. R. Buck & R. C. Harris (Lücking et al. 2007)
piceicola (Nyl.) Vězda
subaequatoriana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
submonospora Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. semicirculata Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. vainioi
wesselsii
Lücking, Sipman & Chaves (Lücking et al. 2007)
alnicola W. Noble & Vězda = G. piceicola
anastomosans P. James & Vězda = Jamesiella anastomosans
athalloides (Nyl.) Vězda = Diploschistella athalloides
muscicola P. James & Vězda (Tønsberg 1997) = misidentification of G. moodyae (Lücking et al. 2007)

GYALOLECHIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
arizonica (H. Magn.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup Syn.: Caloplaca arizonica
bracteata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. subsp. bracteata  Syn.: Caloplaca bracteata, Fulgensia bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) ined.  Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina
bracteata subsp. deformis (Poelt) ined.  Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata subsp. deformis
desertorum (Tomin) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Fulgensia desertorum
flavorubescens (Hudson) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca aurantiaca, C. flavorubescens
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca erythrella, C. flavovirescens
fulgens (Sw.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca fulgens, Fulgensia fulgens, Placodium fulgens
persimilis (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca persimilis
stantonii (W. A. Weber ex Arup) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca stantonii
stipitata (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca stipitata
subbracteata (Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Fulgensia subbracteata
xanthostigmoidea (Räs.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca bryochrysion, C. epiphyta, C. xanthostigmoidea

GYMNODERMA Nyl.
lineare (A. Evans) Yoshim. & Sharp = Cetradonia linearis

GYPSOPLACA Timdal
macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal

GYROPHORA Ach. = UMBILICARIA
angulata (Tuck.) Herre = Umbilicaria angulata
anthracina (Wulfen) Körber = Umbilicaria rigida
arctica Ach. = Umbilicaria arctica
cylindrica (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. = Umbilicaria decussata
deusta (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria deusta
dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Umbilicaria mammulata
erosa (G. Weber) Ach. = Umbilicaria torrefacta
grisea Swartz (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria grisea Hoffm.  = misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hyperborea Ach. = Umbilicaria hyperborea var. hyperborea
muehlenbergii Ach. = Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. = Umbilicaria phaea
polyphylla (L.) Funck = Umbilicaria polyphylla
polyrrhiza (L.) Körber = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza
proboscidea (L.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria proboscidea
rugifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria virginis (Llano 1950)
torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria torrefacta
vellea (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria vellea

GYROSTOMUM Fr.
curtisii Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Baculifera curtisii
scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl. = Glyphis scyphuliferum

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

HAEMATOMMA A. Massal.
accolens (Stirton) Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
americanum Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
fenzlianum A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
flexuosum Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
guyanense Kalb & Staiger (Brodo et al. 2008)
ochroleucum
(Necker) J. R. Laundon var. porphyrium (Pers.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: H. porphyrium
persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
rufidulum (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
caesium Coppins & P. James = Mycoblastus caesius
californicum Sigal & D. Toren = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman1996)
cismonicum Beltr.
= Loxospora cismonica
coccineum (Dickson) Körber = misidentification for North America
elatinum (Ach.) A. Massal. = Loxospora elatina
lapponicum Räsänen = Ophioparma lapponica
ochrophaeum (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Loxospora ochrophaea
pacificum Hasse = Ophioparma rubricosa (Staiger & Kalb 1995, Ekman 1996)
porphyrium (Pers.) Zopf = H. ochroleucum var. porphyrium
puniceum auct. North America = H. persoonii
pustulatum Brodo & W. L. Culb.. =
Variolaria pustulata
rappii Zahlbr. = Schismatomma rappii
subpuniceum (Fée) B. de Lesd. = H. fenzlianum
ventosum (L.) A. Massal. = Ophioparma ventosa

HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. = Buellia (Nordin & Tibell 2005)
arnoldii (Servít) Hafellner & Türk = Buellia arnoldii
bahiana (Malme) Sheard = Buellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotropa (Malme) Sheard =Buellia bahiana var. pleiotropa
callispora (C. Knight) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard = Buellia callispora
curatellae (Malme) Marbach  (Marbach 2000) = Buellia curatellae
disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer = Buellia disciformis
fosteri Imshaug & Sheard = a species of Buellia
parastata (Nyl.)
Kalb = Buellia parastata

HAFELLNERA Houmeau & Cl. Roux
parasemella (Nyl.) Houmeau & Cl.
Roux = Schaereria parasemella

HALECANIA M. Mayrhofer
alpivaga (Th. Fr.) M. Mayrhofer Syns.: Lecania alpivaga, L. disceptans, L. thallophila, Lecanora disceptans
australis Lumbsch  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004a)
pepegospora (H. Magn.) van den Boom (van den Boom & Elix 2005) Syn.: Lecania pepegospora
viridescens Coppins & P. James

HALEGRAPHA Rivas Plata & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011a, 2011b)
floridana Common & Lücking

HALOSPORA (Zschacke) Tomas. & Cif.
*discrepans (J. Lahm ex Arnold) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)

HARPIDIUM
Körber
nashii Scheid. (Schultz et al. 2000)
glaucophanum (Hasse) Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana

HASSEA Zahlbr.
bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Sarcopyrenia bacillosa

HAWKSWORTHIANA U. Braun
*peltigericola (D. Hawks.) U. Braun

HEIOMASIA Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Nelsen & Lücking 2010 [2011])
seaveyorum Nelsen & Lücking

HELMINTHOCARPON Fée
leprevostii Fée

HELOCARPON Th. Fr.
crassipes Th. Fr. Syns.: Lecidea crassipes, Micarea crassipes
lesdainii (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss 2001)
corticola Breuss (Etayo 1998) = H. lesdainii

HENRICA B. de Lesd.
americana Breuss (Breuss 2002c)

HEPPIA Nägeli
adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.
conchiloba Zahlbr.
despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. (Büdel et al. 2002)  Syns.:  Anema dodgei, Solorinaria despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.
alumenensis Herre Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
bolanderi (Tuck.)
Vainio = Peltula bolanderi
deserticola Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. deserticola
euploca (Ach.) Vainio = Peltula euploca
guepinii (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca
hassei Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. hassei
leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
macrospora B. de Lesd.
= H. conchiloba
placodizans Zahlbr. = Peltula placodizans.
planescens Nyl. Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
polyphylla B. de Lesd. = Peltula euploca
polyspora Tuck. = Peltula patellata
psammophila Nyl. = misidentification for North America
richardsii Herre = Peltula richardsii
terrena Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
tortuosa (Nees) Vainio = Peltula tortuosa
virescens (Despr.) Nyl. = H. lutosa
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Peltula zahlbruckneri

HERPOTHALLON Tobler (Aptroot et al. 2009)
echinatum Aptroot, Lücking & Will-Wolf  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor  Syns. Cryptothecia rubrocincta, C. sanguineum
rubroechinatum Frisch & G. Thor (Frisch et al. 2010)
antillarum (Vainio) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Diorygma antillarum

HERTELIANA P. James
alaskensis (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia alaskensis, Lecidea alaskensis (Ekman 1996)

HERTELIDEA Printzen & Kantvilas (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
botryosa (Fr.) Printzen & Kantvilas  Syns.:  Biatora botryosa, Lecidea botryosa (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
pseudobotryosa R. C. Harris, Ladd & Printzen (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)

HETEROCARPON Müll. Arg.
*ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Endocarpon ochroleucum

HETEROCYPHELIUM Vainio
leucampyx (Tuck.)
Vainio

HETERODERMIA Trevisan
albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog Syns.: Anaptychia domingensis, A. ravenelii
appalachensis (Kurok.) W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Anaptychia appalachensis
boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh Syns.: Anaptychia boryi, A. neoleucomelaena
casarettiana (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia casarettiana
chondroidea W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia chondroidea
comosa (Eschw.) Follm. & Redón (Harris 1995b)
crocea R. C. Harris North American reports of H. corallophora belong here
dendritica (Pers.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia diademata
echinata (Taylor) W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Anaptychia echinata
erecta Lendemer (Lendemer 2009a)
erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Anaptychia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) W. L. Culb.. Syns.: Anaptychia comosa (for North American records), A. galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Anaptychia granulifera
hypoleuca (Muhl.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia hypoleuca
japonica (M. Sat
ô) Swinscow & Krog
leucomela (L.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia "leucomelaena"
microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa  Questionable for N. America (Lendemer 2009a)
namaquana Brusse (Esslinger & Bratt 1998)
neglecta Lendemer, R. C. Harris & E. Tripp (Lendemer et al. 2007)
obscurata (Nyl.) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia heterochroa, A. hypoleuca var. colorata, A. obscurata, A. sorediifera
palpebrata (Taylor) Vainio  (Moberg 2011)
podocarpa (Bél.) Awasthi (Moberg & Nash 1999)
pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa
rugulosa (Kurok.) Wetmore
sitchensis Goward & W. Noble
speciosa (Wulfen) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans, A. speciosa
squamulosa (Degel.) W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Anaptychia squamulosa
tropica (Kurok.) Sipman Syn.: Anaptychia tropica (Marcano et al. 1996)
barbifera (Nyl.) K. P. Singh  Misidentification for N.A. (Lendemer 2009a)
corallophora (Taylor) Skorepa = H. crocea for North American reports
domingensis (Ach.) Trevisan = H. albicans
leucomelaena (L.) Poelt = H. leucomela
neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón = H. boryi
propagulifera (Vainio) J. P. Dey  = misidentification for North America, mostly H. neglecta (Lendemer et al. 2007)
tremulans (Müll. Arg.) W. L. Culb.. = H. speciosa

HETEROPLACIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
congestum (Breuss & McCune) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium congestum
#transmutans K. Knudsen, Breuss & Kocourk. (Knudsen et al. 2014)
zamenhofianum (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux (Kocourková et al. 2012) Syn.: Verrucaria zamenhofiana
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides
#compactum (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux = Verrucaria compacta
podolepis (Breuss) Breuss = Placidium podolepis

HETEROTHECIUM Flotow
nannarium Tuck. = Piccolia nannaria

HOBSONIA Massee
*christiansenii B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw. = Illosporiopsis christiansenii

HOBSONIOPSIS D. Hawksw. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)
*santessonii (Lowen & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

HOMOSTEGIA Fuckel
*dermatocarpi Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*hertelii D. Hawksw., V. Atienza & M. Cole  (Hawksworth et al. 2004)
*piggotii (Berk. & Broome) P. Karst.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*parmeliana (Jacz.) Vouaux (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) Erroneous report based on H. hertelii (Hawksworth et al. 2004)

HUBBSIA W. A. Weber (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber Syn.: Reinkella californica
lumbricoides W. A. Weber = Schizopelte lumbricoides (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Loht., Myllys & Sundin = Schizopelte parishii (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

HUILIA Zahlbr. = PORPIDIA
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel = Porpidia albocaerulescens
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia cinereoatra
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia crustulata
elegantior ( H. Magn.) Hertel = Amygdalaria elegantior
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel = Porpidia flavocaerulescens
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia glaucophaea
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
melinodes (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia melinodes
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel = Amygdalaria panaeola
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel = Porpidia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Hertel = Porpidia soredizodes
superba (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia superba
tuberculosa (Sm.) P. James = Porpidia tuberculosa

HYALOPEZIZA Fuckel
*rapax Huhtinen (Huhtinen et al. 2008)

HYDROPUNCTARIA Keller, Gueidan & Thüs (Gueidan et al. 2009)
maura (Wahleb.) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  Syn.:  Verrucaria maura
rheitrophila (Zschacke) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  Syn.:  Verrucaria rheitrophila

HYDROTHYRIA J. L. Russell = PELTIGERA
venosa J. L. Russell = Peltigera hydrothyria

HYMENELIA Kremp.
arctica (Lynge) Lutzoni Syn.: Ionaspis arctica, I. epulotica var. arctica
ceracea (Arnold ) Poelt & Vězda (Status uncertain)
cyanocarpa (Anzi) Lutzoni (Miller et al. 2005)
epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis epulotica, Lecanora epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis heteromorpha, I. annularis, I. ochracella, I. reducta, I. schismatopis
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold Syn.: Ionaspis melanocarpa
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis ochromicra, I. rhodopis
lacustris (With.) M. Choisy = Ionaspis lacustris
ochrolemma (Vainio) Gowan & Ahti = Porpidia ochrolemma
prevostii (Duby) Kremp. = H. epulotica

HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg.
adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syns.: Physcia adglutinata, P. elaeina, Physciopsis adglutinata, P. elaeina
confusa Essl., C. A. Morse & S. Leavitt (Esslinger et al. 2012)
minor (Fée) D. D. Awasthi Syns.: Physcia minor, Physciopsis minor
pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) Moberg & Aptroot (Esslinger et al. 2012)
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb Syns.: Physcia syncolla, Physciopsis syncolla

HYPOCENOMYCE M. Choisy
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) M. Choisy Syns.: Lecidea scalaris, L. ostreata, Psora scalaris, P. ostreata
anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider (Timdal 2002a) = Carbonicola anthracophila
castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal = Carbonicola myrmecina
friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Xylopsora friesii

leucococca R. Sant. =
Toensbergia leucococca
oligospora Timdal (Timdal 2001) = Fulgidea oligospora
praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal = Pycnora praestabilis
sierrae Timdal (Timdal 2001) = Fulgidea sierrae
sorophora (Vainio) P. James & Poelt = Pycnora sorophora
xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Pycnora xanthococca

HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl.
apinnata Goward & McCune
austerodes (Nyl.) Räsänen Syn.: Parmelia austerodes
beringiana (Krog) McCune (McCune 2008)
bitteri (Lynge) Ahti Syn.: Parmelia bitteri
canadensis Goward & McCune (Goward & McCune 2007)
castanea McCune & Krog (McCune 2008)
dichroma Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
duplicata (Ach.) Rass. Syn.: Parmelia elongata (Sprille et al. 2010)
enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl.
farinacea Zopf  Uncertain for North America (Goward et al. 2012)
fistulosa McCune & Krog (McCune 2008)
gracilis McCune (McCune 2002)
heterophylla L. Pike
imshaugii Krog
inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson
incurvoides  Rass.  (McCune et al. 2006)
krogiae Ohlsson
lugubris (Pers.) Krog
minilobata McCune & Schoch (McCune & Schoch 2009)
mollis L. Pike & Hale
occidentalis L. Pike
oceanica Goward
physodes (L.) Nyl. Syns.: Parmelia duplicata var. douglasicola, P. physodes, P. oregana
protea Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti (Goward et al. 2012)
pulverata (Nyl. ex Crombie) Elix
recurva Goward, Bj
örk, & Hollinger (Goward et al. 2010)
rugosa (G. Merr.) L. Pike
salsa Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
schizidiata McCune (McCune 2002)
subcapitata (Nyl.) Rass.
subobscura (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Parmelia subobscura
subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson (McCune & Rosentreter 1997)
tubulosa (Schaerer) Hav. Syn.: Parmelia tubulosa
verruculosa Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
vittata (Ach.) Parrique Syn.: Parmelia vittata
wilfiana Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti (Goward et al. 2010)
amplexa Goward, Björk & T. B. Wheeler (Lumbsch et al. 2011) = H. imshaugii (McCune et al. 2011)
atrofusca (Schaerer) Räsänen = Brodoa atrofusca, but North American reports are misidentifications
bitteriana (Zahlbr.) Räsänen = H. farinacea
elongata (Hillm.) Rass. = H. duplicata
encausta (Sm.) Walter Watson = Brodoa intestiniformis (but see below)
intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen = Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American records are misidentifications of, e.g., Brodoa oroarctica
metaphysodes (Asahina) Rass. = misidentifications for North America (Goward et al. 2010)
oroarctica Krog = Brodoa oroarctica
pseudophysodes (Asahina) Rass. North American reports are H. oceanica

HYPOTRACHYNA (Vainio) Hale
afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
catawbiensis (Degel.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch  Syns.: Cetrariastrum catawbiense, Everniastrum catawbiense, Parmelia sorocheila var. catawbiensis
costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale
croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia croceopustulata
cryptochlora (Vainio) D. Hawksw. & A. Crespo  Syns.: Parmelinopsis cryptochlora (Divakar et al. 2013)
dactylifera (Vainio) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia densirhizinata
dentella (Hale & Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dentella
ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ensifolia, P. lobulifera var. insensitiva
gondylophora (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia gondylophora
horrescens (Taylor) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia horrescens, Parmelina horrescens, Parmelinopsis horrescens (Divakar 2013)
imbricatula (Zahlbr.)
Hale Syns.: Parmelia imbricatula, P. lobulifera, P. lobulifera var. luteoreagens
laevigata (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigata
livida (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia livida
lividescens (Kurok.) Hale (Hodkinson 2010)
meridensis Hale & López (Nash, et al. 2002)
minarum (Vainio) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia dissecta, P. hubrichtii, Parmelina dissecta, P. minarum (Divakar 2013)
oostingii (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia oostingii
osseoalba (Vainio) Park & Hale Syns.: Parmelia formosana
polydactyla (Krog & Swinscow) T. H. Nash
producta Hale Syn.: Parmelia producta
prolongata (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia prolongata, P. lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens, P. rachista
pseudosinuosa (Asahina) Hale
pulvinata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia pulvinata
punoensis Kurok. & K. H. Moon (Nash et al. 2002)
pustulifera (Hale) Skorepa Syn.: Parmelia pustulifera
revoluta (Flörke) Hale Syn.: Parmelia revoluta
riparia McCune (McCune 1998a)
rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia rockii
showmanii Hale
sinuosa (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sinuosa
spumosa (Asahina) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia spumosa, Parmelina spumosa, Parmelinopsis spumosa (Divakar et al. 2013)
subsaxatilis (B. de Lesd.) Hale
swinscowii (Hale) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia swinscowii, Parmelina swinscowii, Parmelinopsis swinscowii (Divakar et al. 2013)
taylorensis (M. E. Mitch.) Hale (Groner & Dietrich 1996)
thysanota (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia thysanota
virginica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia virginica
formosana (Zahlbr.)
Hale = H. osseoalba
rachista (Hale) Hale = H. prolongata
sorocheila (Vainio) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch  Reports apparently based on H. catawbiensis (Egan 1987)

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ICMADOPHILA Trevisan
ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr.

ILLOSPORIOPSIS D. Hawksw.
*christiansenii (B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawks. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)

ILLOSPORIUM Martius
*carneum Fr.
*corallinum Roberge = Marchandiomyces corallinus

IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschm.
athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.
carbonoidea (J. W. Thomson) Esnault & Cl. Roux Syn.: Lecidea carbonoidea

IMSHAUGIA S. F. Meyer
aleurites (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis aleurites
placorodia (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis placorodia

INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch
bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch  (Lumbsch 2004)

INTRALICHEN D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole
*baccisporus Hawksworth & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole Syn.: Bispora christiansenii (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*lichenicola (M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole (Kocourková et al. 2012)
*lichenum (Diederich) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)  Syn.: Bispora lichenum

INVOLUCROPYRENIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
waltheri (Kremp.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium waltheri, Dermatocarpon waltheri

IONASPIS Th. Fr.
alba Lutzoni
lacustris (With.) Lutzoni Syn.: Hymenelia lacustris, Aspicilia lacustris, Lecanora lacustris, L. deplanans
lavata H. Magn. Syn.: Lecanora lavata
odora (Ach.) Th. Fr. ex Stein  Syn.:  Gyalecta odora, Lecanora odora
suaveolens (Fr.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
annularis H. Magn. (Thomson 1997) = Hymenelia heteromorpha
arctica Lynge = Hymenelia arctica
chrysophana (Körber) Stein = I. suaveolens
epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia heteromorpha
epulotica var. arctica (Lynge) H. Magn. = Hymenelia arctica
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia melanocarpa
ochracella (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
ochromicra (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia rhodopis
reducta H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia rhodopis
schismatopis (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia heteromorpha
spitsbergensis H. Magn. = nom. invalidum

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JAMESIELLA
Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda
anastomosans (P. James & Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Gyalideopsis anastomosans

JAPEWIA
Tønsberg
subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg
tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg Syns.: Lecidea tornoënsis, Mycoblastus tornoënsis
carrollii (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Printzen 1999)

JARXIA D. Hawksw. (Harris 1995a)
ilicicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
thelenula R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

JULELLA Fabre
+asema R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+dispora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis dispora
+fallaciosa (Arnold) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa
+geminella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis rappii
+lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis lactea
+sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins (Aptroot 2002b)
+sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Clathroporina exiguella, C. amygdalina, Polyblastiopsis sublactaea
+taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+variiformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+vitrispora (Cooke & Harkness) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)

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KAERNEFELTIA Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996)
californica (Tuck.) Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.: Alectoria californica, A. cetrariza, Cetraria californica,Cornicularia californica, Tuckermannopsis californica
merrillii (Du Rietz) Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.:Cetraria merrillii, Tuckermannopsis merrillii

KALCHBRENNERIELLA Diederich & M. S. Christ.
*cyanescens (Kalchbr.) Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 2002)

KARSCHIA Körber
*talcophila (Ach.) Körber  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Vouaux = Dactylospora athallina
*inops Triebel & Rambold = Buelliella inops

KARSTENIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*peltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

KEPHARTIA R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
crystalligera R. C. Harris & Lendemer
spinadiaboli R. C. Harris & Lendemer


KILIASIA Hafellner = TONINIA
athallina (Hepp) Hafellner = Toninia athallina
philippea (Mont.)
Hafellner = Toninia philippea
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner = Toninia subnitida

KIRSCHSTEINIOTHELIA D. Hawksw. Omitted as a totally saprophytic genus

KOERBERIA A. Massal.
biformis A. Massal.
sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen = Vestergrenopsis sonomensis

KOERBERIELLA Stein
wimmeriana (Körber) Stein

KOHLMEYERA Schatz
complicatula (Nyl.) Schatz Syns.: Mastodia tesselata, Turgidosculum complicatulum

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LAEVIOMYCES D. Hawksw. = LICHENODIPLIS
*lecanoricola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Lichenodiplis lecanoricola
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. = Lichenodiplis pertusariicola

LAHMIA Körber
fueistingii Körber = Arthrorhaphis grisea

LASALLIA Mérat
caroliniana (Tuck.) Davydov, Peršoh & Rambold  Syn.: Umbilicaria carolininana (Davydov et al. 2010)
papulosa (Ach.) Llano Syns.: Umbilicaria pustulata var. papulosa, U. papulosa
pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano Syn.: Umbilicaria pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Mérat Syn.: Umbilicaria pustulata
pustulata subsp. papulosa (Ach.) W. A. Weber = L. papulosa

LASIOSPHAERIOPSIS D. Hawksw. & Sivan.
*stereocaulicola (Lindsay) O. E. Eriksson & R. Sant. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

LATHAGRIUM (Ach.) Gray (Otálora et al. 2014)
auriforme (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema auriculatum, C. auriforme, C. granosum auct.
cristatum (L.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema cristatum, C. cristatum var. marginale
dichotomum (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema dicotomum C. fluviatile, C. stenophyllum
fuscovirens (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema furvum, C. fuscovirens, C. tuniforme
undulatum (Flotow) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema undulatum

LAUDERLINDSAYA J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a) = Normandina (Muggia et al. 2010)
*borreri (Tul.) J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a) = Normandina pulchella

LAURERA Rchb.
megasperma (Mont.) Riddle Syns.: Campylothelium nitidum, Clathroporina diphloea
subdisjuncta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle = Bathelium madreporiforme (Harris 1995a)
varia (Fée) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America

LECANACTIS Körber
abietina (Ach.) Körber
[Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Fink]
californica Tuck.
dubia G. Merr.
epileuca (Nyl.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha subattingens, Schismatomma subattingens
salicina Zahlbr.
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Arnold = Lecanographa amylacea
chloroconia Tuck. = Cresponea chloroconia
dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa grumulosa
illicebrosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa amylacea
megaspora (G. Merr.) Brodo = L. abietina
nashii Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa hypothallina
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio = Bactrospora patellarioides
premnea (Ach.) Arnold = Cresponea premnea
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = L. epileuca
subdryophila Follmann & Vězda = Lecanographa subdryophila
zahlbruckneri Herre (Fink 1935) = L. californica (Ryan & Tehler 2004)

LECANIA A. Massal.
arizonica B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
brunonis (Tuck.) Herre
#caloplacicola B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
chalcophila B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
coeruleorubella (Mudd) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
constricta W. A. Weber
croatica (Zahlbr.) Kotlov (Harris & Lendemer 2010)
cuprea (A. Massal.) van den Boom & Coppins Syn.: Bacidia cuprea, B. cupreorosella, Bilimbia cupreorosella
cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr.
dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
dudleyi Herre
erysibe (Ach.) Mudd
flavescens Lynge (Thomson 1997)
franciscana (Tuck.) K. Knudsen & Lendemer Syns.: Biatora franciscana, Catillaria franciscana (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
fructigena Zahlbr.
fuscella (Schaerer) Körber
fuscelloides B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
[Catillaria groenlandica Lynge]
hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble Syn.: Solenopsora hassei
hutchinsiae (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. (Spribille et al. 2010)
inundata (Hepp ex Körber) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
madida Reese Naesb. & Björk  (Reese Naesborg 2008)
naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & van den Boom Syn.: Bacidia naegelii, Bilimbia naegelii (Ekman 1996)
nylanderiana A. Massal.
pacifica Zahlbr. ex B. D. Ryan & van den Boom  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
polycycla (Anzi) Lettau (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
prasinoides Elenkin  (Reese Naesborg 2008)
rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
ryaniana van den Boom  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
shastensis Herre
stigmatella (Tuck.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syn.: Bacidia stigmatella
subcaesia (Nyl.) B. de Lesd.
subfuscula (Nyl.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syns.: Bacidia sibiriensis, B. subfuscula
toninioides Zahlbr.
turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg.
albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = L. turicensis
alpivaga Th. Fr. = Halecania alpivaga
arctica Lynge = Caloplaca diphyodes
brattiae B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b) = L. hassei (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
californica (Zahlbr.)
Fink = L. turicensis (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
cyathiformis
Szatala (Tavares et al. 1997) = Solenopsora cyathiformis
cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. = L. cyrtella
curvescens (Mudd) A. L. Sm. = Bryonora curvescens
dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = L. dubitans
disceptans (Nyl.) Lynge = Halecania alpivaga (Dillman et al. 2011)
pepegospora H. Magn. = Halecania pepegospora
perproxima (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca atroalba (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
subdispersa B. D. Ryan [non (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse] = L. franciscana
subdispersa
(Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. fuscella
tenera (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Cliostomum tenera
thallophila H. Magn. = Halecania alpivaga

LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
aggregata Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b, as Lecanographa “aff.” aggregata)
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Lecanactis amylacea, L. illecebrosa, Opegrapha illecebrosa
brattiae (Egea & Ertz) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)  Syn.: Opegrapha brattiae
dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Opegrapha diaphoroides, Lecanactis grumulosa, but questionable for North America
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum, Opegrapha hypothallina, O. hassei, Lecanactis nashii
insolita Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2010) 
lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al.  2004b)
lynceoides
(Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b)
subdryophila
(Follmann & Vězda) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis subdryophila

LECANORA Ach.
achroa Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
achroides Vainio
actophila Wedd.
agardhiana Ach. (Śliwa 2007b)
alaskensis H. Magn.
albella (Pers.) Ach. var. albella
albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch
albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)
albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostrup (Śliwa 2007b, Laundon 2010)
albocaesiella
B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
albula (Nyl.)
Hue
aleutica H. Magn.
allophana Nyl.
andrewii B. de Lesd. (Śliwa 2007b)
anopta Nyl.  Syns.: Biatora pullula, Lecidea pullula (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010)
anoptiza Nyl.
apochraeoides Vainio
appalachensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
arenisaxicola B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
argentata (Ach.) Malme
argentea Oxner & Volkova
argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
atrosulphurea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
austrocalifornica Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2009)
beringii Nyl. ("behringii")
bicincta Ramond
bipruinosa Fink
boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl.
brattiae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
brodoana Lumbsch & T. H. Nash
[Parmularia brouardii B. de Lesd.]
bryopsora (Doppelb. & Poelt) Hafellner & Türk (Dillman et al. 2012)
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. Syns.: Lecidea cadubriae, L. ramulicola
caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
caesiorubella subsp. glaucomodes (Nyl.) Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. saximontana Imshaug & Brodo
caesiosora Poelt (Miller et al. 2005)
caesiosulphurea
Vainio
californica Brodo
campestris (Schaerer) Hue
canadensis Lynge & H. Magn.
carlottiana Lewis & Śliwa (Lewis & Śliwa 2012)
carneolutescens Nyl. (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
carpinea (L.) Vainio
cateilea (Ach.) A. Massal.
[Lecidea caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
cavicola Creveld (Nash et al. 1998)
cenisia Ach.
chlarotera Nyl.
chloroleprosa (Vainio) H. Magn. (Spribille et al. 2010)
chlorophaeodes Nyl.
cinereofusca H. Magn. var. cinereofusca
cinereofusca var. appalachensis Brodo
circumborealis Brodo & Vitik.
cladonioides Lynge
collatolica J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash
comonduensis T. H. Nash & Hertel (Nash & Hertel 1997)
confusa Almb.
congesta Lynge
coniferarum Printzen (Printzen 2001)
conizaeoides Nyl. ex Crombie
contractula Nyl.
crenulata Hooker  (Śliwa 2007b)
crustacea (Savicz) Zahlbr. (Ryan & Nash 1997b)
cupressi Tuck.
demosthenesii Lumbsch & Messuti (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
densa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
discoënsis Lynge
dispersa (Pers. ) Sommerf.
dispersoareolata (Schaerer) Lamy
elapheia Stizenb.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
epanora (Ach.) Ach.
epibryon (Ach.) Ach.
expallens Ach.
farinaria Borrer
filamentosa (Stirton) Elix & Palice (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010; Palice et al. 2011)
floridula Lumbsch
flowersiana H. Magn.
frustulosa (Dickson) Ach. (Spribille et al. 2010)
fugiens Nyl. (Ryan et al. 2004, as  Lecanora “aff.” fugiens, Śliwa 2007b)
fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecidea fuscescens
fuscidula Degel.
gangaleoides Nyl.
garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr. subsp. garovaglii
garovaglii subsp. cascadensis (H. Magn.) B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
geiserae B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
geophila
(Th. Fr.) Poelt
glabrata (Ach.) Malme
granulifera (Ach.) Nyl.
groenlandica Lynge
gyalectodes Nyl.
gypsicola St. Clair & Newberry (Rajvanshi et al. 1998)
gyrophorica Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c)
hagenii (Ach.) Ach.
helicopis (Wahlenb.)
Ach. (identification uncertain)
horiza (Ach.) Lindsay
hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo
hypocrocina Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
hypopta (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Lecidea hypopta
hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
impudens Degel. 
In eastern N.A. at least, a misapplied name (Lendemer et al. 2013)
imshaugii Brodo
insignis Degel.
intricata (Ach.) Ach.
intumescens (Rebent.) Rabenh.
invadens H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b)
iowensis Fink
jamesii J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 1997)
juniperina
Ðliwa  (Ryan et al. 2004)
kariana Räsänen
kofae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt
latens Printzen (Printzen 2001)
laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
leprosa Fée
leptacina Sommerf.
leptacinella Nyl.
lividolutea Räsänen
louisianae B. de Lesd.
luteovernalis Brodo
marginata (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea marginata, L. elata, L. purissima. See note under "Lecidea amylacea."
masana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
maxima Lynge
mazatzalensis B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
melaena (Hedl.) Fink
mellea W. A. Weber
meridionalis H. Magn.
microbola I. M. Lamb
microfusca Lynge
miculata Ach.
minutella Nyl.
monticola H. Magn.
mughicola Nyl.
munzii K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c)
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh.  Syn.: Protoparmeliopsis muralis   According to Laundon (2010), this name may have to be replaced by the name Lecanora saxicola (Pollich) Ach.
muralis var. brunneola (Mereschk.) Ryan & T. H. Nash (Nash et al. 1998)
muralis var. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck.
nashii B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al.  2004)
neoalbomarginata Gyelnik
neodegelii B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  Syn.:  Squamarina degelii (Ryan et al. 2004)
nigromarginata H. Magn.
nordenskioeldii Vainio
nothocaesiella R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
novae-semliae Zahlbr.
novomexicana H. Magn.  Syn.: Parmularia novomexicana
ochraceorubescens Arnold (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
opiniconensis Brodo
orae-frigidae R. Sant.
oreinoides (Körber) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea oreinodes, L. tennessensis, L. tesselina
orizabana Vainio (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea orosthea
pacifica Tuck. Syn.: L. tetraspora
pallidochlorina T. H. Nash, B. D. Ryan & Lumbsch (Ladd & Morse 2012)
peninsularis K. Knudsen, Lendemer & Elix (Knudsen et al. 2011a)
percrenata H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b)
permutata Zahlbr.
perplexa Brodo
perpruinosa Fröberg (Śliwa 2007b)
persimilis (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
phaedrophthalma Poelt var. phaedrophthalma
phaedrophthalma var. christoi (W. A. Weber) B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. Syn.: Lecidea phaeophora, Biatora phaeophora
phryganitis Tuck.
pinguis Tuck.
placidensis (Magnusson) Knoph, Leuckert & Rambold (Knoph & Leuckert 1994) Syns.: Lecidea placidensis, Lecidella placidensis, Fuscidea placidensis
plumosa Müll. Arg. (Nash et al. 1998)
poliophaea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
poluninii Lynge
polytropa (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Rabenh.
populicola (DC.) Duby
pringlei (Tuck.) I. M. Lamb subsp. pringlei  Syn: Lecidea pringlei
pringlei subsp. brandegei (Tuck.) Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
protervula Stirton (Stirton 1876)
pseudargentata Lumbsch (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
pseudistera Nyl.
pseudolivacea Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
pseudomellea B. D. Ryan
pseudosarcopidoides M. Brand & van den Boom (Hutten et al. 2013)
pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.
[Biatora pullula Tuck.] (Printzen 1995)
reagens Norman
rhodi Szatala (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
rubicunda Bagl.
rupicola (L.)
Zahlbr. Syn.: Glaucomaria rupicola, G. sordida
salicicola H. Magn.
saligna (Schrader) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecanoropsis saligna
salina H. Magn.
sambuci (Pers.) Nyl.
sarcopidoides (A. Massal.) Hedl. (Hutten et al. 2013)
schizochromatica Pérez-Ortega, T. Sprib.
& Printzen  (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010)
schofieldii Brodo  (Brodo 2010)
scrobiculata
(Th. Fr.) Øvstedal & Elix  Syn.:  Lecidea scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
semipallida H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a)
semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
simeonensis K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Lendemer & Knudsen 2009)
sophodopsella Nyl.
stenotropa Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
straminea Ach.
stramineoalbida Vainio (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
strobilina (Sprengel) Kieffer
subaurea Zahlbr.
subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach.

subcavicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
subimmergens Vainio
subintricata (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
subpallens Zahlbr.  (Lumbsch et al. 1997, Lendemer 2004e)
subravida Nyl. (Hutten et al. 2013)
subrugosa Nyl.
substrobilina Printzen (Printzen 2001)
sulphurea (Hoffm.)
Ach. Syn.: Lecidea sulphurea
swartzii (Ach.) Ach. (Nash et al. 1998)
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea symmicta
texana W. A. Weber
thallophila H. Magn.
thysanophora Harris (Harris et al. 2000)
torrida Vainio
tristiuscula H. Magn.
tropica Zahlbr. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
umbrosa Degel.
utahensis H. Magn. (Knudsen 2012)
valesiaca (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.
varia (Hoffm.) Ach.
vegae Malme
verrucariicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
victoriae (F. Wilson) Tibell (Nash et al. 1998)
viriduloflava B. de Lesd.
weberi B. D. Ryan
wetmorei
Ðliwa  (Ryan et al. 2004)
willeyi Tuck.
wisconsinensis H. Magn.
xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt
xylophila Hue
zeroensis Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
zosterae (Ach.) Nyl. var. zosterae

zosterae var. beringii (Nyl.) Śliwa (Śliwa 2007b)

zosterae var. palanderi (Vainio) Śliwa 2007b)
albomarginata (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia albomarginata
albopruinosa Looman = an Aspicilia sp.
alboradiata H. Magn. = Aspicilia alboradiata
aliena Zahlbr. = Aspicilia aliena
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.)
Ach. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina Sommerf. = Bellemerea alpina
americana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia americana
annulata Lynge = Aspicilia annulata
anseris Lynge = Aspicilia anseris
applegatei Herre = Bellemerea alpina (Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2007)
aquatica (Körber) Hepp = Aspicilia aquatica
arctica Lynge = Aspicilia arctica
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) W. A. Weber = Omphalora arizonica
atra (Hudson) Ach. = Tephromela atra
atriseda (Fr.) Nyl. = Protoparmelia atriseda
atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. = Lecanora cenisia
badia (Hoffm.) Ach. = Protoparmelia badia
barkmaniana Aptroot & Herk (Kaminsky et al. 2013)  Misidentification of L. floridula (Lendemer & Harris 2014)
basaltica Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. = Rimularia gibbosa
bolanderi Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr. = Circinaria caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia caesiopruinosa
caesiorubella subsp. lathamii Imshaug & Brodo = L. subpallens
caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (Fink) R. C. Harris = L. subpallens
calcarea (L.) Sommerf. = Circinaria calcarea
cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vainio = L. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
candida (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia candida
cascadensis H. Magn. = L. garovaglii
castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. = Bryonora castanea
chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
chloropolia (Erichsen) Almb. = L. impudens for most North American records
christoi W. A. Weber = L. phaedrophthalma var. christoi
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
cingulata Zahlbr. = Aspicilia cingulata
circinata (Pers.) Ach. = Lobothallia radiosa
coilocarpa auct. = L. circumborealis
coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
composita Lynge = Aspicilia composita
concinna J. W. Thomson = Aspicilia concinna
conizaea auct.
= L. strobilina
conizaea (Ach.) Nyl. ex Crombie = L. expallens
constipans (Nyl.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Edrudia constipans
contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner = Circinaria contorta
degelii T. Schauer & Brodo = L. cinereofusca var. cinereofusca
demissa (Körber) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca demissa
deplanans Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
desertorum Kremp.  North American reports are Circinaria arida
diffracta Ach.
= L. muralis
diphasia Tuck. = Caloplaca diphasia
disceptans Nyl. = Halecania alpivaga (Dillman et al. 2011)
disserpens (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.
= Aspicilia disserpens
distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. = L. populicola
effusa (Hoffm.) Ach. = L. saligna
elevata Lynge = Aspicilia elevata
elmorei E. D. Rudolph = Circinaria elmorei
epulotica (Ach.) Nyl. = Hymenelia epulotica
erythrantha Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Caloplaca erythrantha (Wetmore 2007b)
exigua f. pruinosa Merrill = Rinodina hallii  (Sheard 2010)
eyerdamii Herre = L. xylophila
fimbriata H. Magn. = Aspicilia fimbriata
flavida Hepp = Eiglera flavida
flavopunctata Tønsberg = Biatora flavopunctata
floridana Tuck.
= Caloplaca floridana
flotoviana Sprengel  (Ryan et al. 2004) = L. semipallida for North American reports (Śliwa 2007a)
frustulosa auct. N. A. in part = L. argopholis  (Vänska 1984)
fuliginosa Brodo = L. argentea
fulva Schwein. (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Harris 2004)
fuscidula Degelius = L. minutella Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)

galactina (Ach.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = L. albescens (Scholz 2000)
galactinula Vainio = L. pseudistera
gelida (L.) Ach. = Placopsis gelida
gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Circinaria gibbosa
gibbosula H. Magn. = Circinaria gibbosa
glaucomela Tuck. = Pertusaria glaucomela
glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana
glaucopsina Nyl.
= Aspicilia glaucopsina
granatina Sommerf. = Euopsis granatina
granifera Ach. = Malmidea granifera
grandis H. Magn. = Protoparmelia badia
grantii H. Magn. = L. xylophila
haydenii Tuck. = Rhizoplaca haydenii
heteroplaca Zahlbr. = Aspicilia heteroplaca
holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. = Solenopsora holophaea
hypospilota Vainio = L. oreinoides

incusa (Fr.) Vainio = Caloplaca demissa
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
lacustris (With.) Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris
laevata (Ach.) Nyl.
= Aspicilia laevata
laevis Poelt = L. horiza, but N. American records are L. xylophila
lavata (H. Magn.) Fink = Ionaspis lavata
lentigera (Weber) Ach. = Squamarina lentigera
lesleyana (Darb.) Paulson = Aspicilia lesleyana
limitata H. Magn. = Aspicilia limitata
marginalis Hasse = Rhizoplaca marginalis
mastoidea Lynge = Aspicilia berntii
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Ach. (Wetmore 1967) = Sagedia mastrucata
melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. = Lobothallia melanaspis
melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond = Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
mniaroeiza Nyl. = Rinodina mniaroeiza
morioides (Blomb. ex Arnold) Blomb. = Clauzadeana macula
mutabilis Sommerf. = L. intricata
mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. = Megaspora verrucosa
myrina F
ée (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain; possible orthographic error for L. myrinii (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
myrinii (Fr.) Tuck. = Aspilidea myrinii
narssaquensis Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
nephaea Sommerf. = Protoparmelia nephaea
nikrapensis (Darb.)
Zahlbr. = Aspicilia nikrapensis
nevadensis H. Magn. = L. garovaglii
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = identity uncertain
obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse = Acarospora obpallens
occidentalis (Lynge) Lynge = L. argopholis
ochrococca (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Protoparmelia ochrococca
odora (Ach.) Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Ionaspis odora
olivacea (Bagl. & Carestia) J. Steiner (Herre 1911, Fink 1935) = Lecanora pseudolivacea
olivaceopallida H. Magn. = Aspicilia olivaceopallida
oregana Tuck. = L. argopholis
pachythallina Lynge = L. geophila
palanderi Vainio = L. zosterae
pallescens (L.) Röhl = Ochrolechia pallescens (L.) A. Massal., but misidentifications for N.A.
pallescens var. upsaliensis (L.) Flotow = Ochrolechia upsaliensis
pallida (Schreber) Rabenh. var. pallida = L. albella var. albella
pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo = L. albella var. rubescens
parisiensis Nyl. = L. horiza
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Sommerf. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
peltata (Ramond) Steudel = Rhizoplaca peltata
peltastictoides Hasse (Knudsen 2003) = Aspicilia peltastictoides (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)
pergibbosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia pergibbosa
perradiata Nyl. = Aspicilia perradiata
pertusa Lynge = Aspicilia pertusa
phaeobola Tuck. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
pinastri (Schaerer) H. Magn. = L. pulicaris
piniperda Körber = L. albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)

pleiospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
pleistospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
plicigera Zahlbr. = Aspicilia plicigera
polychroma (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia polychroma
praecrenata Nyl. = Aspicilia praecrenata
praeradiosa Nyl. = Lobothallia praeradiosa
privigna (Ach.) Nyl. = Polysporina simplex
privigna var. revertens Tuck. = Polysporina simplex
pruinosa Chaub.  Not in North America
pseudochlarotera Brodo = L. hybocarpa
punicea (Sw.) Ach. = Haematomma punicea
radiosa (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Lobothallia radiosa
ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. May (Printzen & May 2002) = L. filamentosa
reptans Looman = Aspicilia reptans
riparia G. Merr. non (Flotow) M. Steiner = L. xylophila
rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia rolleana
rosulata (Körber) Stizenb. = Aspicilia rosulata
rubina (Vill.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
rugosa auct. (Fink 1935) = L. chlarotera (Brodo 1984)
rugosella Zahlbr. = L. chlarotera (Ryan et al. 2004)
ryrkaipiae H. Magn. = Aspicilia ryrkaipiae
sanguinea (Kremp.)
Mig. = Bellemerea sanguinea
scotopholis (Tuck.) Timdal = Miriquidica scotopholis
sipeana H. Magn. = Aspicilia sipeana
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = L. rupicola
spodophaeiza Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Lecania aipospila (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr., but misidentification for North America (Ryan et al. 2004)
stenospora Stizenb. = Pleopsidium flavum
stygioplaca Nyl.
= Aspicilia subradians
subdispersa Nyl. ex Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
subfusca (L.) Ach. = nom. rej. prop. = L. allophana
subfuscata H. Magn. = L. argentata
sublapponica Zahlbr. = Aspicilia sublapponica
subolivascens Nyl. = Caloplaca demissa
subpallida G. Merr. non C. Knight = L. subpallens
subradians Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subradiascens Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
superfluens H. Magn. = L. geophila
supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia supertegens
sylvestris (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = L. rubicunda
symmictera Nyl. = L. symmicta
tenera (Nyl.) Crombie = Cliostomum tenerum
tenuis H. Magn. = Aspicilia tenuis
tesselina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = L. oreinoides
tetraspora H. Magn. = L. pacifica
thamnitis Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
thamnoplaca Tuck. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
thelococcoides Nyl.
= Acarospora thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
thomsonii H. Magn. = L. novomexicana (Ryan & Nash 1991)
umbrina (Ach.) A. Massal. = L. hagenii (Śliwa 2007b)
urceolata (Fr.) Wetmore = Megaspora verrucosa
varia subsp. densa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. densa
varia subsp. laxa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. laxa
variolascens auct. = L. impudens for North American records
verrucigera (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia verrucigera
verrucosa (Ach.)
Laurer = Megaspora verrucosa
versicolor (Pers.) Ach. = L. muralis var. versicolor

LECANOROPSIS M. Choisy
saligna (Schrader) M. Choisy = Lecanora saligna

LECIDEA Ach.
admiscens Nyl.
aitema Ach.
albofuscescens Nyl.
albohyalina (Nyl.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Biatora albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
alpestris Sommerf.
amniculensis Lowe  Possibly a syn. of Micarea lutulata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
atomaria Th. Fr.
atrobrunnea (Ramond ex Lam. & DC.) Schaerer subsp. atrobrunnea
atrobrunnea
subsp. deplanaica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Leuckert 2011)
atrobrunnea subsp. planaica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Leuckert 2011)

atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
atrobrunnea subsp. stictica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
atromarginata H. Magn.
atroviridis (Arnold) Th. Fr.
auriculata Th. Fr. ssp. auriculata (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
auriculata ssp. brachyspora Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
baffiniana H. Magn.
betulicola (Kullh.) H. Magn. f. endamylea (Hedl.) Hinter. (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
brachyspora (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
brodoana Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
brunneofusca H. Magn.
californica Zahlbr.
carneoalbens Nyl.
carnulenta (Tuck.) Fink
cascadensis H. Magn.
cellularis Lowe
cinerata Zahlbr.
commaculans Nyl. (Fryday 2006)
confluens (Weber) Ach.
confluentula Müll. Arg. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2014)
congesta Fink
crassilabra Müll. Arg.
crisima Nyl.
cruciaria Tuck.
cyrtidia Tuck.
(Harris 1997)
degelii H. Magn.
deminutula H. Magn.
despecta Th. Fr.
diducens Nyl.
eckfeldtii Zahlbr.
ecrustacea (Anzi ex Arnold) Arnold
ementiens Nyl.
enterophaea Vainio
epiphaea Nyl. 
(Spribille et al. 2010)
erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf.
extenuata Vainio
flavidolivens (Tuck.)
Fink
floridensis Nyl.
fuliginosa Taylor
furvonigrans (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
fuscatoatra Nyl.
fuscoatra (L.) Ach.
goniophiloides B. de Lesd.
haerjedalica H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a)
hassei Zahlbr.
herteliana Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2012)
holopolia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
homosema Nyl.
hypomela Nyl.
intropallida Fink
katahdinensis Degel.
kingmanii (Hasse) Hertel & S. Ekman  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
laboriosa Müll. Arg. (Hertel 1995)
labradorica Arnold
lapicida (Ach.) Ach. var. lapicida (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lapicida var. pantherina Ach. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lepidastra (Tuck.) Hasse
leprarioides Tønsberg
leucothallina Arnold
lithophila (Ach.) Ach.
louisianae B. de Lesd.
lyngei Degel.
malmeana Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
mamillana Tuck.
mannii Tuck.
meiocarpa Nyl. var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
melaphanoides Nyl.
merrillii H. Magn.
microps Tuck. (Fink 1935, Perlmutter & Greene 2005)
micytho Tuck. ex Willey (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
moreliiensis B. de Lesd.
mutabilis Fée
myriocarpella (G. Merr.) Zahlbr.
nearingii H. Magn.
nylanderi (Anzi) Th. Fr.
occidentalis Lynge
olivascens Th. Fr.
pacifica Herre
paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
paupercula Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
peliaspis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
perlatolica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
phaeopelidna Vainio
phaeops Nyl.
picea Lynge
plana (J. Lahm) Nyl.
plebeja Nyl.
polaris Lynge
polycocca Sommerf.
populina Müll. Arg. ex Nyl. Syn.: Micarea populina
praenubila Nyl.
praetermissa Tønsberg
promiscens Nyl.
protabacina Nyl.
pseudaglaea Hertel  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
pulla Lowe
pumicicola H. Magn.
pycnocarpa (Körber) Ohlert
ramulosa Th. Fr.
rivulorum H. Magn.
roseotincta Coppins & Tønsberg
rubrocastanea T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille & Printzen 2007)
sarcogynoides Körber (McMullin & Lendemer 2013)
sauteri Körber  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
scabridula Hedl. (Spribille & Björk 2008)
silacea Ach.
somphoterella Vainio
sphaerella Hedl. = a species of Lecania? (Printzen 1995)
steineri Hertel
strasseri Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
subaglaea B. de Lesd.
subcandida H. Magn.
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
subplebeja Vainio
subrhagadiella Lynge
subtilis Degel.
swartzioidea Nyl.
syncarpa Zahlbr. (McCune 1998b)
tenayucae B. de Lesd.
tenuissima Lynge
tessellata Flörke
tessellata var. caesia (Anzi) Arnold
theodori Lynge
torquens Müll. Arg. = a species of Lecanora? (Printzen 1995)
trapelioides Printzen  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
truckeei Herre
turgidula Fr.  Syn.: Biatora turgidula
umbonata (Hepp) Mudd
varians Ach.  Syn.: Pyrrhospora varians (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
versicolor Schwein. (Printzen 1995)
virginiensis Calk. & Nyl.
xanthococcoides Zahlbr.
ablephora Nyl. = Ramonia ablephora
acrocyanea (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. = Lecidella patavina
adirondackii H. Magn. = Psilolechia clavulifera
aenea (Fr.) Nyl. = Miriquidica garovaglii
aeruginosa Borrer = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
aglaea Sommerf. = Calvitimela aglaea
aglaeida Nyl. = Calvitimela aglaea
ahlesii (Hepp) Nyl. (Harris 1995b) = Bryobilimbia ahlesii
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday & Coppins (Coppins & Fryday 2006b) = Bryobilimbia ahlesii var. nemoralis
alaiensis Vainio = Lecidella patavina
alaskensis Nyl. = Herteliana alaskensis
albidocinerella (Vainio) Vainio = Lecidella effugiens
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Ach. = Porpidia albocaerulescens
albonigra H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
albosuffusa Th. Fr. = Farnoldia jurana
aleutica Degel. = Fuscidea aleutica
amabilis B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
amaurospoda (Anzi) Vainio = Lecidea pullata
"amylacea Ach. 1810" nom. illeg. Probably refers to Lecanora marginata
aniptiza Stirton = Micarea denigrata
anthracophila Nyl. =
Carbonicola anthracophila
antoniensis H. Magn. = L. hassei
apochroeiza Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
arctica Sommerf. = Frutidella caesioatra
arctogena (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Calvitimela testaceoatra
arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
armeniaca (DC.) Fr. = Calvitimela armeniaca
assimilata Nyl. = Micarea assimilata
assimilis (Körber) Th. Fr. = Carbonea assimilis
associata Th. Fr. = Geltingia associata
atrata (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Tremolecia atrata
atrofulva Sommerf. = Miriquidica atrofulva
atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd =
Bryobilimbia hypnorum
atrolutescens Nyl. = L. mannii
atronivea Arnold = Carbonea atronivea
austrocalifornica Zahlbr. = Carbonea latypizodes
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Nyl. (Hertel & Printzen 200r) = Mycobilimbia berengeriana
botryosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Hertelidea botryosa
brandegei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegei
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Psorula rufonigra
brujeriana (D. Dietr.) Leighton = Trapelia mooreana
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Lecanora cadubriae
caeca Lowe = Rimularia caeca
caesioatra Schaerer = Frutidella caesioatra
caesiocoronata Lowe = L. olivascens
calcivora (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Clauzadea immersa
carbonoidea J. W. Thomson = Immersaria carbonoidea
carpathica (Körber) Szatala = Lecidella carpathica
catalinaria Stizenb. = Lecidella asema
caudata Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Ropalospora lugubris
caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = a Lecanora sp.
chalybeiza Nyl.= Leimonis erratica
cinereoatra Ach. = Porpidia cinereoatra
cinereorufa Schaerer = Schaereria cinereorufa
cinnabarina Sommerf. = Ramboldia cinnabarina
circumnigrata H. Magn. = Miriquidica pulvinata
circumnigrata var. reagens H. Magn. = Miriquidica lulensis
coarctata (Turner ex Sm.) Nyl. = Trapelia coarctata
columbiana H. Magn. = L. tessellata
columnata Lowe = Cecidonia xenophana
conferenda Nyl. = Adelolecia kolaensis
contigua Fr. = Porpidia macrocarpa
coroniformis Kremp. = Psora crenata
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Helocarpon crassipes
crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata
crustulata (Ach.) Sprengel = Porpidia crustulata
cuprea Sommerf. = Biatora cuprea
cyanea (Ach.) Rohl. = L. tessellata
cyanescens Lynge = L. lapicida
cyathoides (Ach.) Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but misidentification for North America
decipiens (Hedwig) Ach. = Psora decipiens
delincta Nyl. =
Bryobilimbia ahlesii  (Arup 2004, Fryday et al. 2014))
declinis Tuck. = Catillaria nigroclavata (Ekman 1996)
demissa (Rutstr.) Ach. = Lecidoma demissum
deustata Zahlbr. = Miriquidica deusta
diapensiae Th. Fr. = Bryobilimbia diapensiae
dicksonii auct. = Tremolecia atrata
dicksonii (Gmelin) Ach. = nomen dubium
dilutiuscula Nyl. = Micarea bauschiana
diversa Lowe = Porpidia contraponenda
dolodes Nyl. ex Hasse = Schaeraria dolodes
efflorescens (Hedl.) Erichsen = Biatora efflorescens
elabens Fr. = Ramboldia elabens
elaeochroma (Ach.) Ach. = Lecidella elaeochroma
elata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
elegantior H. Magn. = Amygdalaria elegantior
endolithea Lynge = Lecidella patavina
enteroleuca auct. = Lecidella spp.
epiiodiza Nyl. = Schaereria endocyanea
epixanthoidiza Nyl. nom. rej. prop. = Biatora efflorescens
erratica Körber = Leimonis erratica
euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. = Lecidella euphorea
evansii H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica
fissuriseda Poelt = Mycobilimbia fissuriseda
flavocaerulescens Hornem. = Porpidia flavocaerulescens
flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
friesii Ach. =
Xylopsora friesii
furfuracea Pers. = Phyllopsora furfuracea
furfurosa Tuck. ex Nyl. = Malmidea furforosa
furva Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
furvella Nyl. ex Mudd = Rimularia furvella
fusca (Schaerer) Th. Fr. =
Bryobilimbia hypnorum
fuscescens Sommerf. = Lecanora fuscescens
fuscoatrina Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. cascadensis (Hutten et al. 2013)
fuscocinerea Nyl. = Schaereria fuscocinerea
fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Clauzadea monticola (Scholz 2000)
garovaglii Schaerer = Miriquidica garovaglii
gelatinosa Flörke = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
geophana Nyl. = Steinia geophana
glaucophaea Körber = Porpidia glaucophaea
glaucopholis Nyl. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
glebulosa (Fr.) Clem. = Trapeliopsis wallrothii
globulosa Flörke = Biatora globulosa
globifera Ach. = Psora globifera
glomerulosa (DC.) Steudel = Lecidella euphorea
goniophila auct. = Lecidella anomaloides
granosa Tuck. = Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
granulata H. Magn. = Lecidella granulata
granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa
gregaria G. Merr. = Trapelia glebulosa
grisella Flörke ex Schaerer = L. fuscoatra
griseoatra (Flotow) Schaerer (Fink 1935) = Miriquidica griseoatra (Santesson et al. 2004)
gyrodes H. Magn. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
gyalizella Nyl. =
Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
gyrophoroides Sprengel (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hebescens
Nyl. = Porpidia albocaerulescens (Lendemer 2004a)
helvola (Körber) Th. Fr. = Biatora helvola
helvola var. longispora Degel. = Biatora longispora
heppii R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Lecidella wulfenii
homalodes Nyl. = L. tessellata Flörke (Hertel 1991)
humilis Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
humosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Placynthiella uliginosa
hypnorum Lib. =
Bryobilimbia hypnorum
hypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
hypopta Ach. = Lecanora hypopta
icterica (Mont.) Taylor = Psora icterica
impavida Th.
Fr. = Rimularia impavida
instrata Nyl. = Miriquidica instrata
insularis Nyl. = Rimularia insularis
internectens Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
intrudens H. Magn. = Carbonia intrudens (Dillman et al. 2012)
intumescens (Flotow) Nyl.
= Rimularia insularis
jurana Schaerer = Farnoldia jurana
kochiana Hepp = Fuscidea kochiana, but apparently a misidentification for N.A. (Fryday 2008)
kochiana var. subreagens H. Magn.
= Fuscidea scrupulosa
lactea Flörke ex Schaerer = L. lapicida
lacus-crateris H. Magn. = Lecidella stigmatea
latypea auct. non Ach. = Lecidella carpathica
latypea Ach. = L. plana
latypiza Nyl. = Lecidella carpathica
leptoboloides Nyl. = L. laboriosa
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaea
leucophaeoides Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaeoides
limborina (Nyl.) Lamy = Rimularia limborina
limitata auct. = Lecidella elaeochroma
limosa Ach.
= Protomicarea limosa
lithospersa Zahlbr. = Farnoldia hypocrita
lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann = Trapelia mooreana
lowensis H. Magn. = Fuscidea lowensis
lucida (Ach.) Ach. = Psilolechia lucida
lugubris Sommerf. = Ropalospora lugubris
lulensis (Hellbom) Stizenb. = Miriquidica lulensis
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Romjularia lurida
luridella Tuck. = Psora luridella
lynceola Th. Fr. = Micarea lynceola, but apparent misidentification for N. America (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lynceola auct. N. Am. = Micarea bauschiana (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lyngeana Zahlbr. = Adelolecia pilati
macrocarpa (DC.) Steudel = Porpidia macrocarpa
macrocarpa var. trullisata (Arnold) Mig. = Porpidia zeoroides
manni Tuck. (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)  Orthographic variant of L. mannii
marciensis Lowe = Miriquidica pycnocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
marginata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
marylandensis H. Magn. = Miriquidica leucophaea  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
medialis Tuck. ex Nyl. = Bacidia medialis (Ekman 1996)
meiocarpa Nyl.
= Biatora meiocarpa
meiocarpa var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg = Biatora meiocarpa var. tacomensis
melancheima Tuck. = Ramboldia elabens
melinodes (Körber) H. Magn. ex Lynge = Porpidia melinodes
micacea Körber = Lecidella stigmatea
michenerii (Tuck.)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
minuta (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora meiocarpa
misella (Nyl.) Nyl. = Micarea misella
mollis (Wahlenb.) Nyl. = Fuscidea mollis
monticola Ach.
= Clauzadea monticola
mundula M
üll. Arg. = Lecanora oreinodes (Rambold 1989)
myriocarpoides Nyl. = L. plebeja
neglecta Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Lepraria neglecta
nemoralis Lowe =
Bryobilimbia ahlesii var. nemoralis
nivalis Anzi = Farnoldia micropsis
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) W. A. Weber ex R. A. Anderson = Psora nipponica
oblongula H. Magn. = Caloplaca oblongula
obtegens Th. Fr. = Trapelia obtegens
occidentalis Lynge = L. tessellata (Hertel 1991)
ochrococca Nyl. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
ochrophora Nyl. = Piccolia ochrophora
oligotropha J. R. Laundon = Placynthiella oligotropha
olivacea (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Lecidella elaeochroma
oreinodes (Körber) W. A. Weber & Hertel = Lecanora oreinoides
ornata (Sommerf.) Hue = Trapelia glebulosa
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora orosthea
ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Hypocenomyce scalaris
*oxyspora (Tul.) Nyl. = Phacopsis oxyspora
pallida Th. Fr. = Pilophorus dovrensis
panaeola (Ach.) Ach. = Amygdalaria panaeola
pantherina (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. lapicida
parasema (Ach.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Lecidella elaeochroma (Scholz 2000)
parasemella Nyl. = Schaereria parasemella
parvifolia Pers. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
"pelobotrion" = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leighton = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
petri (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Romjularia lurida
phaeophora Stizenb. = Lecanora phaeophora
phylliscina Nyl. = Porpidia macrocarpa
pilati (Hepp) Körber = Adelolecia pilati
placidensis H. Magn. = Lecanora placidensis
planetica Tuck. ex Willey = Leimonis erratica
platycarpa Ach. = Porpidia macrocarpa
plumbeoatra Vainio = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
polycarpa Fl
örke (Fink 1935) = L. lapicida (Santesson et al. 2004)
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Th. Fr. = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
praeruptorum Du Rietz & H. Magn. = Fuscidea praeruptorum
prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd. = Lecidella scabra
pringlei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei
pruinosa Ach. = L. lithophila
pulcherrima Vainio = Anamylopsora pulcherrima
pullata (Norman) Th. Fr. (Jørgensen et al. 2002) = Frutidella pullata
pullula (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora anopta
punctella (Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea rhabdogena
purissima Darb. = Lecanora marginata
quadricolor (Dickson) Borrer = Trapeliopsis granulosa
quernea (Dickson) Ach. = Pyrrhospora quernea
ramulicola H. Magn. = Lecanora cadubriae
recedens Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus
recensa Stirton = Fuscidea recensa
rhaetica Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Farnoldia micropsis
rivulosa Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but misidentification for North America
rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Psora rubiformis
rufofusca (Anzi) Nyl. = Myochroidea rufofusca
rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl. = Psorula rufonigra
rugosa Lowe = Schaereria cinereorufa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
russula Ach. = Ramboldia russula
sanguineoatra sens. Nyl. =
Bryobilimbia hypnorum
santae-monicae H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
santensis Tuck.
= Phyllopsora santensis
saxosa R. A. Anderson = L. syncarpa (Hertel 1995, Leuckert & Hertel 2003)
scabra Taylor = Lecidella scabra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
schizopeltica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004, Hertel & Leuckert 2011) = L. truckeei (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007)
scholanderi Lynge = Toninia tristis subsp. scholanderi
scotopholis (Tuck.) Herre = Miriquidica scotopholis
scrobiculata Th. Fr. = Lecanora scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
scrupulosa (Eckf.) H. Magn. = Fuscidea scrupulosa
shushanii J. W. Thomson = Lecidea aglaeida (Haugan & Timdal 1994) = Calvitimela aglaea (Hertel & Andreev 2003)

soredifera Lowe = Porpidia macrocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
sorediza Nyl. = Porpidia tuberculosa
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Vainio = Porpidia soredizodes
speirea (Ach.) Ach. = Porpidia speirea
sphacelata Th. Fr. = Rimularia sphacelata
stenotera (Nyl.) Nyl. = L. alpestris
steriza (Ach.) Vainio = Porpidia macrocarpa
stigmatea Ach. = Lecidella stigmatea
suballinita Nyl. = Micarea ternaria (Nyl.)
Vězda (Printzen 1995)
subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge = Lecidella spp.
subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd. = Adelolecia pilati
subcinnabarina Tønsberg = Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina 
subcontinuior B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
suberratica Lowe = Micarea erratica
sublimosa Nyl. = Megalaria jemtlandica
subplebeia Nyl. = Carbonea latypizodes
subplumbea Anzi = (?) Miriquidica griseoatra
subramosa Lowe = Toninia squalescens  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
subsimplex H. Magn. = Porpidia subsimplex
subsorediza Lynge = Bellemerea subsorediza
sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb. = Lecanora sulphurea
sylvana (Körber) Th.
Fr. = Biatoraa globulosa
sylvicola Flotow = Micarea sylvicola
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora symmicta
symmictella Nyl. (Spribille & Björk 2008) = Puttea caesia (Dillman et al. 2012)
templetonii Taylor =
Bryobilimbia hypnorum
tenebrosa Flotow = Schaereria fuscocinerea
tennessensis Nyl. = Lecanora oreinoides
tesselina Tuck. = Lecanora oreinoides
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. = Psora testacea  Not included in the North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana
tornoënsis Nyl. = Japewia tornoënsis
trochodes (Taylor ex Leighton) Crombie = Rimularia limborina
tuckeii Herre (Fink 1935)  Apparent typographic error for L. truckeei
tumida A. Massal. = Porpidia tuberculosa
uliginosa (Schrader) Ach. = Placynthiella uliginosa
ultima Th. Fr. = Cephalophysis leucospila
umbonella Nyl. = Cecidonia umbonella
vacciniicola Tønsberg = Biatora vacciniicola
vernalis (L.) Ach. = Biatora vernalis
vernicoma Tuck. = Gassicurtia vernicoma
violascens H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
viridans (Flotow) Lamy = Lecidella viridans
viridescens (Schrader) Ach. = Trapeliopsis viridescens
*vitellinaria Nyl. = Carbonea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Körber = Carbonea vorticosa
vulgata Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
wallrothii Flörke ex Sprengel = Trapeliopsis wallrothii
washingtonensis H. Magn. = L. cascadensis
wulfenii (Hepp) Arnold = Lecidella wulfenii
xanthococca Sommerf. = Pycnora xanthococca
ypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
zahlbruckneri Fink = Lecidella latypiza (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)

LECIDELLA Körber
anomaloides (A. Massal.) Hertel & H. Kilias Syn.: Lecidea goniophila auct.
asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea catalinaria
bullata Körber
carpathica Körber Syns.: Lecidea latypiza, L. carpathica, L. latypea auct., L. evansi, L. albonigra
chiricahuana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
dimelaenophila Hertel
effugiens (Nilson) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea albidocinerella
elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syns.: Lecidea elaeochroma, L. olivacea, L. limitata auct.
enteroleucella (Nyl.) Hertel
euphorea (Flörke) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea euphorea, L. glomerulosa
flavosorediata (Vězda) Hertel & Leuckert
granulata (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea granulata
granulosula (Nyl.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
latypiza (Nyl.) M. Choisy
meiococca (Nyl.)
Leuckert & Hertel
nashiana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
patavina (A. Massal.)
Knoph & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea acrocyanea, L. alaiensis, L. endolithea
pulveracea (Flörke ex Th. Fr.) P. Sydow  (Laundon 2005)
scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea scabra, L. prasinula
stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Bacidia arthoniza, Lecidea micacea, L. stigmatea, L. vulgata, L. lacus-crateris
[Lecidea subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge]
subviridis Tønsberg  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
tumidula (A. Massal.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
viridans (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Lecidea viridans
wulfenii (Hepp) Körber Syns.: Lecidea heppii, L. wulfenii
alaiensis (Vainio) Hertel = L. patavina
chodatii (Samp.) Knoph & Leuckert = L. granulosula
elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel = L. asema
enteroleuca auct. = various Lecidella spp.
glomerulosa (DC.) M. Choisy = L. euphorea
goniophila auct. = L. anomaloides
inamoena (Müll. Arg.) Hertel = L. patavina
incongruella (Vainio) Hertel & Leuckert = L. effugiens
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Körber (Goward et al. 1996) = Megalaria laureri
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel = L. scabra
spitsbergensis (Lynge) Hertel & Leuckert = L. patavina
subincongrua (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.)
Hertel & Leuckert = L. asema

LECIDOMA Gotth. Schneider & Hertel
demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea demissa, Lepidoma demissum, Psora demissa

LECIOGRAPHA A. Massal. = OPEGRAPHA
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Phacographa glaucomaria
*glaucomarioidea (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = Dactylospora glaucomarioides
*inspersa (Tul.) Rehm = possibly Dactylospora parasitica
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc. = Opegrapha lamyi
*parasitica A. Massal. = Opegrapha rupestris
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora pertusariicola
*urceolata (Fr.) Körber = Dactylospora urceolata

LECIOPHYSMA Th. Fr.
finmarkicum Th. Fr.
furfurascens (Nyl.) Gyelnik

LEIGHTONIOMYCES D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton
#phillipsii (Berk. & Leighton) D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (McCune & Stone 2009)

LEIODERMA Nyl.
cherokeense P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2005)
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.

LEIMONIS R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
erratica (Körber) R. C. Harris & Lendemer  Syns.: Lecidea chalybeiformis, L. erratica, L. suberratica, Micarea erratica

LEIORREUMA Eschw.
exaltatum (Mont. & Bosch) Staiger Syn.: Graphis diversa, Phaeographis exaltata (Staiger 2002)
explicans (Fink) Lendemer  Syn.:  Phaeographina explicans (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
patellulum (F
ée) Staiger  Syn.:  Phaeographis patellula (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
sericeum (Eschw.) Staiger  Syn.: Phaeographis sericea (Staiger 2002)

LEMMOPSIS (Vainio) Zahlbr.
arnoldiana (Hepp) Zahlbr.
(Schultz 2002d)

LEMPHOLEMMA Körber
chalazanum (Ach.) B. de Lesd. 
Syn.: Psorotichia segregata, Collemopsis segregata (Schultz 2007b)
cladodes (Tuck.)
Zahlbr.
intricatum (Arnold) Zahlbr.
isidiodes (Nyl. ex Arnold) H. Magn.
oblique-peltatum (Eschw.) C. W. Dodge
polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme
radiatum (Sommerf.) Henssen
umbella (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
vesiculiferum Henssen
albonigrumH. Magn. = L. cladodes
fennicum (Räsänen) Degel. (Goward 1999) = L. intricatum
myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. polyanthes

LEPIDOMA (Ach.) Gray
demissum (Rutstr.) M. Choisy = Lecidoma demissum

LEPRARIA Ach.
albicans (Th. Fr.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon albicans, Stereocaulon albicans  (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
arbuscula (Nyl.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon arbuscula, Stereocaulon arbuscula (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
aurescens Orange & Wolseley (Lendemer 2010a)
barbatica Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
brodoi Lendemer & Tønsberg (Lendemer & Tønsberg 2014)
caesiella
R. C. Harris  (Lendemer 2005a)
cryophila Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa  Syn.: Leproloma diffusum (Kukwa 2002)
disjuncta Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
eburnea
J. R. Laundon
elobataTønsberg (Tønsberg 1997)
finkii (B. de Lesd.) R. C. Harris (Lendemer 2013b)  Syns: Crocynia aliciae, C. americana
friabilis Lendemer, K. Knudsen & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008b)
gracilescens (Nyl.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Leprocaulon gracilescens (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
harrisiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2012a)
hodkinsoniana Lendemer (Lendemer 2011b)
humida Slav.-Bayr. & Orange (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
jackii Tønsberg (Kümmerling et al. 1995)
lanata Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007)
lecanorica Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
leprolomopsis Diederich & Sérus. (Lendemer 2013b)
membranacea (Dickson) Vainio Syn.: Leproloma membranaceum, Amphiloma lanuginosum (Kukwa 2002)
neglecta (Nyl.)
Erichsen  Syn.: Crocynia neglecta
nivalis J. R. Laundon
normandinoides Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2007)
oxybapha Lendemer (Lendemer 2012b)
pacifica Lendemer (Lendemer 2011b)
rigidula (B. de Lesd.) Tønsberg
squamatica Elix (Lendemer 2008)
subalbicans (I. M. Lamb) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon subalbicans, Stereocaulon subalbicans (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
torii P
érez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009a)
vouauxii (Hue) R. C. Harris Syn.: Leproloma vouauxii (Kukwa 2002)
xanthonica Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
xerophila Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2007) = Leprocaulon adhaerens
aeruginosa auct. = L. incana
aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm. = not a lichen-forming fungus
alpina (B. de Lesd.) Tretiach & Baruffo (Knudsen & Elix 2007a) = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
arctica (Lynge) Wetmore = L. vouauxii
borealis Loht. & Tønsberg = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013b)
cacuminum sensu J. R. Laundon = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)

cacuminum sensu Loht. = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
caesioalba (B. de Lesd.) J. R. Laundon = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
candelaris (L.) Fr. = Chrysothrix candelaris
chlorina (Ach.) Ach. = Chrysothrix chlorina
citrina (Schaerer) Rabenh.
= Chrysothrix candelaris
crassissima (Hue) Lettau  Misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
crassissima var. isidiata Llimona  Misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa var. chrysodetoides (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa = L. diffusa (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
flava (Schreber) Sm. = Chrysothrix candelaris
frigida J. R. Laundon = L. eburnea (Tønsberg 2004b)
gelida Tønsberg & Zhurb. (Kukwa & Zhurbenko 2010) = Lepraria neglecta (Lendemer 2013b)
incana (L.) Ach.  Misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
lesdainii (Hue) R. C. Harris = Botryolepraria lesdainii

lobificans
auct. N.A. non Nyl. = L. finkii  (Lendemer 2013b)
moroziana Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a) = Andreiomyces morozianus
salazinica Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007) = L. elobata (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)

santamonicae K. Knudsen & Elix (Knudsen & Elix 2007b) = Leprocaulon santamonicae
terricola Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a) = Leprocaulon terricola
texta K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen & Elix 2007a) = Leprocaulon textum

zonata Brodo = L. neglecta

LEPROCAULON Nyl. ex Lamy
adhaerens (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria adhaerens (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
americanum Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
knudsenii Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)

santamonicae (K. Knudsen & Elix) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepararia santamonicae (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
terricola (Lendemer) Lendemr & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria terricola (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
textum (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria texta (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)

albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Lepraria albicans
arbuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. = Lepraria arbuscula
gracilescens (Nyl.) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria gracilescens
microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. = L. quisquiliare, but North American records are L. americanum (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)

pseudoarbuscula (Asahina) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria subalbicans for North American records
subalbicans (I. M. Lamb) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria subalbicans

LEPROCOLLEMA Vainio
americanum Vainio   Apparently absent from N.A. north of Mexico (Schultz 2007a)

LEPROLOMA Nyl. ex Crombie = LEPRARIA  (Kukwa 2002)
angardianum (Øvstedal) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria neglecta
cacuminum (A. Massal.) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria neglecta
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. diffusum = Lepraria diffusa
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. chrysodetoides J. R. Laundon (Goward et al. 1996) = Lepraria diffusa
membranaceum (Dickson) Vainio = Lepraria membranacea
"membranaceum var. chrysodetoides" Removed as a typographical error here
vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria vouauxii

LEPROPLACA (Nyl.) Hue (Arup et al. 2013)
cirrochroa (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca cirrochroa
chrysodeta (Vainio ex Räsänen) J. R. Laundon  Syn.: Caloplaca chrysodeta
obliterans (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca obliterans

LEPTOCHIDIUM M. Choisy
albociliatum (Desm.) M. Choisy Syns.: Polychidium albociliatum, Leptogium albociliatum, L. pilosellum
crenatulum (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2006)

LEPTOGIDIUM Nyl. (Muggia et al. 2011)
contortum (Henssen) T. Sprib. & Muggia (Muggia et al. 2011)
dendriscum (Nyl.) Nyl.  Syn.: Polychidium dendriscum
intricatulum Nyl. = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum

LEPTOGIUM (Ach.) Gray
adpressum Nyl.
arcticum P. M. Jørg.
arsenei Sierk
austroamericanum (Malme) C. W. Dodge
azureum (Sw. ex Ach.)
Mont.
brebissonii Mont.
burgessii (L.) Mont.
burnetiae C. W. Dodge
byssinum (Hoffm.) Zwackh ex Nyl.
chloromelum (Ach.) Nyl.
coralloideum (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)  Syn.: Parmelia coralloideum
corticola (Taylor) Tuck.
crenatulum (Nyl.) Vainio
cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körber
denticulatum Nyl.
digitatum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
floridanum Sierk
fusisporum (Tuck.) C. W. Dodge
hibernicum M. E. Mitch. ex P. M. Jørg.  (Nealy & Anderson 2010)
hirsutum Sierk
hypotrachynum Müll. Arg.
insigne P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2010)
isidiosellum (Riddle) Sierk
juressianum Tav.
(Lendemer et al. 2008c)
laceroides B. de Lesd.
marginellum (Sw.) Gray
microstictum Vainio
milligranum Sierk
nanum Herre (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge  (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.
pseudofurfuraceum P. M. Jørg. & Wallace (Jørgensen 1997)
rivulare (Ach.) Mont.
rugosum Sierk
saturninum (Dickson) Nyl.
sessile Vainio
stipitatum Vainio
tacomae P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
albociliatum Desm. = Leptochidium albociliatum
americanum Degel. = L. laceroides
amphineum Ach. ex Nyl. = L. byssinum
apalachense (Tuck.) Nyl. = Scytinium apalachense
aquale (Arnold) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium aquale
aragonii Otálora (Otálora et al. 2008) = Scytinium aragonii
arizonicum Zahlbr. =
Scytinium juniperinum
biatorinum (Nyl.) Leighton (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = L. nanum, for North American report (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
bullatum (Sw. in Ach.) Nyl.
(Fink 1935)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
burnetiae C. W. Dodge var. hirsutum (Sierk) P. M. Jørg. = L. hirsutum
caesiellum Tuck. = L. byssinum
caesium (Ach.) Vainio = L. cyanescens
californicum Tuck. = Scytinium californicum
cellulosum P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium cellulosum
contortum Sierk = Scytinium contortum
corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks =
Scytinium palmatum
crenatellum (Nyl.) Tuck. = L. rivulare
dactylinum Tuck. = Scytinium dactylinum
erectum Sierk = Scytinium erectum
fragile (Tayl.) Nyl (Fink 1935) =
Scytinium fragile Taylor, but a likely misidentification for North America (Degelius 1954)
furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk = L. pseudofurfuraceum (for North American reports; Jørgensen 1997)
gelatinosum (With.) J. R. Laundon = Scytinium gelatinosum
imbricatum P. M. Jørg. = Scytinium imbricatum
inflexum Nyl. = L. burgessii (fide Jørgensen)
intermedium (Arnold) Arnold = Scytinium intermedium
intricatulum Nyl. (Fink 1935) =
Scytinium teretiusculum (Sierk 1964)
juniperinum Tuck. = Scytinium juniperinum
lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr. = Scytinium lichenoides
lividofuscum (Florke ex Schlecht.) Flotow = Scytinium tenuissimum
microdium (Nyl.) Zahlbr. =
Scytinium plicatile (Sierk 1964)
minutissimum (Flörke) Fr.
= Scytinium subtile
palmatum (Hudson) Mont.  (Hoffman & Hafellner 2000; Santesson et al. 2004) = Scytinium palmatum
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge North American reports refer to L. pseudofurfuraceum
parculum Nyl. = Scytinium parculum
perminutum Hedr. = Scytinium subtile

pilosellum G. Merr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
platynum (Tuck.) Herre = Scytinium platynum
plectenchymum Fink = Scytinium juniperinum
plicatile (Ach.) Leighton = Scytinium plicatile
polycarpum P. M. Jørg. & Goward = Scytinium polycarpum
pulvillus Tuck. (Fink 1935)  Possible synonym of Scytinium lichenoides (Sierk 1964)
rhyparodes Nyl. (Fink 1935) =
Scytinium callopismum
rivale Tuck. = Scytinium rivale
schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. = Scytinium schraderi
scotinum (Ach.) Fr. = Scytinium gelatinosum (Santesson et al. 2004)
sinuatum (Hudson) A. Massal. =
Scytinium gelatinosum
siskiyouensis D. F. Stone & Ruchty (Stone & Ruchty 2008) = Scytinium siskiyouensis
subaridum P. M. Jørg. & Goward = Scytinium subaridum
subtile (Schrader) Torss. = Scytinium subtile
tenuissimum (Dickson) Körber = Scytinium tenuissimum
teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold = Scytinium teretiusculum
tremelloides auct. = L. cyanescens
turgidum (Ach.) Crombie (McCune & Rosentreter 2007) = Scytinium turgidum

LEPTORHAPHIS Körber
atomaria (Ach.) Szatala
#contorta Degel.
#epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
lucida Körber
+parameca (A. Massal.) Körber
quercus (Beltr.) Körber = identity uncertain

LEPTOSPHAERULINA McAlpine
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Riedel

LEPTOTREMA Mont. & Bosch (Frisch 2006)
wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg. (Frisch 2006) Syn.: Myriotrema wightii, Thelotrema wightii
auberianum (Mont.) Fink = Stegobolus auberianus
glaucescens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Leucodecton glaucescens
heterosporum (C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema santense
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema laeviusculum
lepadodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema monosporum
monosporum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Thelotrema monosporum
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale = Ocellularia bahiana
polycarpum Müll. Arg. = Leucodecton subcompunctum
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink = L. wightii
reclusum (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema reclusum
santense (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Reimnitzia santensis

LETHARIA (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr.
columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson
gracilis Kroken ex McCune & Altermann (McCune & Altermann 2009)
vulpina (L.) Hue Syn.: Evernia vulpina
californica (Lév.) Hue = L. columbiana
vulpina (L.) Hue f. californica (Lév.) W. A. Weber = L. columbiana

LETHARIICOLA Grummann = SPHAEROPEZIA (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*cucularis (Norman) Lumbsch & D. Hawksw. = Sphaeropezia cuculuris

*sipei Grummann = Sphaeropezia sipei

LETROUITIA Hafellner & Bellem.
domingensis (Pers.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium domingense, Bombyliospora domingensis
parabola (Nyl.) R. Sant. & Hafellner
vulpina (Tuck.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium vulpinum, Bombyliospora vulpina

LETTAUIA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*santessonii Ihlen & Tønsberg (Ihlen & Tønsberg 1996)

LEUCOCARPIA Vězda
biatorella (Arnold) Vězda (Buck & Harris 2001)
dictyospora (Orange) R. Sant.  (Alstrup 2004)

LEUCODECTON Massal. (Frisch 2006)
compunctellum (Nyl.) Frisch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
glaucescens (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema glaucescens, Myriotrema glaucescens (Frisch 2006)
occultum (Eschw.) A. Frisch  Syn: Myriotrema compunctum (Frisch 2006)
subcompunctum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema polycarpum (Frisch 2006), Myriotrema subcompunctum

LEUCOGYROPHANA
Pouzar
*lichenicola Thorn, Malloch & Ginns (Thorn et al. 1998)

LICHENOCHORA Hafellner
*arctica Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*galligena R. Sant. & Hafellner (Diederich 2003)
*lepidiotae (Anzi) Etayo & Nav.-Ros. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*obscuroides (Lindsay) Triebel & Rambold (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*rinodinae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*verrucicola (Wedd.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant.
*xanthoriae Triebel & Rambold
*thallina (Cooke) Hafellner = L. obscuroides

LICHENOCONIUM Petrak & H. Sydow
*cargillianum (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*christiansenii M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2004)
*edgewoodensis Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*erodens M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.
*follmannii Kondratyuk & Galloway (Kondratyuk & Galloway 1995)
*laevisporum Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb et al. 1995)
*lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw.
*lichenicola (P. Karst.) Petrak & H. Sydow (Etayo et al. 2007)
*pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petrak & H. Sydow
*usneae (Anzi) D. Hawksw.
*xanthoriae M. S. Christ.

LICHENODIPLIS Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*dendrographae Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*lecanoricola (M. S. Cole & Hawksw.) Diederich Syn.: Laeviomyces lecanoricola (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*rinodinicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)

LICHENOMPHALIA Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys (Redhead et al. 2002)
alpina (Britzelm.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina alpina, O. luteovitellina, Phytoconis luteovitellina, Botrydina luteovitellina (Redhead et al. 2002)
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina hudsoniana, Botrydina viridis, Coriscium viride, Phytoconis viridis (Redhead et al. 2002)
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina umbellifera, O. ericetorum, Phytoconis ericetorum, Botrydina botryoides, B.vulgaris (Redhead et al. 2002)
velutina (Quél.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina velutina, Phytoconis velutina, Botrydina velutina (Redhead et al. 2002)

LICHENOPELTELLA Höhn.
*arctomiae P
érez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*biatorae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib.
(Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*heterodermiicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2002)
*leprosulae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii (P. M. Kirk & Spooner) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*stereocaulorum Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2010)
* thamnoliae R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOPUCCINIA D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*poeltii D. Hawksw. & Haffelner (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOSTICTA Zopf
*alcicornaria (Lindsay) D. Hawksw.

LICHENOSTIGMA Hafellner
*ampla Calat. & Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*anatolica Halici & Kocakaya (Lendemer et al. 2009b)
*bolacinae Nav.-Ros., Calat. & Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*cosmopolites Hafellner & Calatayud (Hafellner & Calatayud 1999)
*dimelaenae Calat. & Hafellner  (Calatayud et al. 2004)
*elongata Nav.-Ros. & Hafellner (Navarro-Rosines & Hafellner 1996)
*maureri Hafellner  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) Syn.: Abrothallus usneae auct. non Rabenh.
*radicans Calatayud & Barreno (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008)
*rugosa Thor
*saxicola K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010d)
*semiimmersa Hafellner (Hafellner 1999)
*subradians Hafellner, Calatyud & Nav.-Ros. (Calatayud et al. 2002)

LICHENOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
#calcarea Henssen
#convexa Henssen
#intermixta Henssen
#metzleri (J. Lahm) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia metzleri
#renobalesiana D. Hawksw. & V. Atienza (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d)
#scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Microthelia aterrima, Rinodina aterrima
#tenuissima Henssen

LICHENOTHRIX Henssen = PYRENOTHRIX
riddlei Henssen = Pyrenothrix nigra

LICHINA C. Agardh
confinis (O. F. Müller) C. Agardh
willeyi (Tuck.) Henssen

LICHINELLA Nyl.
americana Henssen
cribellifera (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea Syn.: Gonohymenia cribellifera, Rechingeria cribellifera
flexa Henssen, Büdel & T. H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
granulosa M. Schultz (Schultz 2005)
intermedia Henssen (Schultz 2005)

iodopulchra (Croz.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
melamphylla (Tuck.) Essl. Syns.: Gonohymenia melamphylla, Pannaria melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Essl. Syns.: Forsellia minnesotensis, Gonohymenia minnesotensis
myriospora (Zahlbr.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
nigritella (Lettau) P. P. Moreno & Egea Syn.: Gonohymenia nigritella, Thyrea nigritella

robustoides Henssen, Büdel & T.H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
sinaica (Marton & Galun) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
stipatula Nyl.

LICHINODIUM Nyl.
ahlneri Henssen (Spribille et al. 2010)
canadense Henssen
saxicola Henssen
sirosiphoideum Nyl.

LIGNOSCRIPTA B. D. Ryan
atroalba B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan 2004a)

LITHOGRAPHA Nyl.
tesserata (DC.) Nyl.

LITHOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.
hyalosporum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Arthopyrenia hyalospora, Plagiocarpa hyalospora, Pleurotrema solivagum
illotum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa illota, P. langloisii
macrosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa macrospora
microsporum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
phaeosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa phaeosporum
septemseptatum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa septemseptata

LLIMONAEA Egea & Torrente
cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius  Syn.: Sclerophyton cerebriforme (Sparrius 2004b)
californica (Tuck.) Sparrius (Sparrius 2004b) = Schizopelte crustosa (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

LLIMONIELLA
Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.
*acarosporicola (Kocourk. & K. Knudsen) Diederich & Ertz  Syn.: Gelatinopsis acarosporicola  (Diederich et al. 2010)
*catapyrenii Zhurb., Kukwa & Flakus (Zhurbenko 2013)
*cinnabarinae Pérez-Ortega, Etayo & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011)
*pertusariae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*phaeophysciae Diederich, Ertz & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2010)
*pyrenulae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*neglecta (Vainio) Triebel & Rambold = Rhymbocarpus neglectus

LOBARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
amplissima (Scop.) Forssell (Tønsberg & Goward 2001)
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Sticta hallii
kurokawae Yoshim.
linita (Ach.) Rabenh. Syn.: Sticta linita
oregana (Tuck.)
Müll. Arg. Syn.: Sticta oregana
pseudopulmonaria Gyelnik
pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Syn.: Sticta pulmonaria
quercizans Michaux
ravenelii (Tuck.) Yoshim. Syn.: Sticta erosa
retigera (Bory) Trevisan
scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. Syn.: Sticta verrucosa
silvae-veteris (Goward & Goffinet) Goward & Goffinet Syn.: Nephroma silvae-veteris (Goffinet & Goward 1998)
tenuis Vainio
erosa (Eschw.) Nyl. = L. ravenelii
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vainio Not in North America.
laetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr. = L. virens but not known from North America
lobulifera B. Moore = L. tenuis
verrucosa (Hudson) Hoffm. = L. scrobiculata
 

LOBOTHALLIA (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia alphoplaca, Lecanora alphoplaca, Lecanora thamnoplaca
melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia melanaspis, Lecanora melanaspis
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia praeradiosa, Lecanora praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia radiosa, Lecanora radiosa, L. circinata

LOPADIOPSIS Vainio = GYALECTIDIUM
floridana Zahlbr. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

LOPADIUM Körber
augustini (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
coralloideum (Nyl.) Lynge
disciforme (Flotow) Kullhem
dodgei Herre
pezizoideum (Ach.) Körber
alpinum (Körber) R. Sant. = Schadonia alpina
domingense (Pers.) Fink = Letrouitia domingensis
fecundum Th. Fr. = Schadonia fecunda
fuscum Müll. Arg. = Calopadia fusca
fuscoluteum (Dickson) Mudd = Brigantiaea fuscolutea
gemellum (Anzi) Stizenb. = Schadonia alpina
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) Zahlbr. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Calopadia puiggarii
phyllocharis (Mont.) Fink = Tapellaria epiphylla
vulpinum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia vulpina

LOPEZARIA Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) = MEGALARIA Hafellner (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
versicolor (Fée) Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) = Megalaria versicolor

LOXOSPORA A. Massal.
assateaguensis Lendemer (Lendemer 2013c)
cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner Syn.: Haematomma cismonicum
confusa Lendemer (Lendemer 2013c)
elatina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Haematomma elatinum
ochrophaea (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma ochrophaeum
pustulata (Brodo & W. L. Culb..) R. C. Harris = Variolaria pustulata

LOXOSPOROPSIS Henssen
corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

MACENTINA Vězda
dictyospora Orange (Will-Wolf 1998) = Psoroglaena dictyospora (Harada 2003)

MALCOLMIELLA Vězda
granifera (Ach.) Kalb & Lücking (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007) = Malmidea granifera

MALMIDEA
Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
furfurosa (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb & Lücking  Syn.: Lecidea furfurosa (Lücking et al. 2011b)
fuscella (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
granifera (Ach.) Kalb, Rivas Platas & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora granifera, Malcolmiella granifera (Lücking et al. 2011b)
gyalectoides (Vainio) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leptoloma (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
piperis (Sprengel) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
rhodopis (Tuck.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
variabilis Kalb (Lücking et al. 2011b)
vinosa (Eschw.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)

MARCHANDIOBASIDIUM
Diederich & Schultheis (Diederich & Lawrey 2007)
aurantiacum Diederich & Schultheis

MARCHANDIOMYCES
Diederich & D. Hawksw.
*buckii Diederich & Lawrey (Diederich & Lawrey 2007)
*corallinus (Roberge) Diederich & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Illosporium corallinum
#lignicola Lawrey & Diederich (DePriest et al. 2005)

MARONEA A. Massal.
constans (Nyl.) Hepp  Questionable for N.Am. (Harris 2006b)
polyphaea H. Magn.
carolinae H. Magn. = M. polyphaea (Harris 2006b)
porinoidea Zahlbr. = Ramonia valenzueliana

MASONHALEA Kärnefelt
inermis (Nyl.) Lumbsch, M. Nelsen & A. Thell  Syns.: Cetraria inermis, Tuckermannopsis inermis (Nelsen et al. 2013)
richardsonii (Hooker) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cetraria richardsonii

MASSALONGIA Körber
carnosa (Dickson) Körber
microphylliza (Nyl. ex Hasse) Henssen Syns.: Placynthium dubium, P. microphyllizum

MASTODIA Hooker f. & Harvey
tessellata Hooker f. & Harvey = Kohlmeyera complicatula

MAZOSIA A. Massal.
ocellata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Platygrapha ocellata, Schismatomma ocellatum, Thelotrema carneum, Enterographa carnea, Ocellularia carnea

MEDUSULINA Müll. Arg.
nitida (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Graphis nitida
texana Müll. Arg.

MEGALARIA Hafellner
albocincta (Degel.) Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)  Syns.: Catillaria albocincta, Catillochroma albocincta (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
beechingii
Lendemer (Lendemer 2007b)
brodoana S. Ekman & Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
columbiana (G. Merr.) S. Ekman (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Catillaria columbiana
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.)
Hafellner Syns.: Catillaria grossa, Catinaria grossa, C. leucoplaca auct.
jemtlandica (Th. Fr. & Almq.) Fryday  Syn.: Catillaria jemtlandica, Lecidea sublimosa (Fryday 2004a)
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Hafellner (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Syns.: Catillaria laureri, Catinaria laureri, Lecidella laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Fryday & Lendemer  Syns.: Catillaria leptocheila, Catillochroma leptocheila (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
pannosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday & Lendemer (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
pulverea
(Borrer) Hafellner & E. Schreiner  Syn.: Catillaria pulverea
versicolor (Flotow) Fryday & Lendemer  Syn.: Catillochroma versicolor (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)

MEGALOSPORA Meyen
pachycheila (Tuck.) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bombyliospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora tuberculosa
versicolor (Fée) Zahlbr. = Megalaria versicolor

MEGASPORA (Clauz. & Cl. Roux) Hafellner & V. Wirth
verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth  Syns.: Pachyospora verrucosa, P. mutabilis, Lecanora verrucosa, L. mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl.non Sommerf., L. urceolata, Pertusaria freyi

MELANARIA Erichsen = PERTUSARIA
macounii I. M. Lamb = Pertusaria macounii

MELANELIA Essl.
agnata (Nyl.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria agnata
culbersonii (Hale) Thell Syn.: Cetraria culbersonii
hepatizon (Ach.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria hepatizon, C. polyschiza
stygia (L.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia stygia
albertana (Ahti) Essl.  = Melanelixia albertana
commixta (Nyl.) Thell = Cetrariella commixta
disjuncta (Erichsen) Essl. = Montanelia disjuncta 
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperata

exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. =  Melanelixia fuliginosa

glabra (Schaerer) Essl.  North American reports are Melanelixia californica

glabratula (Lamy) Essl. = Melanelixia fuliginosa

glabroides (Essl.) Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides

granulosa (Lynge) Essl. = Montanelia disjuncta

halei (Ahti) Essl.  Syn.: Melanohalea halei
incolorata (Parrique) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula

infumata (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) Essl. = Melanohalea multispora

olivacea (L.) Essl. = Melanohalea olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) Essl. = Melanohalea olivaceoides
panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. = Montanelia panniformis

septentrionalis (Lynge) Essl. =  Melanohalea septentrionalis

sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti = Montanelia sorediata

sorediosa (Almb.) Essl. = Montanelia sorediata

subargentifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subargentifera

subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subaurifera

subelegantula (Essl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subolivacea
substygia (Räsänen) Essl. =
Montanelia tominii
tominii (Oxner) Essl. = Montanelia tominii

trabeculata (Ahti) Essl. = Melanohalea trabeculata

villosella (Essl.) Essl. (Esslinger 2002c) = Melanelixia villosella

MELANELIXIA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004a)

albertana (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia albertana, Parmelia albertana
californica A. Crespo & Divakar  (Divakar et al. 2010)
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia fuliginosa, M. glabratula, Parmelia fuliginosa, P. glabratula

glabroides (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia glabroides, Parmelia glabroides
subargentifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subargentifera, Parmelia subargentifera, P. conspurcata

subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subaurifera, Parmelia subaurifera

villosella (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia villosella, Parmelia villosella

glabra (Schaerer) O. Blanco et al.  North American reports are M. californica

 

MELANOHALEA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004a)

elegantula (Zahlbr.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia elegantula, M. incolorata, Parmelia elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia exasperata, Parmelia exasperata,  P. aspera, P. aspidota

exasperatula (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia exasperatula, Parmelia exasperatula

halei (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia halei, Parmelia halei

infumata (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia infumata, Parmelia infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia multispora, Parmelia multispora

olivacea (L.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia olivacea, Parmelia olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia olivaceoides, Parmelia olivaceoides

septentrionalis (Lynge) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia septentrionalis, Parmelia septentrionalis

subelegantula (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subelegantula, Parmelia subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subolivacea, Parmelia subolivacea
trabeculata (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia trabeculata, Parmelia trabeculata

MELANOLECIA Hertel
transitoria (Arnold) Hertel ex Poelt
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel = Farnoldia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.)
Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis

MELANOMMA Nitschke ex Fuckel
+oxysporum (Zahlbr.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia oxyspora

MELANOPHLOEA P. James & Vězda
americana K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
Syn.: Thelenella americana (Knudsen & Kocouroková 2013)

MELANOTHECA Körber = PYRENULA
achariana Fée = Pyrenula anomala
aggregata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
= not in North America
anomala (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pyrenula anomala
cinerata Zahlbr. = Pyrenula sexlocularis
concatervans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula sexlocularis
cruenta (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruenta
esenbeckiana Fée = Tomasellia esenbeckiana, but misidentification for North America
subincruenta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula cruenta
wrightii Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North American records

MELANOTOPELIA Lumbsch & Mangold (Mangold et al. 2008)
toensbergii (Vězda & Kantvilas) Lumbsch & Mangold  Syn.: Topeliopsis toensbergii (Mangold et al. 2008)

MELANOTREMA A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)
meiospermum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syn.: Ocellularia meiosperma, Phaeotrema meiospermum (Frisch 2006)

MELASPILEA Nyl.
amota Nyl.
arthonioides (Fée) Nyl.
cinerascens (Willey) Fink
constrictella (Stirton) A. L. Sm.
*cupularis Müll. Arg.
deformis (Schaerer) Nyl.
demissa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
*epigena Müll. Arg.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
gemella (Eschw.) Nyl. (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
interjecta (Leighton) A. L. Sm. (Villella et al. 2013)
*lentiginosula (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
maculosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
mesophlebia Müll. Arg.  Syn.: Opegrapha mesophlebia
octomera Müll. Arg.
proximella (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Norrlin
stellans Zahlbr.
*tribuloides (Tuck.) Müll. Arg.

MENEGAZZIA A. Massal.
subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant.  (Bjerke 2003)
terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia pertusa, P. sipeana
pertusa (Schrank) Stein = M. terebrata

MERISMATIUM Zopf
*coccisporum (Norman) Vouaux
*decolorans (Rehm ex Arnold) Triebel
*heterophractum (Nyl.) Vouaux (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*nigritellum (Nyl.) Vouaux (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*peregrinum (Flotow) Triebel (Harris & Lendemer 2005)

METAMELANEA Henssen
melambola (Tuck.) Henssen Syns.: Synalissa melambola, Pyrenopsis melambola
umbonata Henssen (Fryday 2006)

METASPHAERIA Sacc.
*tartarina (Nyl.) Keissler (Talbot et al. 2000) = Sagediopsis campsteriana

MICAREA Fr.
alabastrites (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
assimilata (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea assimilata
bauschiana (Körber) V. Wirth & Vězda Syns.:  L. dilutiuscula
botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins (McCune 1996)
chlorosticta (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia chlorosticta
cinerea (Schaerer) Hedl.
coppinsii Tønsberg (Fryday 2006)
deminuta Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
denigrata (Fr.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea aniptiza
elachista (Körber) Coppins & R. Sant.
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia endocyanea
globulosella (Nyl.) Coppins
hedlundii Coppins
incrassata Hedl.
leprosula (Th. Fr.) Coppins & A. Fletcher
lignaria (Ach.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia lignaria
lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl.
lutulata (Nyl.) Coppins
marginata Coppins & Muhr (Fryday 2006)
melaena (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia melaena, Bilimbia melaena
micrococca (Körber) Gams ex Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
misella (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea misella
myriocarpa V. Wirth & V
ězda ex Coppins (Tønsberg 1999a)
neostipitata Coppins & P. May (Coppins & May 2001)
nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm.
peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia trisepta, Bilimbia trisepta
perparvula (Nyl.) Coppins & Printzen (Printzen 1995, Coppins 2008)
prasina Fr. Syns.: Catillaria prasina
prasinella (Jatta) I. M. Lamb (Spribille et al. 2010)
pycnidiophora Coppins & P. James
rhabdogena (Norman) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea punctella (Printzen 1995)
subalpina Coppins & Spribille  (Coppins & Spribille 2004)
subviolascens (H. Magn.) Coppins
sylvicola (Flotow) Vězda & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecidea sylvicola
synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
ternaria (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Lecidea suballinita
tuberculata (Sommerf.)
R. A. Anderson
turfosa (A. Massal.) Du Rietz
vulpinaris (Nyl.) Muhr
xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (Coppins & Tønsberg 2001)
clavopycnidiata Brodo & Tønsberg = Szczawinskia tsugae (Aptroot et al. 1997)
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Coppins = Helocarpon crassipes
erratica (Körber) Hertel, Rambold & Pietschmann = Leimonis erratica
gelatinosa (Flörke) Brodo = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
globularis "(Ach. ex Nyl.)
Hedl." = M. misella
lynceola (Th. Fr.) Palice = misidentification for North America? (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
melanobola (Nyl.) Coppins = misidentifaction for North America (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
populina (Müll. Arg. ex Nyl.) R. A. Anderson & M. P. Carmer = Lecidea populina
trisepta (Hellbom) Wetmore = M. peliocarpa
violacea (Crouan ex Nyl.)
Hedl. = M. peliocarpa
viridescens (Schrader) Brodo = Trapeliopsis viridescens

MICAREOPIS R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
irriguata R. C. Harris & Lendemer

MICROCALICIUM Vainio
+ahlneri Tibell
#arenarium (Hampe ex A. Massal.)
Tibell Syn.: Coniocybopsis arenaria
*conversum Tibell  (Tibell & Ryan 2004)
*disseminatum (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Mycocalicium disseminatum, Calicium disseminatum
*subpedicellatum (Schaerer) Tibell = M. disseminatum

MICROGLAENA Körber nom. illegit. = THELENELLA
corrosa (Körber) Arnold = Protothelenella corrosa
hassei Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei
inductula (Nyl.) Servít = Thelenella inductula
muscorum (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Thelenella muscorum
sordidula Th. Fr. = Thelenella sordidula
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Lönnr. = Protothelenella sphinctrinoides
subcorallina Hasse = Thelenella modesta
sychnogonoides Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei

MICROLYCHNUS A. Funk
epicorticis A. Funk = Gyalideopsis epicorticis

MICROPHIALE (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = COENOGONIUM
diluta (Pers.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Coenogonium pineti
lutea (Dickson) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Coenogonium luteum

MICROTHELIA Körber = ANISOMERIDUM
#aterrima (Kremp. ex Anzi) Zahlbr. = Lichenothelia scopularia
hymnothora (Ach.) Trevisan = Granulopyrenis hymnothora
#inops Degel. = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops
#metzleri J. Lahm = Lichenothelia metzleri
#micula auct. non Flotow ex Körber = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops for most North American records
+oblongata Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
+oxyspora Zahlbr. = Melanomma oxysporum
+thelena (Ach.) Trevisan = Mycomicrothelia thelena, but not found in North America
verruculosa Anastasiou = identity uncertain
+wallrothii (Hepp) Rehm = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
#willeyana Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia willeyana

MINUTOEXCIPULA V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.
*mariana V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)
*tuckerae V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.

MIRIQUIDICA Hertel & Rambold (Hertel & Rambold 1987)
atrofulva (Sommerf.) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea atrofulva
deusta (Stenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea deustata
garovaglii (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea garovaglii, L. aenea
griseoatra (Flotow) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: (?) Lecidea subplumbea
instrata (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea instrata
intrudens (H. Magn.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecanora intrudens
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea leucophaea, L. marylandensis
leucophaeoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Andreev  Syn.: Lecidea leucophaeoides (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lulensis (Hellbom) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea lulensis, L. circumnigrata var. reagens
nigroleprosa (Vainio) Hertel & Rambold (Spribille et al. 2010)
plumbeoatra (Vainio) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea plumbeoatra, L. furva, L. humilis
pulvinatula (Arnold) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea circumnigrata
pycnocarpa (Körber) Andreev  Syn.: Lecidea marciensis (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
scotopholis (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan & Timdal  Syns.:  Lecanora scotopholis, Lecidea scotopholis, Psora scotopholis, Psorula scotopholis (Nash et al. 2004a)
mexicana Rambold, Sipman & Hertel (Knudsen & Owe-Larson 2005) = M. scotopholis (Knudsen et al. 2008b, Lendemer & Knudsen 2008)

MOBERGIA H. Mayrhofer & Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina angelica, R. bolodes, R. dirinoides, Dimelaena angelica
calculiformis (W. A. Weber) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina calculiformis, R. platyloba

MOELLEROPSIS Gyelnik
nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln. ssp. nebulosa (Jørgensen 2002)
nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln. ssp. frullaniae Maass (Jørgensen 2000a, Maass 1986)

MONOBLASTIA Riddle
borinquensis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris
cypressi R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rappii Zahlbr.

MONOBLASTIOPSIS R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse
konzana R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse (Harris & Morse 2008)
nigrocortina R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse (Harris & Morse 2008)

MONODICTYS S. Hughes
*cellulosa S. Hughes (Diederich 2003)
*fuliginosa Etayo (Zhurbenko 2009b)

MONTANELIA Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl. (Divakar et al. 2012)
disjuncta (Erichsen) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia disjuncta, Parmelia disjuncta, P. granulosa, P. denalii
panniformis (Nyl.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia panniformis, Parmelia panniformis
sorediata (Ach.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia sorediata, M. sorediosa, Parmelia sorediata, P. sorediosa

tominii (Oxner) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia tominii, Parmelia saximontana, P. substygia

MOSIGIA Fr. ex A. Massal.
= RIMULARIA
gibbosa (Ach.) Fr. ex A. Massal. = Rimularia gibbosa

MUELLERELLA Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
*erratica (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. John  Syn.: M. pygmaea v. athallina (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*hospitans Stizenb.
(Spribille et al. 2010)
*lecanactidis Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola (Sommerf. ex Fr.) D. Hawksw.
*pygmaea (Körber) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Tichothecium pygmaeum
*ventosicola (Mudd) D. Hawksw.
*pygmaea var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel = *M. erratica
*pygmaea var. ventosicola (Mudd) Triebel = *M. ventosicola

MULTICLAVULA R. Petersen
coronilla (G. W. Martin) R. Petersen
corynoides (Peck) R. Petersen
mucida (Fr.) R. Petersen
sharpii R. Petersen
vernalis (Schwein.) R. Petersen

MYCOBILIMBIA Rehm
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth  Syn.: Lecidea berengeriana
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman & Printzen (Ekman 2004c)  Syns.: Bacidia carneoalbida, B. sphaeroides, Biatora carneoalbida, Bilimbia sphaeroides auct.
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Vitik., Ahti, Kuusinen, Lommi & T. Ulvinen (Hafellner & Türk 2001)  Syns: Biatora epixanthoides, Lecidea epixanthoides
fissuriseda (Poelt) Poelt & Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea fissuriseda
pilularis (Körber) Hafellner & Türk  Syns.: Bacidia sphaeroides, Biatora sphaeroides, Bilimbia sphaeroides, Catillaria sphaeroides (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
tetramera (De Not.) Vitik., Ahti, Kuusinen, Lommi & T. Ulvinen ex Hafellner & Türk (Hafellner & Türk 2001)  Syn.: Bacidia fusca
accedens (Arnold) V. Wirth ex Hafellner = Bilimbia accedens
austrocalifornica (Zahlbr.) Knudsen (Knudsen 2005b) = Carbonea latypizodes
fusca (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth = M. tetramera
hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner = Bilimbia lobulata
lurida
(Ach.) Hafellner & Türk (Hafellner & Türk 2001) = Romjularia lurida
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) W. Brunnbauer = Bilimbia microcarpa
obscurata (Sommerf.) Rehm = M. tetramera
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner = Bilimbia sabuletorum

MYCOBLASTUS Norman
affinis (Schaerer) T. Schauer
alpinus (Fr.) Kernst.
caesius (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg Syn.: Haematomma caesium
glabrescens (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. (Kantvilas 2009)
sanguinarioides Kantvilas (Spribille et al. 2011b)
sanguinarius (L.) Norman
fucatus (Stirton) Zahlbr. = Violella fucata (Spribille et al. 2011a)
marginatus Degel. = M. affinis (Spribille & Tønsberg 2007)
melinus (Kremp. ex Nyl.) Hellbom = M. affinis
tornoënsis (Nyl.) R. A. Anderson = Japewia tornoënsis

MYCOCALICIUM Vainio
+albonigrum (Nyl.)
Fink Syn.: Calicium albonigrum
+americanun (R. Sant.) Tibell
+calicioides (Nádv.)
Tibell Syn.: Sphinctrinella calicioides
fuscipes (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Calicium fuscipes
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink Syn.: Calicium ravenelii
reticulatum Nádv.
+sequoiae Bonar
+subtile (Pers.) Szatala Syns.: M. parietinum, Calicium subtile
victoriae (C. Knight & F. Wilson) Nádv. (Tibell 2007)
+compressulum Nyl. ex Szatala = Phaeocalicium compressulum
*disseminatum (Ach.) Fink = Microcalicium disseminatum
*microcephalum (Sm.) Fink = Sphinctrina anglica
+parietinum (Ach. ex Schaerer) D. Hawksw. = M. subtile
#pusiolum (Ach.) Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
+rappii Nádv. = Chaenothecopsis rappii (Harris 1995a)
+savonicum Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis savonica

MYCOGLAENA Höhnel
+acuminans (Nyl.) Vainio
+alni (Dearness & House) Barr
+canadensis (Ellis & Everh.) Barr
+elegans (Berk. & Curtis) Höhnel
+meridionalis (Zahlbr.) Szatala
+myricae (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
+quercicola R. C. Harris
+subcoerulescens (Nyl.) Höhnel

MYCOMICROTHELIA Keissler
#captiosa (Kremp.) D. Hawksw.
+dothideaspora (Cook & Harkn.) D. Hawksw.
#hemispherica (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+inaequalis (Fabre) D. Hawksw.
#subfallens (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+wallrothii (Hepp) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia wallrothii, M. oblongata
#willeyana (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia willeyana
thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia thelena, but not found in North America

MYCOPORELLUM Müll. Arg.
californicum Zahlbr.
= Mycoporum californicum (Harris 1995a)
difforme (Minks) Fink = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
hassei Zahlbr. = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum sparsellum (Harris 1995a)

MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
acervatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
antecellens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia antecellens (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
californicum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia californica, Mycoporellum californicum
compositum (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Dermatina "pyrenocarpa"
eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Tomasellia eschweileri
+hippocastani (DC) Coppins (Aptroot 2002c)
lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Mycoporellum difforme, M. hassei, Tomasellia lactaea
mycoporoides (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Arthopyrenia mycoporoides
pycnocarpoides Müll. Arg.
sparsellum Nyl. (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia sparsella, Mycoporellum sparsellum
uniloculatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
ohiense Nyl. ex Fink = M. compositum
pycnocarpum Nyl. = M. compositum

MYELOCHROA (Asahina) Elix & Hale
aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina aurulenta, Parmelia aurulenta, P. silvestris
galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina galbina, Parmelia galbina, P. subquercifolia, P. sulphurosa
metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina metarevoluta, Parmelia metarevoluta
obsessa (Ach.)
Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina obsessa, Parmelia obsessa, P. finkii

MYOCHROIDEA Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Printzen et al. 2008)
leprosula (Arnold) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg
minutula Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg  Syns.:  Biatora porphyrospoda, Lecidea porphyrospoda
rufofusca (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg  Syn.: Biatora rufofusca, Lecidea rufofusca

MYRIONORA R. C. Harris
albidula (Willey) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Biatorella albidula

MYRIOSPORA Nägeli ex Uloth (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
hassei (Herre) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns.: Acarospora hassei, Silobia hassei (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
rhagadiza (Nyl.) K.Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns.: Acarospora amphibola auct., Silobia rhagadiza (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
scabrida (Hedl. ex Magn.) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns. : Acarospora scabrida, Silobia scabrida (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
smaragdula (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns. : Acarospora amphibola, A. smaragdula, A. smaragdula var. lesdainii, Silobia smaragdula (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Körber) Hue = Caeruleum heppii
immersa (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris = Caeruleum immersum

MYRIOTREMA Fée
erodens R. C. Harris
glauculum (Nyl.) Hale
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema laeviusculum
microporum (Mont.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia micropora
peninsulae R. C. Harris
pycnoporellum (Nyl.) Hale (Lücking et al. 2011b)
reclusum (Kremp.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema reclusum
rugiferum (Harm.) Hale
terebratulum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia terebratula
bahianum (Ach.) Hale  North American reports are Ocellularia obturascens (Lücking et al. 2011)
clandestinum (Fée) Hale  Not present in North America
compunctum (Ach.) Hale = Leucodecton occultum
glaucescens (Nyl.) Hale = Leucodecton glaucescens
glaucophaenum (Kremp.) Hale = Glaucotrema glaucophaenum
granulosum (Leighton) Hale  Erroneously reported for North America
halei (Tuck.) Hale = Thelotrema halei
subcompunctum (Nyl.) Hale = Leucodecton subcompunctum
wightii (Taylor) Hale = Leptotrema wightii

MYXOBILIMBIA Hafellner = BILIMBIA (Veldkamp 2004)
accedens (Arnold) Hafellner = Bilimbia accedens
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner = Bilimbia sabuletorum

MYXOPHORA Döbbeler & Poelt
+leptogiophila (Minks ex G. Winter) Nik.
Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)

MYXOTRICHUM Kunze
bicolor (Ehrenb. ex Pers.)
Fr.
poluninii Apinis = M. bicolor

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

NADVORNIKIA Tibell
hawaiiensis (Tuck.) Tibell
sorediata R. C. Harris

NAETROCYMBE Körber
#atomarioides (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#atractospora (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#cedrina (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#fraxini (Massal.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
herrei K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009b)
#megalospora (Lönnr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#massalongiana (Hepp) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#punctiformis (Schrank) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#quassiicola (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
saxicola (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2010)

NANOSTICTIS M. S. Christ.
*christiansenii Etayo (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*pseudocyphellariae Sherwood

NECTRIA (Fr.) Fr.
+zonata Seaver
*lecanodes Ces. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Nectriopsis lecanodes
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) D. Hawksw. =
Ovicuculispora parmeliae
*rubefaciens Ellis & Everh. = Nectriopsis rubefaciens

NECTRIELLA Nitschke ex Fuckel
*anisospora Lowen = Pronectria anisospora

NECTRIOPSIS Maire
*cladoniicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*lecanodes (Ces.) Diederich & Schroers  Syn. Nectria lecanodes (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
*rubefaciens (Ellis & Everh.) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.  Syn.:  Nectria rubefaciens (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Ovicuculispora parmeliae

NEOBARYA Lowen
*peltigerae Lowen, Boqueras & Gomez-Bolea (Zhurbenko 2009c)

NEOCATAPYRENIUM Harada
disparatum Breuss (Breuss 2005)

NEOCOLEROA Petrak
*inundata (Vainio) Diederich (Harris & Lendemer 2009) Reported as uncertain

NEOFUSCELIA Essl.
= XANTHOPARMELIA (Blanco et al. 2004b)
ahtii (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia ahtii
atticoides (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia atticoides
brunella (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia brunella
chiricahuensis (R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia chiricahuensis
infrapallida (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia infrapallida
loxodes (Nyl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia loxodes
occidentalis (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia occidentalis
pulla (Ach.) Essl.
= Xanthoparmelia pulla, but not present in North America
pustulosa (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia pustulosa
subhosseana (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia subhosseana
verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia verruculifera

NEOLAMYA Theissen & Sydow
*peltigerae (Mont.) Theissen & Sydow (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*xanthoparmeliae Kocourk. (Kocourková 2009)

NEPHROMA Ach.
arcticum (L.) Torss.
bellum (Sprengel) Tuck.
expallidum (Nyl.) Nyl.
helveticum Ach. subsp. helveticum
helveticum subsp. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Goward & Ahti
isidiosum (Nyl.) Gyelnik
laevigatum Ach.
occultum Wetmore
parile (Ach.) Ach.
resupinatum (L.) Ach.
helveticum Ach. var. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Wetmore = N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
laevigatum auct. non Ach.
= N. bellum
lusitanicum Schaerer = N. laevigatum Ach. non auct.
rameum (Schaerer) A. Massal.
(Fink 1935) = N. resupinatum (L.) Ach. (Wetmore 1960)
silvae-veteris Goward & Goffinet = Lobaria silvae-veteris
subtomentellum (Nyl.) Gyelnik = N. bellum

NESOLECHIA A. Massal.
cladoniscum (Willey) Fink = apothecia of Pycnothelia papillaria
*oxyspora (Tul.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis oxyspora
*oxysporella (Nyl.) Arn. (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
papillariae (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = apothecia of Pycnothelia papillaria (Rambold & Triebel 1992)
*thallicola (A. Massal.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis thallicola
vitellinaria (Nyl.) Rehm (Fink 1935) = Carbonea vitellinaria (Scholz 2000)

NEUROPOGON Nees & Flotow = USNEA
lambii Imshaug = Usnea sphacelata
sulphureus (J. König) Hellbom = Usnea sphacelata

NIEBLA Rundel & Bowler
cedrosensis J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash  Syns.:  Vermilacinia cedrosensis, V. reptiloderma (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria cephalota, Ramalina, cephalota, Vermilacinia cephalota  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ceruchis Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria ceruchis, Ramalina, ceruchis, Vermilacinia  cerebra, V. corrugata, V. ceruchis, V. howei, V. leoni, V. leopardina, V. nylanderi, V. vesiculosa, V. zebrina  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ceruchoides Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria ceruchoides, Vermilacinia ceruchoides, V. acicularis, V. pumila  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
combeoides (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.: Desmazieria combeoides, Ramalina combeoides, Vermilacinia combeoides  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
homalea (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.: Desmazieria homalea, D. testudinaria, Ramalina homalea, R. testudinaria
isidiascens Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash & Riefner
laevigata Bowler & Rundel  Syns.:  Vermilacinia johncassadyi, V. laevigata, V. ligulata, V. paleoderma, V. rigida, V. rosei, V. varicosa (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
polymorpha Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash, & Riefner  Syn.:  Vermilacinia polymorpha (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
procera Rundel & Bowler  Syn.:  Vermilacinia procera (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
robusta (R. Howe) Rundel  Syns.:  Ramalina combeoides var. robusta,  Vermilacinia robusta  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
tuberculata Riefner, Bowler, J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash  Syn: Vermilacinia tuberculata (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
caespitosa Spjut (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
cornea Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
dactylifera Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
disrupta (Nyl.) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
dissecta Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
eburnea Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
fimbriata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
flaccescens (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler = a South American species, not in North America
flagelliforma Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
halei Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
infundibula Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
laminaria Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
palmeri Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
ramosissima Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
siphonoloba Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
sorediata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
sorocarpia Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
testudinaria (Nyl.) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
undulata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea

NIESSLIA Auersw.
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & W. Gams (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)
*lobariae Etayo & Diederich (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) Etayo (Zhurbenko 2010)

NIGROPUNCTA D. Hawksw.
*rugulosa D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

NODOBRYORIA Common & Brodo
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria abbreviata, Alectoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria oregana, Alectoria oregana
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria subdivergens, Alectoria subdivergens

NORMANDINA Nyl.
pulchella (Borrer) Nyl. 
Syn.: Lauderlindsaya borreri (Muggia et al. 2010)

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OBRYZUM Wallr.
*corniculatum Wallr. (Diederich 2007b)

OCELLULARIA
G. Meyer
americana Hale
auberianoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cavata (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
concolor Meyen & Flotow (Harris 1995a)
fissa (Nyl.) Hale
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale (Lücking et al. 2011b) Syn.: Thelotrema bahianum var. obturascens
postposita (Nyl.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)
praestans (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema praestans
retispora R. C. Harris
sanfordiana (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema sanfordianum  Possible synonym of Ocellularia interposita (Frisch 2006)
alborosella (Nyl.) R. Sant. = Chapsa alborosella
auberiana (Mont.) Hale = Stegobolus auberianus
bahiana (Ach.) A. Frisch  North American reports are O. obturascens (Lücking et al. 2011)
carnea (Eckf.) Zahlbr. = Mazosia ocellata
domingensis (Fée) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America
emersa (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a) =
Rhabdodiscus emersus
floridensis Fink = Thelotrema porinoides
glaucophaena (Kremp.) Zahlbr. =
Glaucotrema glaucophaenum
granulosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. =
Rhabdodiscus granulosus
interposita (Nyl.) Hale = misidentification for North America
lathraea (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema lathraeum
leiostoma (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Redingeria leiostoma (Tuck.) A. Frisch, but not in North America (Frisch & Kalb 2006)
meiosperma (Nyl.)
Hale = Melanotrema meiospermum
micropora (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema microporum

stictidea (Nyl.) Vězda = Trinathotrema stictideum
subtilis (Tuck.) Riddle = Thelotrema subtile
terebratula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema terebratulum

OCHROLECHIA A. Massal.
africana Vainio
alaskana (Verseghy) Kukwa (Kukwa 2009b)
androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold
antillarum Brodo
arborea (Kreyer) Almb.
bryophaga (Erichsen) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch  Syn.: Pertusaria bryophaga
farinacea Howard
frigida (Sw.) Lynge
gowardii Brodo
grimmiae Lynge
gyalectina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
inaequatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
isidiata (Malme) Verseghy (Lendemer & Harris 2014)
juvenalis Brodo
laevigata (Räsänen) Verseghy ex Kukwa (Kukwa 2011)
mahluensis Räsänen (Brodo & Lendemer 2012; Knudsen 2012)
mexicana Vainio
microstictoides Räsänen (Brodo & Lendemer 2012)
montana Brodo
oregonensis H. Magn.
pseudopallescens Brodo
rhodoleuca (Th. Fr.) Brodo  Syn.: Pertusaria rhodoleuca
splendens Lumbsch & Messuti  (Roemer et al. 2004)
subathallina H. Magn.
subisidiata Brodo
subpallescens Verseghy
subplicans (Nyl.) Brodo subsp. subplicans Syn.: Pertusaria subplicans
subplicans subsp. hultenii (Erichsen) Brodo Syn.: Pertusaria hultenii
szatalaënsis Verseghy
tartarea (L.) A. Massal.
[Pertusaria trachydactyla Vainio]
trochophora (Vainio) Oshio var. trochophora
trochophora var. pruinirosella Brodo
turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot (Brodo & Lendemer 2012)
upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal.
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch  Syn.: Pertusaria xanthostoma
yasudae Vainio
alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr. = a European taxon, not in North America
apiculata Verseghy  Mistakenly reported for North America
californica Verseghy = O. oregonensis
elisabethae-kolae Verseghy = O. frigid
frigida f. alaskana Verseghy = O. alaskana
geminipara (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Pertusaria geminipara
gonatodes (Ach.) Räsänen = O. frigida
groenlandica Verseghy = O. frigida (Kukwa 2009a)
pacifica H. Magn. = Coccotrema pocillarium
pallescens (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
parella (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
pennsylvanica Verseghy = O. yasudae
pseudotartarea (Vainio) Verseghy = O. pallescens
pterulina (Nyl.) Howard = O. frigida
rhamni-purshianae E. Senft  Identity uncertain
rosella (Müll. Arg.) Verseghy = O. trochophora
sorediosa Howard = O. szatalaensis
subviridis (Høeg) Erichsen Not in North America
tuckermanii Verseghy = O. yasudae

ODONTOTREMA Nyl. (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*bryoriae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia intermedia

*intermedium Diederich, Zhurb. & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia intermedia
*lecanorae Diederich & G. Marson (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia lecanorae
*melaneliae Diederich & Zhurb.
(Diederich et al. 2002) =Sphaeropezia melaneliae
*ochrolechiae Diederich, Holien & Zhurb. (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia ochrolechiae
*santessonii Zhurb., Etayo & Diederich (Zhurbenko 2012) = Sphaeropezia santessonii
*sipei (Grummann) Diederich (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia sipei

*thamnoliae Zhurb., Diederich & Etayo (Zhurbenko 2012) = Sphaeropezia thamnoliae

OMPHALARIA Girard & Dunal ex Nyl. = THYREA
kansana Tuck. = Peccania kansana

OMPHALINA Quélet
alpina (Britzelm.) Bresinsky & Stangl = Lichenomphalia alpina
ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) M. T. Lange = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) H. E. Bigelow = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) M. T. Lange = Lichenomphalia alpina
*peltigerina (Peck) P. Collin = Arrhenia peltigerina
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Quélet = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
velutina (Quélet) Quélet = Lichenomphalia velutina

OMPHALODISCUS Schol. = UMBILICARIA
crustulosus (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria crustulosa
decussatus (Vill.) Schol. = Umbilicaria decussata
krascheninnikovii (Savicz) Schol. = Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii, but N.A. reports are U. polaris
virginis (Schaerer) Schol. = Umbilicaria virginis

OMPHALODIUM Meyen & Flotow
arizonicum (Tuck. ex Willey) Tuck. = Omphalora arizonica

OMPHALORA T. H. Nash & Hafellner
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) T. H. Nash & Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora arizonica, Omphalodium arizonicum, Parmelia arizonica

OPEGRAPHA Ach.
*agelaea Fée (Ertz 2009)
*anomea Nyl. (Ertz et al. 2004)
astraea Tuck.
aurantiaca B. de Lesd. (Harris 1995a)
bonplandii Fée
*buelliae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
candida Müll. Arg.
corticola Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 2002)
cypressi R. C. Harris
*diffracticola R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)
dolomitica (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.
Roux ex Torrente & Egea (Lendemer et al. 2009b)
erosa Egea & Ertz (Ertz & Egea 2007)
filicina Mont.
*foreaui (Moreau) Hafellner & R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fumosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
*geographicola (Arnold) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)
gyrocarpa Flotow
*hellespontica Vondrák & Kocourk. (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d)
herbarum Mont.
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Triebel Syn.: Leciographa lamyi
leucoplaca Müll. Arg.
levidensis Willey (Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
lithyrga Ach.
*melanospila Müll. Arg. (Diederich 2003)
microcycla Tuck.
moroziana Lendemer (Lendemer 2009)
mougeotii A. Massal. (Harris & Ladd 2005)
niveoatra (Borrer) J. R. Laundon
*phaeophysciae R. Sant., Diederich, Ertz & Christnach (Hafellner 2009)
prosodea Ach.
protuberans Zahlbr.
*pulvinata Rehm Syn.: Opegraphoidea pulvinata
ravenelii (Tuck.) Tehler Syns.: Lecanactis ravenelii, Platygrapha ravenelii, Schismatomma ravenelii
rufescens Pers.
*rupestris Pers. Syn.: Leciographa parasitica
sorediifera P. James
*sphaerophoricola Isbrand & Alstrup
*[Opegraphoidea staurothelicola Fink]
*stereocaulicola Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko 2010)
*thelotrematis Coppins (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
umbellulariae Zahlbr.
vulgata Ach.
xerica Torrente & Egea (Ertz & Egea 2007)

atra Pers. = Arthonia atra (Ertz et al. 2009)
betulina Sm. = O. herbarum
bicolor R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2005) = Alyxoria bicolor (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
brattiae Egea & Ertz (Ertz & Egea 2007) = Lecanographa brattiae (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
calcarea Turner ex Sm.
& Sowerby = Arthonia calcarea (Ertz et al. 2009)
cinerea Chevall. = O. vulgata
diaphora (Ach.) Ach. = Alyxoria varia
diaphoroides Nyl. = Lecanographa grumulosa
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) Källsten ex Hafellner = *Phacographa glaucomaria
hassei Zahlbr.
= Lecanographa hypothallina
herpetica (Ach.) Ach. = O. rufescens
herpetica var. subocellata Ach.
(Fink 1935) = O. rufescens (Santesson et al. 2004)
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Tehler = Lecanographa hypothallina
lichenoides Pers.
= O. varia
longissima Müll. Arg. = Dimidiographa longissima (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
mesophlaebia Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant of O. mesophlebia Nyl. =  Melaspilea mesophlebia
ochrocheila Nyl.= Alyxoria ochrocheila (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
oulocheila Tuck. = Dermiscellum oulocheila
*physciaria (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & Coppins (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Phacothecium varium (Hafellner 2009)
prosiliens Stirton = O. protuberans
pulicaris auct.
= O. varia
*quaternella Nyl. = O. anomea (Ertz et al. 2004)
rimalis Pers. ex Ach. = O. varia
*saxicola Ach. = O. rupestris
scaphella var. gemella (Eschw.) Eckf. (Fink 1935) = Melaspilea gemella
*trassii S. Y. Kondr. & Coppins (Coppins & Kondratyuk 1998) = O. foreaui
varia Pers. = Alyxoria varia (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
viridis (Pers. ex Ach.) Behlen & Desberger = Zwackhia viridis (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
*
wetmorei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = O. anomea (Ertz et al. 2004)
zonata Körber  (Sparrius 2004b) = Enterographa zonata (Ertz et al. 2009)

OPEGRAPHOIDEA Fink = OPEGRAPHA
*pulvinata (Rehm) Fink = Opegrapha pulvinata
*quaternella (Nyl.) Fink = Opegrapha anomea
*staurothelicola Fink = a species of Opegrapha

OPHIOPARMA Norman
lapponica (Räsänen) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia rubricosa, B. herrei, Haematomma californicum
ventosa (L.) Norman (May 1997)
herrei (Zahlbr.) Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995) = O. rubricosa (Ekman 1996)

ORCULARIA (Malme) Kalb & Giralt (Kalb & Giralt 2011)
insperata (Nyl.) Kalb & Giralt  Syn.: Amandinea insperata (Kalb & Giralt 2011)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Kalb & Giralt  Syn.: Amandinea placodiomorpha, Buellia placodiomorpha (Kalb & Giralt 2011)

ORPHNIOSPORA Körber
moriopsis (A. Massal.)
D. Hawksw. Syns.: Buellia atrata, B. moriopsis, B. coracina
atrata (Sm.) Poelt = O. moriopsis

OVICUCULISPORA Etayo  (Etayo 2010)
parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Etayo (Etayo 2010)  Syns.:Diplodina parmeliae, Nectria parmeliae, Nectriopsis parmeliae


OXNERIA S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Kondratyuk & Kärnefelt 2003a, 2003b) = XANTHOMENDOZA (Lindblom 2006)
weberi S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt = Xanthomendoza weberi (Lindblom 2006)

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PACHYOSPORA A. Massal.
mutabilis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa
verrucosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa

PACHYPELTIS Søchting, Arup & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
cladodes (Tuck.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca cladodes, Placodium cladodes
invadens (Lynge) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca invadens

PACHYPHIALE Lönnr. = GYALECTA (Baloch et al. 2013a)
carneola (Ach.) Arnold = Gyalecta carneola
fagicola (Hepp) Zwackh = Gyalecta fagicola
gyalizella (Nyl.) S. Ekman = Gyalecta gyalizella


PACHYPHYSIS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)
ozarkana R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)

PANNARIA Delise
conoplea (Ach.) Bory
elatior Stirton (Jørgensen 2000c)
hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl.
lurida (Mont.) Nyl. ssp. lurida
lurida ssp. quercicola P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
lurida ssp. russellii (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
rubiginella P. M. Jørg. & Sipman (Jørgensen 2005)
rubiginosa (Thunb.) Delise
subfusca P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
tavaresii P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria ahlneri
crossophylla Tuck. = Santessoniella crossophylla
cyanolepra Tuck. = Fuscopannaria cyanolepra
granatina (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Euopsis granatina
halei Tuck. = Phyllopsora halei
hypnorum (Vahl) Körber = Psoroma hypnorum
isidiata Degel. = Vestergrenopsis isidiata
laceratula Hue = Fuscopannaria laceratula
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella leucophaea
leucosticta Tuck. = Fuscopannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides Ohlsson = Fuscopannaria leucostictoides
malmei Dodge (Jørgensen 2000c) = misidentification of P. rubiginella
mariana (Fr.) Müll. Arg. = Parmeliella mariana (Jørgensen 2000c)
maritima P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria maritima
mediterranea Tav. = Fuscopannaria mediterranea
melamphylla Tuck. = Lichinella melamphylla
microphylla "(Sw.)" Delise = Vahliella leucophaea
microphylla var. californica Tuck. = Vahliella californica
pezizoides (Weber) Trevisan = Protopannaria pezizoides
pityrea auct.
= P. conoplea
praetermissa Nyl. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
pulveracea P. M. Jørg. & Henssen = Fuscopannaria pulveracea
rubiginosa var. lanuginosa (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = P. conoplea
saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl. = Vahliella saubinetii
sonomensis Tuck. = Vestergrenopsis sonomensis (Spribille & Muggia 2012)
waghornei Eckfeldt = identity uncertain, possibly Santessoniella arctophila

PARANECTRIA Sacc.
*alstrupii Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*oropensis (Ces.) D. Hawks. & Piroz.
ssp. parviseptata M. S. Cole & D. Hawks.
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = P. oropensis (Diederich 2003)

PARAPARMELIA Elix & J. Johnston
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix & J. Johnston = Canoparmelia alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001)

PARASCHISMATOMMA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2012)
ochroleucum (Zahlbr.) K. Knudsen, Ertz & Tehler  Syns.: Chiodecton ochroleucum, Platygrapha plurilocularis, Schismatomma pluriloculare (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

PARATHELIUM Nyl. = PYRENULA
cuyabense Malme = Pyrenula cuyabensis
emergens Nyl. ex Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula erumpens
martinicanum Vainio = Pyrenula adacta
microcarpum Riddle = Pyrenula microtheca
subferrugineum Malme = Pyrenula circumfiniens

PARMELIA Ach.
barrenoae Divakar, M. C. Molina & A. Crespo (Hodkinson et al. 2010)
fertilis Müll. Arg.
fraudans (Nyl.) Nyl.
hygrophila Goward & Ahti
mayi Divakar, A. Crespo, M. C. Molina (Molina et al. 2011)
neodiscordans Hale
omphalodes (L.) Ach. subsp. omphalodes
omphalodes subsp. pinnatifida (Kurok.) Skult
pseudosulcata Gyelnik
saxatilis (L.) Ach.
skultii Hale
squarrosa Hale
sulcata Taylor
acanthifolia Pers. = Parmotrema cetratum
abstrusa Vainio = Relicina abstrusa
ahtii Essl. = Xanthoparmelia ahtii
ajoensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia ajoensis
alabamensis Hale & McCull. = Canoparmelia alabamensis
albertana Ahti = Melanelixia albertana
aleuritica Nyl. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
almquistii Vainio = Allantoparmelia almquistii
alpicola Th. Fr. = Allantoparmelia alpicola
amazonica Nyl. = Canoparmelia amazonica
andreana Müll. Arg. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
antillensis Nyl. = Parmotremopsis antillensis
appalachensis W. L. Culb.. = Punctelia appalachensis
arizonica (Tuck.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Omphalora arizonica
arnoldii Du Rietz = Parmotrema arnoldii
arseneana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
aspera A. Massal. = Melanohalea exasperata
aspidota (Ach.) Poetsch = Melanohalea exasperata
atrofusca (Schaerer) Crombie = Brodoa atrofusca
atticoides Essl. = Xanthoparmelia atticoides
aurulenta Tuck. = Myelochroa aurulenta
austerodes Nyl. = Hypogymnia austerodes
austrosinensis Zahlbr. = Parmotrema austrosinense
baltimorensis Gyelnik & Fóriss = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
birulae Elenkin var. grumosa Llano = Arctoparmelia separata
bitteri Lynge = Hypogymnia bitteri
bolliana Müll. Arg. = Punctelia bolliana
borreri (Sm.) Turner = Punctelia borreri
brunella Essl. = Xanthoparmelia brunella
caperata (L.) Ach. = Flavoparmelia caperata
caperata var. incorrupta (J. Moore) E. C. Berry = Flavopunctelia praesignis
caroliniana Nyl. = Canoparmelia caroliniana
catawbiensis (Degel.) Hale & M. Wirth =
Hypotrachyna catawbiensis
centrifuga (L.) Ach. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl. = Cetrelia cetrarioides
cetrata Ach. = Parmotrema cetratum
cetrata var. hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema hypotropum
chiricahuensis R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Xanthoparmelia chiricahuensis
chlorochroa Tuck. = Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa
chrysantha Tuck. = Parmotrema madagascariaceum
cirrhata Fr. = Everniastrum cirrhatum, but reports are misidentifications for North America.
cladonia (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Pseudevernia cladonia
claudelii (Harm.) Vainio = Parmotrema stuppeum
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb. (Fink 1935) = Anzia colpodes
commensurata Hale = Parmotrema commensuratum
concreta Stizenb. = a Flavoparmelia sp.
confoederata W. L. Culb.. = Bulbothrix confoederata
congensis Stein = Xanthoparmelia congensis, but not found in North America north of Mexico.
congruens auct. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Ach. = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
conspersa var. subconspersa (Nyl.) Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia rutidota
conspurcata (Schaerer) Vainio = Melanelixia subargentifera
coralloidea (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio (Fink 1935) = Leptogium coralloideum, but N. Am. reports were apparently an unknown species of Parmotrema (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
coronata Fée = Bulbothrix coronata
crinita Ach. = Parmotrema crinitum
cristifera Taylor = Parmotrema cristiferum
croceopustulata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna croceopustulata
crozalsiana B. de Lesd. ex Harm. = Crespoa crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
cubensis Nyl. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
cumberlandia (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
cylisphora (Ach.) Vainio = Flavoparmelia caperata
darrowi J. W. Thomson = Flavopunctelia darrowi
delavayi Hue = Hypogymnia delavayi (Hue) Rass., but misidentification for North America
denalii Krog =
Montanelia disjuncta
densirhizinata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna densirhizinata
dentella Hale & Kurok. = Hypotrachyna dentella
dierythra Hale = Xanthoparmelia dierythra
diffractaica Essl. = Parmotrema diffractaicum
digitata Lynge = Hypotrachyna physcioides (Nyl.) Hale, but misidentification for North America (?)
dilatata Vainio = Parmotrema dilatatum
disjuncta Erichsen =
Montanelia disjuncta
dissecta Nyl. =
Hypotrachyna minarum
dissensa T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia dissensa
dominicana Vainio = Parmotrema dominicanum
dubia (Wulfen) Schaerer = Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog, but misidentification for North America
duplicata var. douglasicola Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Szatala = Melanohalea elegantula
elongata J. Hillmann = Hypogymnia duplicata (Spribille et al. 2010)
encausta (Sm.) Nyl. = Brodoa intestiniformis, but this species is not found in North America
endosulphurea (Hillm.) Hale = Parmotrema endosulphureum
endoxantha G. Merr. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ensifolia Kurok. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
enteromorpha Ach. = Hypogymnia enteromorpha
epiclada Hale = Parmotrema submarginale
erecta E. C. Berry = Parmotrema perforatum
eurysaca Hue = Parmotrema eurysacum
exasperata De Not. = Melanohalea exasperata
exasperatula Nyl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale & Kurok. = Relicina eximbricata
finkii Zahlbr. = Myelochroa obsessa
flaventior Stirton = Flavopunctelia flaventior
flavicans (Tuck.) Tuck. = Flavoparmelia caperata
formosana Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna osseoalba
frondifera G. Merr. = Punctelia bolliana
fuliginosa (Wibel) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Melanelixia fuliginosa
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Pseudevernia intensa and P. consocians for North American records
galbina Ach. = Myelochroa galbina
glabra (Schaerer) Nyl. =
Melanelixia californica
glabratula (Lamy) Nyl. = Melanelixia fuliginosa
glabroides Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides
goebelii Zenker  North American reports are Bulbothrix scortella (Benatti & Elix 2012)
gondylophora Hale = Hypotrachyna gondylophora
graminicola B. de Lesd. = Punctelia graminicola
granulosa Lynge =
Montanelia disjuncta
hababiana Gyelnik = Parmotrema hababianum
haitiensis Hale = Parmotrema haitiense
halei Ahti = Melanohalea halei
halseyana Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Arctoparmelia centrifuga (Hale & DePriest 1999, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
herreana Zahlbr. = Flavoparmelia caperata
herrei Zahlbr. = Parmotrema herrei
horrescens Taylor = Parmelinopsis horrescens
huachucensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia huachucensis
hubrichtii E. C. Berry =
Hypotrachyna minarum
hypoleucina J. Steiner = Parmotrema hypoleucinum
hypoleucites Nyl. = Punctelia hypoleucites
hypomelaena Hale = Xanthoparmelia hypomelaena
hypopsila Müll. Arg. = Xanthoparmelia hypopsila, but North American records are X. angustiphylla
hypotropa Nyl. = Parmotrema hypotropum
hypotropa var. sorediata M
üll. Arg. (Fink 1935) = Parmotrema hypotropum (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema perforatum
hypotrypodes (Nyl.) Willey (Fink 1935)  Apparent orthographic error for P. hypotropoides (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
imbricatula Zahlbr.
= Hypotrachyna imbricatula
incorrupta J. Moore = Flavopunctelia praesignis
incurva (Pers.) Fr. = Arctoparmelia incurva
infrapallida Essl. = Xanthoparmelia infrapallida
infumata Nyl. = Melanohalea infumata
internexa Nyl. = Parmotrema internexum
intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach.
= Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American reports are B. oroarctica
ioanis-simae Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but western North American records are probably Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis
isidiata (Anzi) Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale = misidentification for North America
isidiotyla Nyl. = Xanthoparmelia loxodes
joranadia T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia joranadia
kernstockii (Lynge) Zahlbr. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
kerguelensis A. Wilson = chemotype of Parmelia saxatilis
kerguelensis auct. N. Am. = Parmelia pseudosulcata
kurokawae Hale = Xanthoparmelia lavicola
laevigata (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna laevigata
laevigatula Nyl. = Bulbothrix laevigatula
lanata (L.) Wallr. = Pseudephebe pubescens
latissima Fée = Parmotrema latissimum, but reports are misidentification for North America.
lecanorica Hale = Xanthoparmelia lecanorica, but reports are misidentification for North America
leucochlora Tuck. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
lineola E. C. Berry = Xanthoparmelia lineola
livida Taylor = Hypotrachyna livida
lobulifera Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. insensitiva Degel. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
lobulifera var. luteoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
lophyrea Ach. (Fink 1935) = Cavernularia lophyrea (Ach.) Degel.
louisianae Hale = Parmotrema louisianae
loxodes Nyl. = Xanthoparmelia loxodes
madagascariacea (Hue) Abbayes = Parmotrema madagascariaceum
mandshurica Asahina = Flavopunctelia soredica
margaritata Hue = Parmotrema margaritatum
martinicana Nyl. = Canoparmelia martinicana
maxima Hue = Parmotrema stuppeum
mellissii C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema mellissii
mesogens Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Apparent typographic error for P. mesogenes Nyl = Parmotrema mesogenes, a misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
metarevoluta Asahina = Myelochroa metarevoluta
mexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia mexicana
michauxiana Zahlbr. = Parmotrema submarginale
molliuscula Ach. = misidentification for North America
monticola J. P. Dey = Xanthoparmelia monticola
mordenii Hale = Parmotrema mordenii
mougeotii Schaerer = Xanthoparmelia mougeotii
multispora A. Schneider = Melanohalea multispora
negativa Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia caperata
neoconspersa Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia neoconspersa
nigropsoromifera T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia nigropsoromifera
njalensis C. W. Dodge = Bulbothrix scortella
novomexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
obsessa Ach. = Myelochroa obsessa
occidentalis Essl. = Xanthoparmelia occidentalis
olivacea (L.) Ach. = Melanohalea olivacea
olivaceoides Krog = Melanohalea olivaceoides
olivaria (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Cetrelia olivetorum
olivetorum Nyl. = Cetrelia olivetorum
omphalodes subsp. glacialis Skult = P. skultii
oncodes Tuck. (Fink 1935)  Not located in any available source (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
oostingii J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna oostingii
oregana Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
panniformis (Nyl.) Vainio =
Montanelia panniformis
perforata (Jacq.) Ach. = Parmotrema perforatum
perlata (Hudson) Ach. = Parmotrema perlatum
permaculata Hale = Parmotrema eurysacum
perreticulata (Räsänen) Hale = Punctelia perreticulata
pertusa (Schrank) Schaerer = Menegazzia terebrata
phaea Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Physcia phaea
physodes (L.) Ach. = Hypogymnia physodes
piedmontensis Hale = Xanthoparmelia piedmontensis
plittii Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia plittii
praesignis Nyl. = Flavopunctelia praesignis
praesorediosa Nyl. = Parmotrema praesorediosum
preperforata W. L. Culb.. = Parmotrema preperforatum
proboscidea Tayl.
(Fink 1935) = Parmotrema crinitum (Hale & DePriest 1999)
producta (Hale) J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna producta
prolixa (Ach.)
Carroll = Neofuscelia pulla, but misidentification for North America.
prolongata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
pseudoborreri Asahina = Punctelia borreri
psoromifera Kurok. = Xanthoparmelia psoromifera
pubescens (L.) Vainio = Pseudephebe pubescens
pulla Ach. = Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) Crespo et al., but misidentification for North America
pulvinata Fée = Hypotrachyna pulvinata
pustulifera Hale = Hypotrachyna pustulifera
pustulosa Essl. = Xanthoparmelia pustulosa
quercina (Willd.) Vainio  North American reports are Parmelina coleae
rachista Hale = Hypotrachyna prolongata
rampoddensis Nyl. = Parmotrema rampoddense
recipienda Nyl. = Parmotrema subcaperatum (Kremp.) Hale., but misidentification for North America
reddenda Stirton = Punctelia reddenda
relicina Fr. = Relicina relicinula (Müll. Arg.) Hale, but misidentification for North America
reparata Stirton = Parmotrema cetratum
reticulata Taylor = Parmotrema reticulatum
revoluta Flörke = Hypotrachyna revoluta
rigida Lynge = Parmotrema subrigidum (N. Am. records only)
robusta Degel. = Parmotrema robustum, but North American records are Parmotrema gardneri
rockii Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna rockii
rudecta Ach. = Punctelia rudecta
rutidota Hooker f. & Taylor = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
santae-crucis Vainio = Parmotrema praesorediosum
saximontana R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber =
Montanelia tominii
scortea (Ach.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale   Apparent misidentification for N. America
semansiana W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. = Punctelia graminicola
separata Th. Fr. = Arctoparmelia separata
septentionalis (Lynge) Ahti = Melanohalea septentrionalis
sibirica Zahlbr. = Allantoparmelia sibirica
silvestris Degel. = Myelochroa aurulenta
simulans Hale = Parmotrema simulans
sinuosa (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna sinuosa
sipeana Gyelnik = Menegazzia terebrata
sorediata (Ach.) Th. Fr. =
Montanelia sorediata
soredica Nyl. = Flavopunctelia soredica
sorediosa Almb. =
Montanelia sorediata
sorocheila Vainio =
Hypotrachyna sorocheila, but North American records apparently refer to E. catawbiense
sphaerospora Nyl. (North American records) = Pseudoparmelia uleana
sphaerosporella Müll. Arg. = Ahtiana sphaerosporella
spumosa Asahina = Parmelinopsis spumosa
stenophylla (Ach.) Du Rietz = Xanthoparmelia stenophylla
stictica (Duby) Nyl. = Punctelia stictica
stuppea Taylor = Parmotrema stuppeum
stygia (L.) Ach. = Melanelia stygia
subargentifera Nyl. = Melanelixia subargentifera
subarnoldii Abbayes = Parmotrema subarnoldii, but misidentification for North America north of Mexico
subaurifera Nyl. = Melanelixia subaurifera
subcapitata Nyl. ex Hasse = Flavoparmelia subcapitata
subcentrifuga Oxner = Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga
subcrinita auct. = Parmotrema ultralucens
subcrinita Nyl. = Parmotrema subtinctorium
subdecipiens Vainio = Xanthoparmelia subdecipiens
subelegantula Essl. = Melanohalea subelegantula
subhosseana Essl. = Xanthoparmelia subhosseana
subinvoluta Hale = Parmotrema rampoddense
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema subisidiosum
sublaevigata (Nyl.) Nyl. = Hypotrachyna sublaevigata, but misidentification for North America (Hale 1979)
submarginalis (Michaux) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Parmotrema submarginale (Hale & DePriest 1999)
subobscura Vainio = Hypogymnia subobscura
subolivacea Nyl. = Melanohalea subolivacea
subpraesignis Nyl. = Punctelia subpraesignis
subquercifolia Hue = Myelochroa galbina
subramigera Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia subramigera
subrudecta Nyl. = Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog, but misidentifications for North America (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2010)
subrugata Kremp. = misidentification for North America
substygia Räsänen =
Montanelia tominii
subsumpta Nyl. = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria Zahlbr. = Parmotrema subtinctorium
sulphurata Nees & Flotow = Parmotrema sulphuratum
sulphorosa (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Myelochroa galbina (Hale & DePriest 1999)
swinscowii Hale = Parmelinopsis swinscowii
taractica Kremp. = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but see note there
tasmanica Hooker f. & Taylor = Xanthoparmelia tasmanica
texana Tuck. = Canoparmelia texana
thysanota Kurok. = Hypotrachyna thysanota
tinctina Maheu & A. Gillet = Xanthoparmelia tinctina, but not found in North America
tinctorum Delise ex Nyl. = Parmotrema tinctorum
trabeculata Ahti = Melanohalea trabeculata
trichotera Hue = Parmotrema perlatum
tuberculata Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
tubulosa (Schaerer) Bitter = Hypogymnia tubulosa
tucsonensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia tucsonensis
uleana Müll. Arg. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ulophyllodes (Vainio) Savicz = Flavopunctelia soredica
ultralucens Krog = Parmotrema ultralucens
verruculifera Nyl. = Xanthoparmelia verruculifera
virginica Hale = Hypotrachyna virginica
vittata (Ach.) Röhl. = Hypogymnia vittata
weberi Hale = Xanthoparmelia weberi
wyomingica (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia wyomingica
xanthina (Müll. Arg.) Vainio = Parmotrema xanthinum
xanthomela Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Typographic error for P. xanthomyela = Hypotrachyna endochlora (Leighton) Hale, a misidentification for N. A.
zollingeri Hepp = Parmotrema zollingeri

PARMELIELLA Müll. Arg.
appalachensis P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
corallinoides (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
mariana (Fr.) P. M. Jørg. & D. J. Galloway  Questionable for North America (Jørgensen 2000c) Syn.: Pannaria mariana
pannosa (Sw.) Nyl.
parvula P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2000c)
ruderatula (Nyl.) Hasse
stylophora (Vainio) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Malme = Santessoniella arctophila (Henssen 1997)
cheiroloba Müll. Arg. = Fuscopannaria cheiroloba
crossophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham = Santessoniella crossophylla
cyanolepra (Tuck.) Herre = Fuscopannaria cyanolepra
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Vainio = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
microphylla "(Sw.)" Müll. Arg. = Vahliella leucophaea
plumbea (Lightf.) Vainio = Degelia plumbea
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. James = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
saubinetii (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Vahliella saubinetii
stellata (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Coccocarpia stellata

PARMELINA Hale
coleae Argüello & A. Crespo (Argüello et al. 2007a, 2007b)
yalungana (Zahlbr.) P. R. Nelson & Kepler  (Nelson et al. 2013)
antillensis (Nyl.) Hale = Parmotremopsis antillensis
aurulenta (Tuck.) Hale = Myelochroa aurulenta
dissecta (Nyl.) Hale =
Hypotrachyna minarum
galbina (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa galbina
horrescens (Taylor) Hale =
Hypotrachyna horrescens
metarevoluta (Asahina) Hale = Myelochroa metarevoluta
minarum (Vainio) Skorepa =
Hypotrachyna minarum
obsessa (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa obsessa
quercina (Willd.) Hale   North American reports are P. coleae
spumosa (Asahina) Hale =
Hypotrachyna spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Hale =
Hypotrachyna swinscowii

PARMELINOPSIS Elix & Hale = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
cryptochlora (Vainio) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna cryptochlora

horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna horrescens
minarum (Vainio) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna minarum
spumosa (Asahina) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna swinscowii

PARMELIOPSIS Nyl.
ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl. Syn.: Foraminella ambigua
capitata R. C. Harris ex J. W. Hinds & P. L. Hinds (Hinds & Hinds 1998)
esorediata (Degel.) Nordnes (McCarthy et al. 2012)
hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Foraminella hyperopta
subambigua Gyelnik Syns.: Foraminella subambigua
aleurites (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia aleurites
diffusa (Weber) Riddle = P. hyperopta
halei (Tuck.) Hale = P. subambigua
placorodia (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia placorodia

PARMENTARIA Fée = PYRENULA
astroidea Fée = Pyrenula astroidea
[Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.] = ?
nana (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anthracothecium nanum
rappii Zahlbr. = Pyrenula leucostoma Ach.
ravenelii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ravenelii

PARMOTREMA A. Massal.
arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia arnoldii
austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia austrosinensis
cetratum (Ach.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia cetrata, P. herrei, Rimelia cetrata (Blanco et al. 2005)
commensuratum (Hale) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia commensuratum, Rimelia commensuratum
conferendum Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina conferenda, Rimeliella conferenda
crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syn.: Parmelia crinita, Parmelia proboscidea
cristiferum (Taylor) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia cristifera
despectum Kurok. (Kurokawa 2001)
diffractaicum (Essl.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia diffractaica, Rimelia diffractaica
dilatatum (Vainio) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia dilatata
dominicanum (Vainio) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia dominicana
endosulphureum (Hillm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia endosulphurea
eurysacum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia eurysaca, P. permaculata
gardneri (C. W. Dodge) Sérus.  Syn.: Parmelia robusta
hababianum (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hababiana
haitiense (Hale) Hale  Syns:  Parmelia haitiensis, Canomaculina haitiensis
herrei (Zahlbr.) Spielmann & Marcelli (Marcelli et al. 2011)
hypoleucinum (J. Steiner) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hypoleucina
hypotropum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia hypotropa, Parmelia hypotropa var. sorediata , P. cetrata var. hypotropoides
internexum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia internexa
louisianae (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia louisianae
madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia madagascariacea, P. chrysantha
margaritatum (Hue) Hale Syn.: Parmelia margaritata
mellissii (C. W. Dodge) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mellissii
mordenii (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mordenii
neotropicum Kurok. ex Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina neotropica, Rimeliella neotropica
perforatum (Jacq.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia perforata, P. erecta, P. hypotropoides
perlatum (Hudson) M. Choisy  Syns.: Parmelia perlata, P. trichotera
praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesorediosa, P. santae-crucis
preperforatum (W. L. Culb..) Hale Syn.: Parmelia preperforata
rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rampoddensis, P. subinvoluta
reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy  Syns.: Parmelia reticulata, Rimelia reticulata
rubifaciens (Hale) Hale
simulans (Hale) Hale  Syns: Parmelia simulans, Rimelia simulans
stuppeum (Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia stuppea, P. claudelii, P. maxima
subisidiosum (Müll. Arg.) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia subisidiosa, Rimelia subisidiosa
submarginale (Michaux) DePriest & B. Hale Syns.: Parmelia michauxiana, P. epiclada (DePriest & Hale 1998), P. submarginalis
subrigidum Egan (Egan et al. 2005)
subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina subsumpta, Rimeliella subsumpta, Parmelia subsumpta
subtinctorium (Zahlbr.) Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina subtinctoria, Rimeliella subtinctoria, Parmelia subtinctoria
sulphuratum (Nees & Flotow) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sulphurata
tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tinctorum
ultralucens (Krog) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ultralucens, P. subcrinita auct. non Nyl.
wrightii L. I. Ferraro & Elix (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia xanthina
zollingeri (Hepp) Hale Syn.: Parmelia zollingeri
chinense (“Osbeck”) Hale & Ahti = P. perlatum (Hawksworth 2004)
crozalsianum (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Hawksworth = Crespoa crozalsiana (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2012)
michauxianum (Zahlbr.)
Hale = P. submarginale
ochrocrinitum Elix & J. Johnst.  Erroneously mapped for North America (Michlig & Ferraro 2010)
rigidum (Lynge) Hale   North American records are P. subrigidum
robustum (Degel.) Hale   North American records are P. gardneri

PARMOTREMOPSIS Elix & Hale
antillensis (Nyl.)
Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina antillensis, Parmelia antillensis

PARMULARIA Nilson
brouardii B. de Lesd. = a Lecanora sp.
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = Lecanora novomexicana

PARVOPLACA Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
tiroliensis (Zahlbr.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca subolivacea, C. tiroliensis

PATRICIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
valentinianus D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)

PAULIA Fée
pyrenoides (Nyl.) Henssen  Syn.: Thyrea pyrenoides

PECCANIA A. Massal. ex Arnold
arizonica Tuck. ex Herre
kansana (Tuck.) Forssell Syn.: Omphalaria kansana
subnigra (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore Syns.: Placynthium subnigrum, Synalissa subnigra
texana (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Synalissa texana
tiruncula (Nyl.)
Henssen (Tretiach & Schultz 2007)

PELTIGERA Willd.
aphthosa (L.) Willd.
britannica (Gyelnik) Holt.-Hartw.
& Tønsberg
canina (L.) Willd.
castanea Goward, Goffinet & Miadl. (Goffinet et al. 2003)
chionophila Goward & Goffinet (Goward & Goffinet 2000)
cinnamomea Goward
collina (Ach.) Schrader
degenii Gyelnik
didactyla (With.) J. R. Laundon
elisabethae Gyelnik
evansiana Gyelnik
extenuata (Nyl. ex Vainio) Lojka (Goffinet et al. 2003)
fibrilloides (Gyeln.) Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2004)
frippii Holt.-Hartw. (Vitikainen 1994)
gowardii Lendemer & H. O’Brien (Lendemer & O’Brien 2011)
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg.
hydrothyria Miadl. & Lutzoni  Syn.: Hydrothyria venosa (Miadlikowska & Lutzoni 2000)
hymenina (Ach.) Delise
kristinssonii Vitik.
latiloba Holt.-Hartw.  (Holtan-Hartwig 2005)
lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vainio) Bitter
leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyelnik
lyngei Gyeln.  (Dillman et al. 2012)
malacea (Ach.) Funck
membranacea (Ach.) Nyl.
monticola Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2004)
neckeri Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
neopolydactyla (Gyelnik) Gyelnik
pacifica Vitik.
phyllidiosa Goffinet & Miadl. (Goffinet & Miadlikowska 1999)
polydactylon (Necker) Hoffm.
ponojensis Gyelnik
praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
retifoveata Vitik.
rufescens (Weiss) Humb.
scabrosa Th. Fr.
scabrosella Holt.-Hartw.
tartarea (Llano) Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2006)
venosa (L.) Hoffm.
aphthosa f. complicata (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. = P. leucophlebia
aphthosa var. variolosa A. Massal. = P. leucophlebia
canina var. rufescens (Weiss) Mudd = P. rufescens
canina var. rufescens f. innovans (Körber) J. W. Thomson = P. praetextata
canina var. spuria (Ach.) Schaerer = P. didactyla
didactyla var. extenuata (Nyl. ex Vainio) Goffinet & Hastings (Goffinet & Hastings 1995) = P. extenuata
erumpens (Taylor) Elenkin = P. didactyla
hazslinszkyi Gyelnik = P. extenuata
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg. f. zopfii (Gyelnik) J. W. Thomson This name has often been used for P. elisabethae
lactucifolia (With.) J. R. Laundon = P. hymenina
occidentalis sensu Kristinsson = P. kristinssonii
occidentalis (E. Dahl) Kristinsson = P. neopolydactyla
polydactyla var. hymenina (Ach.) Flotow = P. hymenina
polydactyla var. neopolydactyla Gyelnik = P. neopolydactyla
pulverulenta (Taylor) Kremp. = P. scabrosa Th. Fr. for North American records
scutata (Dickson) Duby = P. collina
sorediata (Schaerer) Fink (Fink 1935) = P. didactyla (Vitikainen 1994)
spuria (Ach.) DC. = P. didactyla
variolosa (A. Massal.) Gyelnik = P. leucophlebia
zopfii Gyelnik (Fink 1935) = P. horizontalis (Vitikainen 1994)

PELTULA Nyl.
bolanderi (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia bolanderi
clavata (Kremp.) Wetmore
corticola Büdel & R. Sant. (Büdel et al. 2007)
cylindrica Wetmore
euploca (Ach.) Poelt ex Ozenda & Clauzade  Syns.: Heppia euploca, H. guepinii, H. polyphylla
farinosa Büdel (Büdel & Nash 2002)
michoacanensis (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore
obscurans (Nyl.) Gyelnik var. obscurans
obscurans var. deserticola (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia deserticola
obscurans var. hassei (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia hassei
omphaliza (Nyl.) Wetmore
patellata (Bagl.) Swinscow & Krog Syn.: Heppia leptopholis, H. polyspora, H. terrena
placodizans (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia placodizans
psammophila (Nyl.) Egea (Büdel & Nash 2002)
radicata (Ach.) Nyl.
richardsii (Herre) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia richardsii
sonorensis Büdel & T. H. Nash
tortuosa (Nees) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia tortuosa
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia zahlbruckneri
polyspora (Tuck.) Wetmore = P. patellata

PERFORARIA Müll. Arg. =COCCOTREMA
minuta Degel. = Coccotrema pocillarium

PERIDIOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
+fuliguncta (Norman) D. Hawksw. (Aptroot 2002d)
+grandiuscula (Anzi) D. Hawksw.

PERIGRAPHA Hafellner
*superveniens (Nyl.) Hafellner (Diederich 2003)

PERTUSARIA DC.
alaskensis Erichsen
albescens (Hudson) M. Choisy & Werner
alpina Hepp ex Ahles
andersonii Lendemer (Lendemer 2009c)
appalachensis Lendemer, R. C. Harris & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008a)
atra Lynge
azulensis B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
borealis Erichsen
brattiae Lumbsch & T. H. Nash (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
bryontha (Ach.) Nyl.
californica Dibben
carneopallida (Nyl.)
Anzi
chiodectonoides Bagl. ex A. Massal.
coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. (Tønsberg 1999a)
commutata Müll. Arg.
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
consocians Dibben
copiosa Erichsen
coriacea (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
dactylina (Ach.) Nyl.
disticha Erichsen
epixantha R. C. Harris
excludens Nyl.
expolita R. C. Harris
flavicunda Tuck.
flavocorallina Coppins & Muhr
floridana Dibben
geminipara (Th. Fr.) C. Knight ex Brodo  Syn.: Ochrolechia geminipara
glaucomela (Tuck.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecanora glaucomela
globularis (Ach.)
Tuck.
glomerata (Ach.) Schaerer
hakkodensis Yasuda ex Räsänen
hymenea (Ach.) Schaerer
hypothamnolica Dibben
iners R. C. Harris
islandica Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt (Schmitt et al. 2006)
lecanina Tuck.
leioplaca DC.
macounii (I. M. Lamb) Dibben  Syn.: Melanaria macounii
mariae B. de Lesd.
(Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
mccroryae C. R. Björk, Goward & T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2010)
moreliensis B. de Lesd.
(Nash et al. 1998)
neoscotica I. M. Lamb
obruta R. C. Harris
occidentalis Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt (Schmitt et al. 2006)
octomela (Norman) Erichsen
oculata (Dickson) Th. Fr.
ostiolata Dibben
panyrga (Ach.) A. Massal.
papillata (Ach.) Tuck.
paratuberculifera Dibben
plittiana Erichsen
propinqua Müll. Arg.
pruinifera Erichsen
pseudocorallina (Lilj.) Arnold
pupillaris (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
pustulata (Ach.) Duby
rhexostoma Nyl.
rubefacta Erichsen
saximontana Wetmore
sinusmexicani Dibben
sommerfeltii (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Fr.
stenhammarii Hellbom
subambigens Dibben
subamplicata Nyl.
subdactylina Nyl.
subobducens Nyl.
suboculata Brodo & Dibben
subpertusa Brodo
sulcata Dibben
tejocotensis B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
tetrathalamia (Fée) Nyl.
texana Müll. Arg.
trochiscea Norman
valliculata Dibben
ventosa Malme
virensica R. C. Harris
wulfenioides B. de Lesd.
xanthodes Müll. Arg.
zeorina Erichsen
aleutensis Erichsen = P. alaskensis
amara (Ach.) Nyl. = Variolaria amara
amara var. flotowiana (Flörke) Vainio = Variolaria amara, at least for Europe
ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. = P. subambigens, for North American records
arizonica Dibben = P. tejocotensis
bryophaga Erichsen = Ochrolechia bryophaga
canadensis Stirton = P. pustulata
ceuthocarpa (Sm.) Turner & Borrer = P. excludens
ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. = P. excludens
concentrica Erichsen Type not found. May be Variolaria multipunctoides
coriacea var. obducens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. coriacea
diffusilis Erichsen = P. glomerata
diluta C. Björk, G. Thor & T. B. Wheeler (Spribille et al. 2009) = Gyalectaria diluta
discoidea (Pers.) Malme = P. albescens
finkii Zahlbr. ex Fink = P. rhexostoma
flavida (DC.) J. R. Laundon = a European taxon, not in North America
freyi Erichsen = Megaspora verrucosa
globulifera (Turner) A. Massal. (Fink 1935) = P. albescens (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
granulata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = P. wulfenioides for North American records
hemisphaerica (Flörke) Erichsen = a European taxon, not in North America
hultenii Erichsen = Ochrolechia subplicans subsp. hultenii
laevigata (Nyl.) Arnold non (Th. Fr.) Anzi = P. trachythallina
Pertusaria lecanina ssp. nigra Fink ex Hedrick = P. ophthalmiza
leioterella Erichsen = P. macounii for North American reports
leucostoma (Ach.) A. Massal. = P. leioplaca
lutescens (Hoffm.) Lamy = P. flavida, but not in North America
marginata Nyl. = P. propinqua
microsticta (Sm. & Sow.) Erichsen = P. excludens
monogona Nyl. = P. excludens for North American records
multipuncta (Turner) Nyl. = misidentification for North America
multipunctoides Dibben = Variolaria multipunctoides
nolens Nyl. = P. chiodectonoides
ocellata (Wallr.) Körber = misidentification for North America
ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Nyl. = Variolaria ophthalmiza
pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. = misidentification for North America
protuberans (Sommerf. ex Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. = P. carneopallida
pulchella Malme = P. velata (Archer & Messuti 1997)
raesaenenii Erichsen = misidentification for North America
rhodoleuca Th. Fr. = Ochrolechia rhodoleuca
rubescens Erichsen = P. propinqua
santamonicae Dibben = P. velata (Archer & Messuti 1997)
scutellaris (Schaerer) Hue (Fink 1935) = P. albescens (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
shenandoensis Hale & Dibben = P. plittiana (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
subplicans Nyl. = Ochrolechia subplicans
subpupillaris Vězda = P. glaucomela
tabuliformis Erichsen = P. leioplaca
taeniata Erichsen = P. zeorina
torquata Müll. Arg. = P. propinqua
trachydactyla Vainio = identity uncertain, possibly an Ochrolechia sp.
trachythallina Erichsen = Variolaria trachythallina
tuberculifera Nyl. = misidentification for North America; most specimens are P. paratuberculifera
tuckermanii Erichsen = P. subobducens
velata (Turner) Nyl. = Varicellaria velata (Schmitt et al. 2012)
waghornei Hulting = Variolaria waghornei
wulfenii DC. = P. hymenea
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) Fr. = Ochrolechia xanthostoma

PETRACTIS Fr.
clausa (Hoffm.) Kremp. (Dillman et al. 2012)
farlowii (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Vězda  Syn.: Gyalecta farlowii

PEZIZELLA Fuckel
*epithallina (W. Phillips & Plowr.)
Sacc. (Diederich 2003)

PHACOGRAPHA Hafellner (Hafellner 2009)
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syns.:  Leciographa glaucomaria, Opegrapha glaucomaria

PHACOPSIS Tul.
*cephalodioides (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold (Diederich 2003)
*doerfeltii Alstrup & Scholz (Scholz 1998)
*fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*huuskonenii Räsänen
*oxyspora (Tul.)
Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Abrothallus oxysporus, Lecidea oxyspora, Nesolechia oxyspora
*thallicola (A. Massal.) Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Nesolechia thallicola
*vulpina Tul.
*oxyspora var. defecta Triebel & Rambold = P. oxyspora
*oxsypora var. fusca Triebel & Rambold = P. fusca

PHACOTHECIUM Trevisan
*varium (Tul.) Trevisan  Syn.:  Opegrapha physciaria (Hafellner 2009)

PHAEOCALICIUM A.F.W. Schmidt
+betulinum (Nyl.) Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+compressulum (Nyl. ex Vainio) A.F.W. Schmidt  Syn.: Mycocalicium compressulum
+curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell Syn.: Calicium curtisii
+flabelliforme Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+matthewsianum Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+minutissimum (G. Merr.) Selva Syns.: Calicium minutissimum, Stenocybe minutissima (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell
+populneum (Brond. ex Duby) A.F.W. Schmidt  Syn.: Calicium populneum
+praecedens (Nyl.) A.F.W. Schmidt
+tremulicola (Norrlin ex Nyl.) Tibell  Syn. Stenocybe tremulicola (Tibell 1996; Selva & Tibell 1999)

PHAEOGRAPHINA Müll. Arg.
asteroides Fink = Phaeographis asteroides
caesiopruinosa (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Platygramme caesiopruinosa
columbina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina columbina
explicans Fink = Leiorreuma explicans
plurifera (Nyl.) Fink = Platygramme caesioipruinosa
quassiicola (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Thecaria quassiicola
scalpturata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Platygramme caesiopruinosa for North American records

PHAEOGRAPHIS Müll. Arg.
arthonioides (Vainio) Zahlbr.
asteroides (Fink) Lendemer  Syn.: Phaeographina asteroides (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
atromaculata (A. W. Archer) A. W. Archer (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
brasiliensis
(A. Massal.) Kalb & Matthes-Leicht (Archer 2006)
delicatula Common & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
dendritica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
dendriticella Müll. Arg.
erumpens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
flavescens Dal Forno & Eliasaro (Lücking et al. 2011b)
haematites (Fée) Müll. Arg.
inconspicua (Fée) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
intricans (Nyl.) Staiger Syn.: Sarcographa intricans (Staiger 2002)
inusta (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
leiogrammodes (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lobata (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
major (Kremp.) Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
multicolor R. C. Harris
nylanderi (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
punctiformis (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
scalpturata (Ach.) Staiger (Lücking et al. 2011b)
schizoloma (Müll. Arg.)
Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
smithii (Leighton) B. de Lesd. (Tønsberg 1999a)
subfulgurata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tortuosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
exaltata (Mont. & Bosch) Müll. Arg. = Leiorreuma exaltatum
eulectra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Graphis eulectra
lyellii (Sm.)
Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
patellula (F
ée) Müll. Arg. (Fink 1935) = Leiorreuma patellulum
sericea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = Leiorreuma sericea
sexloculata Fink = P. arthonioides
subtigrina
(Vainio) Zahlbr. = P. brasiliensis

PHAEOPHYSCIA Moberg
adiastola (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia adiastola
ciliata (Hoffm.)
Moberg Syns.: Physcia ciliata, P. obscura auct.
constipata (Norrlin & Nyl.) Moberg Syn.: Physcia constipata
decolor (Kashiw.) Essl.
endococcina (Körber) Moberg Syns.: Physcia endococcina, P. lithotodes, (?) P. columbiana
endococcinodes (Poelt) Essl. Syn.: Physcia endococcinodes
erythrocardia (Tuck.) Essl.
hirsuta (Mereschk.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia hirsuta
hirtella Essl.
hispidula (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia hispidula, P. setosa
insignis (Mereschk.) Moberg
kairamoi (Vainio) Moberg Syn.: Physcia kairamoi
leana (Tuck.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia leana
nigricans (Flörke) Moberg Syn.: Physcia nigricans
orbicularis (Necker) Moberg Syn.: Physcia orbicularis, P. virella
pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia orbicularis f. rubropulchra, P. endochrysea, P. rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.)
Moberg Syns.: Physcia sciastra, P. lithotea
squarrosa Kashiwadani (Moberg 1995) Syn: Physcia lacinulata, for North American records
cernohorskyi (Nádv.) Essl. = P. hirsuta (Esslinger 2004b)
chloantha (Ach.) Moberg = Physciella chloantha
imbricata sensu Esslinger (1978) = P. squarrosa
imbricata (Vainio) Essl. = P. hispidula
melanchra (Hue) Hale = Physciella melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) D. D. Awasthi = Physciella nepalensis

PHAEOPYXIS Rambold & Triebel (Rambold & Triebel 1990)
*punctum (A. Massal.) Rambold, Triebel & Coppins (Rambold & Triebel 1990)

PHAEORRHIZA H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syns.: Rinodina nimbosa, R. phaeocarpa
sareptana (Tomin) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt

PHAEOSPORA Hepp ex Stein
*arctica Horáková & Alstrup
*catolechiae Zopf  (Zhurbenko 2014)
*parasitica (Lönnr.) Arnold
*rimosicola (Leighton ex Mudd) Hepp ex Stein Syn.: Pyrenulella endococcoidea

PHAEOSPOROBOLUS D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*alpinus R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*fellhanerae R. C. Harris & Lendemer  (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
*usneae D. Hawksw. & Hafellner

PHAEOTREMA Müll. Arg.
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema californicum
meiospermum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Melanotrema meiospermum

PHARCIDIA Körber = STIGMIDIUM
*dispersa (J. Lahm ex Körber) Winter ex Rabenh. = Zwackhiomyces dispersus
*ephebes Henssen = Stigmidium ephebes
*epicymatia (Wallr.) Winter = a Stigmidium spp.
*parva Henssen (see Stigmidium)

PHLOEOPECCANIA J. Steiner (Schultz & Büdel 2005)
major Henssen ined.  (Schultz & Büdel 2005)
pulvinulina J. Steiner  (Schultz & Büdel 2005)

PHLYCTELLA
Kremp.
andensis Nyl.

PHLYCTIDIA Müll. Arg.
ludoviciensis Müll. Arg.
= Phlyctis ludoviciensis

PHLYCTIS Wallr.
agelaea (Ach.) Flotow
argena (Sprengel) Flotow
ludoviciensis (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer  Syn.:  Phlyctidia ludoviciensis (Lendemer 2005a)
speirea G. Merr.
willeyi Tuck.

PHOEBUS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)
hydrophobius R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)

PHOMA Fr.
*caloplacae D. Hawksw. (Lawrey et al. 2012)
*cladoniicola Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2007)
*fuliginosa M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.  (Hawksworth & Cole 2004)

*grumantiana Zhurb. & Diederich (Diederich et al. 2007)
*lobariae Diederich & Etayo (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*lobariicola Alstrup (Spribillle et al. 2010)
*peltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*physciicola Keissler (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*puncteliae Diederich & Lawrey (Lawrey et al. 2012)
*xanthomendozae Diederich & Freebury (Lawrey et al. 2012)
*cytospora (Vouaux) D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001) = Briancoppinsia cytospora (Diederich et al. 2012; Kocourkova et al. 2012)

PHRAGMONAEVIA Rehm
*fuckelii Rehm = Corticifraga fuckelii

PHYLLISCUM Nyl.
demangeonii (Moug. & Mont.) Nyl. Syn.: Thyrea demangeonii
tenue Henssen

PHYLLOPSORA Müll. Arg.
breviuscula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. (Timdal 2011)
buettneri (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2011)
confusa Swinscow & Krog
corallina (Eschw.)
Müll. Arg. var. corallina
furfuracea (Pers.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecidea furfuracea
glabella (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider
glaucella (Vainio) Timdal  (Timdal 2008)
halei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Pannaria halei
isidiotyla (Vainio) Riddle (Brako 1991)
kalbii Brako (Brako 1991)
lacerata Timdal (Lücking et al. 2011b)
ochroxantha (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2008)
parvifolia (Pers.) Müll Arg. var. parvifolia Syn.: Lecidea parvifolia
parvifoliella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
porphyromelaena (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2011)
rappiana (Brako) Elix (Timdal 2011)
santensis (Tuck.) Swinscow & Krog (Timdal 2008)  Syns.: Bacidia microphyllina auct., Lecidea santensis
buettneri (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. var. glauca (B. de Lesd.) Brako (Harris 1995a) = P. porphyromelaena
buettneri var. munda (Malme) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. buettneri

canoumbrina (Vainio) Brako Not known from North America; see note under Bacidia subgranulosa
corallina var. glaucella (Vainio) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. glaucella
corallina var. ochroxantha (Nyl.) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. ochroxantha
corallina var. rappiana Brako (Brako 1991) = P. rappiana
corallina var. santensis (Tuck.) Brako = P. santensis
parvifolia var. breviuscula (Nyl.) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. breviuscula
subcorallina Zahlbr. = Catinaria subcorallina
subfilamentosa Zahlbr. = Lecidea subfilamentosa

PHYSALOSPORA Niessl
*xanthoriae (Wedd.) Sacc. = misidentification for North America

PHYSCIA (Schreber) Michaux
adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier
aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr. var. aipolia
albinea (Ach.) Nyl.
alnophila (Vainio) Loht., Moberg, Myllys & Tehler (Lohtander et al. 2009)
americana G. Merr.
atrostriata Moberg
biziana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
caesia (Hoffm.) Hampe ex Fürnr.
clementei (Sm.) Lynge
convexa Müll. Arg.
crispa Nyl. Many old records using this name are actually P. atrostriata
dakotensis Essl.  (Esslinger 2004a)
dimidiata (Arnold) Nyl.
dubia (Hoffm.) Lettau
duplicorticata W. A. Weber & J. W. Thomson
erumpens Moberg (Moberg 1997)
halei J. W. Thomson
leptalea (Ach.) DC.
magnussonii Frey
mexicana B. de Lesd.
millegrana Degel.
montana B. de Lesd.
nashii Moberg (Moberg 1997)
neogaea R. C. Harris
phaea (Tuck.) J. W. Thomson  Syn.:  Parmelia phaea
poncinsii Hue (Harris 1995a)
pseudospeciosa J. W. Thomson
pumilior R. C. Harris
solistella Essl. & Egan (Esslinger & Egan 1996)
sorediosa (Vainio) Lynge
stellaris (L.) Nyl.
subalbinea Nyl. (Lohtander et al. 2009)
subtilis Degel.
tenella (Scop.) DC.
tenella subsp. marina (A. Nyl.) D. Hawksw.
tenellula Moberg (Moberg 1997)
tribacia (Ach.) Nyl.
undulata Moberg (Harris 1995a)
adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl. = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
adiastola Essl. = Phaeophyscia adiastola
aipolia var. alnophila (Vainio) Lynge = P. alnophila
alba (Fée) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America
alba var. obsessa (Mont.) J. W. Thomson = P. integrata Nyl., but misidentification for North America
albicans sensu J. W. Thomson = P. atrostriata for North American reports
albicans (Pers.) J. W. Thomson = Heterodermia albicans
aspera H. Magn. = Dirinaria aegialita
astroidea (Clem.) Nyl. = P. clementei
cainii Räsänen = P. aipolia
callosa sensu Thomson (1963) = Ph. tribacia (Moberg 1997)
callosa Nyl. = P. phaea
cascadensis
H. Magn. = Ph. phaea (Moberg 1997)
cernohorskyi Nádv. = Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi
chloantha (Ach.) Vainio = Physciella chloantha
ciliata (Hoffm.) Du Rietz = Phaeophyscia ciliata
columbiana B. de Lesd. = (?) Phaeophyscia endococcina, but the type not seen
constipata Norrlin & Nyl. = Phaeophyscia constipata
convexella Moberg (Moberg 1997, in map) Erroneous report for the United States (Moberg 2002)
culbersonii Thoms. (nomen nudum) = Phaeophyscia squarrosa
detersa (Nyl.) Nyl. = Physconia detersa
elaeina (Sm.) A. L. Sm. = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
endochrysea (Hampe) Nyl. = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
endococcina (Körber) Th. Fr. = Phaeophyscia endococcina
endococcinodes Poelt = Phaeophyscia endococcinodes
fragilescens Zahlbr. = P. sorediosa
frostii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Dirinaria frostii
grisea (Lam.) Zahlbr. = Physconia grisea, but misidentification for North America
hirsuta Mereschk. = Phaeophyscia hirsuta
hispida auct. = P. tenella
hispidula (Ach.) Frey = Phaeophyscia hispidula
intermedia Vainio = P. dubia
imbricata Vainio = Phaeophyscia hispidula
isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Fink = Physconia isidiigera
kairamoi Vainio = Phaeophyscia kairamoi
lacinulata Müll. Arg. = Phaeophyscia squarrosa, for North American records
leana (Tuck.) Tuck. = Phaeophyscia leana
lithotea "(Ach.) Nyl." = Phaeophyscia sciastra
lithotodes Nyl. = Phaeophyscia endococcina
luganensis Mereschk. = Physciella chloantha
melanchra Hue = Physciella melanchra
melops Dufour = P. phaea
minor (Fée) Vainio = Hyperphyscia minor
muscigena (Ach.) Nyl. = Physconia muscigena
nepalensis Poelt = Physciella nepalensis
nigricans (Flörke) Stizenb. = Phaeophyscia nigricans
obscura auct. = Phaeophyscia ciliata
obsessa (Mont.) Nyl. = P. integrata, but misidentification for North America
orbicularis (Necker) Poetsch = Phaeophyscia orbicularis
orbicularis f. rubropulchra Degel. = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
picta (Sw.) Nyl. = Dirinaria picta
pulverulenta auct. non (Schreber) Fürnr. = Physconia distorta, but misidentification for North America
pusilloides Zahlbr. = Phaeophyscia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Moberg = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.) Du Rietz = Phaeophyscia sciastra
semipinnata (J. F. Gmelin) Moberg = P. leptalea
setosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Phaeophyscia hispidula
subobscura Nyl. = P. tenella subsp. marina
syncolla Tuck. ex Nyl.
= Hyperphyscia syncolla
teretiuscula (Ach.) Lynge = P. dubia
tribacoides auct. non Nyl.
= P. americana
venusta (Ach.) Nyl. = Physconia venusta, but misidentification for North America
virella (Ach.) Flagey (Fink 1935) = Phaeophyscia orbicularis
wainioi Räsänen = Ph. subalbinea
wrightii Tuck. = North American report is Heterodermia diademata (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)

PHYSCIELLA Essl.
chloantha (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia chloantha, P. luganensis, Phaeophyscia chloantha
melanchra (Hue) Essl. Syns.: Physcia melanchra, Phaeophyscia melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) Essl. Syns.: Physcia nepalensis, Phaeophyscia nepalensis

PHYSCIOPSIS M. Choisy = HYPERPHYSCIA
adglutinata (Flörke) M. Choisy = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
elaeina (Sm.) Poelt = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
minor (Fée) B. Moore = Hyperphyscia minor
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Poelt = Hyperphyscia syncolla

PHYSCONIA Poelt
americana Essl. (Esslinger 1994)
californica Essl. (Esslinger 2000b)
detersa (Nyl.) Poelt Syn.: Physcia detersa
elegantula Essl.
enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt
fallax Essl. (Esslinger 2000b)
grumosa Kashiw. & Poelt (Esslinger & Dillman 2010)
isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Essl.
isidiomuscigena Essl. (Esslinger 2000b)
leucoleiptes (Tuck.) Essl.
muscigena (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Physcia muscigena
perisidiosa (Erichsen) Moberg
subpallida Essl.
distorta (With.) J. R. Laundon = misidentification for North America
farrea sensu Poelt = P. perisidiosa [Parmelia farrea Ach. = Physconia grisea]
grisea (Lam.) Poelt = misidentification for North America
kurokawae Kashiw. = P. leucoleiptes (Esslinger 2002d)
pulverulacea Moberg = P. distorta, but misidentification for North America
pulverulenta auct. non (Schreber) Poelt = P. distorta, but misidentification for North America
thomsonii Essl.= Anaptychia elbursiana

PHYSMA A. Massal.
byrsaeum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ("byrsinum")
cataractaecola B. de Lesd.

PHYTOCONIS Bory
ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana

PICCOLIA A. Massal. (Hafellner 1995)
conspersa (Fée) Vainio Syn.: Biatorella conspersa (Hafellner 1995)
nannaria (Tuck.) Lendemer & Beeching  Syns.:  Biatorella nannaria, Heterothecium nannarium (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
ochrophora (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syn.: Biatorella ochrophora, Lecidea ochrophora, Strangospora ochrophora (Hafellner 2004d)

PILOPHORUS Th. Fr.
acicularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
cereolus (Ach.) Th. Fr. in Hellbom
clavatus Th. Fr. Syn.: P. hallii
dovrensis (Nyl.) Timdal, Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea pallida
fibula (Tuck.) Th. Fr.
nigricaulis M. Satô
robustus Th. Fr.
vegae Krog
hallii (Tuck.) Vainio = P. clavatus
pallidus (Th. Fr.) Timdal = P. dovrensis

PLACIDIOPSIS Beltr.
cinerascens (Nyl.) Breuss
minor R. C. Harris
pseudocinerea Breuss
cervinula (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentification for North America

PLACIDIUM A. Massal. (Breuss 1996)
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss & Bratt 2000) Syns.: Catapyrenium acarosporoides, Dermatocarpon acarosporoides, D. novomexicanum,Endopyrenium bajadanae, E. novomexicanum, Heteroplacidium acarosporoides
andicola (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium andicolum
arboreum (Schwein. ex E. Michener) Lendemer  Syns.:  Catapyrenium tuckermanii, Dermatocarpon tuckermanii, Dermatocarpon arboretum, Endocarpon tuckermanii, Endopyrenium tuckermanii (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
californicum Breuss (Breuss & Bratt 2000)
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium chilense
fingens (Breuss) Breuss (Breuss 2002d)
imbecillum (Breuss) Breuss (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
lachneum (Ach.) B. de Lesd. Syn.: Catapyrenium lachneum
michelii (A. Massal.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium michelii, Dermatocarpon michelii
norvegicum (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium norvegicum
pilosellum (Breuss) Breuss (Nash et al. 1998)
podolepis (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012) Syns.: Catapyrenium podolepis, Heteroplacidium podolepis
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium rufescens, Dermatocarpon rufescens
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium squamulosum, Dermatocarpon hepaticum auct. non (Ach.) Th. Fr.
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss = Clavascidium lacinulatum
lacinulatum var. atrans Breuss  (Lendemer 2004c) = Clavascidium lacinulatum var. atrans
lacinulatum var. erythrostratum Breuss (Breuss 2000) = Clavascidium lacinulatum var. erythrostratum
tuckermanii (Ravenel ex Mont.) Breuss = P. arboreum
umbrinum (Breuss) Prieto & Breuss (Gueidan et al. 2009) = Clavascidium umbrinum

PLACOCARPUS Trevisan
#americanus K. Knudsen, Breuss, & Kocourk. (Knudsen et al. 2009)

PLACODIUM F. H. Wigg.
bolacina Tuck. = Polycauliona bolacina
cladodes Tuck. = Pachypeltis cladodes
coralloides Tuck. = Polycauliona coralloides
elegans (Link) DC = Rusavskia elegans
elegans var. trachyphyllum Tuck. = Xanthomendoza trachyphylla
ferrugineum f. bolanderi Tuck. = Polycauliona luteominia var. bolanderi
fulgens (Sw.) DC. = Gyalolechia fulgens
galactophylla Tuck. = Squamulea galactophylla
peliophyllum Tuck. = Caloplaca peliophylla


PLACOMARONEA Räsänen
mendozae (Räsänen) M. Westberg  (Westberg 2004a)

PLACOPSIS (Nyl.) Lindsay
cribellans (Nyl.) Räsänen
fusciduloides D. J. Galloway (Galloway 2005)
gelida (L.) Lindsay Syn.: Lecanora gelida
lambii Hertel & V. Wirth (Moberg & Carlin 1996; Brodo et al. 2001)
roseonigra
Brodo
effusa I. M. Lamb = misidentification for North America

PLACOPYRENIUM Breuss
bucekii (Nádv. & Servít) Breuss (Breuss 2009)
caeruleopulvinum (J.W. Thomson) Breuss (Breuss 2002e) Syn.: Catapyrenium caeruleopulvinum
canellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux  Syn.: Verrucaria canella (Navarro-Rosínes et al. 2007)
coloradoense Breuss  Syn. :  Catapyrenium schaereri sensu Thomson (Breuss 2009) 
conforme Breuss (Breuss 2009)
fuscellum
(Turner) Gueidan & Cl.
Roux  Syn.: Verrucaria fuscella (Navarro-Rosínes et al. 2007)
heppioides
(Zahlbr.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium heppioides, Dermatocarpon heppioides (Breuss 2002e)
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. roux  Syn.: Dermatocarpon lecideoides, Verrucaria lecideoides (Navarro-Rosínes et al. 2007)
#noxium Breuss (Breuss 1998)
stanfordii (Herre) K. Knudsen Syns.: Catapyrenium zahlbruckneri, Dermatocarpon zahlbruckneri, Verrucaria stanfordii (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) Breuss (Breuss 2002e) = P. stanfordii

PLACYNTHIELLA Elenkin
dasaea (Stirton) Tønsberg (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Coppins & P. James Syn.: Saccomorpha hyporhoda
icmalea (Ach.) Coppins & P. James Syn.: Saccomorpha icmalea
knudsenii Lendemer  (Lendemer 2004d)
oligotropha (J. R. Laundon) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Saccomorpha oligotropha, Lecidea oligotropha
uliginosa (Schrader) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Saccomorpha uliginosa, Lecidea uliginosa, L. humosa

PLACYNTHIUM (Ach.) Gray
asperellum (Ach.) Trevisan
flabellosum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
nigrum (Hudson) Gray
pannariellum (Nyl.) H. Magn. (Spribillle et al. 2010)
petersii (Nyl.) Burnham  Syn.:  Pterygium petersii
stenophyllum (Tuck.) Fink
stenophyllum var. isidiatum Henssen
subradiatum (Nyl.) Arnold
tantaleum (Hepp) Hue
aspratile (Ach.) Henssen = P. asperellum
dubium Herre = Massalongia microphylliza
microphyllizum (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Massalongia microphylliza
pannariellum (Nyl.) H. Magn. Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not the U. S. or Canada as yet
rosulans (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. Reported from Greenland but not the U. S. or Canada as yet
subnigrum B. de Lesd = Peccania subnigra

PLAGIOCARPA R. C. Harris = LITHOTHELIUM
hyalospora (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Lithothelium hyalosporum
illota (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum
langloisii R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Lithothelium macrosporum
phaeospora R. C. Harris = Lithothelium phaeosporum
septemseptata R. C. Harris = Lithothelium septemseptatum
langloisii R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum

PLATISMATIA W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
glauca (L.) W. L. Culb..
& C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria glauca
herrei (Imshaug) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.
Syns.: Cetraria herrei, C. tuckermanii Herre non Oakes
lacunosa (Ach.) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria lacunosa
norvegica (Lynge) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria norvegica
stenophylla (Tuck.) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria stenophylla
tuckermanii (Oakes) W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb. Syns.: Cetraria atlantica, C. lacunosa var. atlantica, C. tuckermanii Oakes non Herre
wheeleri Goward, Altermann & Björk (Lumbsch et al. 2011)

PLATYGRAMME Fée
caesiopruinosa (Fée) Fée Syn.: Phaeographina caesiopruinosa, P. plurifera, P. scalpturata auct. (Staiger 2002)
pachnodes (Fée) E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp & Lendemer 2010, Lücking et al. 2011b)
praestans (Müll. Arg.) Staiger (Tripp & Lendemer 2010, Lücking et al. 2011b)

PLATYGRAPHA Nyl.
californica (Tuck.) Nyl. = Sigridea californica
hypothallina Zahlbr. = Lecanographa hypothallina
ocellata Nyl. = Mazosia ocellata
plurilocularis Zahlbr. = Paraschismatomma ochroleucum (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
ravenelii Tuck. = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens Nyl. = Lecanactis epileuca

PLATYGRAPHOPSIS Müll. Arg.
interrupta (Fée) Müll. Arg.

PLATYTHECIUM Staiger
colliculosum (Mont.) Hale  Syn.:  Graphina colliculusa (Tripp et al. 2010)
floridanum (Tuck.) Lendemer Syns.: Graphis floridana, Graphina floridana (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008)
grammitis (Fée) Staiger (Staiger 2002)

PLECTOCARPON Fée
*cladoniae R. Sant. (Ertz et al. 2005)
*lambinonii Diederich & Etayo (Ertz et al. 2005)
*lichenum (Sommerf.) D. Hawksw.
*nashii Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*nephromeum (Norman) Sant. (Goward et al. 1996)
*peltigerae Zhurb., Ertz, Diederich & Miadl.  (Ertz et al. 2003)

*scrobiculatae Diederich & Etayo (Ertz et al. 2005)
*triebeliae Diederich & Ertz (Ertz et al. 2005)


PLEOPSIDIUM Körber
chlorophanum (Wahlenb.) Zopf  Syns.: Acarospora chlorophana, A. erythrophora, A. texana, A. weldensis
flavum (Bellardi) Körber Syns.: Acarospora flava, A. oxytona
oxytonum (Ach.)
Rabenh. = P. flavum
stenosporum (Stizenb. ex Hasse) K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2011c) = P. flavum (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)

PLEUROTHELIOPSIS Zahlbr. = PYRENULA
australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Anthracothecium australiensis
nana Zahlbr. = Anthracothecium australiensis

PLEUROTREMA Müll. Arg. = LITHOTHELIUM
anacardii (Vainio) R. C. Harris nom. inval.
= Anisomeridium terminatum
inspersum Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium americanum, not present in North America? (Harris 1995)
solivagum Degel. = Lithothelium hyalospora

POELTINULA Hafellner
cerebrina (DC.) Hafellner

POLYBLASTIA A. Massal.
albida Arnold (Thomson 1997)
bryophila Lönnr.
cucurbitula J. W. Thomson & B. M. Murray
cupularis A. Massal.
epigaea A. Massal.
exalbida (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  (Dillman et al. 2012)
gothica Th. Fr.
hyperborea Th. Fr.
hyperborea var. macrospora Lynge
melaspora (Taylor) Zahlbr.
obsoleta Arnold
quartzina Lynge (Spribille et al. 2010)
sendtneri Kremp.
septentrionalis Lynge
theleodes (Sommerf.) Th. Fr.
cruenta (Körber) P. James & Swinscow = Sporodictyon cruentum
gelatinosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Agonimia gelatinosa
henscheliana (K
örber) Lönnr. (Fink 1935) = P. cruenta (Vitikainen et al. 1997)
integrascens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. hyperborea
intercedens (Nyl.) Lönnr. = P. cupularis
sommerfeltii Lynge = Sporodictyon terrestre
terrestris Th. Fr. = Sporodictyon terrestre
tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold = Agonimia tristicula

POLYBLASTIOPSIS Zahlbr. = JULELLA
dealbens Fink = Polymeridium proponens
+dispora (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Julella dispora
+fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Zahlbr. = Julella fallaciosa
fallax (Nyl.) Fink = Arthopyrenia analepta
floridana Fink = Porina nuculastrum
inductula (Nyl.) Fink = Thelenella inductula
intrusa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = a Laurera sp., not in North America
+lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = Julella lactea
+quercicola Brodo = Julella fallaciosa
+rappii Zahlbr. = Julella geminella
+sublactea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Julella sublactaea

POLYCAULIONA Hue (Arup et al. 2013)
ascendens (S. Y. Kondr.)  Frödén, Arup, & Søchting  Syn.: Xanthoria ascendens
bolacina (Tuck.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca bolacina, Placodium bolacinum
brattiae (W. A.Weber) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca brattiae
candelaria (L.) Frödén, Arup, & Søchting  Syn.: Teloschistes candelarius, Xanthoria candelaria

coralloides (Tuck.) Hue  Syn.: Caloplaca coralloides, Placodium coralloides
flavogranulosa (Arup) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca flavogranulosa
ignea (Arup) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca ignea
impolita (Arup) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca impolita
inconspecta (Arup) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca inconspecta
ludificans (Arup) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca ludificans
luteominia (Tuck.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting var. luteominia  Syn.: Blastenia luteominia, Caloplaca laeta, C. luteominia, Placodium luteominium
luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca bolanderi, Placodium ferrugineum f. bolanderi
nashii (Nav.-Ros., Gaya & Hladún) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca nashii
phlogina (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca phlogina
pollinarioides (L. Lindblom & D.M. Wright) Frödén, Arup, & Søchting  Syn.: Xanthoria pollinarioides
polycarpa (Hoffm.) Frödén, Arup, & Søchting  Syns.: Teloschistes polycarpus T. ramulosus, Xanthoria polycarpa, X. ramulosa
rosei (Hasse) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca rosei
stellata (Wetmore & Kärnefelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca stellata
tenax (L. Lindblom) Frödén, Arup, & Søchting  Syn.: Xanthoria tenax
tenuiloba
(L. Lindblom) Frödén, Arup, & Søchting  Syn.: Xanthoria tenuiloba
verruculifera
(Vainio) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca gloriae sensu Aproot, C. verruculifera

POLYCHIDIUM (Ach.) Gray
muscicola (Sw.) Gray
albociliatum (Desm.) Zahlbr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
contortum Henssen = Leptogidium contortum (Muggia et al. 2011)
dendriscum (Nyl.)
Henssen = Leptogidium dendriscum (Muggia et al. 2011)
intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum
rivale (Tuck.) Fink =
Scytinium rivale
umhausense (Auersw.) Henssen = Dendriscocaulon umhausense

POLYCOCCUM Sauter ex Körber
*bryonthae (Arnold) V
ězda (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*clauzadei Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*hymeniicola (Berk. & Broome) Zhurb. (Spribille et al. 2010, Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*kerneri J. Steiner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*laursenii Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*microsticticum (Leighton ex Mudd) Arnold
*minutulum Kocourková & F. Berger (Diederich 2003)
*opulentum (Th. Fr. & Almq.) Arnold  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Vězda  (Alstrup 2004)
*pulvinatum (Eitner) R. Sant.
*sporastatiae (Anzi) Arnold
*squamarioides (Mudd) Arnold
*trypethelioides (Th. Fr.) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
*vermicularium (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*epicrassum (H. Olivier) R. Sant. = Clypeococcum epicrassum, but see note there
*galligenum Vězda = P. pulvinatum
*gelidarium (Mudd) D. Hawksw. = Roselliniopsis gelidaria

POLYDESMIA Boud.
*lichenis Huhtinen & R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)

POLYMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
albidum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
albocinereum (Kremp.) R. C. Harris
catapastum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
contendens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
proponens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Campylothelium amylosporum, Polyblastiopsis dealbens
quinqueseptatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia quinqueseptata, Pyrenula quinqueseptata
subcinereum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina subcinerea
pleiomerellum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = P. albocinereum

POLYPYRENULA D. Hawksw.
sexlocularis (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Polythelis sexlocularis. The implied occurrence of this species in Florida is questionable. No material seen from North America

POLYSPORINA Vězda
*arenacea (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen & Kocourk.  Syn.: Polysporina arenacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
cyclocarpa (Anzi) Vězda (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.  Syns.:  Sarcogyne oligospora, S. gyrocarpa (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c)
*pusilla (Anzi) M. Steiner ex Kantvilas (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
simplex
(Taylor) Vězda  Syns.: Biatorella revertens, B. simplex, Lecanora privigna, Sarcogyne simplex
*subfuscescens (Nyl.) K. Knudsen & Kocourk.  Syns.: Acarospora subfuscescens, Sarcogyne bicolor (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
urceolata (Anzi) Brodo
lapponica
(Ach. ex Schaerer) Degel. = Sarcogyne lapponica (see note there)
*lapponica auct. N.A. = Polysporina subfuscescens
oligospora (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a) = P. gyrocarpa

POLYTHELIS Clem. = POLYPYRENULA
sexlocularis (Müll. Arg.) Clem. = Polypyrenula sexlocularis (q.v.)

PORINA Müll. Arg.
amygdalina Müll. Arg.
heterospora (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris
norrlinii Vainio (Fryday 2010)
nucula Ach.
nuculastrum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris  Syns.: Clathroporina nuculastrum, C. confinis, Polyblastiopsis floridana (Harris 1995a)
pacifica Brodo (Brodo 2004)
peregrina
Tretiach & McCarthy (Aptroot 2002e)
radicicola P. M. McCarthy & Tønsberg (McCarthy & Tønsberg 1998)
salicina Müll. Arg.
scabrida R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
aenea (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia aeneum
carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia aeneum
cestrensis (Tuck. ex E. Michener) Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia cestrensis
chlorotica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia chloroticum
cinerea "(Pers.) Zahlbr." = nom. illeg. = Strigula stigmatella
faginea (Schaerer) Arnold = Strigula stigmatella
guentheri (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia guentheri
hibernica P. James & Swinscow = misidentification for North America (Harris 1995a)
lectissima (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Segrestia lectissima
leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) A. L. Sm. = Segestria leptalea
linearis (Leighton) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia linearis
mammillosa (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Segestria mammillosa
mastoidea (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America (Harris 1995a)
nitidula Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia nitidulum
olivacea (Pers.) A. L. Sm. = misidentification for North America
plumbaria (Stizenb.) Hasse = Arthopyrenia plumbaria
pulla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = an Arthopyrenia sp., not in North America
rhaphidosperma Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia rhaphidosperma
subcinerea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Polymeridium subcinereum
thaxteri R. Sant. = Pseudosagedia thaxteri
viridiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Strigula viridiseda

POROCYPHUS Körber
coccodes (Flotow) Körber Syn.: P. furfurellus
kenmorensis (Holl ex Nyl.)
Henssen
dispersus E. Dahl = Thelignya lignyota
furfurellus (Nyl.) Forssell = P. coccodes

PORPIDIA Körber
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia albocaerulescens, Lecidea albocaerulescens, L. hebescens
calcarea Gowan
carlottiana Gowan
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia cinereoatra, Lecidea cinereoatra
contraponenda (Arnold) Knoph & Hertel
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia crustulata, Lecidea crustulata
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab Syns.: Huilia flavocaerulescens, Lecidea flavocaerulescens
flavocruenta Fryday & Buschbom (Fryday 2005)
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia glaucophaea, Lecidea glaucophaea
grisea Gowan
lowiana Gowan
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab Syns.: Huilia macrocarpa, H. nigrocruenta, Lecidea steriza, L. macrocarpa, L.platycarpa, L.phylliscina, L. contigua, L. soredifera
melinodes (Körber) Gowan & Ahti Syns.: Aspicilia melinodes, Huilia melinodes, Lecidea melinodes
ochrolemma (Vainio) Brodo & R. Sant. Syn.: Hymenelia ochrolemma
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel Syn.: Huilia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lecidea soredizodes, Huilia soredizodes (Fryday et al. 2007)
speirea (Ach.) Kremp. Syn.: Lecidea speirea
subsimplex (H. Magn.) Fryday  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
superba (Körber) Hertel & Knoph Syn.: Huilia superba
thomsonii Gowan
tuberculosa (Sm.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia tuberculosa, Lecidea sorediza, L. tumida
zeoroides (Anzi) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea macrocarpa var. trullisata
diversa (Lowe) Gowan = P. contraponenda (Fryday 2005)
flavicunda (Ach.) Gowan = P. flavocaerulescens
herteliana Gowan = P. cinereoatra (Fryday 2005)
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Diederich & Sérus. = P. macrocarpa
pseudomelinodes A. J. Schwab = Porpidia ochrolemma
tahawasiana Gowan = P. subsimplex

PRONECTRIA Clem.
*anisospora (Lowen) Lowen Syn.: Nectriella anisospora
*dillmaniae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
*erythrinella (Nyl.) Lowen Syn.: Nectriella erythrinella
*fissuriprodiens Etayo (Spribille et al. 2010)
*oligospora Lowen & Rogerson
*robergei (Mont. & Desm.) Lowen (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*tibellii Zhurb. (« tibellae ») (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*walkerorum Zhurb. (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)

PROTOBLASTENIA (Zahlbr.) J. Steiner
calva (Dickson) Zahlbr.
cyclospora (Hepp ex Körber) Poelt (Dillman et al. 2012)
incrustans (DC.) J. Steiner
rupestris (Scop.) J. Steiner
terricola (Anzi) Lynge
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Räsänen = Ramboldia cinnabarina
monticola (Ach.) J. Steiner = Clauzadea monticola
quernea (Dickson) Clauzade = Pyrrhospora quernea
rupestris var. calva (Dickson) J. Steiner = P. calva

PROTOMICAREA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
limosa (Ach.) Hafellner  Syn.: Lecidea limosa

PROTOPANNARIA (Gyeln.) P. M. Jørg. & S. Ekman
pezizoides (Weber) P. M. Jørg. & S. Ekman (Jørgensen 2000c) Syn: Pannaria pezizoides

PROTOPARMELIA M. Choisy
atriseda (Fr.) R. Sant. & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecanora atriseda
badia (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecanora badia, L. grandis
capitata Lendemer (Lendemer & Lumbsch 2008)
cupreobadia (Nyl.)
Poelt
hypotremella Herk, Spier & V. Wirth (Brodo & Aptroot 2005)
isidiata Diederich, Aptroot & Sérus. (Lendemer & Lumbsch 2008)
nephaea (Sommerf.) R. Sant. ex Poelt & Obermayer  Syn.: Lecanora nephaea
ochrococca (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg., Rambold & Hertel  Syns.: Lecidea ochrococca, Lecanora ochrococca, L. phaeobola
#ryaniana van den Boom, Sipman & Elix (van den Boom et al. 2007)

PROTOPARMELIOPSIS M. Choisy = LECANORA
muralis (Schreber) M. Choisy = Lecanora muralis (Schreber) Rabenh.

PROTOTHELENELLA Räsänen
corrosa (Körber) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syn.: Microglaena corrosa
*crocea (Bagl. & Carestia) Haffelner & H. Mayrhofer (Spribille et al. 2010)
leucothelia (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt (Goward et al. 1996)
pluriseptata Fryday (Fryday 2004a)  Syn.: Gongylia muscorum
santessonii H. Mayrhofer
sphinctrinoidella (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt (Mayrhofer 1987)
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syn.: Microglaena sphinctrinoides, Verrucaria pernigrata

PROTOUNGUICULARIA  Raitv. & R. Galán
nephromatis (Zhurb. & Zavarzin) Huhtinen, D. Hawksw. & Ihlen (Huhtinen et al. 2008) Syn.: Unguiculariopsis nephromatis
transiens
(Höhn.) Huhtinen (Huhtinen et al. 2008)

PSEUDEPHEBE
M. Choisy
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Syn.: Alectoria minuscula
pubescens (L.) M. Choisy Syns.: Alectoria pubescens, Parmelia lanata

PSEUDEVERNIA Zopf
cladonia (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb.. Syn.: Parmelia cladonia
consocians (Vainio) Hale & W. L. Culb..
intensa (Nyl.) Hale & W. L. Culb..
furfuracea (L.) Zopf = misidentification for North America; records are either P. consocians or P. intensa

PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA Vainio
crocata (L.) Vainio Syn.: Sticta crocata
mallota (Tuck.) H. Magn. (Tønsberg 1999b)
perpetua McCune & Miadl. (Miadlikowska et al. 2002)
rainierensis Imshaug

anomala
Brodo & Ahti = Anomalobaria anomala (Moncada et al. 2013)
anthraspis (Ach.) H. Magn. = Anomalobaria anthraspis (Moncada et al. 2013)
aurata (Ach.)
Vainio = Crocodia aurata (Galloway & Elix 2013)
mougeotiana (Delise) Vainio = P. crocata

PSEUDOPARMELIA Lynge (Elix & Nash 1997)
cubensis (Nyl.) Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1997) Syn.: Parmelia leucochlora Tuck. non (Mont.)
Mont.
floridense Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1997)
uleana (Müll. Arg.) Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1997) Syn.: Parmelia uleana, Parmelia endoxantha, Parmelia congrugens auct., Parmelia sphaerospora auct.
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Hale = Canoparmelia alabamensis
amazonica (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia amazonica
baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale = Flavoparmelia caperata
caroliniana (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia caroliniana
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd.) Hale = Canoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia martinicana
rutidota (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera (Hale) Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale (North American records) = Pseudoparmelia uleana
texana (Tuck.) Hale = Canoparmelia texana

PSEUDOPYRENIDIUM Nav.-Ros., Zhurb. & Cl. Roux
*tartaricola (Lindsay) Nav.-Ros., Zhurb. & Cl. Roux (Zhurbenko 2013)

PSEUDOPYRENULA Müll. Arg.
diluta (Fée) Müll Arg. var. degenerans Vainio (Harris 1998)
subgregaria Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subnudata Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
pupula (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Trypethelium floridanum for North American records

PSEUDOSAGEDIA (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy  (Harris 2005)

aenea (Wallr.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium aeneum, Porina aenea, P. carpinea

cestrensis (Tuck. ex E. Michener) R. C. Harris   Syns.: Porina cestrensis, Trichothelium cestrense, Verrucaria cestrensis

chlorotica (Ach.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Porina chlorotica, Trichothelium chloroticum

crocynoides (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Trichothelium crocynoides

guentheri (Flotow) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Porina guentheri, Trichothelium guentheri

isidiata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Trichothelium isidiatum 

linearis (Leighton) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Porina linearis, Trichothelium lineare

nitidula (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Porina nitidula, Trichothelium nitidulum

rhaphidosperma (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris  Syns.: Porina rhaphidosperma, Trichothelium rhaphidospermum
thaxteri (R. Sant.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Porina thaxteri, Trichothelium thaxteri

PSILOLECHIA A. Massal.
clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea adirondackii
lucida (Ach.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea lucida

PSORA Hoffm.
brunneocarpa Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
californica Timdal
cerebriformis W. A. Weber
crenata (Taylor) Reinke Syns.: Lecidea crenata, L. coroniformis
decipiens (Hedwig) Hoffm. Syn.: Lecidea decipiens
elenkinii Rass. (Zhurbenko 2009a)
globifera (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Lecidea globifera
himalayana (Church. Bab.) Timdal
hyporubescens Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
icterica (Mont.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Lecidea icterica
luridella (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Lecidea luridella
montana Timdal
nipponica (Zahlbr.) Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea novomexicana, Psora novomexicana
pacifica Timdal
peninsularis Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
pruinosa Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
pseudorussellii Timdal
rubiformis (Ach.) Hooker Syn.: Lecidea rubiformis
russellii (Tuck.) A. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea russellii, Biatora russellii
tenuifolia Timdal
tuckermanii R. A. Anderson ex Timdal
vallesiaca (Schaerer) Timdal
anthracophila (Nyl.) Arnold =
Carbonicola anthracophila
demissa (Rutstr.) Hepp = Lecidoma demissum
friesii (Ach.) Hellbom =
Xylopsora friesii
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Romjularia lurida
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = P. nipponica
ostreata Hoffm. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
petri (Tuck.) Fink = Romjularia lurida
pulcherrima (Vainio) Elenkin = Anamylopsora pulcherrima
rufonigra (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Psorula rufonigra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Hooker = Hypocenomyce scalaris
scholanderi (Lynge) R. A. Anderson = Toninia tristis
scotopholis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Miriquidica scotopholis
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea testacea, Chrysopsora testacea, but not present in North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana

PSORINIA Gotth. Schneider
conglomerata (Ach.) Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Toninia conglomerata

PSOROGLAENA Müll. Arg.
costaricensis Henssen (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cubensis Müll. Arg. var. cubensis
cubensis var. teretiloba O. Eriksson
dictyospora (Orange) H. Harada (Harada 2003)  Syn.: Macentina dictyospora
stigonemoides (Orange) Henssen (Björk et al. 2009)

PSOROMA Michaux
cinnamomeum Malme (Jørgensen 2000c)
hirsutulum Nyl. (Jørgensen 2005)
hypnorum (Vahl) Gray Syn.: Pannaria hypnorum
tenue Henssen var. boreale Henssen

PSOROTICHIA A. Massal.
hassei Fink ex J. Hedrick
minuta H. Magn.
montinii (A. Massal.) Forssell (Schultz 2007c)
murorum A. Massal. (Schultz 2007c)
nigra H. Magn.
numidella (Nyl.) Forssell var. flageyana J. Steiner (Schultz 2007c)
schaereri (A. Massal.) Arnold Syn.: Pyrenopsis schaereri
taurica (Nyl.) Vainio  (Schultz 2007c)
segregata
(Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Lempholemma chalazanum
squamulosa Zahlbr. = Gloeoheppia squamulosa

PSORULA Gotth. Schneider
rufonigra (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea rufonigra, L. brouardii, Psora rufonigra
scotopholis (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider = Miriquidica scotopholis

PTERYGIOPSIS Vainio
atra Vainio
canariensis Henssen (Schultz 2006)
cava M. Schultz  (Schultz 2006)

PTERYGIUM Nyl.
petersii Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Placynthium petersii

PTYCHOGRAPHA Nyl. (McCune 1997b)
xylographoides Nyl. (McCune 1997b)

PUNCTELIA Krog
appalachensis (W. L. Culb..) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia appalachensis
bolliana (Müll. Arg.) Krog  Syns.: Parmelia bolliana, P. frondifera
borreri (Sm.) Krog  Syns.: Parmelia borreri, P. pseudoborreri
caseana Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2010)
eganii Hodkinson & Lendemer (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2011)
graminicola
(B. de Lesd.) Egan  Syn.: Parmelia graminicola, P. semansiana (Egan 2003)
hypoleucites (Nyl.) Krog Syn.:  Parmelia hypoleucites
jeckeri (Roum.) Kalb (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2010)
missouriensis
G. Wilh.
& Ladd (Adler 1997, van Herk & Aptroot 2000, Aptroot 2003)
nashii Marcelli & Canêz (Marcelli et al. 2011)
perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd  Syn.: Parmelia perreticulata
punctilla (Hale) Krog
reddenda (Stirton) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia reddenda
rudecta (Ach.) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia rudecta
stictica (Duby) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia stictica
subpraesignis (Nyl.) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia subpraesignis
darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Krog = Flavopunctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Krog = Flavopunctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Krog = Flavopunctelia praesignis
semansiana (W. L. Culb.. & C. F. Culb.) Krog = P. graminicola
soredica (Nyl.) Krog = Flavopunctelia soredica
subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog   Misidentification for North America (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2010)
ulophylla (Ach.) van Herk & Aptroot (Tucker et al. 2006) = P. jeckeri (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2010)

PUTTEA S. Stenroos & Huhtinen
caesia (Fr.) M. Svensson & T. Sprib. (Dillman et al. 2012)  Syn.: Lecidea symmictella
exsequens (Nyl.) Printzen & Davydov (Buck & Lendemer 2012)
margaritella (Hulting) S. Stenroos & Huhtinen (Spribille et al. 2010)

PYCNORA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
praestabilis (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Hypocenomyce praestabilis
sorophora (Vainio) Hafellner Syn.: Hypocenomyce sorophora
xanthococca (Sommerf.) Hafellner Syns.: Hypocenomyce xanthococca, Lecidea xanthococca
leucococca (R. Sant.) R. Sant. (Santesson et al. 2004) = Toensbergia leucococca

PYCNOTHELIA Dufour
papillaria Dufour Syns.: Cladonia heteromorpha, C. papillaria

PYRENASTRUM Eschw. = PYRENULA
cubanum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cubana
fuscum Mont. = Pyrenula septicollaris
pyrenastraeum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula septicollaris

PYRENIDIUM Nyl.
*actinellum Nyl.
*aggregatum K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010g)
*hyalosporum Alstrup, D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*octosporum Looman = Thelenella muscorum var. octospora

PYRENOCARPON Trevisan
thelostomum (Ach. ex J. Harriman) Coppins & Aptroot (Dillman et al. 2012)

PYRENOCOLLEMA Reinke
atlanticum (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
caesium (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
prospersellum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia prospersella
tichothecioides (Arnold) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia tichothecioides
elegans R. Sant. = Collemopsidium elegans
halodytes (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Collemopsidium halodytes
strontianense (Swinscow) R. C. Harris = Collemopsidium angermannicum
sublitorale (Leighton) R. C. Harris ex Fletcher = Collemopsidium sublitoralis

PYRENODESMIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
variabilis (Pers.) A. Massal.  Syn.: Caloplaca variabilis

albovariegata B. de Lesd. = Caloplaca albovariegata
elaeodes E. D. Rudolph = Caloplaca pellodella
montana B. de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.

PYRENOPSIDIUM (Nyl.) Forssell = CRYPTOTHELE
granuliforme (Nyl.) Forssell = Cryptothele granuliformis
homoeopsis (Nyl.) Forssell = Pyrenopsis furfurea
iivarensis (Vainio) Forssell (Thomson 1997) = Pyrenopsis furfurea (Henssen & Jørgensen 1990; Santesson 1993)

PYRENOPSIS (Nyl.) Nyl.
compacta Willey
furfurea (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenopsidium homoeopsis, P. iivarensis
fuscoatra Fink
grumulifera Nyl.
haemalella (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell
haematina P. M. Jörg. & Henssen (Spribille et al. 2010)
lecidella Fink
phaeococca Tuck.
polycocca (Nyl.) Tuck.
reducta Th. Fr. (Hutten et al. 2013)
sanguinea Anzi
subfuliginea Nyl.
tasmanica Nyl.
triptococca Nyl. (Schultz 2007d)
viridirufa Tuck.
granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. = Euopsis granatina
homoeopsis Nyl. = P. furfurea
melambola (Tuck.) Tuck. = Metamelanea melambola
"multispora E. Dahl" Report probably refers to P. myriospora E. Dahl = P. grumulifera
myriospora E. Dahl = P. grumulifera
phylliscina (Tuck.) Tuck. = Cryptothele permiscens
pulvinata (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Euopsis pulvinata
schaereri A. Massal. = Psorotichia schaereri

PYRENOTHAMNIA Tuck. = ENDOCARPON
brandegei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Endocarpon pulvinatum
spraguei Tuck. = Endocarpon pulvinatum

PYRENOTHRIX Riddle
nigra Riddle Syn.: Lichenothrix riddlei

PYRENOTRICHUM Mont.
splitgerberi Mont. = campylidia of lichens

PYRENULA A. Massal.
acutalis R. C. Harris
acutispora Kalb & Hafellner (Aptroot 1996)
adacta Fée (Aptroot 2012)
anomala (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Melanotheca anomala, M. achariana
aspistea (Ach.) Ach.
astroidea (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parmentaria astroidea
atrolaminata R. C. Harris (Aptroot 1996)
bahiana Malme (Aptroot 2012)
balia (Kremp.) R. C. Harris (Aptroot 2012)
breutelii (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot (Aptroot 2012) Syn.: Anthracothecium  maculare
brunnea Fée (Lücking et al. 2011b)
caryae R. C. Harris (Aptroot 1996)
cerina Eschw.
chlorospila (Nyl.) Arnold (Aptroot 2012)
circumfiniens Vainio (Aptroot 2012) Syn.: Parathelium subferrugineum
cocoes Müll. Arg.
confinis (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Lücking et al. 2011b)
confoederata R. C. Harris
cruenta (Mont.) Vainio Syns.: Melanotheca cruenta, M. subincruenta
cruentata (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bottaria cruentata
cubana (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Pyrenastrum cubanum
cuyabensis (Malme) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium cuyabense
dermatodes (Borrer) Schaerer (Lücking et al. 2011b)
duplicans (Nyl.) Aptroot (Lücking et al. 2011b)
erumpens R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium emergens
fetivica (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. (Aptroot 2012)
globifera (Eschw.) Aptroot (Lücking et al. 2011b)
laetior Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a)
laevigata (Pers.) Arnold
leucostoma Ach. Syns.: Anthracothecium leucostomum, Parmentaria rappii
macounii R. C. Harris
mamillana (Ach.) Trevisan (fide R. Harris)
micheneri R. C. Harris
microcarpa Müll. Arg.
microtheca R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium microcarpum
nitidula (Bres.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
novemseptata Vainio (Aptroot 2012)  Syn.: Anthracothecium varians
occidentalis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris
ochraceoflava (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium ochraceoflavum
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium ochraceoflavens
oleosa R. C. Harris
papillifera (Nyl.) Aptroot (Aptroot 2012)
pseudobufonia (Rehm) R. C. Harris
punctella (Nyl.) Trevisan
pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium pyrenuloides
quassiicola Fée
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parmentaria ravenelii
rubrostoma R. C. Harris
schiffneri (Zahlbr.) Aptroot  (Aptoot 2012) Syn. Anthracothecium falsarium
septicollaris (Eschw.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Pyrenastrum fuscum, P. pyrenastraeum
sexlocularis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subelliptica
(Tuck.) R. C. Harris
subgregantula Müll. Arg. (Aptroot 2012)
tenuisepta R. C. Harris
thelomorpha Tuck. Syn.: Anthracothecium thelomorphum
wetmorei R. C. Harris
wheeleri R. C. Harris
aquila R. C. Harris = P. aspistea (Aptroot 2012)
caraibica Aptroot & Etayo (Etayo & Aptroot 2003) = Pyrenula adacta (Aptroot 2012)
cerasi (Schrader) Hepp = Arthopyrenula cerasi
cinerea Zahlbr. = P. microcarpa
citriformis R. C. Harris = P. fetivica (Aptroot 2012)
claudestina Ach. (Fink 1935)  Typographic error for Pyrenula clandestina Ach. = Ocellularia clandestine (Ach.) M
üll. Arg., an apparent misidentification for N. America
concatervans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = P. sexlocularis (Aptroot 2012)
corticata (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = P. confinis (Aptroot 2012)
falsaria (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = P. schiffneri (Aptroot 2012)
farrea auct. = Eopyrenula leucoplaca, but misidentification for North America
fulvella R. C. Harris = P. subgregantula
glabrata (Ach.) A. Massal. = P. laevigata
herrei Fink = Arthopyrenia plumbaria
imperfecta (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = P. subelliptica
leucoplaca (Wallr.) Körber = Eopyrenula leucoplaca, but misidentification for North America
leucoplaca var. pluriloculata Fink = Eopyrenula intermedia
lucifera R. C. Harris = Pyrenula dermatodes (Aptroot 2012)
macularis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = P. breutelii (Aptroot 2012)
maculata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = P. chlorospila (Aptroot 2012)
mamillana (Ach.) Trevisan = misidentification for North America
marginata Hooker = P. mamillana
martinicana (Vainio) R. C. Harris = P. adacta
megalospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
mucosa (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = P. papillifera (Aptroot 2012)
neglecta R. C. Harris = P. pseudobufonia
nitida (Weigel) Ach. = misidentification for North America
nitidella (Flörke ex Schaerer) Müll. Arg. var. maculata R. C. Harris = P. chlorospila (Aptroot 2012)
pachycheila Tuck. (Tuckerman 1872) = Anthracothecium pachycheilum
personata (Malme) R. C. Harris = P. subgregantula (Aptroot 2012)
pinguis (Sprengel) Fée = misidentification for North America
plittii R. C. Harris = P. nitidula (Aptroot 2012)
pulicina Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Not located in any available source (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
quinqueseptata (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1872) = Polymeridium quinqueseptatum
santensis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = P. balia (Aptroot 2012)
subaggregata Müll. Arg.  Not in North America
subferruginea (Malme) R. C. Harris = P. circumfiniens (Aptroot 2012)
subprostans (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1872) = Anisomeridium subprostans
texana Tuck. ex R. C. Harris = P. microcarpa
tropica (Ach.) Trevisan = Trypethelium tropicum
xyloides (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = P. mamillana

PYRENULELLA Fink = PHAEOSPORA
*endococcoidea (Nyl.) Fink = Phaeospora rimosicola

PYRGILLUS Nyl.
javanicus (Mont. & Bosch) Nyl.
americanus Nyl. = P. javanicus

PYRRHOSPORA Körber
quernea (Dickson) Körber Syns.: Protoblastenia quernea, Lecidea quernea
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) M. Choisy = Ramboldia cinnabarina
elabens (Fr.) Hafellner = Ramboldia elabens
gowardiana Spribille & Hauck (Spribille & Hauck 2003) = Ramboldia gowardiana
russula (Ach.) Hafellner = Ramboldia russula
subcinnabarina (Tønsberg) Hafellner = Ramboldia subcinnabarina
varians (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Lecidea varians

PYXINE Fr.
albovirens (G. Meyer) Aptroot
berteriana (Fée) Imshaug
caesiopruinosa (Nyl.) Imshaug Possibly a synonym of P. albovirens?
cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.
coralligera Malme
eschweileri (Tuck.) Vainio
meissneriana Nyl. (Nash et al. 1998)
petricola Nyl.
retirugella Nyl.
sorediata (Ach.) Mont.
subcinerea Stirton  (Amtoft 2002)
chrysanthoides Vainio = P. subcinerea
daedalea Krog & R. Sant. = misidentification for North America
frostii Tuck. = Dirinaria frostii
meissneri Tuck. = P. berteriana
picta (Sw.) Tuck. = Dirinaria picta
pringlei Imshaug = P. petricola

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

RACIBORSKIOMYCES Siemaszko (Diederich 2003)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) M. E. Barr Syn.: Wentiomyces peltigericola (Diederich 2003)

RACODIUM Pers. : Fr.
rupestre Pers.

RAMALINA Ach.
ahtii Kashiw. & T. H. Nash
almquistii Vainio Syn.: Fistulariella almquistii
americana Hale Earlier North American reports of R. fastigiata belong here.
baltica Lettau
bistorta Nyl.
calicaris (L.) Fr.
canariensis J. Steiner
celastri (Sprengel) Krog & Swinscow
complanata (Sw.) Ach.
culbersoniorum LaGreca (LaGreca 1999)
dasypoga Tuck.
dendriscoides Nyl.
denticulata Nyl.
dilacerata (Hoffm.)
Hoffm. Syn.: Fistulariella minuscula
farinacea (L.) Ach.
fastigiata (Pers.) Ach. Earlier reports of this species from North America refer to R. americana
fraxinea (L.) Ach.
geniculata Hooker f. & Taylor Syn.: Fistulariella geniculata
inflata (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hooker f. & Taylor subsp. inflata Syn.: Fistulariella inflata
intermedia (Delise ex Nyl.) Nyl.
lacera (With.) J. R. Laundon
leptocarpha Tuck.
linearis (Sw.) Ach.
menziesii Taylor
montagnei De Not.
obtusata (Arnold) Bitter
paludosa B. Moore
peruviana Ach. Syn.: Desmazieria peruviana
petrina Bowler & Rundel
pollinaria (Westr.) Ach.
polymorpha (Lilj.) Ach.
puberulenta Riefner & Bowler
rigida Pers. ex Ach.
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Hue Syn.: Fistulariella roesleri
scoparia Vainio Syn.: Fistulariella scoparia
sinensis Jatta
sonorensis Kashiw. & T. H. Nash (Kashiwadani & Nash 2004)
sorediantha Nyl.
stenospora Müll. Arg.
subleptocarpha Rundel & Bowler
subpellucida Müll. Arg.
tenuis (Tuck.) G. Merr.
thrausta (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Alectoria thrausta
unifolia J. W. Thomson
usnea (L.) R. Howe
willeyi R. Howe
canaliculata (Fr.) Herre (Fink 1935) = Ramalina calicaris (Nimis & Martellos 2003)
cephalota Tuck. = Niebla cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.) De Not. = Niebla ceruchis
cochlearis Zahlbr.
= misidentification for North America
combeoides Nyl. = Niebla combeoides
crinita Tuck. = Trichoramalina crinita
cuspidata (Ach.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = misidentification for North America
duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. = R. lacera
ecklonii auct. = R. celastri
ecklonii (Sprengel) G. Meyer & Flotow  Not known from North America.
evernioides Nyl.
= R. lacera
flaccescens Nyl. = Niebla flaccescens
homalea Ach. = Niebla homalea
hypoprotocetrarica W. L. Culb.. = R. farinacea
menziesii Tuck. non Taylor = R. leptocarpha
minuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. = R. dilacerata
pollinariella Nyl. = R. roesleri
reagens (B. de Lesd.) W. L. Culb.. = R. farinacea
reticulata (Nöhden) Kremp. = R. menziesii
scopulorum (Retz.) Ach.
(Fink 1935) = misidentification for North America
subampliata (Nyl.) Fink = misidentification for North America
subfraxinea Nyl. (Fink 1935) = misidentification for North America
testudinaria Nyl. = Niebla homalea
usneoides (Ach.) Fr. (Fink 1935) = misidentification for North America
yemensis (Ach.) Nyl. = R. celastri

RAMBOLDIA Kantvilas & Elix
blochiana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2011)
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix  Syns.: Lecidea cinnabarina, Protoblastenia cinnabarina (Kalb et al. 2008)
elabens (Fr.) Kantvilas & Elix (Kantvilas & Elix 2007)  Syns.: Lecidea elabens, L. melancheima, Pyrrhospora elabens
gowardiana (T. Sprib. & Hauck) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix  Syn.: Pyrrhospora gowardiana (Kalb et al. 2008)
russula (Ach.) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix  Syns.: Lecidea russula, Pyrrhospora russula (Kalb et al. 2008)
subcinnabarina (Tønsberg) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix  Syns.: Lecidea subcinnabarina, Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina (Kalb et al. 2008)

RAMONIA Stizenb.
ablephora (Nyl. ex Hasse) R. C. Harris Syns.: Lecidea ablephora
absconsa (Tuck.)
Vězda
extensa Lendemer, K. Knudsen & Coppins (Lendemer et al. 2009a)
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) V
zda
malmei Vězda
microspora Vězda  Syn.: Biatorella rappii
rappii Vězda
valenzueliana (Mont.) Stizenb. Syn.: Maronea porinoidea
vermispora Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008a)

RECHINGERIA Servít = LICHINELLA
cribellifera (Nyl.) Servít = Lichinella cribellifera

RECONDITELLA Matzer & Hafellner
*physconiarum Matzer & Hafellner (Lendemer et al. 2009b)

REFRACTOHILUM D. Hawksw.
*galligenum D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*peltigerae (Keissler) D. Hawksw.

REIMNITZIA Kalb          
santensis (Tuck.) Kalb Syns.: Leptotrema santense, Thelotrema santense (Kalb 2001)

REINKELLA Darb. (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica Räsänen = Hubbsia californica
parishii Hasse = Schizopelte parishii (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
subcrustacea Räsänen = Schizopelte parishii (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

RELICINA (Hale & Kurok.) Hale
abstrusa (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia abstrusa
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia eximbricata

REQUIENELLA Fabre
#seminuda (Pers. : Fr.) Boise Syns.: Sphaeria seminuda, Lophiostoma subcollapsum
subcollapsa (Ellis & Everhart) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

RHABDODISCUS Vainio (Rivas Plata et al. 2012)
emersus (Kremp.) Rivas Plata, Lücking & Lumbsch  Syns.: Ocellularia emersa, Stegobolus emersus
granulosus (Tuck.) Rivas Plata, Lücking & Lumbsch  Syns.: Ocellularia granulosa, Stegobolous granulosus, Thelotrema granulosum

RHABDOSPORA (Durieu & Mont.) Mont.
lecanorae B. de Lesd.
= pycnidia of Lecanora thalli (Hawksworth 1981, Kalb et al. 1995)

RHAGADOSTOMA Körber
*lichenicola (De Not.) Keissler (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

RHIZOCARPON Ramond ex DC.
alaxense J. W. Thomson
alpicola (Anzi) Rabenh.
amphibium (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Hinds et al. 2002)
anaperum (Vainio) Vainio
anseris Lynge
arctogenum Gelting (Nash et al. 1998)
atroflavescens Lynge
badioatrum (Flörke ex Sprengel) Th. Fr. Syn.: Buellia badioatra
bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre
caesium Fryday (Fryday 2002)
chioneum (Norman) Th. Fr.
cinereonigrum Vainio
cinereovirens (Müll. Arg.) Vainio
concentricum (Davies) Beltr.
cookeanum H. Magn.
copelandii (Körber) Th. Fr.
#dimelaenae Timdal  (Feuerer & Timdal 2004)
*diploschistidina McCune (Lumbsch et al. 2011)
disporum (Nägeli ex Hepp) Müll. Arg.
distinctum Th. Fr.
#effiguratum (Anzi) Th. Fr.
eupetraeoides (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell
eupetraeum (Nyl.) Arnold
expallescens Th. Fr.
ferax H. Magn.
frigidum Räsänen
geminatum Körber
geographicum (L.) DC.
grande (Flörke ex Flotow) Arnold
hensseniae Brodo
hochstetteri (Körber) Vainio Syn.: Buellia colludens
inarense (Vainio) Vainio
infernulum (Nyl.)
Lynge (Fryday 2002)
intermediellum Räsänen
intersitum Arnold
jemtlandicum (Malme) Malme
lavatum (Fr.) Hazsl.
lecanorinum Anders
lindsayanum Räsänen  Possibly a subspecies of R. geographicum
macrosporum Räsänen
malenconianum (Llimona & Werner) Hafellner & Mayrhofer (McCune & Ponzetti 2005)
microsporum Lynge
norvegicum Räsänen
oederi (Weber) Körber
parvum Runemark 
May not be distinct from R. norvegicum
petraeum (Wulfen) A. Massal.
polycarpoides Degel.
polycarpum (Hepp) Th. Fr.
postumum (Nyl.) Arnold
praebadium (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
#pusillum Runemark
reductum Th. Fr. (Fryday 2000)
#renneri Poelt
riparium Räsänen Possibly a subspecies of R. geographicum
rittokense (Hellbom) Th. Fr.
rubescens Th. Fr. (Fryday 2000)
saanaënse Räsänen Syn.: R. sublucidum
*santessonii Timdal
saurinum (W. A. Weber) Bungartz  Syn.:  Buellia saurina (Bungartz & Fryday 2004)
simillimum (Anzi) Lettau
subgeminatum Eitner
submodestum (Vainio) Vainio
sulphurosum (Tuck. ex Willey) Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2010)
suomiense Räsänen (MacDonald et al. 2011)
superficiale (Schaerer) Vainio
superficiale subsp. boreale Runemark
tetramerum (Vainio) Vainio
timdalii Ihlen & Fryday (Ihlen & Fryday 2002)
umbilicatum (Ramond) Flagey
vernicomoideum Fink
#viridiatrum (Wulfen) Körber
albineum (Tuck.)
Fink = R. obscuratum
alboatrum (Hoffm.) Anzi = Diplotomma alboatrum
athalloides (Nyl.) Hasse = Diploschistella athalloides
ambiguum (Schaerer) Zahlbr. = R. distinctum
atroalbescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = R. eupetraeoides
chionophilum Th. Fr. = R. alpicola
chlorophaeum Hepp ex Leighton = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
concentricum auct. = R. petraeum
concretum (Ach.) Elenkin = R. geminatum
crystalligenum Lynge = R. superficiale subsp. boreale
cumulatum J. W. Thomson = Diplotomma epipolium (as Buellia, Feuerer 1991)
disporum auct. = R. geminatum
infernulum f. sylvaticum Fryday (Fryday 2002) = R. infernulum
intermedium Degel. = R. eupetraeum
interponens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = R. obscuratum
montagnei Körber = R. disporum
obscuratum (Ach.) A. Massal. 
= misidentification for North America (Fryday 2000); mostly R. lavatum/R. reductum
occidentale Lynge = R. superficiale
oidaleum (Nyl.) Fink = Buellia oidalea
oreites (Vainio) Zahlbr. = R. alpicola
penichrum (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Diplotomma penichrum
permodestum Arnold = R. obscuratum
plicatile auct. North American = R. rubescens Th. Fr.?
plicatile (Leighton) A. L. Sm. = Stereocaulon plicatile (Leighton) Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 1996) Not known from North America
polare Räsänen = R. superficiale
sphaerosporum Räsänen = R. macrosporum Räsänen
sublucidum Räsänen = R. saanaënse Räsänen.
subpostumum (Nyl.) Arnold (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)  Misidentification for N.A. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012c)
subtile Runemark = R. viridiatrum

RHIZOPLACA Zopf
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Zopf Syns.: Lecanora chrysoleuca, L. rubina
glaucophana (Nyl. ex Hasse) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora glaucophana, Harpidium glaucophanum
haydenii (Tuck.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora haydenii
haydenii subsp. arbuscula Rosentreter (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
idahoensis Rosentreter & McCune (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
marginalis (Hasse) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora marginalis
melanophthalma (DC.) Leuckert & Poelt Syn.: Lecanora melanophthalma
melanophthalma subsp. cerebriformis Rosentreter & B. D. Ryan (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
melanophthalma subsp. crispa Rosentreter & B. D. Ryan (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
peltata (Ramond) Leuckert & Poelt Syn.: Lecanora peltata
subdiscrepans (Nyl.) R. Sant.

RHYMBOCARPUS Zopf
*boomii Etayo & Diederich  (Diederich & Etayo 2004a)
*cruciatus (Sherwood, D. Hawksw. & Coppins) Etayo & Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*neglectus (Vainio) Diederich & Etayo  Syn.:  Llimoniella neglecta (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*stereocaulorum (Alstrup & D. Hawksw.) Etayo & Diederich (Zhurbenko 2010)

RIMELIA Hale & Fletcher = PARMOTREMA  (Blanco et al. 2005)
cetrata (Ach.)
Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema cetratum
commensurata (Hale) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema commensuratum
diffractaica (Essl.) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema diffractaicum
reticulata (Taylor) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema reticulatum
simulans (Hale) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema simulans
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema subisidiosum

RIMELIELLA Kurok. = PARMOTREMA (Blanco et al. 2005)
conferenda (Hale) Kurok. = Parmotrema conferendum
neotropica (Kurok.) Kurok. = Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Kurok. = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.)
Kurok. = Parmotrema subtinctorium

RIMULARIA Nyl.
actinostoma Coppins & Fryday (Coppins & Fryday 2006a)
badioatra (Kremp.) Hertel & Rambold
caeca (Lowe) Rambold & Printzen Syn.: Lecidea caeca
furvella (Nyl. ex Mudd) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea furvella
gibbosa (Ach.) Coppins, Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Mosigia gibbosa, Lecanora bockii
gyrizans (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold
impavida (Th. Fr.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea impavida
#insularis (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea insularis, L. intumescens
limborina Nyl. Syns.: Lecidea limborina, L. trochodes
paradoxa Timdal & W. A. Weber (Timdal 2002b)
sphacelata (Th. Fr.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea sphacelata

RINODINA (Ach.) Gray
adirondackii H. Magn.
albertana Sheard (Sheard 2010)
archaea
(Ach.) Arnold
ascociscana (Tuck.) Tuck.
aspersa (Borrer) J. R. Laundon (Glew 1999)
athallina H. Magn.
aurantiaca Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
austroborealis Sheard (Sheard 2010)
badiexcipula Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
bischoffii (Hepp) A. Massal.
bolanderi H. Magn.
boleana Giralt & H. Mayrhofer (Sheard et al. 2011)
boulderensis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
brouardii B. de Lesd.
buckii Sheard (Sheard et al. 2012)
bullata Sheard & Lendemer (Sheard et al. 2012)

calcigena (Th. Fr.) Lynge
californiensis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
campestris Sheard & C. A. Morse (Sheard et al. 2011)
cana (Arnold) Arnold (Wilhelm 1998)
capensis Hampe
castanomela (Nyl.) Arnold
castanomelodes H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
chrysidiata Sheard (Lendemer et al. 2012)
chrysomelaena (Ach.) Tuck. (Lendemer & Sheard 2006)
colobina (Ach.) Th. Fr.
colobinoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
coloradiana H. Magn.
confragosa (Ach.) Körber
confragosula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. (Sheard 2010)
conradii Körber
degeliana Coppins
destituta (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
disjuncta Sheard & Tønsberg
dolichospora Malme (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
efflorescens Malme
endophragmia I. M. Lamb
endospora Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
excrescens Vainio
exigua (Ach.) Gray
fimbriata Körber (Sheard 2010)
flavosoralifera Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2002)
freyi H. Magn. (Sheard 2010)
gennarii
Bagl.
grandilocularis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
granuligera
H. Magn.
griseosoralifera Coppins (Tønsberg 1993a)
guzzinii Jatta (Sheard 2004)
hallii Tuck.  Syn. Lecanora exigua f. pruinosa
herrei H. Magn.
imshaugii Sheard (Sheard 2010)
innata Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
intermedia Bagl. (Mayrhofer et al. 2001)
intrusa (Nyl.) Malme (Sheard 2010)
juniperina Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
laevigata (Ach.) Malme
lepida (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
lobulata H. Mayrhofer & Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
luridata (Körber) H. Mayrhofer, Scheid. & Sheard
macrospora Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
maculans Müll. Arg. (Sheard 2010)
marysvillensis H. Magn.
megistospora Sheard & H. Mayrhofer (Sheard et al. 2011)
metaboliza Vainio
milvina (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr.
mniaraea (Ach.) Körber
mniaraea var. cinnamomea Th. Fr. (Spribille et al. 2010)
notabilis (Lynge) Sheard  Syn.: Buellia notabilis (Sheard 2010)
#obnascens (Nyl.) Oliv. (Sheard 2010)
ochracea Lynge (Sheard et al. 2012)
oleae Bagl. (Sheard 2010)
olivaceobrunnea
C. W. Dodge & Baker
orculata Poelt & M. Steiner (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2007)
oregana H. Magn.
oxydata (A. Massal.) A. Massal.
pachysperma H. Magn.
pacifica Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
papillata H. Magn.
#parasitica H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
perreagens Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
pityrea Ropin & H. Mayrhofer (Sheard 2011)
poeltiana Giralt & Obermayer  (Sheard 2004)
polyspora Th. Fr.
populicola H. Magn.
pycnocarpa H. Magn. (Sheard 2010)
pyrina (Ach.) Arnold
rinodinoides (Anzi) H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. (Sheard 2004)
riparia Sheard (Sheard 1998)
roscida (Sommerf.) Arnold
santae-monicae H. Magn.
septentrionalis Malme
sheardii Tønsberg
sibirica H. Magn. (Sheard 2010)
siouxiana Sheard (Sheard 2010)
stictica
Sheard & Tønsberg
straussii J. Steiner (Sheard 2010)
subminuta H. Magn.
tephraspis (Tuck.) Herre
terrestris Tomin (Zhurbenko et al. 2006)
terricola Sheard & K. Knudsen (Sheard et al. 2011)
trevisanii (Hepp) Körber  (Sheard 2004)
turfacea (Wahlenb.) Körber
verruciformis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
wetmorei Sheard (Sheard 2010)
willeyi Sheard & Giralt (Sheard 1995)
zwackhiana (Kremp.) Körber
americana B. de Lesd.  Identity not established (Sheard 2010)
angelica Stizenb. = Mobergia angelica
annulata H. Magn. = R. subminuta (Sheard 2010)
applanata H. Magn. = R. maculans (Sheard 2010)
archaeoides H. Magn. = R. olivaceobrunnea
arctica H. Magn. = R. olivaceobrunnea (Sheard 2010)
aterrima Kremp. ex Anzi = Lichenothelia scopularia
atrocinerea (Hooker) Körber = misidentification for North America
biatorina Körber = R. oxydata
biatorina sensu Fink = R. destituta (Sheard 2010)
bolodes Tuck. ex Fink = Mobergia angelica
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) Malme = Amandinea cacuminum
calculiformis W. A. Weber = Mobergia calculiformis
californica H. Magn. = Dimelaena californica
cinereovirens (Vainio) Vainio = R. turfacea (Sheard 2010)
constrictula H. Magn. = R. straussii (Sheard 2010)
corticola Arnold = R. capensis
dakotensis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
darrowii E. D. Rudolph ("darrovii") = R. intermedia
dirinoides Zahlbr. = Mobergia angelica
diskoensis Sheard ined. (Thomson 1997) = R. endophragmia (Sheard 2010)
dissa (Stirton) H. Mayrhofer = Hafellia dissa, but not in North America
euryspora Zahlbr. = R. luridata
farinosa Sheard ined. (Brodo 1988) = R. efflorescens (Sheard 2010)
finkii H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
flavonigella Tuck. = R. lepida (Sheard 2010)
glauca Ropin = R. freyi (Sheard 2010)
granulans Vainio sensu Thomson (1997) = R. sibirica (Sheard 2010)
halei H. Magn. = R. subminuta (Sheard 2010)
hueana Vainio = Dimelaena oreina
hyperborea H. Magn. = R. septentrionalis (Sheard 2010)
inaequalis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
*insularis (Arnold) Hafellner  (Sheard 2004) = Endohyalina insularis
interpolata (Stirton) Sheard (Thomson 1997) Misidentification for N.A. (Sheard 2010)
iowensis Zahlbr.
= R. cana (Sheard 2010)
kentuckyensis Fink = R. tephraspis
lecanoides B. de Lesd. 
Identity not established (Sheard 2010)
lecanorina (A. Massal.) A. Massal.  Misidentifications for N. A. (Sheard 2010)
lecideoides (Nyl.) Kernst. = R. archaea (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2007)
lignaria H. Magn. = R. trevisanii
lignicola Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002) = R. archaea (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2007)
lycopodiicola B. de Lesd.  Identity not established (Sheard 2010)
lyngei Sheard ined. (Thomson 1997) = R. endophragmia (Sheard 2010)
magnussonii Sheard ined. (Brodo 1988) = R. freyi (Sheard 2010)
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber = Buellia mamillana
marysvillensis var. thujae H. Magn.
= R. excrescens (Sheard 2010)
microbola Tuck. ex Fink = Buellia microbola
minutissima B. de Lesd. 
Identity not established (Sheard 2010)
milliaria Tuck. = Amandinea milliaria
mniaroeiza (Nyl.) Arnold = R. mniaraea (Sheard 2010)
mucronatula
H.Magn. = R. terrestris
nigra Fink = Buellia nigra
nimbosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Phaeorrhiza nimbosa
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = Dimelaena oreina
occidentalis Lynge = R. calcigena
ocellata (Hoffm.) Arnold = R. lecanorina, but misidentifications for N. A. (Sheard 2010)
ochrocea Willey ex Hedrick = R. destituta (Sheard 2010)
orbata (Ach.) Vainio = R. turfacea
oreina (Ach.) A. Massal. = Dimelaena oreina
palustris Willey nom. inval. = R. populicola (Sheard 2010)
penardiana Müll. Arg. = a Buellia sp. (Sheard 2010)
pennsylvanica H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
phaeocarpa (Sommerf.) Vainio = Phaeorrhiza nimbosa
platyloba Willey = nom. nudum = Mobergia calculiformis
pyriniformis H. Magn.
= Amandinea dakotensis
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
roboris (Dufour ex Nyl.)
Arnold   Known only from Mexico
sabulosa Tuck. = R. intermedia
salina Degel. = R. gennarii
silicicola B. de Lesd.  Identity not established (Sheard 2010)
sophodes (Ach.) A. Massal. = misidentification for North America
suboreina B. de Lesd. = Dimelaena oreina
subsophodes (Nyl. ex Lindsay) Zahlbr. = R. ascociscana (Sheard 2010)
succedens Nyl. (Fink 1935) = apparent misidentification for North America (Tucker & Ryan 2006)
subplumbea H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
thomae Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Buellia mamillana (Bungartz et al. 2004)
thomsonii Sheard (Sheard 1995) = R. santae-monicae (Sheard 2010)
thujae (H. Magn.)
Sheard = R. excrescens
thysanota Tuck. = Dimelaena thysanota
vegasii B. de Lesd. 
Identity not established (Sheard 2010)
verrucosa G. K. Merr. ex Sheard ined.  Identity uncertain (Sheard 2010)
vezdae H. Mayrhofer (Harris & Ladd 2005, Lendemer & Macklin 2006) = R. destituta (Sheard 2010)
violascens H. Magn. = R. zwackhiana

ROBERGEA Desm.
pupula (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Belonia americana   Excluded as a non-lichen

ROCCELLA DC.
decipiens
Darb.
gracilis Bory (Tehler 2006)
babingtonii Mont. = R. decipiens
babingtonii sensu auct. North American = R. gracilis (Tehler 2006)
difficilis Darb. = R. gracilis (Tehler 2002b, 2006)
fimbriata Darb. = R. decipiens (Tehler 2002b; Tehler et al. 2004)
fuciformis (L.) DC.  = misidentification for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)
fucoides (Dickson) Vainio = R. phycopsis (Tehler 2002a, 2003)
leucophaea Tuck. = Dendrographa leucophaea
montagnei Bél.  = misidentification for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)
peruensis Kremp. = R. gracilis (Tehler 2006)
phycopsis (Ach.) Ach.  = misidentification for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)
tinctoria DC.  = misidentification for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)

ROCCELLINA Darb.
conformis Tehler = Dendrographa conformis (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Follmann = Dendrographa franciscana (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

ROMJULARIA Timdal
lurida (Ach.) Timdal  Syns.: Mycobilimbia lurida, Lecidea lurida, L. petri, Biatora lurida, Psora lurida (Timdal 2007)

ROPALOSPORA A. Massal.
chlorantha (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia chlorantha
hibernica (P. James & Poelt) Tønsberg
lugubris (Sommerf.) Poelt Syns.: Bacidia lugubris, Bilimbia caudata, Lecidea lugubris, L. caudata
viridis (Tønsberg) Tønsberg

ROSELLINIELLA Vainio (Goward et al. 1996)
*atlantica Matzer & Hafellner (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*cladoniae (Anzi) Matzer & Hafellner (Diederich 2003)
*microthelia (Wallr.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Kocourková 2007)
*nephromatis (Crouan) Matzer & Hafellner (Goward et al. 1996)
*peltigericola D. Hawksw. & Miadl. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*stereocaulorum Zhurb., Kukwa, & Oset (Zhurbenko et al. 2009)

ROSELLINIOPSIS Matzer & Hafellner
*gelidaria (Mudd) Matzer Syn.: Polycoccum gelidarium
*tartaricola (Nyl.)
Matzer  (Hafellner 2004e)
*tropica Matzer & Hafellner (Lendemer & Harris 2014)

ROSELLINULA R. Sant. (Kalb et al. 1995)
*haplospora (Nyl.) R. Sant. (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
*kalbii (Hafellner) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers (Kalb et al. 1995)

ROSTANIA Trevisan (Otálora et al. 2014)
callibotrys (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema callibotrys
ceranisca (Nyl.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema arcticum, C. ceraniscum
occultata (Bagl.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema occultatum


RUFOPLACA Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
arenaria (Pers.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca arenaria
oxfordensis (Fink) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca oxfordensis

RUSAVSKIA S.Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Arup et al. 2013)
elegans (Link) S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt  Syn.: Caloplaca elegans, C. splendens, Placodium elegans

papillifera (Vainio)
S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt  Syn.: Xanthoria papillifera
sorediata (Vainio)
S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt  Syn.:  Caloplaca sorediata, Xanthoria sorediata

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

SACCOMORPHA Elenkin = PLACYNTHIELLA
hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Placynthiella hyporhoda
icmalea (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Placynthiella icmalea
oligotropha (J. R. Laundon) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Placynthiella oligotropha
uliginosa (Schrader) Hafellner = Placynthiella uliginosa

SAGEDIA Ach. (Nordin et al. 2010)
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia mastrucata, Lecanora mastrucata
simoënsis (Räsänen) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syn: A. simoënsis

SAGEDIOPSIS (Sacc.) Vainio
*aquatica (Stein) Triebel (Brodo 1995)
*barbara (Th. Fr.) R. Sant. & Triebel Syn.: Gongylia nadvornikii
*campsteriana (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  Syn.: Metasphaeria tartarina
*lomnitzensis (Stein) Orange (Spribille et al. 2010)

SAGIOLECHIA A. Massal.
protuberans (Ach.) A. Massal.
rhexoblephara (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

SANTESSONIELLA Henssen (Henssen 1997)
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Henssen var. arctophila Syn.: Parmeliella arctophila (Henssen 1997)
crossophylla (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg.  Syn.:  Parmeliella crossophylla, Pannaria crossophylla (Jørgensen 2000c, 2005)
grisea (Hue) Henssen (Tønsberg & Henssen 1999)
saximontana T. Sprib., P. M. Jørg. & M. Schultz (Spribille et al. 2007)

SARCOGRAPHA Fée
labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
medusulina (Nyl.)
Müll. Arg.
tricosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
intricans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Phaeographis intricans

SARCOGYNE Flotow
arenosa (Herre) Knudsen & S. M. Standley  (Knudsen 2005b)  Syn.: Acarospora arenosa
clavus (DC.) Kremp. Syn.: Biatorella clavus
crustacea K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a) Syn.: Biatorella terrena
dakotensis H. Magn.
desolata (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen & Standley  Syn.: Acarospora desolata (Knudsen & Standley 2007)
hypophaea (Nyl.) Arnold  Syn.: Biatorella hypophaea (Knudsen et al. 2013b)
integra (B. de Lesd.) H. Magn.
[Biatorella kuleshanensis Herre]
magnussonii B. de Lesd.
mitziae K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & McCune  (Knudsen et al. 2013a)
novomexicana H. Magn.
plicata H. Magn. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2011) Syn.: Biatorella plicata
reebiae K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Standley 2007)
regularis Körber  Syns.: Biatorella pruinosa
similis H. Magn.
*sphaerospora J. Steiner (Lendemer et al. 2009b)
squamosa K. Knudsen & McCune (Knudsen & McCune 2013)
athroocarpa H. Magn. = Acarospora badiofusca (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)
bicolor H. Magn. = Polysporina subfuscescens (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
bolleana H. Magn. = S. arenosa (Lendemer et al. 2009c)
californica H. Magn. = S. similis (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) K. Knudsen & Kocoourk.
(Knudsen 2005c) N.A. reports are Polysporina subfuscescens (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
oligospora H. Magn. = Polysporina oligospora
privigna auct. = S. hypophaea (Knudsen et al. 2013b)
pruinosa auct. = S. regularis
simplex (Davies) Nyl. = Polysporina simplex

SARCOPYRENIA Nyl. (Harris 1995b)
*bacillosa (Nyl. ex Hasse) Nav.-Ros. & Hladun  Syn.:  Hassea bacillosa, Verrucaria bacillosa (Navarro-Rosinés & Hladun 2004)
*calcarea Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
*cylindrospora (P. Crouan & H. Crouan) M. B. Aguirre (Harris 1995b)

SARCOSAGIUM A. Massal.
campestre (Fr.) Poetsch & Schiedem. Syn.: Biatorella campestris

SAREA Fr.
+difformis (Fr. ) Fr.
+resinae (Fr.) Kuntze Syn.: Biatorella resinae

SCHADONIA Körber
alpina Körber Syns.: Lopadium alpinum, L. gemellum
fecunda (Th. Fr.) Vězda & Poelt Syn.: Lopadium fecundum

SCHAERERIA Körber
brunnea C. Björk, T. Sprib. & T. B. Wheeler (Spribille et al. 2009)
cinereorufa (Schaerer) Th. Fr. Syn.: Lecidea cinereorufa, L. rugosa
corticola Muhr & Tønsberg
dolodes (Nyl.) Schmull & T. Sprib. (Schmull & Spribille 2005)
endocyanea (Stirton) Hertel & Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea epiiodiza
fuscocinerea (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Lecidea fuscocinerea, L. tenebrosa
#parasemella (Nyl.) Lumbsch  Syn.: Hafellnera parasemella, Lecidea parasemella (Lumbsch 1997)
tenebrosa (Flotow) Hertel & Poelt = S. fuscocinerea

SCHISMATOMMA Flotow & Körber ex A. Massal.
glaucescens (Nyl. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthonia glaucescens
pericleum (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup
rappii (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma rappii
rediunta (Hasse) Tehler Syn.: Dirina rediunta
vernans (Tuck.)
Zahlbr.
abietinum (Humb.) A. Massal. = S. pericleum
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Sigridia californica
cupressum Herre = Dendrographa franciscana
decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Clauz. & Vězda = Dendrographa decolorans (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
hypothallinum (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Lecanographa hypothallina
ocellatum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mazosia ocellata
palidellum auct. = Enterographa anguinella
pluriloculare (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. (Tehler 2002c) = Paraschismatomma pluriloculare (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecanactis epileuca

SCHIZOPELTE Th. Fr.
californica Th. Fr. Syn.: Combea californica
crustosa Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Chiodecton californicum, Llimonaea californica, Sclerophyton californicum
lumbricoides (W. A. Weber) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Hubbsia lumbricoides
parishii (Hasse) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

SCLEROCOCCUM Fr.
*montagnei Hafellner  (Diederich 2004a)
*simplex D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*parmeliae Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d) = Cladophialophora parmeliae

SCLEROPHORA Chevall.
amabilis (Tibell) Tibell (Goward et al. 1996)
coniophaea (Norman) J.-E. Mattsson & Middelb. (Goward et al. 1996)
farinacea (Chevall.) Chevall.
nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell Syns.: Coniocybe nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold non Tuck. & Mont., C. pallida
peronella (Ach.) Tibell (Goward et al. 1996)

SCLEROPHYTON Eschw.
elegans Eschw.  Syn.: Chiodecton inscriptum, Enterographa elegans (Sparrius 2004b)
californicum (Tuck.) Hasse = Schizopelte crustosa
cerebriforme Egea & Torrente = Sparria cerebriformis
inscriptum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = S. elegans
occidentale Herre = Dactylospora cf. parasitica, on a Pertusaria sp. (Sparrius 2004b)

SCOLICIOSPORUM A. Massal.
abietinum T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
chlorococcum (Stenh.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia chlorococca
intrusum (Th. Fr.) Hafellner  Syn.: Carbonea intrusa (Hafellner 2004c)
pensylvanicum R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
pruinosum (P. James) Vězda (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
sarothamni (Vainio) Vězda
umbrinum (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Bacidia umbrina
umbrinum var. compacta (Körber) Vězda

SCULPTOLUMINA Marbach
japonica (Tuck.) Marbach  Syn.: Buellia japonica (Giralt et al. 2009)

SCUTULA Tul.
*cladoniicola Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)
*dedicata Triebel, Wedin & Rambold (Triebel et al. 1997)
*epiblastematica (Wallr.) Rehm (Triebel et al. 1997)
*heeri (Hepp.) Trevisan (Spribille et al. 2010)
*miliaris (Wallr.) Trevisan
*stereocaulorum (Anzi) Körber
*tuberculosa (Th. Fr.) Rehm (Wedin et al. 2007)

SCYTINIUM (Ach.) Gray  (Otálora et al. 2014)
apalachense (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema apalachense, Leptogium apalachense
aquale (Arnold) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium aquale
aragonii (Otálora) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium aragonii
californicum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium californicum
callopismum (A. Massal.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema callopismum, C. callopismum var. rhyparodes
cellulosum (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium cellulosum
contortum (Sierk) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium contortum
dactylinum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium dactylinum
erectum (Sierk) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium erectum
fragrans (Sm.) Ach.  Syn.: Collema fragrans, C. microphyllum
gelatinosum (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium gelatinosum, L. scotinum, L. sinuatum
imbricatum (P. M. Jørg.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium imbricatum
intermedium (Arnold) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium intermedium
juniperinum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium juniperinum
lichenoides (L.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium lichenoides
palmatum (Hudson) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium corniculatum, L. palmatum
parculum (Nyl.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium parculum
platynum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium platynum
plicatile (Ach.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema plicatile, Leptogium microdium, L. plicatile
polycarpum (P. M. Jørg. & Goward) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium polycarpum
rivale (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium rivale, Polychidium rivale
schraderi (Bernh.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium schraderi
siskiyouensis (D. F. Stone & Ruchty) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium siskiyouensis
subaridum (P. M. Jørg. & Goward) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium subaridum
subtile (Schrader) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium minutissium, L. perminutum, L. subtile
tenuissimum (Dickson) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium lividofuscum, L. tenuissimum
teretiusculum (Wallr.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium intricatulum, L. teretiusculum
turgidum (Ach.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Leptogium turgidum

SECOLIGA Norman = GYALECTA
carneoluteola (Tuck.) M
üll. Arg. (Fink 1935) = Cryptolechia carneoluteola (Tuck.) Kalb  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Körber = Gyalecta geoica

SEGESTRIA Fr. (Harris 1995a)
lectissima Fr.   Syn.: Porina lectissima (Harris 1995a)
leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) R. C. Harris   Syn.: Porina leptalea (Harris 1995a)
mammillosa Th. Fr.   Syn.: Porina mammillosa (Harris 1995a)
octomera (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rubentior (Stirton) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

SEIROPHORA Poelt  (Frödén & Lassen 2004)
aurantiaca (R. Br.) Frödén  Syn.: Teloschistes arcticus (Frödén & Lassen 2004)

californica (Sipman) Frödén  Syn.:  Teloschistes californicus
contortuplicata (Ach.) Frödén  Syn.:  Teloschistes contortuplicatus

SIGRIDEA Tehler
californica (Tuck.) Tehler Syn.: Dirina californica, D. hassei, Platygrapha californica, Schismatomma californicum

SILOBIA M. Westb. & Wedin (Westberg et al. 2011a) = MYRIOSPORA
Nägeli ex Uloth (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
hassei (Herre) K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2011b) = Myriospora hassei
(Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
rhagadiza (Nyl.) M. Westb. (Westberg et al. 2011a) = Myriospora rhagadiza
(Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
scabrida (H. Magn.) M. Westb. (Westberg et al. 2011a) = Myriospora scabrida
(Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) M. Westb. & Wedin (Westberg et al. 2011a) = Myriospora smaragdula
(Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)

SIPHULA Fr.
ceratites (Wahlenb.) Fr.
dactyliza Nyl. = a Stereocaulon spp. (Kantvilas 2002)
simplex (Taylor) Nyl. = S. ceratites

SKYTTEA Sherwood, D. Hawksw. & Coppins
*caesii Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*cismonicae Hafellner (Hafellner 2000)
*dacampiae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*elachistophora (Nyl.) Sherwood & D. Hawksw.
*gregaria Sherwood, D. Hawks. & Coppins (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*lecanorae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*mayrhoferi Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*nitschkei (Körber) Sherwood, D. Hawks. & Coppins (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*pertusariicola Diederich & Etay  (Diederich & Etayo 2004b)
*radiatilis (Tuck.) R. Sant., Etayo & Diederich (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*richardsonii Iturr. & D. Hawksw. (Iturriaga & Hawksworth 2004)
*tavaresae R. Sant., Etayo & Diederich (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*tephromelarum Kalb & Hafellner (Diederich & Etayo 2004b)

SKYTTELLA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*mulleri (Willey) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.

SOLENOPSORA A. Massal.
candicans (Dickson) J. Steiner
cladonioides B. D. Ryan & Timdal (Ryan & Timdal 2002, 2011)
crenata (Herre) Zahlbr.
cyathiformis (Szatala) van den Boom  Syn.: Lecania cyathiformis (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
holophaea (Mont.) Samp. Syns.: Lecanora holophaea, Candelariella holophaea
hassei (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. = Lecania hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble

SOLITARIA Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
chrysophthalma (Degel.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca chrysophthalma

SOLORINA Ach.
bispora Nyl.
bispora var. subspongiosa (Zschacke) Frey (Zhurbenko et al. 2006)
crocea (L.) Ach.
octospora (Arnold) Arnold
saccata (L.) Ach.
spongiosa (Ach.) Anzi

SOLORINARIA (Vainio) Gyelnik
despreauxii (Mont.) Fink = Heppia despreauxii

SOLORINELLA Anzi = GYALIDEA (Aptroot & Lücking 2003)
asteriscus Anzi = Gyalidea asteriscus (Aptroot & Lücking 2003)

SPARRIA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Ertz & Tehler  Syn.: Sclerophyton cerebriforme

SPEERSCHNEIDERA Trevisan
euploca (Tuck.) Trevisan Syn.: Teloschistes euplocus

SPHAERELLOTHECIUM Zopf
*abditum Triebel
*araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf
*atryneae (Arnold) Cl. Roux & Triebel  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*breussii K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & Etayo (Knudsen, Kocourková & Etayo 2009)
*cladoniae (Alstrup & Zhurb.) Hafellner (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010b)
*cladoniicola E. S. Hansen & Alstrup (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)
*coniodes (Nyl.) Cl. Roux & Diederich (Hodkinson et al. 2009)
*contextum Triebel
#gowardii Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*minutum Hafellners
*parmeliae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich 2003)
*propinquellum (Nyl.) Cl. Roux & Triebel  Syn.: Stigmidium congestum (for North America)
*reticulatum (Zopf) Etayo Syn.: Echinothecium reticulatum (Kocourková et al. 2008)
*stereocaulorum Zhurb. & Triebel (Zhurbenko 2010)
*thamnoliae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*araneosum var. cladoniae Alstrup & Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004) = S. cladoniae

SPHAERIA Haller = HYPOXYLON
bignoniae Schwein. = Granulopyrenis hymnothora

SPHAEROPEZIA Sacc. (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*bryoriae (Diederich & Etayo) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Odontotrema intermedia

*cucularis (Norman) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Lethariicola cuculuris
*intermedia (Diederich, Zhurb. & Etayo) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Odontotrema intermedium
*lecanorae (Diederich & G. Marson) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Odontotrema lecanorae
*melaneliae (Diederich & Zhurb.) Baloch, Gilenstam & Wedin
 Syn.: Odontotrema melaneliae
*mycoblasti Diederich, Baloch & Wedin  (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*ochrolechiae (Diederich, Holien & Zhurb.) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Odontotrema ochrolechiae
*santessonii (Zhurb., Etayo & Diederich) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Odontotrema santessonii

*sipei (Grummann) Baloch & Wedin  Syn.: Lethariicola sipei, Odontotrema sipei
*thamnoliae (Zhurb., Diederich & Etayo) Baloch & Wedin
 Syn.: Odontotrema thamnoliae

SPHAEROPHORUS Pers.
fragilis (L.) Pers.
globosus (Hudson) Vainio
tuckermanii Räsänen  (Wedin et al. 2009)
venerabilis Wedin, Högnabba & Goward (Wedin et al. 2009)
globiferus (L.) D.C. var. gracilis Müll. Arg. = S. tuckermanii (Wedin et al. 2009)
globosus var. gracilis auct. = S. tuckermanii
melanocarpus (Sw.) DC. = Bunodophoron melanocarpus

SPHAERULINA Sacc.
*dolichotera (Nyl.) Vouax  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

SPHINCTRINA Fr.
*anglica Nyl. Syns.: Mycocalicium microcephalum, Calicium microcephalum
*benmargana Selva (Selva 2004)
*leucopoda Nyl.
*pallidella (Willey) Selva (Selva 2004)
*tubaeformis A. Massal.
*turbinata (Pers. : Fr.) De Not.
*gelasinata (With.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = S. turbinata (Santesson et al. 2004)
*microcephala (Sm.) Körber = S. anglica
*microcephala Nyl. = S. tubaeformis

SPHINCTRINELLA Nádv. = MYCOCALICIUM
calicioides Nádv.
= Mycocalicium calicioides

SPILONEMA Bornet
dendroides Henssen
paradoxum Bornet
revertens Nyl.

SPILONEMELLA Henssen & Tønsberg (Henssen & Tønsberg 2000)
americana Henssen & Tønsberg

SPIROGRAPHA Zahlbr.
*fusisporella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

SPORASTATIA A. Massal.
polyspora (Nyl.) Grummann
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Biatorella testudinea
cinerea (Schaerer) Körber = S. polyspora

SPORODICTYON A. Massal.
cruentum (Körber) Körber  Syn.: Polyblastia cruenta (Fryday 2006, Savić & Tibell 2009, Spribille et al. 2010)
terrestre (Th. Fr.) Savić & Tibell  Syn. : Polyblastia terrestris (Savić & Tibell 2009), Verrucaria obtenta (Dillman et al. 2012)

SPOROPODIUM Mont.
marginatum Lücking & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
phyllocharis (Mont.) A. Massal.

SPOROSTIGMA Grube
melaspora (Tuck.) Grube  Syn. Arthonia melaspora (Grube 2001)

SQUAMARINA Poelt
cartilaginea (With.) P. James
lentigera (Weber) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora lentigera
crassa (Hudson) Poelt = S. cartilaginea
degelii Poelt = Lecanora neodegelii

SQUAMULEA Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
galactophylla (Tuck.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca galactophylla, Placodium galactophylla
parviloba (Wetmore) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca parviloba
squamosa (B. de Lesd.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca squamosa
subsoluta (Nyl.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syns.: Caloplaca irrubescens, C. modesta, C. subsoluta

STAUROLEMMA Körber
carolinianum P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2004)

STAUROTHELE Norman
arctica Lynge
areolata (Ach.) Lettau
bacilligera (Arnold) Arnold (Lendemer 2008)
clopimoides (Bagl. & Carestia) J. Steiner
discedens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
drummondii (Tuck.) Tuck.  Syn.: Endocarpon drummondii, E. wilmsoides
effigurata J. W. Thomson
elenkinii Oxner
fissa (Taylor) Zwackh
guestphalica (Lahm ex Körber) Arnold (Lendemer 2008)
lecideoides B. de Lesd.
monicae (Zahlbr.) Wetmore  Syn.: Endocarpon monicae
orispruinosa J. W. Thomson
polygonia B. de Lesd.
rugosa J. W. Thomson
rupifraga (A. Massal.) Arnold  Syn. : Verrucaria terebrata
verruculosa J. W. Thomson
ambrosiana (A. Massal.)
Zschacke = S. drummondii for North American records
circinata Tuck. = S. fissa
catalepta auct. N. Am. = mostly S. monicae
clopima (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. [epithet to be proposed for rejection under I.C.B.N. Art.69 (Thomson 1991)] = S. drummondii
diffractella (Nyl.) Tuck. = Endocarpon diffractellum
fuscocuprea (Nyl.) Zschacke = S. drummondii
glacialis Herre = S. fissa
hazslinskyi (Körber) J. Steiner = S. fissa
hymenogonia (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = S. discedens for North American records
perradiata Lynge = S. drummondii
rufa (A. Massal.) Zschacke = S. elenkinii for North American records
sessilis H. Magn. = S. elenkinii
succedens (Rehm) Arnold = S. drummondii for North American record
tenuissima Degel. = Endocarpon tenuissimum
umbrina (Wahlenb.) Hellb. = S. fissa

STEGOBOLUS Mont.
auberianus (Mont.) A. Frisch & Kalb  Syns.: Leptotrema auberianum, Ocellularia auberiana (Frisch & Kalb 2006)
emersus (Kremp.) Frisch & Kalb = Rhabdodiscus emersus (Rivas Plata et al. 2012)
granulosus (Tuck.) A. Frisch = Rhabdodiscus granulosus (Rivas Plata et al. 2012)


STEINEROPSIS T. Sprib. & Muggia (Spribille et al. 2010)
alaskana T. Sprib. & Muggia (Spribille et al. 2010)

STEINIA Körber
geophana (Nyl.) Stein Syn.: Lecidea geophana, Biatorella geophana

STENOCYBE (Nyl.) Körber
+clavata Tibell
+flexuosa Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+fragmenta E. B. Peterson & Rikkinen (Peterson & Rikkinen 1998)
+major Nyl. ex Körber
+pullatula (Ach.) Stein
+byssacea (Fr.) Körber = S. pullatula
+euspora (Nyl.) Anzi = (?) S. major
+minutissima (G. Merr.) Zahlbr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+tremulicola Norrlin ex Nyl. = Phaeocalicium tremulicola

STEREOCAULON Hoffm.
alpinum Laurer ex Funck
apocalypticum Nyl.
arcticum Lynge
arenarium (Savicz) I. M. Lamb
botryosum Ach.
capitellatum H. Magn.
condensatum Hoffm.
coniophyllum I. M. Lamb
dactylophyllum Flörke
[Siphula dactyliza Nyl.] (Kantvilas 2002)
dactylophyllum var. occidentale (H. Magn.) I. M. Lamb
depreaultii Delise ex Nyl.
depressum (Frey) I. M. Lamb (Zhurbenko et al 2006)
glareosum (Savicz) H. Magn.
glaucescens Tuck.
grande (H. Magn.) H. Magn.
groenlandicum (E. Dahl) I. M. Lamb
incrustatum Flörke
intermedium (Savicz) H. Magn.
klondikense T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2010)
leucophaeopsis (Nyl.) P. James & Purvis (Fryday 2010)
leprocephalum Vainio
microcarpum Müll. Arg.
myriocarpum Th. Fr.
nanodes Tuck.
nivale (Follmann) Fryday Syn.: Bacidia nivalis (Fryday & Glew 2003)
octomerum Müll. Arg.
paschale (L.) Hoffm.
pileatum Ach.
plicatile (Leighton) Fryday & Coppins (Fryday 2006)
rivulorum H. Magn.
sasakii Zahlbr. var. simplex (Riddle) I. M. Lamb
sasakii var. tomentosoides I. M. Lamb
saviczii Du Rietz
saxatile H. Magn.
spathuliferum Vainio
sterile (Savicz) I. M. Lamb ex Krog
subcoralloides (Nyl.) Nyl.
subdenudatum Hav. (Spribille et al. 2010)
symphycheilum I. M. Lamb
taeniarum (H. Magn.) Kivistö (Kivistö 1998)
tennesseense H. Magn. ex Degel.
tomentosum Fr.
vesuvianum Pers.
albicans Th. Fr. = Lepraria albicans
arbuscula Nyl. = Lepraria arbuscula

coralloides Fr. = S. dactylophyllum
denudatum Flörke = S. vesuvianum
evolutoides (H. Magn.) Frey = S. saxatile
microscopicum (Vill.) Frey = Leprocaulon quisquiliare, but N.A. records are L. americanum
pseudoarbuscula Asahina =
Lepraria subalbicans for North American records
quisquiliare (Leers) Hoffm. = Leprocaulon quisquiliare, but N.A. records are L. americanum
ramulosum Raeuschel = not in North America north of Mexico
subalbicans I. M. Lamb =
Lepraria subalbicans
uliginosum I. M. Lamb  Known from Greenland but not from the United States or Canada.
wrightii Tuck. = not in North America

STICTA (Schreber) Ach.
arctica Degel.
beauvoisii Delise
canariensis (Bory) Bory ex Delise
carolinensis T. McDonald (McDonald et al. 2003)
fragilinata T. McDonald (McDonald et al. 2003)
fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach.
leucoblephara (Müll. Arg.) D. J. Galloway  (Galloway & Thomas 2004)
limbata (Sm.) Ach.
sylvatica (Hudson) Ach.
xanthotropa (Kremp.) D. J. Galloway  (Galloway & Thomas 2004)
amplissima (Scop.) Rabenh. (Fink 1935) = Lobaria amplissima
anthraspis Ach. =
Anomalobaria anthraspis
aurata Ach. =
Crocodia aurata
crocata (L.) Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria crocata
erosa (Eschw.) Tuck. = Lobaria ravenelii
hallii Tuck. = Lobaria hallii
herbacea (Hudson) Ach. = misidentification for North America
laciniata Ach. = misidentification for North America
linita Ach. = Lobaria linita
oregana Tuck. = Lobaria oregano
oroborealis Goward & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Goward 2001) = Dendriscosticta oroborealis (Moncada et al. 2013)
pulmonaria (L.) Biroli = Lobaria pulmonaria
quercizans (Michauz) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Lobaria quercizans
verrucosa (Hudson) Fink = Lobaria scrobiculata
weigelii (Ach.) Vainio = misidentification for North America
wrightii Tuck. = Dendriscosticta wrightii (Moncada et al. 2013)

STICTIS Pers.: Fr.
urceolatum (Ach.)
Gilenstam  Syn.:  Conotrema urceolatum (Wedin et al. 2005)

STIGMIDIUM Trevisan
*beringicum Zhurb. & Triebel (Zhurbenko 2010)
*californicum K. Knudsen & Kocourk.
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f)
*cerinae Cl. Roux & Triebel (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
*conspurcans (Th. Fr.) Triebel & R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)
*croceae (Arnold) Cl. Roux & Triebel (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)
*ephebes (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Pharcidia ephebes (Henssen) D. Hawksw.
*epistigmellum (Nyl. ex Vouaux) Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009c)
*epixanthum Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*frigidum (Sacc.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant.
*glebarum (Arnold) Hafellner (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*gyrophorarum (Arnold) D. Hawksw. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*hesperium Kocourk., K. Knudsen, & Diederich (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009b)
*lendemeri Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková et al. 2012, Kocourková & Knudsen 2012)
*marinum (Deakin) Swinscow
*microcarpum Alstrup & J. C. David (Zhurbenko 2009b)
*mitchelii Cl. Roux & Bricaud (Zhurbenko 2013)
*mycobilimbiae Cl. Roux, Triebel & Etayo (Diederich 2003)
*[Pharcidia parva Henssen]
*peltideae (Vainio) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*pseudopeltideae Cl. Roux & Triebel  (Diederich 2003; Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*psorae (Anzi) Hafellner
*pumilum (Lettau) Matzer & Hafellner (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
*ramalinae (M
üll. Arg.) Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková et al. 2010)
*schaereri (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Reinstated for N.Am. by Henssen 1995)
*solorinarium (Vainio) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*squamariae (B. de Lesd.) Cl. Roux & Triebel
*tabacinae (Arnold) Triebel
*xanthoparmeliarum Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*atryneae (Arnold) Hafellner = Sphaerellothecium atryneae, but North American specimens are Stigmidium squamariae
*congestum (Körber) Triebel = Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, for North American records only
*schaereri (A. Massal.) Trevisan = misidentification for North America

STIRTONIA A. L. Sm.
[Arthonia alba Müll. Arg.]
dubia A. L. Smith (Lücking et al. 2011b)
macrocarpa Makhija & Patw. (Lücking et al. 2011b

STRANGOSPORA Körber
deplanata (Almq.) Clauz. & Cl. Roux (Knudsen 2007c)
microhaema (Norman) R. A. Anderson  Syn.: Biatorella microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Stein Syn.: Biatorella moriformis
pinicola (A. Massal.) Körber
ochrophora (Nyl.) R. A. Anderson = Piccolia ochrophora

STRIGULA Fr.
americana R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia tenuis
bermudana (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
complanata (Fée) Mont.
connivens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
griseonitens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
hypothallina R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
jamesii (Swinscow) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Arthopyrenia affinis auct.
laceribracae R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
nitidula Mont.
orbicularis Fr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris
schizospora R. Sant. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
smaragdula Fr. : Fr. (Harris 1995a)
stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia faginea, Porina cinerea, P. faginea
subelegans Vainio (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia submuriformis
viridiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina viridiseda
wilsonii (Riddle) R. C. Harris
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = S. jamesii for North American records
elegans (Fée) Müll. Arg.
= S. smaragdula (Harris 1995a)
sychnogonioides (Nitschke) R. C. Harris = Geisleria sychnogonioides

STROMATELLA Henssen
bermudana (Riddle) Henssen (Schultz 2002e)

SULCARIA Bystrek
badia Brodo & D. Hawksw.
isidiifera Brodo

SULCOPYRENULA H. Harada
canellae-albae (Fée) H. Harada Syn.: Anthracothecium carellae-albae (Harada 1999)
staurospora (Tuck.) H. Harada (Harada 1999)
subglobosa (Riddle) Aptroot (Aptroot 2012)

SYNALISSA Fr.
matogrossensis (Malme) Henssen (Schultz 2002f)
symphorea (Ach.) Nyl.
melambola Tuck. = Metamelaena melambola
ramulosa (Hoffm.) Fr. = S. symphorea
subnigra (B. de Lesd.) Henssen = Peccania subnigra
texana Tuck. = Peccania texana

SYNCESIA Taylor (Tehler 1996)
byssina (Vainio) Tehler
depressa (Fée) Tehler
graphica (Fr.) Tehler Syn.: Chiodecton perplexum
psaroleuca (Nyl.) Tehler

SYNECHOBLASTUS Trevisan = COLLEMA
aggregatus ("Ach.") Th. Fr. = Collema fasciculare
coccophorus (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) =
Enchylium coccophorum
cyrtaspis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) =
Enchylium conglomeratum  (var. crassiusculum, Degelius 1974)
fascicularis (L.) A. L. Smith (Fink 1935) = Collema fasciculare
laciniatus (Nyl.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Collema texanum (Degelius 1974)
leptaleus (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Collema leptaleum
leucocarpus (Hook. & Taylor) M
üll. Arg. (Fink 1935) = Collema leucocarpum Hook. & Taylor, misidentification for North America (Degelius 1974)
microptychius (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) =  Collema leptaleum (Degelius 1974)
nigrescens (Hudson) Trevisan (Fink 1935) = Collema nigrescens
ohioensis Fink (Fink 1935) =
Enchylium conglomeratum (Degelius 1974)
ryssoleus (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) =  Collema ryssoleum
polycarpus (Hoffm.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. =
Enchylium polycarpon
pycnocarpus Nyl. =
Enchylium conglomeratum  (var. crassiusculum, Degelius 1974)
rupestris (Sw.) Trevisan = Collema flaccidum
texanus (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Collema texanum
wyomingensis Fink =
Enchylium polycarpon

SYZYGOSPORA G. W. Martin (Diederich 1996)
*bachmannii Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
*physciacearum Diederich (Diederich 1996)

SZCZAWINSKIA A. Funk
leucopoda Holien & Tønsberg (Holien & Tønsberg 2002)
tsugae A. Funk Syn.: Micarea clavopycnidiata (Aptroot et al. 1997)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

TAENIOLELLA S. Hughes
*beschiana Diederich (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*caespitosa M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*christiansenii Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)
*delicata M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*laevistipitata M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*phaeophysciae D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*rolfii Diederich & Zhurb. (Diederich & Zhurbenko 2001)
*serusiauxii Diederich (Diederich 2003)

TALPAPELLIS Alstrup & M. S. Cole
*peltigerae Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

TAPELLARIA Müll. Arg.
albomarginata Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
epiphylla (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium phyllocharis
floridensis Common & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
granulosa Lücking & Rivas Plata (Lücking et al. 2011b)
malmei R. Sant.
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
nana
(Fée) R. Sant.
bilimbioides R. Sant.  Report based on T. albomarginata (Lücking et al. 2011b)

TELOSCHISTES Norman
chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr.
exilis (Michaux) Vainio
flavicans (Sw.) Norman
arcticus Zahlbr. = Seirophora aurantiaca
californicus
Sipman = Seirophora californica
candelarius (L.) Fink =
Polycauliona candelaria
contortuplicatus (Ach.) Clauzade & Rondon = Seirophora contortuplicata
euplocus (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Speerschneidera euploca
lychneus (Ach.) Tuck. =
Polycauliona candelaria
parietinus (L.) Norman = Xanthoria parietina
polycarpus (Hoffm.) Tuck. =
Polycauliona polycarpa
ramulosus Tuck. = Xanthoria ramulosa
villosus auct. non (Ach.)
Norman = T. californicus for North American records

TEPHROMELA M. Choisy
atra (Hudson) Hafellner Syn.: Lecanora atra
*cerasina (Müll. Arg.) Rambold & Triebel  (Nash et al. 2004b)

nashii Kalb  (Nash et al. 2004b)
aglaea (Sommerf.) Hertel & Rambold = Calvitimela aglaea
“aglaeida” Nyl. = Calvitimela aglaea
armeniaca (DC.) Hertel & Rambold = Calvitimela armeniaca
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hertel & Rambold = Calvitimela testaceoatra

TETRAMELAS Norman
chloroleucus (Körber) A. Nordin Syn.:  Buellia chloroleuca (Nordin 2004)
geophila (Sommerf.) Norman  Syn.:  Buellia geophila (Marbach 2000)
insignis (Nägeli ex. Hepp) Kalb  Syn.:  Buellia insignis  (Nordin 2004)
papillatus (Sommerf.) Kalb Syn.: Buellia papillata (Kalb 2004)
*pulverulentus (Anzi) A. Nordin & Tibell Syns.: Buellia pulverulen