2013 NDSU FSAE car

2013 Car

Meet the Team

Previous Cars


North Dakota State University will be building a FSAE car for the 2012-2013 season. This build will be headed by a group of four NDSU Mechanical Engineering undergraduate students as part of a senior design study. The group has many plans for the 2013 NDSU FSAE car.


Using a tuned suspension geometry for an FSAE competion, the final frame design has been decided upon after extensive research and development based on finite element analysis. The focus of the 2013 NDSU FSAE car is centered around a powerful, light-weight, predictable, and controlable car.


For the latest updates, follow the group on twitter @NDSUmotorsports.


Technical Specifications:

Car No.






Overall Length, Width, Height

 2770 mm long, 1367 mm wide, 1180 mm high


 1549 mm

Track Width

 1219 mm

 1168 mm

Mass with 68kg driver seated

124.0 kg

124.0 kg


Suspension Parameters



Suspension Type

Double unequal length A-Arm.  Pull rod actuated horizontally oriented spring and damper

Double unequal length A-Arm.  Pull rod actuated horizontally oriented spring and damper

Tire Size, Compound and Make

Hoosier 18.0 x 6.0-10 R25B

Hoosier 18.0 x 6.0-10 R25B

Wheels (width, construction)

Keizer 10.0 x 6.0

Keizer 10.0 x 6.0

Center of Gravity Design Height

250 mm, confirmed via tilt test

Suspension design travel

25.4 mm jounce/ 25.4 mm rebound

25.4 mm jounce/ 25.4 mm rebound

Wheel rate (chassis to wheel center)

6.48 N/mm

7.71 N/mm

Roll rate (chassis to wheel center)

1.5 degrees per g

Sprung mass natural frequency

1.75 Hz

1.90 Hz

Jounce Damping

60% of critical damping,  150N @ 230 mm/s

60% of critical damping, 175 N @ 250 mm/s

Rebound Damping

60%  of critical damping, 220 N @ 230 mm/s

60% of critical damping, 250 N @ 250 mm/s

Motion ratio / type

0.57 / progressive rate

0.62  / progressive rate

Rate of Camber Change- Ride Camber  (deg / m)

63.0 deg / m

16.93 deg / m

Roll Camber (deg / deg)

0.33 deg / deg

0.82 deg /deg

Static Toe

-0.2 deg toe out

0.1 deg toe in

Static camber and adjustment method

-2.0 deg, adjustable via shims

-1.5 deg, adjustable via shims

Front Caster and Kinematic Trail

5.0 degrees, non-adjustable, 13 mm trail


Front Kingpin Axis Inclination and Offset

6 degrees non-adjustable, 13 mm offset


Static Akermann and adjustment method

50.5% non-adjustable


Anti dive / Anti Squat

0 %

0 %

Roll center position static

12.1 mm below ground

16.6 mm below ground

Roll center position at 1g lateral acc

9.6 mm below ground, 262.8 mm toward unladen side

15.8 mm below ground, 96.6 mm toward unladen side

Steer location, Gear ratio, Steer Arm Length

Rear steer, 120mm per rotation, 50.8 mm steer arm


Brake System / Hub & Axle




1018 steel, hub mounted, vented, 190.0 mm diameter

1018 steel, Single inboard, differential mounted, vented,   216 mm diameter

Master Cylinder

16 mm front and rear bore, adjustable front/rear bias bar


2- 28.45 mm diameter, dual-opposing piston

Single, 31.75 mm diameter, dual-piston

Pedal Force and Line Pressure @ 1g decel

0.2 kN, 7.0 bar

0.2 kN, 4.0 bar

Upright Assembly

CNC 6061-T6 aluminum, integral caliper mount

CNC 6061-T6 aluminum

Hub Bearings

Thin section, deep-groove ball bearing

Thin section, deep-groove ball bearing

Axle type, size, and material

Rotating axle, 58.4 mm-1018 steel hardened hollow shaft

Rotating axle/tripod joint housing, 65 mm-high carbon steel




Driver Size Adjustments

Adjustable driver pedals

Seat (materials, padding/damping)

Carbon/Kevlar composite, Nomex honeycomb core

Driver Visibility (angle of side view, mirrors?)

100 degree side visibility

Shift Actuator (type, location)

electrically-actuated 12V drill, steering wheel mounted paddles

Clutch Actuator (type, location)

Automatic clutch, adjustable engagement rpm


Custom L.E.D. tachometer and warning light display (temp), gear indicator


Electrical Power, Control, Systems Management


Power Distribution  Management / Control

Relays and fuses to limit the amount of current throughout the car

Wiring / Loom / ECM mounting

Braided, abrasion resistant loom, ECM mounted behind the seat

Battery / Charging System

Sealed lead-acid battery with easy acess charging ports


Star topology to all high current devices, sensors grounded to ECU

Driver Assist Systems

Electronic paddle shifting, over-temp light, tachometer and gear indicator

Logging / Telemetry

Internal ECU logging, wideband O2 sensor logging

Special Sensing Technology

Custom cam angle sensing communicating with the EMS-4 ECU, Knock sensor tapped into block




Frame Construction

Tubular space frame


4130 Chromoly steel tubing

Joining method and


TIG welded, ER70S2 filler rod

Targets (Torsional

Stiffness or other)

1000 N-m / deg

Torsional stiffness and

validation method

1453 N-m/deg CAE beam model

Bare frame mass with

brackets and paint

27 kg

Crush zone material

Aluminum honeycomb

Crush zone length

203.2 mm

Crush zone energy capacity

Quasi-static crush: 8243 Joules




Manufacturer / Model


Bore / Stroke / Cylinders / Displacement

95mm bore /  72mm stroke

1 cylinder  / 510 cc

Compression ratio


Induction (natural or forced,  intercooled)

Forced induction, Intercooled

Throttle Body / Mechanism

35mm, butterfly valve throttle actuation

Fuel Type

E85 Ethanol

Max Power design RPM


Max Torque design RPM


Min RPM for 80% max torque


Fuel Injection System (manf'r, and type)

Custom  EFI, one 450cc pindle

and ne 450cc split-type injector

controlled by AEM EMS-4

Fuel System Sensors (used in fuel mapping)

MAP for base table, TPS for

acceleration enrichment

Fuel Pressure

3.0 bar

Injector location

90 mm before valve stems and

directed towards valve stems

Intake Plenum volume and runner length(s)

1270mm runner length

Exhaust header design

2-1 configuration,  38 mm

primary, unequal length configuration

to help smooth exhaust pulses

Effective Exhaust runner length

150 mm

Ignition System

Coil near plug controlled by AEM EMS-4

Ignition Timing

8 degrees advance at idle,

32 degrees at WOT

Oiling System (wet/dry sump, mods)

Pressure circulation, two rotor pumps

Coolant System and Radiator location

Single radiator, side mounted,

single fan pulling 300cfm

Fuel Tank Location, Type

Behind firewall mounted, aluminum tank


Titanium structure




Drive Type

Chain Drive

Differential Type

Zexel-Torsen, torque-sensing,  limited slip,

3.2:1 maximum torque biasing,

rotating vented housing

Final Drive Ratio

2.71 : 1

Vehicle Speed @ max

power (design) rpm


1st gear,   2nd gear

52 kph

69 kph

3rd gear,   4th gear

85 kph

105 kph

5th gear,  6th gear

129 kph


Half shaft size and material

17.75 mm diam.

-left, 18.67 mm diam.

- right, 4340 steel

Axle Joint type

Non-plunging CV joint-inboard,

plunging tri-pod-outboard


Other Information


Body Work (material, process)

Carbon/kevlar weave made from a fiberbglass mold from bondo plug


Automatic clutch acts as traction control and improves drivability for beginner drivers