Cai, L-m., J-x. Cui & W-z. Cai*

 *Author for correspondence


          Some functional morphological aspects of the loading ability of the wings of some chosen true bugs were measured and compared. Eight families and 38 genera have been examined: Pentatomidae (24 genera, Megarrhamphus, Arma, Dolycoris, Palomena, Eurydema, Brachynema, Holcostethus, Halyomorpha, Dalpada, Tolumnia, Stollia, Carpocoris, Nezara, Erthesina, Menida, Plautia, Glaucias, Homalogonia, Antheminia, Graphosoma, Neojurtina, Aenaria, Pentatoma, Rubiconia), Cydnidae (3 genera, Legnotus, Adrisa, Geotomus), Plataspidae (3 genera, Aponsila, Megacopta, Coptosoma), Tessaratomidae (2 genera, Pycanum, Tessaratoma), Dinidoridae (1 genus, Cyclopelta), Scutelleridae (2 genera, Poecilocoris, Lamprocoris), Acanthosomatidae (1 genus, Elasmucha), and Urostylidae (2 genera, Urochela, Urostylis). The results indicated that  the relationship between the corium area and the area of membranal parts of fore and hind wings, the relationship between the corium area and the clavus area, the relationship between the clavus area and the hind wing area, the relationship between the dry body weight and the area of the fore and hind wings, and the relationship between the dry body weight and the corium area were significantly correlated with the coefficients of 0.99, 0.98, 0.98, 0.97, 0.97, respectively. The clavus lengths region 50~65% of those of the hind wings, with the average of 57.62%. The ratio of corium area to the membranal area is smallest in Plataspidae and in largest Cydnidae and Tessaratomidae. The ratio of the dry body weight to area of fore and hind wings is smallest in Plataspidae and Cydnidae, and largest in Scutelleridae.


Keywords:  Pentatomoidea; area of wing; dry body weight; the loading ability of wings





Cassis, G.


          The toad bug family is divided into two subfamilies, the Gelastocorinae and Nerthrinae; both of which are monogeneric. The family was monographed by Todd (1955), who relegated a number of available names in the Nerthrinae to synonymy with the genus Nerthra. At the same time, he established a number of informal species-groups to accommodate the described fauna.

          Recent studies by the Cassis lab on the toad bugs have detected a number of new character systems and reanalysed existing character homologies. In a phylogenetic analysis of Nerthra, 78 species were coded for 102 morphological characters. A new classification of the Nerthrinae is proposed from these analyses, such that the subfamily comprises five genera.





Cassis, G.


          The Orthotylinae is considered by most workers to be one of the most diverse suprageneric taxa of the plant bug family Miridae. The tribe Austromirini is redefined in this work, and 26 new genera are described, and over 200 new species are recognised. The tribe is primarily found in Australia, with only a few taxa known outside of Australia. The speciose genus Nesiomiris, an endemic Hawaiian genus and a palm-inhabiting new genus from Hawaii are included in the Austromirini.

          A phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the tribe at the generic level, and of particular interest is the recognition of two clades, ‘a non-ant mimetic clade’ and an ‘ant-mimetic clade’. The host plant relationships and biogeography of the tribe are also discussed.





Cui, J.-x., L.-m. Cao & W.-z. Cai*

*Author for correspondence


          Nine heteropteran families, Ceratocombidae, Schizopteridae, Pleidae, Helotrephidae, Omaniidae, Tingidae, Miridae, Lygaeidae and Coreidae, have been reported with coleoptery forewings. They belong to Diosocoromorpha, Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, and Pentatomomorpha. The habitats of those bugs are much more diversified as below, undersides of pebbles of stream, aquatic vegetation, intertidal zone of marine coral or pinnacles, nest of ants, shrubs in desert, soil, pebbles or small stones, or grains of sands, litter or moss in rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest or wet scrub sites, which make more selective pressures on forewings as protective structures than that as flight apparatus. Coleoptery forewings of these species cover whole or most of abdomens of them, and can be divided into 2 groups. One group of them are with membrane completely or nearly completely vestigial, and corium with clavus in coalescence or not, forming the forewing or most of it. Another group is with membrane well-developed, occupying most of forewing, and with corium and clavus vestigial. Most of cleoptery forewings true bugs belong to the first group and only a few lygaeid species, such as Jakowleffia setulosa (Jakowleff), belong to the second group.


Key words  Heteroptera, forewing, coleoptery, clavus, corium, membrane





Damgaard, J.


          Water bugs comprises two ecologically and morphologically quite different heteropteran infra-orders, which independently have invaded aquatic habitats throughout the World´s temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. Besides comprising approximately the same number of species and sharing the same kind of habitats (although in very different ways), water bugs are probably the best known infra orders in terms of systematics and global biodiversity today, which again has facilitated an ever increasing attention from researchers working with ecology, behavior, evolutionary biology and historical biogeography. Based on phylogenetic analyses of molecular and morphological data sets I present what has been done, and what is still lacking, in order to obtain global phylogenies of the two groups, and what the results tell us about their evolutionary history. Finally, I give some examples on the use of water striders in phylogeographical studies on the northern Hemisphere.





Forero, D.


          Currently three tribes within Orthotylinae are recognized, being Orthotylini the most diversified. Even though North American fauna is the best known in the Western Hemisphere, the one in Western North America is still in need of much revisionary work. Hadronema, Daleapidea and Aoplonema belong to a group of closely related genera distributed mainly in South Western US. In the past some of their species were described in the omnibus “Hadronema” and no clear concept of the genus was ever given. These three genera, plus Hadronemidea, a monotypic genus from Mexico, share some characters of the male genitalia. In this study a taxonomic revision for the four genera is presented providing new generic concepts. Two new genera are proposed to include species previously described in Hadronema, and a new genus is described to accommodate a new species from Baja California Sur, Mexico. New species of Aoplonema and Hadronema are described, and new combinations are given. Morphological characters are documented, in particular male and female genitalia. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the genera is presented. The sister taxa of the “Hadronema” group could not be clearly identified, and further relationships may be seek in undescribed Neotropical taxa.






Gapon, D.


          The subfamily Asopinae is currently not subdivided into tribes. Amyot and Serville (1843) and Schouteden (1909) divided the group into Discocerini  with 2 genera and Asopini, but this nomenclature cannot be accepted, as it was later shown that the type species of Asopus is a species of Discocera. I examined morphological characters of 53 genera (of the 63 genera of the world fauna) with emphasis on the structure of the male and female genitalia. Dry preparations of completely inflated aedeagi were obtained using the method of hydraulic inflation of conjunctiva and subsequent drying it in a stream of hot air (Gapon, 2001). Altogether more than 70 characters were investigated, most important of them are: degree of development and the form of conjunctival apical lobe, number of branches of ventro-lateral lobes, the form of pygophore, length and form of hypophysis, the branch of hypophysis and stem of paramere; length of gynatrial cone, presence of gynatrial sclerites, relative length of parts of spermathecal channel; the form of a head, length of rostrum, presence, length and the form of abdominal process, the form and length of pronotal angles, the form of scutellum, the form and length of back angles  of ventrites, presence of pilose glandular patches on abdomen venter, etc. Five basic plans of the genitalia structure were distinguished; they correlate with external characters, distributions and probably conform to natural groups of genera: 1) Afrius, Andrallus, Bulbostethus, Eocanthecona, Friarius, Montrouzieriellus, Picromerus etc.; distributed in Asia, Australia, Africa and America; 2) Damarius, Dorycoris, Hoploxys, Macrorhaphis, etc., Africa; 3) Euthyrhynchus, Discocera, Heteroscelis, Stiretrus; North and South America; 4) Alcaeorrhynchus, Cantheconidea, Glypsus, Hemallia; Africa, Madagascar, North America and Caribbean Islands; 5) Amyotea, Arma, Blachia, Brontocoris, Cazira, Cermatulus, Coryzorhaphis, Jalla, Pinthaeus, Podisus, Troilus, etc.; Eurasia, North and South America. The following phylogenetic relations seems most probable: sisterly groups are (1) and (2), (1) and (3), or maybe (3) and (5), group (4) and (5) originated from (1).





Goßner, M.


          There is still a gap in knowledge about the distribution of Heteroptera in forest ecosystems. Because of it’s extremely high spatial extend and it’s complexity the number of different niches within forests is assumed to be high and therefore a horizontal as well as a vertical stratification of Heteroptera can be expected. This hypothesis was tested by sampling Heteroptera with flight interception traps in two different forest types within the forest district “Steigerwald” in southern Germany: oak forests and beech-dominated forests. Vertical stratification was studied by comparing communities of 1) two strata (near ground/tree crown) in the oak forests and 2) three strata (stem area/lower canopy/upper canopy) in the beech-dominated forests. Horizontal stratification was analysed by comparing 1) canopy communities of plots with dense, medium dense, and sparse forest canopy in the oak forests, 2) canopy community between beech and oak in beech-dominated forests, and 3) comparing near-ground communities. The later aspect was analysed at a) 8 different plots in the oak forest and b) 69 plots in the beech dominated forest. Results indicate a clear vertical and horizontal stratification of Heteroptera communities. Light seems to be a crucial factor in the structuring of Heteroptera communities in forests. Number of specimens and species increased with height above ground as well as with increasing incidence of light near ground. Moreover horizontal stratification was expressed by tree species specificity of Heteroptera communities.


Phylogenetic relationships of family groups in Pentatomoidea based on morphology and DNA sequences (Insecta: Heteroptera) 

Grazia, J.1, R. T. Schuh2 & W. C. Wheeler2

1Department of Zoology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS Brazil.
2Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York USA.

Phylogenetic relationships within the Pentatomoidea are investigated through the coding and analysis of character data derived from morphology and DNA sequence data.  More than 120 terminal taxa were investigated, representing all of the major family groups; 84 of these are coded for 57 characters in a morphological matrix.  Approximately 3500 base pairs of DNA data are adduced for 46 terminal taxa, comprising the 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and COI gene regions.  Character data are analyzed separately and in the form of a total evidence analysis; all classificatory conclusions are drawn from the results of the latter approach.

Major conclusions of the phylogenetic analysis include:  restriction of the concept of Urostylididae to that of older authors raising of Saileriolinae to family rank; treatment of Thaumastellidae at family rank rather than as a subfamily of Cydnidae, although the exact phylogenetic position of the taxon within the Pentatomoidea remains equivocal; treatment of Parastrachiinae as a valid family, following Sweet and Schaefer (2002), but also including Dismegistus Amyot & Serville; treatment of Lestoniidae at family rank, as the sister-group of the Acanthosomatidae.  Whereas the monophyly of the Acanthosomatidae, and Scutelleridae receive strong support, a broad-based Cydnidae, as recognized by Dolling, is not supported.  The monophyly of the Pentatomidae appears unequivocal, inclusive of the Aphylidae and Cyrtocoridae on the basis of morphology, these last taxa not being represented in the molecular data set.  The status of the family-group taxa Dinidoridae and Tessaratomidae could benefit from additional representation in the molecular data set.





Guilbert, E. & J. Damgaard


          The systematics and the phylogeny of the Tingidae (Cimicomorpha, Miroidea) remain unresolved. The position of the tribe Phatnomatini is contreversal and the known tribes within the Tinginae were invalidate. In an attemps to determinate the position of the phatnomatini and to draw out an organisation within the Tinginae, a first molecular phylogeny of the Tingidae is presented. The preliminary results, without answering these questions, provide the first orientations.





Henry  Th. J. & P.  S. F. Ferreira*

*Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


          The monophyly of the predominately predatory mirid subfamily Deraeocorinae is established and relationships of 119 described genera are investigated.  Deraeocorinae represents the fifth largest mirid subfamily, containing about 690 species.  Cladistic analysis of more than 87 generic-group taxa  and 67 characters support the recognition of seven tribes, the Clivinematini, Deraeocorini, Hyaliodini, Saturniomirini, Surinamellini, Termatophylini, and one new tribe.  The tribes Clivinematini, Saturniomirini, Suranamellini, and Termatophylini are considered monophyletic.  The nominate tribe Deraeocorini and the largely New World tribe Hyaliodini, however, are more problematic and are shown to be at least paraphyletic, containing a mixture of misplaced genera.





Jacobs, D. H.


          Approximately 8,800 species of Heteroptera, in 1,675 genera and 56 families have been recorded from the Afrotropical Region. Of these, 717 genera, belonging to 46 families and containing about 2,100 species, have been recorded from southern Africa (area south of the Kunene and Zambezi rivers). Nearly 75% of the species in southern Africa belong to the five largest families namely the Reduviidae (519), Lygaeidae (sensu Schuh & Slater 1995) (326),  Pentatomidae (265),  Tingidae (252) and Miridae (203).

          About 40% of southern African Heteroptera were described before 1900, about 28% from 1900 to 1950 and 32% thereafter. Germar (in 1838) described about 5%, Stål (mainly in 1855 and 1865) about 15% and Distant (round 1900) nearly 9% of these species. Furthermore, Schouteden, Villiers, Miller, Slater, Schuh and Duarte Rodrigues described significant numbers of these species. Many species are still only known from their original short Latin descriptions with their present status and generic placements being uncertain. The types of most of the described species are in overseas museums.

          South African taxonomists have described less than 4% of the species of the region. Except for Hesse at the South African Museum (in the first part of the 20th century) and Van Reenen at the Transvaal Museum (for a few years in the 1980’s), no South African institution has employed a heteropterist. The results being that the Heteroptera in southern Africa are not well collected, museum collections are small and poorly organised with most material being unidentified and containing many undescribed species. A rough estimate is that about a third of the heteropteran fauna of the region is still to be described or recorded.

          Many unique and interesting groups and species occur in the region. Several of these taxa are illustrated and discussed.





Jacobs, D. H.


          The chromosome numbers of four species belonging to the genus Halobates have been reported in the literature and all of them have 2n (♂) = 31X0 (30 autosomes + X). However, the chromosome number of Halobates sericeus, is 2n (♂) = 29X1 X2 X3 X4Y (24 autosomes + X1 X2 X3 X4Y).

          The manner in which this chromosome number could have evolved is argued and discussed based on evidence from the structure of the chromosomes and the course of meiosis. It is concluded that the results can best be explained by the fusion of three autosomes in the male. The fusion chromosome and its homologues usually form a trivalent plus a monovalent at metaphase I while undergoing chromatid segregation during anaphase I (as does the original X chromosome). At metaphase II they form a pentapartite structure together with the original X chromosome, in the centre of a ring of 12 autosomes. The fused chromosome acts as the Y-chromosome while the three homologues orientate and segregate with the original X.

          A X1 X2 X3 X4Y sex chromosome system has thus originated without the involvement of the original X chromosome in any fusion. The female of H. sericeus should have 2n = 32 as do the females of the other Halobates species.



Bioecology of  cereal Sunn pests and their distribution in Palaearctic region (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) (talk)


Javahery, M.


          Wheat and barley are important food crops in most countries in the Near East, South West Asia, and North Africa. These cereals are basic food commodities in these areas. Wheat provides over 40% of the per capita dietary supply of calories and protein.

          Sunn pests from the genera Aelia and Eurygaster spp. are a major factor in the production of wheat and a lesser extent of  barley. Damage commonly results in yield losses of 20-30% in barley and 50-90% in wheat. During outbreaks, infestations may cause 100% crop loss. These pests also inject chemicals into the grain that destroys the gluten and greatly reduces the baking quality of the flour. Eurygaster integriceps is the most important species of the Sunn pests, occurring between 28° and 55° latitude, and 10° west to 60° east longitude.  This bug, commonly known as Sunn or Senn pest is also a serious pest of the wheat and to a lesser extent on barley, in Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Turkey, South West Asia, and particularly in the Middle East countries (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and several of the independent countries in the Southwest of the former U.S.S.R. (Ukraine, Azarbayjan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhitan, Kyrgyzstan), part of South west Russia.

          Chemical control has not been satisfactory for managing the Sunn pest and the periodic outbreaks occurring every 5-8 years over the past five decades. Long-term studies (1960-2006) has shown that chemical control has failed to prevent the periodic outbreaks of Sunn pests. It has also become apparent that chemical treatment is costly, hazardous to human health as well as the environment. Sampling of Sunn pests for the study of the population and distribution of these cereal bugs were done both in wheat and barley cultivation, as well as in the aestivation-overwintering sites. The distribution of  these economic insects are expanding in several countries in the Palaearctic region.





Ke, Y.-l. & W.-j. Bu


          Herein we report a systematic study of female copulatory tubes of forty species in the genus Anthocoris, most of which are from the Northern Hemisphere. Our results indicate that female copulatory tubes can be used as a reliable character to identify females and to analyze phylogenetic relationships in this genus. We propose thirteen species groups based on the copulatory tubes of females, other morphological characters of both sexes, and the previous suggestions about the species groups in the continental faunastic work.


Key Words: Anthocoris; copulatory tube; species group; Anthocoridae; Heteroptera; Insecta





Konstantinov, F. V.


          Central Asia in its modern concept includes Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. A long standing confusion exists regarding exact definiton of Central Asia, formerly also reffered to as Turkestan. The borders between countries, provinces and districts have also changed through time. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, Central Asia does have some important overall characteristics. It is an extremely large landlocked region of varied geography, including high plateaus and mountains (Tian Shan), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan), treeless, grassy steppes and saline lands.

          The investigation of Phylinae of Central Asian began with the works of O. Reuter, who described more than 50 new species from this region. Further studies were mainly carried out by A.N. Kiritshenko, I.M. Kerzhner, V.G. Putshkov, N.N. Muminov, I.S. Drapolyuk, and the author. Currently 242 species of Phylinae from three tribes are known from Central Asia. The tribes Pilophorini and Hallodopini are represented by 5 and 20 species correspondingly while the tribe Phylini is a diverse and conspicuous group in the region. The fauna is characterized by relatively high degree of endemism, with more than 30% of endemic and 12% of subendemic species. The genus Lopidodenus and monotypic genera Karokris, Taeniophorus, and Voruchia (Phylini) are restricted to Central Asia. The number of species recorded from particular countries of Central Asia is as follows: Kazakhstan – 153, Kyrgyzstan – 59, Tajikistan – 74, Turkmenistan – 116, Uzbekistan – 106. The relatively low number of species in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is mainly explaned by the predominantly mountainous geography of these countries, as the most part of Phylini species are associated with steppes, saline lands, shrublands, and deserts. A preponderance of Phylinae species appear to be host specific. At the moment host plants are documented for about 90% of phylines of Central Asia. However, part of these indications  are controversial and need to be verified.

          The Phylinae of Central Asia, as evidenced by the extensive collection of the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, is comparatively well sampled. However, at least ten new species remain to be described, and further revisionary work is needed to create a clear diagnoses and workable keys for several poorly known genera. Further, currently we have only rough idea of distribution of most species. Our knowledge of Central Asian phylines will greatly benefit from geocoding of each locality and accurate presentation  of host data. The database of the Plant Bug Planetary Biodiversity Inventory ( offers an opportunity to include information such as georeferenced coordinates of each locality, color photographs, dissections, hosts, and collecting method. Results of such approach as applied to recently revised and predominantly Central Asian genus Solenoxyphus are discussed.





Polhemus, J. T. & D. A. Polhemus*

* Dept of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii USA


          Marquesametra n. gen., n. sp., containing type species M. hivaoa n. sp. from the summit area of Hiva Oa island in the Marquesas Islands, is proposed and compared to the other extant hydrometrid genera of the world. This is the third endemic monotypic hydrometrid genus known from the Marquesas Islands. A phylogenetic analysis of extant hydrometrid genera based on a revised set of characters reveals that this new genus clusters in a monophyletic clade with the two other Marquesan endemics, Chaetometra and Dolicocephalometra, and a new tribe, Marquesametrini, is proposed to hold these three genera. Character analysis associated with this phylogenetic analysis also reveals that the South American genus Bacillometra as previously interpreted does not represent a monophyletic assemblage, thus Bacillometroides n. gen.. is proposed to hold all species previously contained in this genus with the  exception of B. ventralis Esaki, the type species of Bacillometra.
          Phylogenetic analyses based on both fossil plus extant genera of Hydrometridae, and on extant genera only with fossils excluded, reveal similar basic patterns of tree topology at most deep nodes, but also indicate that the topology of the tree with fossils included is far more sensitive to the addition or deletion of particular outgroup taxa. As a result, we propose a revised higher classification of Hydrometridae based on the more stable results from extant genera. This classification differs from previous arrangements in the division of the former subfamily Heterocleptinae into two monotypic subfamiles, the Veliometrinae and Heterocleptinae, and the recognition of three tribes within the Hydrometrinae, the Bacillometrini, Hydrometrini, and Marquesametrini, the latter containing the new genus Marquesametra.





Protić, L.


          The Catalogue Heteroptera of Yugoslav countries (Protić, 1988, 2001) cites 804 species for Serbia, while the overview of diversity of Serbian Heteroptera fauna, presented at the yearly meeting of entomologists of Serbia (2001) included a list of 855 species. Further fieldwork and identification of specimens from Heteroptera collection (ending inclusive with 2005), the list of Heteroptera species in Serbia had increased to 931 species.

          In contrast to the claim by many entomologists that there are no rare species but that is only necessary to have a good knowledge of their biology and the ecological niche that they occupy, as well as the proper collecting method, we have decided to place a number of species in that category. In order to consider a species to be rare, we believe that it is necessary to know the history of faunistic research on the group where it belongs. The faunistic studies of Heteroptera in Serbia last for over 150 years and I believe that this is a sufficiently long period that certain species may be defined as rare (threatened) or little known (conserved species). The history of faunistic research on Heteroptera in Serbia includes three important persons whose research is used as parameters in order to determine a species as rare or little known. The names of these researchers are: Franz Fieber, Geza Horváth and Nikola Kormilev.

          In order to characterize (define) a species as rare, it needs to fulfill one out of three criteria: first – that is was described for the territory of Serbia but it was never recorded there again, second – species not recorded after 1900, and third – species recorded again after 100 years.

This paper includes a list of 76 new species for the fauna of Serbia (presented here for the very first time), 26 species recorded in Serbia only before 1903, 29 species recorded in Serbia after the pause of 100 years, as well as 8 species periodically collected each 20-30 or more years.


Protić, Lj., 1998. Catalogue of the Heteroptera fauna of Yugoslav countries. Part one. Natural History Museum, Belgrade. Special issue 38: 1-215.

Protić, Lj., 2000. Biodiversity of the Heteroptera of Serbia. Acta entomologica serbica, 5 (1/2): 1-12.

Protić, Lj., 2001. Catalogue of the Heteroptera fauna of Yugoslav countries. Part two. Natural History Museum, Belgrade. Special issue 39: 1-272.





Protić, L. & M. Paunović*

Natural History Museum, 11000 Begrade, P:O:Box 401, Serbia & Montenegro. Email:


          In Serbia, the subfamily Cimicinae Latreille was until recently believed to be represented with two genera and two species: C. lectularius Linnaeus and Oeciacus hirundinis (Lamarck). The cosmopolitan species C. lectularius, although known as an ectoparasite of humans, is also parasitizing bats. The ectoparasite of birds Oe. hirundinis was in Serbia recorded only in Negotin (Eastern Serbia), more than 100 years ago.

          At the attic of the abandoned forestry house at Deliblato Sands (Banat, Vojvodina) there is a mixed breeding colony of Greater Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber) and Geoffroy’s Bat, Myotis emarginatus (Geoffroy). During the regular activity of marking bats with wing markers in mid summer 2004, ectoparasites were recorded and collected. Nine specimens of ectoparasites were collected on August 4th, 2004, from four out of 168 marked bat specimens of both species. On one dead specimen of Rh. ferrumequinum there were 39 specimens of dead ectoparasites in all five stages of larvae and imago. Although at first glance they seemed to belong to the species C. lectularius, identification proved that the specimens isolated from bats belong to the new species for Heteroptera fauna of Serbia – C. dissimilis (Horváth).

          Locus typicus of this species is in Hungary. The record in Vojvodina is a proof that this species is spreading south. At Balkan Peninsula it was recorded only in 2004 in Bulgaria and Greece on Nyctalus noctula (Schreber). C. dissimilis is distributed in Eurasia.





Rédei, D. & Ch. Weirauch


          In 1963, Villiers described the genus Pseudocethera and he erected a new subfamily, Pseudocetherinae, to accommodate it. The systematic position of the genus, which currently contains three species, was modified subsequently by different authors; some placed it in Cetherinae, others retained the subfamily Pseudocetherinae.

          Reexamination of Pseudocethera clarified that the genus differs rather sharply from both Cetherinae and “Reduviinae sensu stricto” (= the monophyletic line, which contains Reduvius, within the current, probably not monophyletic Reduviinae or “Reduviinae sensu lato”). Therefore, its inclusion in a separate subfamily seems justified. The most important characters for diagnosing Pseudocetherinae are as follows: mandibulary plates short, apices not adjacent medially, but well separated by clypeus; maxillary plates with rather large or very large anterior projection; first visible labial segment long and slender, much longer than 2nd and 3rd segments combined, 2nd and 3rd segments usually subequal in length, 3rd segment usually laterally flattened, with curved and acute apex; first antennal segment very short, not or only slightly surpassing apex of head; prosternum projecting anteriorly, forming a nearly vertical flattened surface; fossula spongiosa on middle tibia often reduced or absent; fore wing membrane with a small and triangular Cu-PCu cell; dorsal abdominal glands entirely absent in adults.

          Careful examination of several genera currently placed in “Reduviinae sensu lato” revealed that a number of them are closely related with Pseudocethera and should therefore be included in Pseudocetherinae. Some preliminary results of this revision in progress are summarized below.


(1) Microvarus Jeannel (currently 2 spp., West Africa and Fernando Poo), Voconia Stål (1 sp., Australia), Paragerbelius Miller (1 sp., New Guinea), and Kayanocoris Miller (1 sp., Borneo) should be transferred to Pseudocetherinae.


(2) Gerbelius Distant (3 spp., India, Malaysia, Myanmar) is probably polyphyletic, part of the species seem to belong to the Pseudocetherinae.


(3) Specimens representing several undescribed taxa have been discovered and are currently under examination. Some of these undescribed species of Pseudocetherinae occur in Mexico, Trinidad, and Honduras, which extends the known range of Pseudocethera and allies to the New World.


(4) Judging from preliminary examination, the majority of the undescribed specimens can be placed in Microvarus. As a result, this genus, currently containing only one species from West Africa and one from Fernando Poo, appears to have circumtropical distribution, with species occuring in Middle America, Africa, South- and South-eastern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and probably also in Australia. Part of Gerbelius should also be transferred to Microvarus.





Schuh, R. T.


          The use of the Internet for the presentation of systematic catalogs has now been in use for the Miridae for nearly four years.  That catalog has proved capable of providing on-demand responses to a broad range of queries concerning hierarchic relationships, literature citations for individual taxa, access to a digital library, and information on hosts as presented in the literature.  What has been lacking is an efficient method for continual updating of the catalog, as well as the lack of some form of geographic query system.

          With support from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and a US National Science Foundation Planetary Biodiversity Inventories award, we have now developed and implemented an on-line data entry interface that allows for updating of the Catalog of Miridae, but also the creation and continued development of catalogs for other taxa.   The existing print catalogs for Tingidae, Reduviidae, Lygaeoidea, and several smaller family-group taxa have been digitized and prepared for import into the catalog database, which will greatly simplify production of an up-to-date on-line version.

          The underlying approach to database design and data storage is briefly explained, in order to clarify the structure of the on-line catalog for potential users. A brief overview of the catalog interface is then given.

          The logic of the new-developed data-entry interface is described.  A proposal is made to recruit group specialists to perform basic catalog development.  A feedback loop involving the broader community of heteropterists is then described, which would allow for monitoring and improvement of product quality.

          Finally, examples of the data-entry process are given with the aim of providing a realistic portrayal of the complexity of the process and the amount of effort necessary to create the initial catalog.






Schuh, R. T.


          Phymatopsallus Knight, 1964, and related genera, are endemic to the American Southwest and northern Mexico.  This monophyletic group comprises eight genera and 29 species.  Detailed study of the male and female genitalia reveals a wealth of structural variation, in a group of small and otherwise similar appearing species.

          A total of 31 characters were coded for phylogenetics analysis.  Analysis of these data  with NONA (Goloboff, 1998) produced a total of 127 most parsimonious trees with a length of 121 steps, consistency index of 55, and retention index of 81.  The strict consensus of those 127 trees resolves the genera but is largely uninformative with regard to the relationships among those genera. Successive approximations weighting (Farris, 1969) selected only one of the original trees.  Analysis of the same data with PIWE (Goloboff, 1993, 1997)—which produces best fit trees by maximizing the sum of the average unit consistency index—produced a single tree identical to the one retrieved through the use of successive weighting, with a fit statistic of 210.5.  That tree is therefore chosen as the best phylogenetic estimate for use in biogeographic and host analyses.

          Phymatopsallus-group taxa show their greatest diversity in the Sonoran Desert region of Arizona, with all genera occurring there.  This region shows connections to both California and the interior of western North America.  Distributional patterns in the Phymatopsallus group find broad parallels in other taxa of Miridae in western North America.  Notable among these is the sister-area relationship of portions of central/southern Mexico with the western United States and adjacent Mexico.  Furthermore, the virtual restriction of certain clades such as Ceratopsallus to California and northern Baja California is repeated in many other genera such as Oligotylus Van Duzee, Phallospinophylus Weirauch, Crassomiris  Weirauch, and Tuxedo Schuh.

          Members of the Phymatopsallus group demonstrate a relatively high degree of host fidelity. One major clade, including Phymatopsallus and its near relatives, is almost totally restricted to the Fabaceae, including particularly the genera Acacia, Cercidium, Psorothamnus, Olneya, and Prosopis.  These woody genera are all dominant landscape elements in the American southwest.  The other major clade, including Cercocarpopsallus and its relatives, is basally associated with Cercocarpus (Rosaceae).   The subsequent branching event is optimized to treat Quercus (Fagaceae) as the basal condition.  Sideroxylon (Sapotaceae), the host of Angelopsallus appears as a unique event, with the final node being optimized with Ericaceae as basal.





Schwertner, C.F.


The genus Chinavia Orian is one of the most speciose taxa of Pentatominae, distributed in the Afrotropical, Neartic and Neotropical regions. Several species are recorded on cultivated plants, some are among the main insect pests in diferent countries. Since Orian established the genus in 1965, its taxonomic history has been discussed, always related to genera Acrosternum Fieber or Nezara Amyot & Serville. Recently, a tentative tribal classification of the subfamily inclued Chinavia in Nezarini. The study of a group of green stink bugs related to genus Nezara allowed a cladistic analysis of 30 taxa and 53 morphological characters. The ingroup taxa included species from 10 nominal genera of Pentatominae: Aethemenes Stål, Antestia Stål, Acrosternum, Chinavia, Glaucias Kirkaldy, Neoacrosterum Day, Nezara, Parachinavia Roche, Porphyroptera China, and Pseudoacrosternum Day. Outgroup comparison was carried out with Carpocoris purpureipennis (DeGeer) and Pentatoma rufipes (Linnaeus). The results support that Chinavia, as currently circumscribed, is polyphyletic. The following phylogenetic relationships were found: ((Antestia, Glaucias (Acrosternum, Parachinavia)) (Pseudoacrosternum ((Aethemenes, Nezara) (Chinavia distans (Porphyroptera (Chinavia s.s. (Neoacrosternum, Chinavia varicornis))))))). A new genus, to include C. distans (Schouteden), and a new combination, Neoacrosternum varicornis (Dallas) comb. nov., are proposed. The monophyletic Chinavia is supported by three synapomophies: apex of process of capsula seminalis pointed, superior process of dorsal rim of pygophore absent, and paramere not geniculate with a basal spur. More than 80 species are recognized in the genus, and the greatest diversity (>65 spp.) found in the neotropics, where several new species needs description.





Streito, J.-C.


          “Faune de France” is a series of books created in 1921 with main purpose to give tools to naturalists to identify and study animals of France. Most of the last volumes deal with fauna of West European regions. Books are written in French but in the last volumes keys are bilingual French/English. 90 volumes have been published since 1921, invertebrates represent 82%, insects 54%, Heteroptera with 11 volumes (12%) is a well studied group. 27 european families of Heteroptera have been studied to date in the series. Several authors contributed to Faune de France about Heteroptera. The first one is Jean Péricart who wrote 8 of the 11 books about true bugs and managed the publication of the series during more than twenty years. Other authors about Heteroptera are Poisson (1957), Wagner & Weber (1964), Moulet (1995) and Derjanschi (2005). Several books are in preparation (Reduviidae, Dipsocoridae and allied families, Aradidae, Piesmatidae, Pentatomoidea families and subfamilies not treated in the first volume published in 2005). Anthocoridae, Cimicidae and Microphysidae were treated by Jean Péricart (1972) in an other series (Faune d’Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen) which was stopped since. All the families represented in West European regions will be treated when the books in preparation will be published. Due to voluntary work of authors and editors we will have at our disposal, in a few years, an unique tool to identify and study true bug of the Western European part.





Štys, P. & J. Kukalova-Peck*

*Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Email: jarmila


          The outgroup comparison supports unequivocally the hypothesis that the homogeneous and overlapping tegmina provided with fully delimited claval regions are plesiomorphic features of the Heteropterodea. The hemelytron may be defined as a forewing with proximal part coriaceous and distal one (usually inconveniently called "membrane") less sclerotized, pliable, and separated from the proximal one by a rather narrow, diagonal flexible zone called dividing line. Such a loose architectural definition of the term allows for its application to several functionally convergent phenotypes evolved by different but often linked processes. These involved (a) costalization of venation accompanied by transfer or loss of venation in posterodistal wing area; (b) strong sclerotization of costalized venation; (c) arrangement of veins to form a diagonal dividing line (sometimes multiple, e.g. in Belostomatidae); (d) strong sclerotization of proximal sectors of veins; (e) the same but accompanied by a strong sclerotization of proximal wing membrane (often accompanied by blurring the outlines of veins), (f) transformation of living veins on the "membrane" in dead veins, often fold-like and eventually disappearing. Processes sub (c), (d), (e) lead to formation of a classical hemelytron composed of sclerotized corium (= proximal part of remigium), sclerotized clavus (the left and right meeting in a straight claval commissure), and less sclerotized overlapping "membrane" (= distal part of remigium) as known in Panheteroptera. .            

          Sometimes the forewings are areolized (Peloridiidae, some Ceratocombidae and Schizopteridae, Hypsipterygidae, majority of Tingidae, a few Miridae) - some of these situations might have evolved from tegminal, others from hemelytral condition. In a few situations the panheteropteran hemelytra might have secondarily lost some of their attributes and even secondarily acquired tegminal character, e.g. in most Reduviidae, many Aradidae, Colobathristidae, some Oxycarenidae, Rhopalidae and Alydidae, and many Pentatomoidea.

          Hemelytral forewings never evolved in Enicocephalomorpha, Dipscocoromorpha and do not belong to the groundplan of Gerromorpha; in all these clades the clavus is apomorphically incompletely fully delimited. Hemelytra evolved several times within the Ceratocombomorpha and the Gerromorpha but never by combination of all the methods characteristics of Panheteroptera. Gains, losses and reversals are summarized in a cladistic context.





Štys, P. & J. Kukalova-Peck*

*Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Email: jarmila


          Hemimetabolic type of wing development seems rather monotonous unless it had not been modified by some unusual phenomenon like anastrepsitery in Odonata and Orthoptera, proneometaboly in some termites (Prorhinotermes), and neometaboly in Thysanoptera and many Sternorrhyncha. Usually, the wing lobes appear at some defined instar (or within a group of instars in taxa with inconstant number of many instars) and get longer at every preimaginal moult. However, a closer look at development of any clade reveals developmental diversity, manifested in heterochronic alterations of ontogeny, particular especially to pterygopolymorphic taxa.

          Heterochrony is a change in the onset or termination of development or its rate resulting in retarded (paedomorphosis) or accelerated (peramorphosis) descendant ontogeny of a feature in comparison with that in an ancestral ontogeny. The basic eight modes of heterochrony were identified by Alberch et al. (1979), and all of them occur within true bugs. Dwarfism and gigantism are ubiquitous, and will not be followed further.

          The modal plesiomorphic development of macropterous heteropteran forewings (associated with that of the mesoscutellum) is linked with the prevailing occurrence of five larval instars. Out of the paedomorphic alterations, the following ones are considered in more details: (a) neoteny (retardation) in neotenously apterous adults of some apterous taxa or morphs (Enicocephalidae, Gerromorpha, Blissidae, Coreidae: Agriopocorinae), (b) progenesis linked with reduction of number of larval instars in Polyctenidae, and (c) postdisplacement in micropterous Cimicidae and many others. Also the three fundamental categories of peramorphosis are represented, viz. (d) acceleration manifested in anapterous larvae (Štys & Šobotník 1999) of Peloridiidae and Enicocephalidae, (e) hypermorphosis in development of mesoscutellum in many Pentatomoidea, and (f) predisplacement shown by earlier occurrence of wing lobes in some Nepomorpha. 



Alberch P., Gould S.J., Oster G.F. & Wake D.B. 1979: Paleobiology 55: 296-317.

Štys P. & Šobotník J. 1999: Acta. Soc. Zool. Bohem. 63: 83-92.




Sweet, M.H.


          The traditional concept of the Lygaeidae is paraphyletic as shown by T. J. Henry. Unfortunately Henry's restricted concept of the Lygaeidae is still composite. Evidence is presented that the Lygaeidae should be stricted to the former subfamily Lygaeinae, and the subfamilies Orsillinae and Ischnorhychinae each should be elevated to family rank.




Symonds, C.L., G. Cassis & D.F. Hochuli*
* School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia


          Closely related insects are often found on closely related host plants, generating hypotheses that speciation in the two groups is paralleled.  We investigated the potential of cospeciation to explain the relationship between a host specific group of undescribed plantbugs (Miridae: Orthotylinae) and the native Cypress pine genera Callitris and Acitnostrobus (Cupressaceae).  As most plantbugs are highly host specific, this association presents an excellent model system for studying cospeciation.  The project involved the taxonomic designation of morphospecies for a group of undescribed plantbugs collected from species of Callitris and Actinostrobus.  The project was largely a collection-based exercise, using material sourced from museum insect collections and supplemented by collecting on cypress pine species for which there were no existing collections.  Morphological and molecular phylogenies were constructed for the plant bug species, and reconciled to an existing phylogeny of Callitris and Actinostrobus.  Original estimates of 10 to 15 species ballooned to a final number of over 30 species with often two to three species of the target plantbugs recorded from Callitris at the same collecting locality.  Incongruence between associated lineages is a common result of cospeciation studies between insects and plants, which suggests other processes are occurring including host switching, extinction and/or independent speciation of the insect or plant.  Geographic distribution of host plants is another factor that can explain phylogenetic patterns between associated insect species.  This has led us to consider to what extent biogeography as well as cospeciation may explain the phylogenetic patterns observed between plantbugs and cypress pine.  






Tatarnic, N.1, 2

1School of Biological Sciences, Heydon-Laurence Building, A08, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

2Department of Entomology, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia


          In traumatic insemination, males pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity rather than into the genital tract. This has resulted in the evolution of female counter-adaptations in the form of paragenitalia to reduce the direct physical costs of mating. While rare in the animal kingdom, traumatic insemination is oddly prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Heteroptera), where it occurs in six families and is thought to have arisen twice. Here, we report the discovery of traumatic insemination and elaborate paragenital development in the plant bug genus Coridromius (Miridae), representing a third, independent emergence of traumatic insemination in this infraorder.





Vinokurov, N.N. *, V.B. Golub**, E.V. Kanyukova*** & A.D. Stepanov*

*Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, SD RAS, Yakutsk, RUSSIA

**Voronezh State University, Voronezh, RUSSIA

***Institute of Biology & Pedology, FED RAS, Vladivostok, RUSSIA


          At the present time authors are elaborating the Catalogue of Heteroptera of the Asian part of Russia with its detailed zonation supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grants 05-04-49917, 05-04-49089). The necessity of this project stems from the fact that in the Catalogue of Palaearctic Heteroptera (1995, 1996, 1999, 2001) huge territory beyond Ural Range was divided only into three regions (West and East Siberia, Far East) and lack sufficient information of species distributed at this point. 

          The Catalogue carrier information around 1200 terrestrial and aquatic species, new additions and changes in the list of species with regards of new publications over the course of past decade. Distribution data of species relate to 24 administrative regions of Russia. Biggest of them – Krasnoyarskii and Khabarovskii krai, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) which embraces some landscape zones will be divide into following several subregions approximated their natural physic-geographical zonation (in total – 35 – fig.).


West Siberia: Yamal-Nenetzky autonomny okrug (YaNAO), Khanty-Mansijsky autonomny okrug KhMAO), Tyumen province (Tmn), Kurgan province (Krg), Omsk province (Om), Novosibirsk province (Nvs), Republic of Altay (RAl), Altay province (Alt),  Kemerovo province (Kem), Tomsk province (Tom).


East Siberia: Tuva Republic (Tv), Khakas Republic (Khs), Krasnoyarskii krai (Kr) with subregions – Arcric (KrA), Subarctic (KrSb), Middle (KrM)  and Southern (KrS), Irkutsk province (Irk), Buryat Republic (Bur), Chita province (Cht), Sakha Republic (Yakutia) (Ya) with subregions – Northern (YaN), North-Werstern (YaNW), Western (YaW), North-Eastern (YaNE), South-Western (YaSW), Central (YaC), Southern (YaS).


Far East: Chukotskii autonomny okrug (Chk), Magadan province (Mag), Kamchatka province (Kmch), Amur province (Am), Evreisky autonomny okrug (EAO), Khabarovskii krai (Khb) with subergions – Northern (KhbN), Southern (KhbS), Primorskii krai (Prm), Sakhalin province (Skh).


          Heteropteran collection of several Russian institutions lies at the basis of the Catalogue. In the first, richest collection of the Zoological Institute RAS (S.-Petersburg), than Siberian Zoological museum SD RAS (Novosibirsk), Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, SD RAS (Yakutsk), Institute of Biology and Pedology, FED RAS (Vladivostok). Also during the process of investigation we shall give much space in the materials are grouped in number of institutes and universities of Siberia and Far East collected during tens years of study of biodiversity of this part of Russia.






Weirauch, C.


          With roughly 10,000 described species, Miridae (Heteroptera: Insecta) are one of the most speciose lineages of non-holometabolous insects. A limited number of genera and species of Orthotylinae and Phylinae – the target taxa of the NSF-funded Planetary Biodiversity Project – are currently known from Australia and only 9 of these species belong to the tribe Phylini. The extensive fieldwork conducted by R. T. Schuh and G. Cassis over the past decade shows that the paucity of described Australian species is a result of limited sampling of this fauna rather than its true diversity. Examination of Phylini from the Schuh and Cassis collecting trips between 1995 and 2002 and of previously collected material on loan from several institutions allows the prediction that more than 300 species of this tribe await description from Australia.

          Polyozus Eyles & Schuh, 2003 was described as a monotypic genus from New Zealand. Examination of material from Australia resulted in the description of 8 previously unrecognized species in this taxon and the transfer of Melanotrichus australianus (Carvalho, 1965) to Polyozus. Cladistic analysis of the ten species of Polyozus and seven additional, clearly related species, resulted in the hypothesis that Polyozus is a monophyletic group, with Ancoraphylus n.gen., comprising four species being its sistergroup. Another new genus, Exocarpocoris n.gen., with three species is the sistergroup of Ancoraphylus + Polyozus.

          The three species of Exocarpocoris live on the same host plant, the hemiparasite Exocarpos aphyllus, and occur sympatrically over most over their currently known distribution. Species of Ancoraphylus and Polyozus are mainly restricted to a variety of legumes, most often Acacia (Mimosoideae), but also Jacksonia (Papilionoideae) and Senna (Caesalpinioideae).

          Species of the genus Polyozus are widely distributed in Australia and P. galbanus Eyles & Schuh, 2003 – originally described from New Zealand – also occurs in New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania. Literature research on the distribution of the primary host plant of this species, Acacia dealbata, reveals that this plant is endemic to SE Australia and Tasmania and was introduced to New Zealand as an ornamental plant. The distribution of P. galbanus in New Zealand is therefore very likely due to dispersal from Australia and Tasmania, a man-made dispersal achieved by introduction of the host plant.





Weirauch, C. & G. Cassis


          Predatory Reduviidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) are often said to feed on a diverse diet of insects and other arthropods. This may be true for many species of Harpactorinae, but prey specializations are known for some Reduviidae. Members of the palaeotropical Holoptilini (Reduviidae: Holoptilinae) are known to attract and paralyze ants through secretions released from a sternal structure on the abdomen called the “trichome”. This behavior was first reported almost a century ago for the SE Asian species Ptilocerus ochraceus and corroborated by an observation made on the Australian Ptilocnemus femoralis 40 years later. No follow-up studies of this case of myrmecophagy and the striking structures involved have been carried out, and systematics of the taxon Holoptilinae is poorly understood.

          Building on our ongoing revision of the genus Ptilocnemus Westwood, we present the first, and as yet preliminary, phylogenetic analysis of Ptilocnemus and allied genera of Holoptilinae using morphological characters. Ptilocnemus, which now comprises at least 12 species, is supported as a monophyletic group, with the monotypic Smiliopus as its sister taxon. Monophyletic Holoptilini fall into two groups, an Afrotropical-Asian clade that includes Holoptilus and Ptilocerus and the Australian Ptilocnemus-Smiliopus clade.

          Our phylogenetic analysis allows us to generate a hypothesis for the evolution of trichome structures in Holoptilinae. Furthermore, SEM and histological studies reveal that glands – a potential source for ant-attracting secretions – are not restricted to the trichome in Holoptilini, but occur in some taxa on paired areas on the abdominal sternites.

          Recent field work in Australia enabled us to collect and observe Ptilocnemus lemur. We chose this species as our starting point for behavioral and ecological studies in Holoptilini. These preliminary results indicate that nymphs and adults are gregarious and live underneath the bark of Eucalyptus, that nymphs are often found close to spider webs, that tapping of the plumose hind legs on the ground is frequent in all stages, and that prey capture involves a rather complex sequence of events.





Wyniger, D.                


          Coquillettia Uhler, 1890 males are of  inconspicuously brown-ivory colour and are similar in their appearance althought their total body length ranges from 3.3 to 7.8 mm. Females on the other hand show a spectacular characteristics: they are strikingly ant-like. Not only are they myrmecomoroph, but they also show the same coloration as the ants they occur with. Up to now Coquillettia was referred to the tribe Hallodapini, but the present investigation suggests that the genus does not belong to the Hallodapini. The 23 currently recognised species of Coquilletia include seven synonyms. Among unidentified material another 25 new species are represented giving a total of 41 species.





Xie, Q., Y. Tian,  M. Li,  L.-y. Zheng & W.-j. Bu


          Phylogenetic analyses in the last decade established the relationships within Hemiptera as (Sternorrhyncha+ Euhemiptera). Currently accepted phylogeny for the suborders within Euhemiptera is (Clypeorrhyncha+ (Archaeorrhyncha+ (Coleorrhyncha Heteroptera))). This hypothesis was mainly based on hundreds-bp-long sequences or sparse sites of 18S rDNA. The idea that Clypeorrhyncha is the basal branch in Euhemiptera is not well supported. There are seven recognized infraorders in Heteroptera. Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha and Gerromorpha were previously suggested to be the most basal branches in turn, based on morphological data and/or hundreds-bp-long sequences. Sequences of 18S rDNA are much longer in Sternorrhyncha (about 2.1~2.5 kb) than in Euhemiptera (about 1.9~2.0 kb). In this study, 1.8~2.4 kb 18S rDNA, more than 90% of the complete length, was used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among the suborders of Euhemiptera and additionally 0.5 kb 28S rDNA was used to resolve the relationships among the infraorders of Heteroptera. The possible effect of length variable regions in sternorrhynchids 18S rDNA on alignment and the final result was considered. The order level phylogeny of Euhemiptera was suggested to be (Archaeorrhyncha+ (Clypeorrhyncha+ (Coleorrhyncha+ (Enicocephalomorpha+ (Dipsocoromorpha+ ((Gerromorpha+ Nepomorpha) + (Leptopodomorpha+ (Cimicomorpha+ Pentatomomorpha)))))))). The result suggested that Archaeorrhyncha is the basal branch in Euhemiptera, so Neohemiptera deserves redefinition. Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha are suggested to be sister groups. The position of Dipsocoromorpha is problematic.





Yasunaga, T. & R. K. Duwal


          The presentation is aimed to report the biodiversity of the Orthotylinae and Phylinae in Nepal, which is fostered mainly by the world's greatest elevation gap and diverse climate zones.  The faunas of these groups are found to consist of the tropical, temperate and boreal inhabiting members.

          The natural beauty of the Himalayas will be introduced as well.







Aukema B.


          The recording of Dutch Heteroptera data is coördinated by the Working Group Heteroptera of European Invertebrate Survey (EIS) - Nederland. The database is currently used for the production of annotated distribution atlasses of the Dutch fauna. The first two volumes have been produced, covering Dipsocoromorpha, Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha (part I) and Cimicimorpha except Miridae (part II). Forthcoming volumes are part III (Miridae) and Part IV and V (Pentatomomorpha). The database is also available for ecological evaluations and nature management purposes.





Bressa M. J. & A. G. Papeschi


          The nucleolar organizing region or NOR is the chromosomal site which contains the genes for ribosomal RNA and at which the nucleolus is formed. The NOR is in many cases visualized as a secondary constriction in metaphase chromosomes and plays a crucial role in the specific assembly of nucleolar material during telophase. The number of NOR’s may vary from species to species, but within a given karyotype, the number and the location of NOR’s are more or less constant. As a rule, at least one nucleolus organizing region is present per chromosome set and if it is removed, abnormal nuclear behaviour results. The NOR´s can be detected by conventional Ag staining technique and by fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific rDNA probes (FISH). Silver staining reveals those nucleolar organizing regions that have been active during the previous interphase, while FISH reveals the location of both active and inactive NORs.

          Heteroptera possess holokinetic chromosomes (chromosomes without localized centromeres and hence, primary constrictions) and secondary constrictions have rarely been reported. In recent years, standard and molecular cytogenetic approaches have contributed to the karyotype characterization of the species, but there are very few reports on NOR´s in this insect group. In the present work, the nucleolar organizing region of 13 heteropteran species belonging to Coreidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Largidae, Pentatomidae and Belostomatidae have been analyzed by FISH and different banding techniques. Our results show the presence of only one pair of NOR’s in the karyotype of the species that can be located either interstitially or at terminal positions, either in an autosomal pair or in the sex chromosomes. Furthermore, in all the species here analyzed NOR’s are associated with DAPI dull/ CMA bright bands.

          These results contribute to get a better understanding on the organization and function of the holokinetic chromosomes of Heteroptera, and to discuss the mechanisms of karyotype evolution within the group.





Brooke, S. & B. S. Nau


Our poster display will present aspects of the following:


UK Biological Records Centre, at Monk's Wood.

Diversity of national recording schemes for different species groups.

Local recording schemes:

      County Recorders: Bedfordshire example

      Local Records Centres  Bedfordshire example

National recording of Heteroptera :

      aquatic & terrestrial schemes

      Provisional Atlas for aquatics

      Het News downloadable pdf newsletter

      Web site:

      Informal newsgroup

NBN (National Biodiversity Network):

      interface between data providers & data users

      standard data specifications

      quality control

NBN Gateway:

      scalable on-line distribution maps : water bug example

      variable access rights.

NBN Species Dictionary:

      Natural History Museum's role

      checklists for recording schemes : water bug example





Chérot, F. & I. Sadowska-Woda*

**Department of Applied Biology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, Latokartanonkaari, 5, Fin-00014 Helsinki, Finland and University of Rzeszow, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ul. Cegielniana 12 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland.



          In Entomology, the male genitalias are frequently used by taxonomists. The sensory lobe of the left paramere is probably the most commonly described genital structure in the Miridae since Knight (1916). However, a large survey of the family convinced us that the term “sensory lobe” as used in literature (for example by Wagner, 1975) does not apply to the same structure in all Miridae species. More precisely the “sensory lobe” of Phylini (and some Orthotylini) is not homologous to the sensory lobe of Cylapinae, Deareocorinae, Mirinae and other subfamilies.





Chłond, D.


          The poster presents the results of the investigation of the faunistic studies of true bugs (Hemiptera; Heteroptera) in the Ojcowski National Park in Poland. The  aim of examination is the origin of species, their migration ways, Heteroptera communities and their connection with plant assemblages.

          Biodiversity of plant assemblages and many divers microhabitats on the area of the Ojcowski National Park make a contribution to a lot number of species. Other research show occurence about 5550 species of animals, but estimation number of species in the Park is about 11000.

          The Ojcowski National Park is situated on Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland in south of Poland. For many years human activity have had the most important influance on Upland fauna. Regardless plant assemblages in the Park are in very good condition. Faunistic research can prove primeval Heteropteran communities on this area.

          The open question is whether any species can survived as the relicts the last interglacial. Moreover I would like to find out the ways of migration of true bugs on the territory of the Park after the last glacial period. The studies have been carried out in various plant assemblages. I tried to established whether a particular heteropteran communities structure have formed in particular plant assemblages.

          Faunistic research in Park has conducted three seasons. Insects have been collected using entomological net, Barber’s trap, light trap and hanging trap as well as sift soil and winther traps (band on trees bark). Insect from highest trees are collected by 5 meter-long entomological net.





Gorczyca, J. & D. Chłond


          The first traces of insects in the area of Poland date back to the Carboniferous and are estimated to be 300 million years old. The oldest evidence of heteropterans comes from inclusions in Eocene Baltic amber, dated 40 million years, and includes recent families, such as Miridae, Aradidae, Microphysidae, Reduviidae and others. Naturally, those insects are no longer present in the Polish fauna, their closest relatives now inhabiting mostly the subtropical areas of the Orient.

          The recent Polish fauna is young; it has been forming throughout the past 20 thousand years, since the end of the last ice age. The area of Poland was at that time invaded by species coming from the south, south-east and south-west. The land depression between the Sudetes and the Carpathians, so called Moravian Gate, proved a very important migration passage, but there were also other significant migration routes for the fauna of the Panonian Basin, the area of the Black Sea, and other regions. Apart from the newcomers, there are also Pleistocene relics, both glacial, e.g. Phimodera lapponica (Zetterstedt),  and xerothermic, coming from warmer periods, e.g. Heterocapillus nigripes (Mulsant).

          In the times immediately following the last glacial period, Poland was invaded mostly by forest species, as about 95 % of its area was covered by forests. It was not until permanent settlements started to appear 5-2 thousand years ago that meadow and xerothermic species began to penetrate the fauna on a larger scale.

          The process of fauna formation is by no means completed and continues today. New species are coming from the south, e.g. Adelphocoris josifovi Wagner and Charagochilus weberi Wagner, whose occurrence is connected with the global warming, and ranges are fluctuating, as in the case of Horistus orientalis (Gmelin) and Brachycoleus decolor Reuter.





Goula, M., M. Baena*, M. Costas**, F. Gessé***, T. López3, P. Oromí****, S. Pagola-Carte, J. Ribes, E. Ribes & A. Vázquez

**** , **, ****


          A project on the Red Book of Spanish Invertebrates started In 2004, promoted by the CIBIO (Iberoamerican Institute of Biodiversity, University of Alicante), with the collaboration of the Spanish Association of Entomology (AeE) and the Spanish Society of Malacology (SEM). After a selection process, 144 species of Arthropoda and 84 species of Mollusca were finally included in the book.

          The authors proposed 23 species to the selection Commission. Fourteen of them were discarded due to an insufficient available information (Data Deficient category in the IUCN). The other 9 spceis were included in the Red Book, within the Vulnerable category (species facing a high risk of extinction in the wild) criterium D2 (populations with a very restricted area of occupancy or number of locations, so that it is prone to the effects of human activities or stochastic effects within a very short time period in an uncertain future, and is thus capable of becoming Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a very short time period). Four of the selected species are Iberian endemisms: the mirids (plant bugs) Leptopterna pilosa Reuter 1889, Orthotylus (Orthotylus) siuranus Wagner 1964, Orthotylus (Pachylops) blascoi  J. Ribes, 1991, and Parahypsitylus nevadensis Wagner, 1957. One species, the reduviid (assassin bug) Collartida tanausu J. Ribes, P. Oromí & E. Ribes, 1997 is endemic to the Canary Islands. The remaining four species have a very restricted distribution area, as is the case for  the mirid Solenoxyphus minor (Wagner, 1969) present only in S France and NE Spain, or their presence in Spain is especially interesting, as is the case for the reduviids Polytoxus siculus (A. Costa, 1842) and Vibertiola cinerea (Horváth, 1907), and the lygaeid (seed bug) Tropidothorax sternalis sternalis (Dallas, 1852).

          The main threat comes from the reduction or disappearance of habitat, due to increasing use of soil. In some cases, agronomic intensification leads to irrigation of dry lands or cleaning and management of river banks; in other cases, urban expansion is responsible for the disappearance of the land strip behind the beach and before mainland, or wetlands habitats. Finally, in others frequentation and alteration of habitat due to leisure activities is a real threat to the species survival. More than one threat may affect to a single species, either in the same or different localities.

          A short file and an illustration of the nine species, and a map with their known Spanish distribution is presented herein. A table summarizing the information on the 14 species not included in the Red List, and another one summarizing the main threats for the 23 species is also included.





Grazia, J., C. F. Schwertner, V. C. Matesco, J. L. C. Bernardes, A. Ferrari, F. de Mello, A. G. Cohen, B. B. R. J. Fürstenau & L. M. Weiler.


          Morphological and taxonomical studies have been focused mainly on adults of insects. Despite of the prevalence and importance of the immature insects, their characteristics remain largely unknown. The phylogenetic value of eggs and nymphs characters to the Heteroptera classification have been recognized by Spooner (1938), Leston et al. (1954), Cobben (1968, 1978), Schaefer (1975), Schuh (1979) and Henry (1997). In Pentatomoidea, immature characters are currently used for taxa diagnoses (i.e. Saini 1984, 1989, Yonke 1991, Schuh & Slater 1995, Bundy & McPherson 2000, Schwertner et al. 2002, Matesco et al. 2003, Greve at al. 2003, Bernardes et al. 2005), but few species have their eggs and nymphs described. Generally, this knowledge is limited to species of economic importance, mainly pentatomids. The study of several neotropical taxa of Pentatomoidea was done allowing the discovery of characters in scarcely known taxa, i.e. Phloeidae (Phloea subquadrata), Dinidoridae (Dinidor mactabilis) and Pentatomidae: Procleticini (Odmalea basalis). In addition, information has been achieved from other Pentatomidae species, which are distributed in Brazil (i.e. Chinavia spp., Euschistus spp., Edessa meditabunda, Grazia tincta, Loxa deducta). For the eggs, important characteristics for the early recognition of genera and/or species include: shape, chorion sculpture, presence of a true operculum and the number, position and shape of the aero-micropylar processes. For the nymphs, the placement of scent glands opening, number and placement of trichobotria, coloration pattern (specially the abdominal spots) and body shape provides relevant information. Studies concerning external egg morphology in scanning electron microscopy, nymph morphology and biology have proved to be of great importance for the finding of new characters. The use of those information, through reliable methodologies, can provide more stable classifications and a better understanding of the evolution history of Pentatomoidea.





Günther, H. & F. Köhler


          About 900 pictures of bugs in their natural environment are shown in a newly established website: Many colleagues - heteropterists as well as coleopterists contribute with their pictures to the gallery, which is growing every year with about one hundred pictures and additional species.





Hawkins, R.


(abstract not submitted)





Hoch, H., J. Deckert & A. Wessel


          The Coleorrhyncha are a Gondwanan relict insect lineage and sister-group of the Heteroptera which dates back to at least the upper Permian, more than 230 my ago.Extant Coleorrhyncha live in wet moss and leaf litter in temperate Nothofagus forests, usually at high altitudes, a habitat type which may have been prevalent on the southern continent. Their conservative morphology and habitat preferences suggest Coleorrhyncha may have retained their general behaviour as well.

          Acoustic communication either through airborne sounds or substrate borne vibrations is widespread in the Hemiptera. The mechanisms producing these signals are diverse, ranging from stridulation achieved simply by rubbing various body parts against each other to the highly sophisticated tymbal of the cicadas. Little is known, however, on the origin and evolution of acoustic communication in the largest non-holometabolous insect taxon, the Hemiptera, and the pathways of evolutionary transformation of the underlying production mechanisms.  The discovery of substrate-borne vibrations in the Australian peloridiid Hackeriella veitchi is an indication that at least for the Heteropteroidea clade (Coleorrhyncha + Heteroptera) this mode of communication is ancestral. Moreover, we hypothesize that the coleorrhynchan song might be among the first biologically meaningful signals ever produced.





Ishikawa, T.


          Assassin bugs of the genus Empicoris Wolff, 1811 are remarkable in their resemblance to certain species of mosquitoes because of their small body and slender appendages and their black and white color pattern. This genus belongs to the tribe Ploiariolini of the reduviid subfamily Emesinae, and is largest in number of species within the tribe, with about 70 species from all zoogeographical regions (cf. Maldonado Capriles 1990; Putshkov and Putshkov 1996; Putshkov et al. 1999). In spite of the many species described so far, additional undescribed species are expected from all over the world, particularly from uninvestigated areas such as countries of East and Southeast Asia. In Japan, the genus has been represented by six species: E. brachystigma (Horváth, 1914), E. minutus Usinger, 1946, E. rubromaculatus (Blackburn), E. tesselatoides Wygodzinsky et Usinger, 1960, E. toshinobui Ishikawa, 2001, and E. ussuriensis Kanyukova, 1982. Through field surveys conducted by my colleagues and me, however, twelve species of the genus were recognized in Japan. Six of these species were identical with previously known ones and the others belonged to undescribed species. Although Japan is confined in the land area and surrounded by the oceans, the Empicoris fauna may be rich compared with other areas of the world.





Kment, P. & I. Malenovský*

* Department of Entomology, Moravian Museum, Hviezdoslavova 29a, CZ-627 00 Brno, Czech Republic;


          Although the National Museum in Prague (NMPC) was founded already in 1818, a real Heteroptera collection was established much later by Dr. Ludvík Hoberlandt (1918-2005). He started to work in NMPC in 1939 as a volounteer and since 1945 he was employed as curator. At that time there were only historical collections by Duda and Nickerl. When Hoberlandt retired, NMPC held more than 200.000 true bugs from all over the world. In 1984-2005 the collection was under curatorship of V. Švihla (specialist in Coleoptera), who delegated it to P. Kment in 2005.

          Nowadays, the collection consists of ca 230.000 specimens of Heteroptera. Unfortunatelly, a catalogue of species and types is still missing. The cataloguing started in 2005; only the data on Nepomorpha and Hebridae have been available so far (282 species and subspecies, including 5 holotypes, 1 neotype, and paratypes of 29 species). Palaearctic material prevails: Czech Republic and Slovakia (however less numerous than in MMBC), Balkan Peninsula (numerous and mostly undetermined material, especially from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Croatia), Turkey (expedition material from 1947 and later additions, mostly published by Hoberlandt), Iran (expeditions from 1971, 1973, and 1977; Pentatomoidea and Coreoidea published by Hoberlandt, the rest still waiting for determination), Afghanistan (coll. Klapperich, Pentatomoidea and Coreoidea published by Hoberlandt, the rest so far unstudied), Trancaucasia, Iraq, Israel, Palestine, former Soviet Central Asia, Mongolia, and China. Afrotropical material is represented by important collections from Madagascar and Angola (especially Nepidae and Belostomatidae), supplemented with material from South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Zaire, Cameroon and some other countries. Oriental material, partly recent, originates especially from India, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. New World material is relatively scarce (Cuba, Brazil). From the systematic and comparative point of view, the families Veliidae, Gerridae, Saldidae, Aradidae and the Palaearctic Pentatomoidea and Coreoidea are well represented, while large part of Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea remains still undetermined.

          The Moravian Museum in Brno (MMBC) was founded in 1817. The insect collections expanded particularly after 1945, when Jaroslav L. Stehlík (*1923) started his work in the institution. Under his leadership (1948-1990), he and his collaborators (especially P. Lauterer and I. Vavřínová) enlarged the collections from original 287.000 to ca 1,500.000 insects, including more than 380.000 specimens of Heteroptera. Since 2001, the Heteroptera collection has been under curatorship of I. Malenovský.

          The greatest part of the MMBC Heteroptera collection is formed by determined material from the Czech Republic (Moravia) and Slovakia (ca 350.000 specimens), with large series of many species. It served as a basis for a series of Stehlík’s papers on the fauna of Moravia and Slovakia. A rich and mostly determined (except Miridae) material from the Balkan Peninsula (especially Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Croatia) and numerous and mostly undetermined material from Afghanistan (expeditions in 1963-1967) are also worthy of note. Tropical regions are covered especially by samples from Cuba, Argentina, Guinea, Botswana, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, and recently also Laos, Thailand, Nepal, India, and Indonesia. MMBC hosts a unique comparative collection of Central European Heteroptera and an important collection of world Pyrrhocoridae and Largidae, enriched by the ongoing taxonomic work of J. L. Stehlík. In total, 25 primary types and paratypes of additional 12 species of Heteroptera are currently deposited in the MMBC.


1This contribution is dedicated to L. Hoberlandt, J. L. Stehlík, and P. Lauterer. We have the honour to continue their work. Supported by grants MK00002327201 (to NMPC) and MK00009486201 (to MMBC).





Kondorosy, E.


          In subfamily Rhyparochrominae (Rhyparochromidae or Lygaeidae s. l.) one of the largest tribe is Drymini. Currently it contains 283 valid described species belonging to 54 genera. Only Myodochini and Rhyparochromini seem to be more species-rich (304/68 and 354/47 species/genera). Drymini are distributed all over the world except the Neotropical Region south of Guatemala and Pacific Islands. The Palaearctic, Ethiopian and Oriental faunas are the most diverse, with 70–90 described species in each of them. The Lygaeidae fauna of the Holarctic Region and Australia are relatively well-known and their Drymini were revised. The Ethiopian fauna was more or less recently studied by several authors, some genera were revised and many new species were described.

          Before 1900, only 9, partly Palaearctic species were known to occur in the Oriental Region. In the first half of the twentieth century, 34 further species became known to the science (due mainly to Distant and Bergroth), and 28 in the last 56 years (the most species described by Scudder and Zheng).

          Although this tribe can be easily distinguished, no genus-level revision or world-wide keys for identification of genera were available until now. Many authors have the opinion that Drymini are a difficult and diverse tribe. Some of the genera are diverse, containing many species (Appolonius, Drymus, Eremocoris, Salaciola, Scolopostethus and Stilbocoris), among them only Salaciola is fully revised (Slater, 1989). Others are distributed in more than one zoogeographical areas (Appolonius, Drymus, Eremocoris, Lemnius, Mizaldus, Scolopostethus). In some cases, the limits of the genera are not clear as well (as Brentiscerus Grossander, Eremocoris Scolopostethus or Stilbocoris Kanigara and Lemnius). Some of these genera are probably synonymic with each other (as Lemnius and Thebanus, Mizaldus and Neomizaldus, Neoentisberus and Retoka), or surely belong to other tribes (e.g., Usilanus to Rhyparochromini). Recently Pericart (1994) found that the European (!) genus Ribautocoris is synonym of Notochilus.

          There are many good distinctive characters within the tribe (as pronotal collar, lateral margin of pronotum, presence of Y-shaped ridge on scutellum, claval rows of punctures, structure of fore femora, presence of setae on mid and hind femora etc.).

          The first version of the key to the genera of Drymini has been completed but on the one hand it is still immature, and on the other hand there are lots of undescribed genera at least in the Oriental Region (Borneodrymus and Heissodrymus have been described in this year). In the collections of the Natural History Museums in London, Budapest, Vienna and Innsbruck, at least 55 undescribed species and 14 undescribed genera can be found from the Oriental Region and New Guinea. Some undescribed Ethiopian Salaciola and Stilbocoris species have also been discovered.

          A good example for our knowledge on some region is Celebes (Sulawesi), where the staff of the Royal Entomological Society made extensive collectings. In the collected materials, 12 species of Drymini have been found: 9 of them are new to the science, representing, besides the already known genera, also 3 undescribed ones.





Kuznetsova, V. G., S. Grozeva, S. Nokkala* & J.-A. N.  Sewlal**

*Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland; e-mail:

**Department of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; e-mail:


           As a part of the ongoing cytogenetic studies of the family Nabidae (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha), the first data for the tribe Arachnocorini (the Nabinae), with reference to the endemic of Trinidad, Arachnocoris trinitatus Bergroth, are provided. This is an attempt to gain a better insight into the evolution, systematics and within-family relationships of the family Nabidae.

          The Arachnocorini occur in the New World and represent a morphologically and biologically highly specialized group, with only two genera. The taxonomic position of the monotypic genus Pararachnocoris Reuter, 1908 is not conclusively established; the genus Arachnocoris Scott, 1881 includes about dozen species, all of which inhabit spider’s web nests and possess a number of distinctive morphological characters (e.g. the absence of ovipositor in females), which are due to their way of living (Kerzhner, 1981).

          Our studies were conducted using a number of up-to-date cytogenetic techniques. The data on the male karyotype (chromosome number and size; sex chromosome system; NOR location; C-heterochromatin amount, distribution and molecular characterization) and male meiosis with particular emphasis on the behavior of sex chromosomes in metaphase II are presented. Also provided are the data on male and female internal reproductive organs with special reference to the number of testicular follicles and ovarian tubes.

          We have found that A. trinitatus displays a number of characters differentiating it from all hitherto studied nabid species placed in the tribe Nabini (the Nabinae), and in the tribe Prostemmatini (the Prostemmatinae). Among these characters are chromosome number 2n = 12 (10 + XY), the lowest within the family; nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) situated on the autosomes rather than on the sex chromosomes as is the case in other nabid species; testes composed of 3 follicles but not of 7 as in other nabids. All the data obtained suggest many transformations during evolution of the tribe Arachnocorini, at least of A. trinitatus.


This study is supported (for V.G.K.) by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant No. 05-04-48387, the program of the St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences “The Divergence of Genetic Material in the Evolution of Phylogenetic Branches of Eukaryotes”, and (for S.G.) by the National Science Fund, Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, Grant B-1304.



A primary study on Chinese species of the genus Orthotylus Fieber (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae)


Liu, G.-q.


          Orthotylus Fieber is one of the largest genera among the Miridae, with approximately 300  described species worldwide(Yasunaga, 1999). Thirteen species were previously recorded from China: O. (Melanotrichus) flavosparsus, O. (M.) minutus, O. (M.) nigropilosus, O. (M.) orientalis, O. (M.) oshannini, O. (M.) parvulus, O. (M.) rubidus, O. (Orthotylus) turanicus, O. (O.) interpositus, O. (O.) riparius, O. (O. ) sophorae, O. (Pseudorthotylus) bilineatus, O. (Pinocapsus) alashanensis and O.P.sabinae. Three species, Orthotylus (M.) choiiOrthotylus (M.) fieberi and O. (O.) sophorae, are reported from China for the first time,. A checklist and distribution maps of the Chinese species are given. Seven new species from China will be described elsewhere.





Mazzucconi, S. A. & A. O. Bachmann

Laboratorio de Entomología, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428EHA Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mails:;


          A checklist for the Gerromorpha  and the Nepomorpha from Argentina is presented. For the former infraorder are listed 5 families, 24 genera and 62 described species and subspecies, and for the latter, 11 families, 27 genera, and 143 described species and subspecies. This work includes 2 new synonymies (Veliidae: Oiovelia cunucunumana Drake & Maldonado Capriles 1952 = Paravelia correntina Iglesias & Crespo 1999; Notonectidae: Notonecta disturbata Hungerford 1926 = Notonecta hungerfordi Polhemus 1993), and 19 new records (Gerridae: Cylindrostethus palmaris Drake & Harris; Veliidae: Microvelia braziliensis McKinstry, M. hambletoni Drake, M. limaiana Drake, M. venustatis Drake & Harris, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål), Rhagovelia imitatrix Bacon, R. janeira Drake, R. lucida Gould, R. novana Drake, R. paulana Drake, R. relicta Gould, R.  tenuipes Champion, R. thaumana Drake, R. trista Gould, R. zela Drake, Stridulivelia ayacucho Polhemus & Spangler; Notonectidae: Martarega bentoi Truxal, M. mcateei Jaczewski).   This catalogue provides the geographic distribution of all 205 species and subspecies included in it, based on data compiled from the literature and the new records herein reported.  


Key words: Gerromorpha. Nepomorpha. New synonymies. New records. Argentina.





Namyatova, A.


          Leptoceraea Jakovlev 1873 is a small palearctic genus currently containing following three species: L. viridis Jakovlev, 1873, L. femoralis (Horvath, 1897) and L. granulosa Hsiao, 1965. The latter species was described from NW China and so far known only from the type series. L. femoralis was synonymized with L. viridis by some authors (Kerzhner, 1964; Putshkov & Kerzhner, 1983; Putshkov, 1986), but Gollner-Scheiding (1977) justly considered L. femoralis to be a good species. The aim of this work is to clarify the distinguishing characters and distribution of L. femoralis and L. viridis. Gollner-Sheiding (1977) and Horvath (1897) noted some distinctions of these species but all of them, except the structure of the genital capsule, vary greatly and hardly could be used as diagnostic characters. In this work diagnoses for L. viridis and L. femoralis based on the structure of the male genitalia are given. Also distribution of both species in the former USSR and adjacent territories is clarified and illustrated by a map. The work is based on the study of the material kept at the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences.





Noack, A.* , G. Cassis & H. Rose*

* Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney. Australia.


          Over the past eight years a thaumastocorid bug, Thaumastocoris australicus, has had a devastating impact on many Eucalyptus species in the Sydney metropolitan area. The symptom of infestation is now so widespread it has a common name “winter bronzing”. Over this time the host range of this bug has increased but two eucalypt species, E. scoparia and E. nicholii, have been severely infested. These two trees contribute much to Sydney’s urban forest being the most commonly planted eucalypt on the city’s streets and in its gardens. Infested trees initially display a reddening of the leaves and then drop those leaves. Within the Sydney Basin local government bodies have been removing infested trees in great numbers. T. australicus has been collected in substantial numbers from street and garden eucalypts in regional centers over much of New South Wales and, more recently, has been found infesting plantation trees of E. camaldulensis in South Africa (2005). This year it has been reported from Moreno, near Buenos Aires, Argentina.

          We report our research to date on the taxonomy of the genus and of our investigation into some aspects of the biology of T. australicus.

          We have identified seven new species of Thaumastocoris and the validity of an eighth is being examined using molecular techniques. In the field, a stratified technique was employed to comprehensively survey T. australicus on three E. nicholii fortnightly over a period of one year. A range of data was collected from three levels at each aspect of each tree using a cherry picker. These data include; numbers and sex ratio of adult thaumastocorids; numbers and instars of nymphs; numbers and position on the leaves of eggs; and the presence of co-habitors and parasitoids. We also report on a current chemical control trial which has been successful in preventing the establishment of T. australicus on treated trees. 





Papáček, M. & T. Ditrich


          Literary data on voltinism of the semiaquatic bug Velia caprai are somewhat controversial. This species is recorded as univoltine or bivoltine both from the same- and from different regions of the Europe. This fact was the reason for more detailed field study of this watercricket life cycle in Central Europe (concretely in the Czech republic, South Bohemia), in the period 2001-2005. The life cycle was studied using analysis of numerous phenological data from more than fourty sites with different environmental conditions and with examination of gonads maturation in both male and female adults. The phenological expression of the life cycle of V. caprai is relatively variable in dependence not only on temperatures (altitude and latitude) and on photoperiod but also on certain type of habitat and intraspecific competition. Basically, it can be realized as univoltine or bivoltine like in some species of the Gerridae. V. caprai has the „bet hedging reproductive strategy“ in the Central Europe. Part of specimens of overwintering generation mates before overwintering in autumn, part after overwintering in the spring. The following situations were noted: (a) univoltine life cycle with short period and one maximum of nymph occurence; (b) univoltine life cycle with long period and one maximum (with a blunt peak) of nymph occurence; (c) univoltine life cycle with long period and two maxima of nymph occurence; without registration of copulation of adults during the summer (July); (d) partly bivoltine life cycle with mating of adults of early spring generation in July and two maxima of nymph occurence. We can assume that (i) the situation (a) can be caused by unfavourable conditions of habitat as well as by suppression of later young nymphs by older stages in the sites with reduced possibilities of specimen dispersion and spatial distribution; (ii) the situation (b) can be interpreted as univoltine life cycle with very long period of oviposition but it also allow the possibility of univoltine life cycle of the species with cohors splitting populations and overlapping occurence of their nymphs; (iii) the situation (c) can be explained as univoltine life cycle of the species with cohors splitting populations that differ by time of mating and oviposition; (iv) a synergic effect of te situations (c) and (d) that can lead to the „bivoltinism“ of the species, may be apparent especially in the case of field samplings of phenological data in the largest area (without step by step analysis in individual specific localities). These statements and interpretations that conclude the results of analysis of the field phenological data and anatomic examination of sampled specimens, are yet necessary to be supported by exact laboratory experiments.





Ribes, E.


          Vibertiola cinerea (Reduviidae) is a restricted eremic holomediterranean species, found in collections of dry pastures (Hyparrhenietum hirto-pubescentis).  

          The aim of the present study was to investigate the life cycle of this reduviidae under laboratory conditions. The scarcity of data on its biology stimulated this research. Vibertiola cinerea is very easy to rear in captivity, as it only needs a terrarium at room conditions, with a layer of soil and detritus, irregularly water sprinkled. Moreover, they may be early manipulated outside the terrarium since they are not aggressive.

          From 1999 to 2004, 14 females and 10 males, either from the field or born in captivity, were studied.

          Aspects related with feeding, copulas, egg hatching, eclosion of nymphs and moulting, longevity and mortality of each stage of life-cycle were described. Prey provided were Drosophila flies, butterflies caterpillars and crickets. It was evident, from the beginning of the experiments, that Vibertiola cinerea did not eat dead prey or pieces of meat. Nevertheless, cannibalism on the smallest nymphs and moulting specimens was observed . Copula proceeded without any courtship display, and males copulate with as many females as possible. The longest copula observed lasted for 48 h. 37 egg batches were obtained from end of May until June, in groups of 3-5 eggs each leaned in line. Hatching occurred after 7-15 days. The adults were present from February to November. Only nymph IV and V may overwintered. Males lived 1-4 months, and females 1-5 months. The average period from nymph I to adult was of 228+47.55 days.





Schuh, R. T., C. Weirauch &Th. J. Henry


          Heteroptera or true bugs comprise at present about 85 families. The majority of these families are rather well established and most of them can be diagnosed in an unequivocal way. The recent discovery of several specimens of a true bug, which cannot be placed in any existing species or genus, but also lacks synapomorphies of any described family of Heteroptera, came therefore as a surprise. The twelve known male specimens were collected in Florida and Louisiana, United States, using blacklight and UV light.

          Here, we describe and illustrate the morphology of this species (autapomorphic characters underlined), but also discuss it’s possible affinities within Heteroptera.

          Very small (approx. 1mm total length). Head, thorax, and cuneus of striking, ruby red coloration. Head small; labium 4-segmented; antennae 4 segmented, with third and fourth segments slightly incrassate; eyes large and in ventrolateral position; ocelli large; pronotum short and ring-like, without posterior lobe; mesothorax greatly enlarged; “Druckknopf” mesothoracic wing-coupling mechanism absent; metathoracic scent gland paired; evaporatorium not developed; mesothoracic wings with corium restricted to costal margin and cuneus; wing-to-wing coupling device present; legs slender; tarsi of all legs 2-segmented; fossula spongiosa absent; pretarsus with symmetrical, slender claws, short parempodia, ventral arolium absent, and dorsal arolium developed as peg-like dorsomedian sensillum; abdomen with segments 2 to 8 symmetrical; spiracles present on segments 2 to 8; segment 9 (pygophore) slightly asymmetrical; external genitalia in ventral position, covered by the large proctiger; external genitalia asymmetrical, consisting of eversible phallus attached to internal sclerotization and paired, asymmetrical, internal sclerites that may represent parameres.

          The absence of a ventral arolium and the presence of a corium suggest that this species belongs to the Panheteroptera, even though it lacks the wing-to-body coupling device known as “Druckknopf”. No synapomorphies are shared with Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, or Pentatomomorpha.

          Even though some of the characters thought to be diagnostic of Cimicomorpha are either missing in this species (e.g., prepedicellite) or cannot be verified due to the absence of females (e.g., spermatheca transformed into vermiform gland; arrangement of micropyles and aeropyles), we suggest that this species could belong to the Cimicomorpha. We further discuss the lack of synapomorphies with any of the described families of Cimicomorpha and propose the possibility of a new family of Heteroptera.





Schwartz, M. D.


          Two years separate the most recent generic revisions for this asteraceous inhabiting, entirely black group of North American species.  Kelton (1968) revised Slaterocoris, providing names for nine new species. Two years subsequent and based almost entirely on the morphology of the right paramere, Knight (1970) named 22 additional species.  Examination of newly acquired material from Mexico, allows for two new species. Careful analysis of the male genitalia reveals substantial variation in the phallotheca, vesica, and parameres that forced a reassessment of the species boundaries in the genus. As a result of this study, 20 nominal species of Slaterocoris are placed in synonymy and 28 species placed in five species groups are recognized.





Simov, N.


          Data about 110 species of true bugs recorded during the 5 years research of the dendrobiont fauna of 12 naturally distributed conifers in Bulgaria are presented. Sixty-five are dendrobiont species and 50 are dendrophilous or accidentally fallen on conifers. Net for dendrobiont forms, sampling by hand, modified Moericke traps, pheromone traps are used for sampling.

          Pinus nigra and Juniperus excelsa have the richest fauna. α-diversity of Heteroptera living on Abies alba and Picea abies is considerably low in comparison to Central and Northern Europe. This results support the hypothesis predicting the highest diversity of phytophagues insects into the center of the distributional range of their related host plant. However, in a difference to Central and Northern Europe some of the heteroptera species have more than one generation per year.

          The dendrobiont heteropterous fauna on the conifers in Bulgaria consist of representatives of both Mediterranean and Eurosiberian faunistic complexes (according to the concept about the origin and zoogeographical characteristics of the South European insect fauna (Josifov, 1988)). Although some of the Mediterranean dendrobiont species are of wider longitudinal distribution in Europe, in Bulgaria they have been found in the lower parts of the mountains up to 1000 – 1200 m predominantly on conifers with Mediterranean range. On Pinus nigra, Juniperus excelsa and Juniperus oxycedrus they predominate within the composition of the dendrobiont fauna of true bugs. The Eurosiberian species predominantly inhabit Boreo-Montane conifers and are distributed in the higher parts of the Bulgarian mountains. Rarely some of them could be found below 1000 m.


This study is partly supported by National Science Fund, Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, Grants B-1304, B-MU-1106.





Strauß, G. [presented by H. Günther]


          In this fotogallery the author presents pictures of bugs by using the technic of the ‘combine-program’,

which allows to show all planes of the objects sharp in the same manner. In addition, ventral parts of the specimens as well as the male genital structures are represented if necessary for identification. More than thousand species are figured in the lastest version.





Tsai, J.-F., M.-M. Yang & C.-T. Yang


          The family Dinidoridae comprises 98 nominal species in 16 genera. Forty five species of 13 dinidorid genera were examined. Specimens of the other three dinidorid genera, Byrsodepsus Stål, Sagriva Spinola, and Doesbergiana Durai were unavailable. After carefully examining the external male genitalia of Dinidoridae, we found that they displayed a closely continuation of transformation series on ejaculatory reservoir and reservoir lumen among 13 genera. There are six forms of ejaculatory reservoir: 1) simple twisted tube-shape (represent in Coridiellus figlinus); 2) twisted tube-shape with prolongation, coiling into a large global structure (represent in Coridius ianus, Colporidius aeneus); 3) straight tube (represent in Folengus papuensis, Pantanonema ovata and Thalma biguttata); 4) twisted tube-shape, with terminal portion expanded and reflected ventrally (represent in Amberiana montana, Colpoproctus pulus and Dinidor impicticollis, Megymenum dentatum); 5) two-cell shape (represent in Cyclopelta obscura); 6) two-cell shape, caudal cell rather small (represent in Eumenotes obscura and Urasa crassa). By comparing the above forms of ejaculatory reservoir, we considered the simple twisted tube-shape in C. figlinus as hypothetically ground plan where it begins to differentiate in the subsequent 12 dinidorid genera. Other pentatomoid taxa were also examined. Among them, we found the position of ejaculatory duct connected to the reservoir lumen in Tessaratomidae, Scutelleridae and Cydnidae is the same way as that of C. figlinus (i.e. near the middle of aedeagus), and share the special similarity in reservoir lumen (i.e. separated into two lumina). However, other pentatomoid species in Acanthosomatidae, Pentatomidae, Plataspidae and Urostylidae do not share the same features, which has reduction of ventrobasal lumen and ejaculatory duct retracts backward to the ejaculatory reservoir. The results suggest that Tessaratomidae, Scutelleridae, Cydnidae and Dinidoridae could be considered as a family group.





Vázquez, M. Á., E. López-Sebastián*, J. Selfa* & M. Costas**

*Universitat de València, Facultat de Biologia, Departament de Zoologia, Laboratori d'Entomologia, Campus de Burjassot-Paterna, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot (València). 46100 SPAIN. E-mail:

**Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Biología, Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física, José Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid. SPAIN. E-mail:


          The observation during five years in the laboratory (Lab. Entomology, University of Valencia) and within pine groves from the Valencian Community has allowed to determine the action of different predaceous insects on eggs of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Dennis et Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

          Among other insects we have detected an Heteroptera, the Iberian endemism Holcogaster weberi Wagner, 1964 (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), as a sporadic oofagous of Th. pityocampa.

          Most of the bugs of this family are phytophagous and usually prefer immature fruits and seeds. Only the members belonging to the subfamily Asopinae clearly predate on larvae of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera; even due to the slowness of its movements, Dolling (1991) denominates them “timid predators”.

          It is the first time that this predatory behaviour on eggs of Lepidoptera is confirmed in pentatomid species. This fact takes relevance because the pine processionary moth is one of the main plagues affecting both natural and afforested pine woodlands in Spain.

          This predatory activity began just after the aestival moth oviposition, it particularly happens on sunset and it lengths almost a month.

          Likewise, some data about the biology, characteristics of the stink bug oviposition, phenology and a teratology on pronotum and wings, are given.

          Images of eggs, adult and nymph of H. weberi are included as well as graphs showing the flight dynamics of Th. pityocampa and the activity of H. weberi.





Yamada, K. & T. Hirowatari


          The tribe Dufouriellini is morphologically diverse group within the family Anthocoridae and includes about eight or more genera and 100 species distributed in the world, primarily in the tropical and subtropical areas. The species of Dufouriellini are predaceous in nymphal and adult stages, and live in a wide variety of habitats. Many are found on dead leaf clusters of tree, harvest stems, and under bark of dead tree. Their preys are usually small insects, such as thrips, psocids, psyllids, springtails, bark beetles, and so on. This tribe is characteristic in having the comparatively short rostrum, the absence of hamus on hind wing, the fossula spongiosa in male being absent or greatly reduced, and the ovipositor being greatly reduced.

          In Japan a taxonomic study of Anthocoridae, mainly on the tribe Orini species, has been made progress by Yasunaga (1997a, b, c) and Yasunaga (2000). However, the other tribes, especially Dufouriellini, have never been reviewed since Hiura (1966) treated five Japanese and Taiwanese anthocorid species.

          Among the Japanese Dufouriellini, Cardiastethus obscuriceps Poppius, 1909 (currently Amphiareus obscuriceps) was the first to be recorded (Hasegawa, 1954). Subsequently, four species, Physopleurella armata Poppius, 1909, Cardiastethus pygmaeus Poppius, 1914 (currently C. exiguus Poppius, 1913), Cardiastethus macilentus Hiura, 1958 [currently A. constrictus (Stål, 1860)], and C. morimotoi Hiura, 1958 (currently A. morimotoi) were added to the fauna by Miyamoto (1957) and Hiura (1958, 1960). However 8 additional species have been found during our recent continuous investigations.

          In the present study the Japanese species of Dufouriellini were revised. Thirteen species are recognized, 3 of which are described as new species and 2 of which are reported as new to the Japanese fauna by Yamada & Hirowatari (2002, 2003, 2005). In addition one further species belonging to the genus Brachysteles has been discovered from the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Biology and distribution are briefly discussed for each species.