#### 211 Topics Detail

**Introduction**[typically includes: definition of physics; scientific notation & significant figures; units, SI system, & unit conversions; vectors]**Motion, Forces, and Newton’s Laws**[typically includes: position, displacement, speed, velocity, & acceleration; inertia & Galileo’s experiments; net force & Newton’s first law; mass & Newton’s second law; force pairs & Newton’s third law]**Forces and Motion in One Dimension**[typically includes: motion with constant acceleration, gravitational force (weight) & normal force; drawing free-body diagrams; friction: kinetic & static; free-fall motion; tension forces: cables, strings, & pulleys; drag forces & terminal speed; bacterial motion]**Forces and Motion in Two and Three Dimensions**[typically includes: translational equilibrium; projectile motion; reference frames & relative motion; applying Newton’s laws]**Circular Motion and Gravitation**[typically includes: uniform circular motion: period, centripetal acceleration, & centripetal forces; nonuniform circular motion; Newton’s law of gravity; Kepler’s laws]**Work and Energy**[typically includes: definition of work; kinetic energy & work-kinetic energy theorem; potential energy, gravitational potential energy, conservative & nonconservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy; spring force, Hooke’s law, & elastic potential energy; work done by friction & thermal energy; conservation of energy; power]**Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions**[typically includes: linear momentum (particle vs. system); impulse & impulse-momentum theorem; conservation of linear momentum; collisions: inelastic & elastic; center of mass & motion of the center of mass]**Rotational Motion**[typically includes: angular position, angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, & period; motion with constant angular acceleration; relation between linear & angular variables; torque & Newton’s second law for rotation; moment of inertia (system of particles vs. extended object) & center of gravity; rotational equilibrium & statics; rotational dynamics & massive pulleys; smooth rolling motion]**Energy and Momentum of Rotational Motion**[typically includes: kinetic energy of rotation & kinetic energy of rolling; work-energy theorem for rotation; conservation of energy & rolling; angular momentum (particle vs. extended object); conservation of angular momentum]**Fluids**[typically includes: pressure, atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, & density; variation of pressure with depth; Pascal’s principle & hydraulics; buoyancy, Archimedes’s principle, apparent weight & floating; fluid dynamics: equation of continuity & Bernoulli’s equation; real fluids]**Harmonic Motion and Elasticity**[typically includes: simple harmonic motion: period, frequency, amplitude, velocity, &acceleration; relation between simple harmonic motion & uniform circular motion; Hooke’s law, relation between frequency, spring constant, & mass; simple pendulum & torsional pendulum; conservation of energy in simple harmonic motion; stress & strain: tension/compression, shearing stress, volume stress]**Waves**[typically includes: transverse vs. longitudinal waves; wave function: wavelength, frequency, period, & amplitude; speed of waves on a string; wave intensity; superposition & interference; reflection (at a boundary); standing waves on a string]**Sound**[optional, but typically includes: description of a sound wave & speed of sound; pressure amplitude, intensity, & decibel scale; Doppler effect]**Temperature and Heat**[typically includes: system vs. surroundings; distinction between temperature, thermal energy, heat, & internal energy; direction of heat flow, thermal equilibrium, & zeroth law of thermodynamics; temperature scales, gas thermometer & absolute zero; phases of matter & phase changes; specific heats, latent heats, & calorimetry; thermal expansion; heat flow: conduction, convection, & radiation]**Gases and Kinetic Theory**[optional, but typically includes: Avogadro’s number & moles; ideal gases: empirical gas laws & ideal gas law; relating temperature to average molecular speed; relating translational kinetic energy & internal energy to temperature; specific heats of ideal gases]**Thermodynamics**[typically includes: first law of thermodynamics & relation to conservation of energy; pV work & pV diagrams; thermodynamic processes: isobaric, isothermal, isochoric, adiabatic, & cyclic; second law of thermodynamics: reversible vs. irreversible processes, spontaneous processes, & direction of heat flow; heat engines, efficiency, & Carnot engine; refrigerators, coefficient of performance, & Carnot refrigerator; entropy]