#### 251 Topics Detail

**Measurement**[typically includes: definition of physics; SI system, units, & unit conversions; significant figures]**One-Dimensional Motion**[typically includes: displacement, speed, velocity, & acceleration; motion with constant acceleration & free-fall]**Vectors**[typically includes: vector vs. scalar quantities; addition & subtraction; components; unit vector notation; vector multiplication (dot & cross products)]**Multidimensional Motion**[typically includes: position, displacement, velocity, & acceleration as vectors; projectile motion; uniform circular motion, centripetal acceleration, & period; relative motion]**Newton’s Laws of Motion**[typically includes: forces, inertia, Newton’s first law, & translational equilibrium; superposition of forces & net force; inertial reference frames; Newton’s second law; distinction between mass & weight; drawing free-body diagrams & identifying forces; Newton’s third law & force pairs; applying Newton’s laws]**Applications of Newton’s Laws**[typically includes: friction (static & kinetic); drag forces & terminal speed; centripetal forces]**Work & Kinetic Energy**[typically includes: definitions of energy & work; work as a dot product; kinetic energy & work-kinetic energy theorem; work done by gravity; work done by a variable force; spring force, Hooke’s law, & work done by the spring force; power & power as a dot product]**Potential Energy & Conservation of Energy**[typically includes: definition of potential energy, relation to work, conservative & nonconservative forces; gravitational & elastic potential energy; conservation of mechanical energy; interpreting a potential energy curve (relation between potential energy & force, equilibrium & turning points); work done by external forces, work done by friction, & thermal energy; conservation of energy for isolated systems; power as the rate of energy change]**Center of Mass & Linear Momentum**[typically includes: determining the center of mass (system of particles vs. extended body); motion of the center of mass & Newton’s second law for a system of particles; linear momentum (particle vs. system) & Newton’s second law in terms of momentum; impulse & impulse-momentum theorem; conservation of linear momentum; collisions: inelastic & elastic]**Rotation & Torque**[typically includes: angular position, angular displacement, angular velocity, & angular acceleration; rotation with constant angular acceleration; relations between linear and angular variables; kinetic energy of rotation; moment of inertia (system of particles, extended body, & parallel-axis theorem); torque, torque as a cross product, & right-hand rule; Newton’s second law for rotation; work done by torque, work-kinetic energy theorem for rotation, & power due to torque]**Rolling & Angular Momentum**[typically includes: smooth rolling motion (translation + rotation, kinetic energy, & forces/torques involved); angular momentum (particle, cross product, & system or extended body about a fixed axis); Newton’s second law in angular form; conservation of angular momentum]**Equilibrium & Elasticity**[typically includes: stable vs. unstable equilibrium; static equilibrium calculations; stress & strain]**Gravitation**[typically includes: Newton’s law of gravity; gravity near Earth’s surface; generalized gravitational potential energy & escape speed; Kepler’s laws]**Fluids***[typically includes: density & pressure; pressure vs. depth; measuring pressure; Pascal’s principle & hydraulics; Archimedes’ principle, buoyant force, & floating; ideal vs. real fluids; equation of continuity; Bernoulli’s equation]**Periodic Motion**[typically includes: Hooke’s law & simple harmonic motion (period, frequency, amplitude, angular frequency, phase constant, velocity, acceleration, & conservation of energy); pendulums; relation between simple harmonic motion & uniform circular motion; damped simple harmonic motion; driven oscillations & resonance]**Temperature, Matter, & Heat**[typically includes: distinction between temperature, thermal energy, internal energy, & heat; thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, & direction of heat flow; temperature scales, gas thermometer, & absolute zero; thermal expansion; phases of matter & phase changes; specific heats, latent heats, & calorimetry; heat transfer mechanisms]**Ideal Gases & the First Law of Thermodynamics**[typically includes: ideal gases (empirical gas laws & ideal gas law); pV work & pV diagrams; work & heat in ideal gas processes (isochoric, isobaric, isothermal, & adiabatic); first law of thermodynamics & relation to conservation of energy; internal energy as a state function]**Kinetic Theory of Gases**[typically includes: relating pressure to molecular collisions; relating temperature to rms speed; relating translational kinetic energy to temperature; molar specific heats of monatomic & diatomic gases]**Entropy, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, & Heat Engines**[typically includes: second law of thermodynamics; cyclic processes; heat engines, efficiency, & Carnot engine; optional: entropy, irreversible vs. reversible processes, refrigerators, third law of thermodynamics]

*** **indicates optional chapter or topic.