#### 252 Topics Detail

**Electric Charge**[typically includes: charge, electric force, conductors vs. insulators, & polarization; subatomic nature of charge; Coulomb’s law; quantization & conservation of charge]**Electric Fields**[typically includes: definition & electric field lines; electric fields of point charges, dipoles, & extended objects; acceleration of a point charge in an electric field; dipole in an electric field (torque & potential energy)]**Gauss’ Law**[typically includes: electric flux & Gaussian surfaces; Gauss’ law, utilizing symmetry to determine electric fields (e.g., line of charge, sheet of charge, uniform sphere, & spherical shell); conductors (inside & outside)]**Electric Potential**[typically includes: work & electric potential energy; electric potential & voltage; equipotential surfaces; relation between potential & field; potential due to point charges, dipoles, & continuous charge distributions; potential of an isolated conductor; electric potential energy of a system of point charges & conservation of energy]**Capacitance**[typically includes: definition & charging a capacitor; determining capacitance (e.g., parallel plate, cylindrical); capacitors in parallel & series; energy stored in electric field & electric energy density; dielectrics]**Current & Resistance**[typically includes: definition of current; current density & drift speed; definitions of resistance, resistivity, & conductivity; relation between resistance & resistivity; Ohm’s law; power in electric circuits]**DC Circuits**[typically includes: batteries & emf; Kirchhoff’s rules, single & multiloop circuits; real batteries, internal resistance, & grounding; RC circuits (charging & discharging)]**Magnetic Fields**[typically includes: sources of magnetic fields; magnetic force on a charged particle, cross product, & right-hand rule; magnetic field lines; circular motion in a magnetic field; crossed fields & the Hall effect; magnetic force on a current-carrying wire (torque on a current loop, electric motors, magnetic dipole moment, & magnetic potential energy)]**Magnetic Fields Due to Currents**[typically includes: direction of magnetic fields due to currents (right-hand rule); Biot-Savart law (e.g., infinite straight wire, circular arc of wire, axis of wire loop); force between parallel currents; Ampere’s law (e.g., solenoids, toroids)]**Induction & Inductance**[typically includes: Faraday’s law & magnetic flux; Lenz’s law; power & electric generators; induced electric fields; inductors & inductance (solenoids); energy stored in magnetic field & magnetic energy density; RL circuits (rise & decay of current)]**Electromagnetic Oscillations & AC Circuits**[typically includes: LC oscillator, electrical-mechanical analogy, & natural angular frequency; undriven series RLC circuit & damping; alternating current & emf supplied by a generator, driving angular frequency; driven oscillations in a resistor, capacitor, & inductor (reactance, phasor diagrams, power, & rms values); driven series RLC circuit (impedance, current amplitude, phase constant, resonance, & average power)]**Maxwell’s Equations & Magnetism in Matter**[typically includes: Gauss’ law for magnetism; induced magnetic fields, Maxwell’s law of induction, Ampere-Maxwell law, & displacement current; summary of Maxwell’s equations; qualitative description of permanent magnets & geomagnetism]**Waves**[typically includes: transverse vs. longitudinal waves; wave function properties (wavelength, angular wave number, frequency, angular frequency, period, amplitude, phase constant, transverse velocity & acceleration); relation between wave speed, wavelength, & frequency; wave speed on a string; energy & power associated with a wave on a string; superposition, interference, & phase difference; reflections at boundaries; standing waves on a string & resonance]**Sound Waves***[typically includes: speed of sound; displacement & pressure amplitudes; two-source interference & relation to path-length difference; intensity & decibel scale; standing waves & musical sounds; beats; Doppler effect; supersonic speeds & shock waves]**Electromagnetic Waves**[typically includes: production & description of EM waves; right-hand rule for E, B, and v; electromagnetic spectrum & relation between wavelength & frequency; energy transport, Poynting vector, intensity, & relation between electric & magnetic energy densities; radiation momentum, force, & pressure; reflection; refraction, index of refraction, & Snell’s law; dependence of wavelength & speed on index of refraction; Huygens’ principle; dispersion; total internal reflection; polarization]**Geometrical Optics**[typically includes: real vs. virtual images & mirages; plane mirrors; spherical mirrors; spherical refracting surfaces; thin lenses & multi-lens systems; optical instruments]**Interference**[typically includes: phase difference due to materials with differing indices of refraction; phase difference due to path-length difference; double-slit interference (fringe locations & variation of intensity); thin-film interference & phase-shift due to reflection]**Diffraction**[typically includes: definition of diffraction; single-slit diffraction (locating the minima); diffraction by a circular aperture & resolvability]**Special Relativity***[typically includes: Einstein’s postulates; relativity of simultaneity; time dilation; length contraction; Lorentz transformation; relativity of velocities; Doppler effect for light; relativistic momentum & energy; mass-energy equivalence]

*** **indicates optional chapter or topic.