#### 212 Topics Detail

**Electric Forces and Fields**[typically includes: electric charge & Coulomb's law; electric field; electric flux & Gauss's law; superposition principle & conservation of charge; conductors & insulators; source & quantization of charge; polarization]**Electric Potential**[typically includes: electric potential energy & work; electric potential (voltage) & relation to electric field; capacitors, parallel plate capacitor, & capacitors in series and parallel; energy stored in electric field; equipotential surfaces & metals; dielectrics]**Electric Currents and Circuits**[typically includes: electric current & Ohmic resistance; DC circuits, batteries, &Kirchhoff's rules; circuit analysis for DC circuits with resistors & capacitors; charging & discharging a capacitor]**Magnetic Fields and Forces**[typically includes: permanent magnets and forces involving permanent magnets; magnetic fields; magnetic force on moving charge and current; torque on current loops; Ampere's law; magnetic materials]**Magnetic Induction**[typically includes: magnetic flux & Faraday's law; Lenz's law; inductance & solenoids; RL circuits; energy stored in magnetic field; applications: generators, etc.]**Alternating-Current Circuits and Machines**[typically includes: AC voltages, root-mean-square values, & phasors; analysis of AC circuits: resistor, capacitor, inductor, LC, & RLC; impedance; resonance]**Electromagnetic Waves**[typically includes: qualitative description, speed of light, production & propagation; properties: energy, momentum, radiation pressure, & intensity; electromagnetic spectrum; polarization; Doppler effect]**Geometrical Optics**[typically includes: rays & the law of reflection; refraction: Snell's law; total internal reflection; dispersion; mirrors and lenses: ray tracing & mirror/lens equation]**Wave Optics**[typically includes: coherence conditions & phase changes upon reflection; thin-film interference; single- & double-slit interference; resolution (Rayleigh criterion)]**Applications of Optics**[typically includes: eyeglasses; magnifying glasses; microscopes & telescopes]**Relativity**[typically includes: Einstein’s postulates; time dilation, length contraction, & twin paradox; simultaneity; relativistic energy, momentum, & mass; introduction to general relativity & black holes]**Quantum Theory**[typically includes: blackbody radiation & Planck's quantization hypothesis; photoelectric effect; particle-wave dualism, de Broglie wavelength, & double-slit experiment; spin; Heisenberg uncertainty principle; wave function & tunneling]**Atomic Theory**[typically includes: planetary models of the atom; atomic spectra; Bohr's model of the atom; x-ray generation; hydrogen atom; Pauli exclusion principle & multi-electron atoms; periodic table]**Nuclear Physics**[typically includes: structure of the nucleus, isotopes, & nuclear forces; radioactive decay, half-life, & radioactive dating; nuclear reactions: fusion and fission]**Physics in the 21st Century**[optional, but typically includes: matter & antimatter; elementary particle physics & unification of the fundamental forces; astrophysics & the universe (Big Bang, dark matter, & dark energy)]