A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and

Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada

    This checklist consists of cumulative updates to the most recently published North American checklist by Esslinger and Egan (1995). The style and conventions for listings used there are also generally followed here. As in the published checklist, under each genus the accepted names are given first and are in boldface. Names considered to be synonyms are given in normal font only. Significant changes made since the previous online version are given in blue font. As before, the following symbols are used to indicate the lichenicolous fungi and other allied fungi:

* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi
# = various fungi of uncertain status: i.e., those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens.

    This list is updated at semi-regular intervals, usually about once each year, as changes accumulate in the literature. My purpose for putting this checklist on-line is twofold. First, to provide users of the checklist with the most current updates and changes, and second, to provide the opportunity for (indeed, to invite) comments and suggested corrections from all users and readers. I would appreciate being informed of any oversights or omissions, and although not all taxonomic or nomenclatural differences of opinion will be easily or immediately settled, any matters regarding such opinions that users would like to share will be welcomed and taken under consideration. Additions or changes appearing in this on-line version of the checklist represent reports in the literature, and their presence here does not necessarily imply acceptance, tacit or otherwise, by the author.

    In addition, it would be very helpful if authors of publications containing additions to the North American lichen biota, or other taxonomic and nomenclatural changes that impact it, would provide me with copies.

Please send comments and publications to:

Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger
Department of Biological Sciences
#2715, P.O. Box 6050
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050
E-mail: Ted.Esslinger@ndsu.edu

Suggested Citation: Esslinger, T. L.  2008.  A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming,
lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota
State University: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm (First
Posted 1 December 1997, Most Recent Version (#14) 8 October 2008), Fargo, North Dakota.

Previous versions of this on-line checklist are archived and available by clicking on the following:

Version #1 (First Posted 1 December 1997)
Version #2 (First Posted 17 February 1998)
Version #3 (First Posted 22 June 1998)
Version #4 (First Posted 19 July 1999)
Version #5 (First Posted 15 May 2000)
Version #6 (First Posted 26 February 2001)
Version #7 (First Posted 27 August 2001)
Version #8 (First Posted 17 July 2002)
Version #9 (First Posted 2 March 2004)
Version #10 (First Posted 14 June 2005)
Version #11 (First Posted 10 April 2006)
Version #12 (First Posted 2 April 2007)
Version #13 (First Posted 18 January 2008)

Suggestions For Use: This web site consists of one large file (ca. 1 MB), and, depending upon your type of connection to the internet, it will take anywhere from a few seconds to a minute or two to load onto your computer. Once loaded, use of the main letter menu below and the similar menus provided throughout the document will allow efficient navigation within the document using most web browser software. Use of the "Back" function provided by most browsers also usually works fine, but sometimes causes problems, at least until the internal hyperlinks have been used the first time.

The genera are listed in alphabetical order, as are the species lists within each genus.  Click on the following letters to advance to the genera beginning with that letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited


ABROTHALLUS De Not.
*bertianus De Not.
*bryoriarum Hafellner
*caerulescens Kotte (Diederich 2003)
*cetrariae Kotte (Goward et al. 1996)
*cladoniae R. Sant. & D. Hawksw.
*hypotrachynae Etayo & Diederich (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
*microspermus Tul. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold
*peyritschii (Stein) Kotte
*pezizicola Diederich & R. C. Harris (Diederich 2003)
*prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner
*suecicus (Kirschst.) Nordin (Diederich 2003)
*tulasnei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) Possible synonym of A. caerulescens? (Diederich 2003)
*usneae Rabenh. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*welwitschii Tul.
*oxysporus Tul. = Phacopsis oxyspora
*usneae auct. non Rabenh. = Lichenostigma maureri

ABSCONDITELLA Vězda
lignicola Vězda & Pisut (Nash et al. 1998)
sphagnorum Vězda & Poelt
trivialis (Willey ex Tuck.) Vězda

ACANTHOTHECIS Clem.
abaphoides (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb Syn.: Graphina abaphoides (Staiger & Kalb 1999)
aurantiaca (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb  Syns.: Graphina intertexta, Graphis intertexta (Staiger 2002)
gracilis Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999)
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb = A. aurantiaca


ACAROCONIUM Kocourk. & D. Hawksw.  (Kocourkova & Hawksworth 2008)
*punctiforme Kocourk. & D. Hawksw. (Kocourkova & Hawksworth 2008)


ACAROSPORA A. Massal.
aeruginosa Hasse
affinis K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
amphibola Wedd.
arenacea H. Magn.
asahinae H. Magn.
asperata H. Magn.
badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
brattiae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
brouardii B. de Lesd. (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a)
bullata
Anzi
caesiofusca (Müll. Arg.) H. Magn.
calcarea K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
cervina A. Massal.
chrysops (Tuck.) H. Magn.  (Knudsen et al. 2008a)
citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr.
clauzadeana (Llimona) Casares & Hafellner  Syn.: Biatorella clauzadeana
coloradiana H. Magn.
complanata H. Magn.
contigua H. Magn. (Brodo et al. 2001, Knudsen 2007a)
desolata H. Magn.
dispersa H. Magn.
elevata H. Magn.
epilutescens Zahlbr. (Knudsen 2005a)
erythrophora H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
fuscata (Schrader) Arnold
fuscescens H. Magn.
gallica H. Magn.
glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körber
hassei Herre (Knudsen 2007a)
heufleriana Körber
hilaris (Dufour) Hue
impressula Th. Fr.
instrata H. Magn.
interjecta H. Magn.
interspersa H. Magn.
macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl.
molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevisan
nevadensis H. Magn.
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. nodulosa
novomexicana H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
obnubila
H. Magn.
obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Lecanora obpallens
oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold
oreophila K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
peliscypha Th. Fr.
pyrenopsoides H. Magn.
rhabarbarina Hue (Knudsen et al. 2008a)

robiniae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
rouxii K. Knudsen, Elix & Reeb (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a))
rugulosa
Körber
saepincola H. Magn.
scabrida Hedl. ex H. Magn.
schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.
scotica Hue
sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körber
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal.
smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harm. ex A.L. Smith) H. Magn. (Knudsen 2004a)
socialis H. Magn.
sparsa H. Magn.
stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
succedens H. Magn.
terricola H. Magn.
thamnina (Tuck.) Herre
thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Lecanora thelococcoides, L. pleiospora
tongleti Hue
veronensis A. Massal.
albida H. Magn. = A. epilutescens
albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. = A. elevata  (Knudsen 2007a)
amabilis H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
americana H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
applanata H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
arenosa Herre = Sarcogyne arenosa

bella (Nyl.) Jatta = A. rhabarbarina (Knudsen et al. 2008a)
boulderensis H. Magn. = A. badiofusca
californica Zahlbr. = A. badiofusca (Knudsen 2007a)
carnegiei Zahlbr. = A. obpallens  (Knudsen 2005b)
cartilaginea H. Magn. = A. fuscata
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
cineracea (Nyl.) Wedd. = misidentifications for North America
cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
contigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
dissipata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
epilutescens Zahlbr. = A. schleicheri
evoluta H. Magn. =
A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
flava (Bellardi) Ach. = Pleopsidium flavum
geogena H. Magn. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
geophila H. Magn. = A. geogena
glebosa (Flotow) Körber = A. oligospora
heppii (Nägeli ex Hepp) Nägeli ex Körber = Myriospora heppii
immersa Fink = Myriospora immersa
incertula H. Magn. = A. novomexicana (Knudsen 2007a)
intercedens H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
interposita H. Magn. = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Polysporina lapponica
montana H. Magn. = A. rugulosa
nigromarginata B. de Lesd. = A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
nitida H. Magn. = A. elevata for North American records (Knudsen 2007a)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens Zahlbr. = A. reagens
novomexicana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
obscura H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
ocellata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium flavum
particularis H. Magn. = A. hassei (Knudsen 2007a)
peltastica Zahlbr. = A. strigata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
peltata Hasse = A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
pleiospora (Nyl.) Hasse. = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
radicata H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
reagens Zahlbr. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
rimulosa H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
rubicunda H. Magn.
= A. heufleriana (Knudsen 2007a)
rufescens (Ach.) Bausch = A. smaragdula
saxicola Fink = Glypholecia scabra
scabra (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra
squamulosa (Schrader) Trevisan = A. macrospora (Knudsen 2007a)
squamulosa sensu Th. Fr. = A. macrospora
stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue = Lecanora stenospora
subalbida H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
subcontigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
subfuscescens (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Polysporina lapponica
subrufula (Nyl.) H. Olivier  (McCune et al. 1997)  Report based on a specimen of A. smaragdula (Knudsen 2007b)
superfusa H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
tenebrica H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)

texana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
thermophila Herre = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
tucsonensis H. Magn. = A. obpallens (Knudsen 2007a)
utahensis H. Magn. = A. strigata  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)

variegata H. Magn. = A. tongleti
washingtonensis H. Magn. = A. elevata (Knudsen 2007a)
weldensis H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta = misidentifications for North America (Knudsen 2008a)

ACROCORDIA A. Massal.
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia cavata
conoidea (Fr.) Körber Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. Syns.: Arthopyrenia gemmata, A. alba, A. sphaeroides
megalospora (Fink) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia macrospora, A. finkii, Pyrenula megalospora

ACROSCYPHUS Lév.
sphaerophoroides Lév.

ACTINOGYRA Schol. = UMBILICARIA
muehlenbergii (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
polyrrhiza (L.) Schol. = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza

ADELOCOCCUS Theissen & Sydow
*alpestris (Zopf) Theissen & Sydow

ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
kolaensis (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea conferenda
pilati (Hepp) Hertel & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea pilati, L. lyngeana, L. subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd.
sonorae Hertel  (Hertel 2004)

AGONIMIA Zahlbr.
allobata (Stizenb.) P. James (Fryday 2001)
gelatinosa (Ach.) Brand & Diederich Syn.: Polyblastia gelatinosa (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda (Lendemer 2004c)
tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Polyblastia tristicula

AGRESTIA J. W. Thomson = ASPICILIA
cyphellata J. W. Thomson = Aspicilia hispida
hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & Culb. = Aspicilia hispida

AGYRIUM Fr.
+rufum (Pers.) Fr.

AGYROPHORA (Nyl.) Nyl. = UMBILICARIA
leiocarpa (DC.) Gyelnik = Umbilicaria leiocarpa
lyngei (Schol.) Llano = Umbilicaria lyngei
rigida (Du Rietz) Llano = Umbilicaria rigida
scholanderi Llano = Umbilicaria scholanderi

AHLESIA Fuckel = THELOCARPON
sphaerospora (H. Magn.) G. Salisb. = Thelocarpon sphaerosporum

AHTIANA Goward
aurescens (Tuck.) Thell & Randlane Syn.: Cetraria aurescens (Thell et al. 1995)
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & Thell Syn.: Cetraria pallidula (Thell et al. 1995)
sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward Syn.: Parmelia sphaerosporella

ALECTORIA Ach.
fallacina Motyka
imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw.
lata (Taylor) Lindsay
nigricans (Ach.) Nyl.
ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. subsp. sarmentosa
sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw.
vancouverensis (Gyelnik) Gyelnik ex Brodo & D. Hawksw.
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) R. Howe = Nodobryoria abbreviata
achariana Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
altaica (Gyelnik) Räsänen = Bryoria nadvornikiana
ambigua Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. americana
americana Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. americana
bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Bryoria bicolor
boryana Delise = A. nigricans
californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
capillaris (Ach.) Crombie = Bryoria capillaris
cervinula Motyka = Bryoria cervinula
cetrariza Nyl. = Kaernefeltia californica
chalybeiformis (L.) Gray = Bryoria chalybeiformis
corneliae Gyelnik = Bryoria fremontii
delicata Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
divergens (Ach.) Nyl. = Bryocaulon divergens
fremontii Tuck. = Bryoria fremontii
fuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
glabra Motyka = Bryoria glabra
haynaldii Gyelnik = misidentifications for North America
implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Bryoria implexa
irvingii Llano = Bryoria nitidula
lanea auct. non (Hoffm.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
lanestris (Ach.) Gyelnik = Bryoria lanestris
luteola Mont. = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. = Pseudephebe minuscula
nadvornikiana Gyelnik = Bryoria nadvornikiana
nana Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria simplicior
nidulifera Norrlin = Bryoria furcellata
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
norstictica Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
oregana Tuck. = Nodobryoria oregana
positiva (Gyelnik) Motyka = Bryoria fuscescens
pseudofuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
pubescens (L.) R. Howe = Pseudephebe pubescens
setacea (Ach.) Motyka = Bryoria capillaris for North American records
simplicior (Vainio) Lynge = Bryoria simplicior
stigmata Bystrek = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Gyelnik = Bryoria subcana
subdivergens E. Dahl = Nodobryoria subdivergens
subsarmentosa Stirton = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
subtilis Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
tenerrima Motyka = Bryoria fremontii
tenuis E. Dahl = Bryoria tenuis
thrausta Ach. = Ramalina thrausta
tortuosa G. Merr. = Bryoria tortuosa
vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb. = A. sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera
virens auct. = Bryoria tortuosa for North American records

ALLANTOPARMELIA (Vainio) Essl.
almquistii (Vainio) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia almquistii
alpicola (Th. Fr.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia alpicola
sibirica (Zahlbr.) Essl. = misidentification for North America (personal communication, Linda Geiser)

ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
caesia Flotow = Arthonia caesia

ALLOCETRARIA Kurokawa & Lai
madreporiformis (Ach.)
Kärnef. & Thell Syns.: Dactylina madreporiformis, Dufourea madreporiformis (Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
oakesiana (Tuck.) Randlane & Thell Syn.: Cetraria oakesiana
cucullata (Bellardi) Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria cucullata
nivalis (L.) Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria nivalis
 

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrh.
adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia adjuncta (Hafellner 2004b)
coniops (Wahlenb.)
M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrh. Syn.: Buellia coniops
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina cacuminum (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2002)
dakotensis (H. Magn.) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina dakotensis, R. finkii, R. inaequalis, R. pennsylvanica, R. subplumbea, R. subpyriniformis. (Sheard & May 1997)
efflorescens (Müll. Arg.) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)
leucomela (Imshaug) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Buellia leucoemela (Sheard & May 1997)
milliaria (Tuck.) P. May & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina milliaria (Sheard & May 1997)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Marbach Syn: Buellia placodiomorpha (Marbach 2000)
polyspora (Willey) E. Lay & P. May Syn.: Buellia polyspora (Sheard & May 1997)
punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. Syn.: Buellia punctata, B. myriocarpa, B. pullata
subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
submontana Marbach (Marbach 2000)
turgescens (Nyl.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Buellia badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)

AMPHILOMA Nyl.
lanuginosum (Hoffm.)
Nyl. = Leproloma membranaceum

AMYGDALARIA Norman
consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Brodo & Mas. Inoue
continua Brodo & Hertel
elegantior (H. Magn.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Huilia elegantior, Lecidea elegantior
haidensis Brodo & Hertel
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Lecidea panaeola, Huilia panaeola
pelobotryon (Wahlenb.) Norman Syns.: Lecanora pelobotrya, Aspicilia pelobotrya, Lecidea pelobotrya, L. "pelobotrion"
subdissentiens (Nyl.) Mas. Inoue & Brodo

ANAMYLOPSORA Timdal
pulcherrima (Vainio) Timdal Syns.: Lecidea pulcherrima, Psora pulcherrima

ANAPTYCHIA Körber
bryorum Poelt
crinalis (Schaerer) Vězda (Esslinger 2007)
elbursiana (Szatala) Poelt (Esslinger 2002a) Syn.: Physconia thomsonii
palmulata (Michaux) Vainio
ulotrichoides (Vainio) Vainio
appalachensis Kurok.
= Heterodermia appalachensis
aquila (Ach.) A. Massal. North American records = A. palmulata
boryi (Feé) A. Massal. = Heterodermia boryi
casarettiana A. Massal. = Heterodermia casarettiana
chondroidea (W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi) Kurok. = Heterodermia chondroidea
ciliaris (L.) Körber = misidentifications for North America
comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. North American records = Heterodermia galactophylla
corallophora (Taylor) Lynge = Heterodermia crocea (for North American records)
dendritica (Pers.) Vainio = Heterodermia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia diademata
domingensis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia albicans
echinata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) Trevisan = Heterodermia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevisan = Heterodermia galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia granulifera
heterochroa Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia obscurata
isidiza Kurok. (Yoshimura & Sharp 1973) = A. isidiata Tomin, but misidentification for North America (Esslinger 2007)
kaspica Gyelnik = A. setifera, but North American reports are A. crinalis
leucomela (L.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia leucomela
"leucomelaena" auct. = Heterodermia leucomela
major (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentifications for North America
neoleucomelaena Kurok. = Heterodermia boryi
obscurata (Nyl.) Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
"palmatula" auct. = A. palmulata
pseudospeciosa Kurok. = Heterodermia pseudospeciosa
pseudospeciosa Kurok. var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok. = Heterodermia speciosa
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia albicans
setifera Räsänen   North American reports are A. crinalis
sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge = Heterodermia obscurata
speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa
squamulosa Degel. = Heterodermia squamulosa
stippaea (Ach.) Nádv. = A. bryorum
tropica Kurok. = Heterodermia tropica

ANEMA Nyl. ex Forss.
progidulum (Nyl.) Henssen (Schultz 2002a)
dodgei Herre = Heppia despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. (Schultz 2007b)
jenisejensis H. Magn. = misidentification for North America

ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
albisedum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis albiseda
ambiguum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia ambigua, Ditremis ambigua
anisolobum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot Syns.: Arthopyrenia anisoloba, Ditremis anisoloba
aureopunctatum R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris non Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia biformis, A. parvula, A. conformis auct. N. Am., Ditremis biformis,
Trimmatothele umbellulariae
biformoides R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
carinthiacum (Steiner) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia carinthiaca, A. dimidiata, Ditremis carinthiaca
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia distans, Ditremis distans
excaecariae (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: A. sanfordense, Ditremis sanfordensis (Harris 1995a)
finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis finkii (Harris 1995a)
griffinii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
leucochlorum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia leucochlora, Ditremis leucochlora
[Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris]
phaeospermum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr Syns.: Ditremis nyssigena, Arthopyrenia willeyana (Barr et al. 1996)
quadricoccum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 1997)
quaternarium (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis quaternaria (Harris 1995a)
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia subprostans, Ditremis subprostans.
tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tamarindi.
terminatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis terminata, Pleurotrema anacardi (Harris 1995a)
tuckerae R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tuckerae.
feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = A. anisolobum
juistense (Erichsen) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
sanfordense (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae

ANOMOMORPHA Nyl.
turbulenta (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Graphis turbulenta (Staiger 2002)

ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal.
canellae-albae (Fée) Müll. Arg.
nanum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Pleurotheliopsis nana, (?) P. australiensis, Parmentaria nana
prasinum (Eschw.) R. C. Harris
staurosporum (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr.
subglobosum Riddle
varians R. C. Harris
corticatum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula corticata
falsarium Zahlbr. = Pyrenula falsaria
leucostomum (Ach.) Malme = Pyrenula leucostoma
libricola (Fée) Müll. Arg.
North American records are probably misidentifications.
maculare Zahlbr. = Pyrenula macularis
mucosum (Vainio) Zahlbr. North American reports are probably misidentifications.
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula ochraceoflavens
ochraceoflavum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ochraceoflava
pauciloculare Herre = identity uncertain
pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides
thelomorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula thelomorpha

ANZIA Stizenb.
americana Yoshim. & Sharp
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb.
ornata (Zahlbr.) Asahina

ANZINA Scheid.
carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. (Goward et al. 1996)

APATOPLACA Poelt & Hafellner = CALOPLACA
oblongula (H. Magn.) Poelt & Hafellner = Caloplaca oblongula

ARCTOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & Thell
andrejevii (Oksner) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria andrejevii, C. simmonsii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria nigricascens, C. elenkinii, C. sibirica

ARCTOMIA Th. Fr.
delicatula Th. Fr.
interfixa (Nyl.) Vainio

ARCTOPARMELIA Hale
centrifuga (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia centrifuga, P. aleuritica, Xanthoparmelia centrifuga
incurva (Pers.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia incurva, Xanthoparmelia incurva
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia separata, P. birulae var. grumosa, Xanthoparmelia separata
subcentrifuga (Oksner) Hale Syns.: Parmelia subcentrifuga, Xanthoparmelia subcentrifuga
aleuritica (Nyl.) Hale = A. centrifuga

ARCTOPELTIS Poelt
thuleana Poelt

ARRHENIA Fries
*peltigerina (Peck) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syn.: Omphalina peltigerina (Redhead et al. 2002)

ARTHONIA Ach.
albofuscescens Tuck.
+albopulverea Nyl.  (Grube 2007)
albovirescens Nyl.
aleuromela Nyl.
*anjutii S. Kondr. & Alstrup (Kondratyuk 1996)
apatetica (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.
arthonioides (Ach.) A. L. Sm.
asteriscus Müll. Arg.
atomaria (Lynge) R. Kilias
atrata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
beccariana (Bagl.) Stizenb.  (Grube 2007)
*biatoricola Ihlen & Owe-Larss.  (Ihlen et al. 2004b)
bisepta Degel.
byssacea (Weigel) Almq.
caesia (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Allarthonia caesia
caribea (Ach.) A. Massal.
caudata Willey
*ceracea Etayo & Breuss (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
cinereopruinosa Schaerer
cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.
*clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr.
complanata Fée
conferta (Fée) Nyl.
cupressina Tuck.
cytisi A. Massal.
didyma Körber
diffusa Nyl.
diffusella Fink
*digitatae Hafellner (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
*diplociae Calat. & Diederich (Grube 2007)
dispersa (Schrader) Nyl.
dispersula Nyl.
eckfeldtii Müll. Arg.
*epicladonia (Nyl.) Alstrup & Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*epimela (Almq.)
I. M. Lamb (Goward et al. 1996)
*epiphyscia Nyl.
erubescens Willey
erupta Nyl.
excedens Nyl.
*excentrica Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
exilis (Flörke) Anzi
*farinacea (H. Olivier) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fissurina Nyl.
floridana Willey
fuliginosa (Schaerer) Flotow
*fuscopurpurea (Tul.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
gerhardii Egea & Torrente (Grube 2007)
+glaucella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
glebosa Tuck.
granosa B. de Lesd.
gyalectoides Müll. Arg.
hamamelidis Nyl.
helvola (Nyl.) Nyl.
(Harris 1977)
hypobela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
ilicina Taylor
impallens Nyl.
incarnata Th. Fr. ex Almq.
infectans Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
*intexta Almq.
lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup
lecanactidea Zahlbr.
*lecanorina (Almq.) Grube (Grube 2007)
*lethariicola Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
leucastraea Tuck.
leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq.
*linitae R. Sant. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
luridoalba Nyl.
madreana Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
mediella Nyl.
microspermella Willey
*molendoi (Heufl. ex Frauenf.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998; Hafellner et al. 2002)
muscigena Th. Fr. Syn.: Bryostigma leucodontis
neoni B. de Lesd.
*nephromaria (Nyl.) Nyl. ex H. Olivier
ochrocincta Willey
ochrodiscodes Nyl.
ochrolutea Nyl.
palmulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
patellulata Nyl.
*peltigerea Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerina (Almq.) H. Olivier
perminuta Willey
phaeobaea (Norman) Norman
*phaeophysciae Grube & Matzer (Hafellner et al. 2002)
phlyctiformis Nyl. subsp. californica Grube (Grube 2007)
pinastri Anzi
platygraphidea Nyl.
platyspilea Nyl.
polygramma Nyl.
polymorpha Ach.
+pruinascens (Zahlbr.) Grube (Grube 2007)
pruinata (Pers.) Steud. ex A. L. Sm. (Grube 2007)
+pruinosella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
pruinosula Nyl.
punctiformis Ach.
pyrrhuliza Nyl.
quintaria Nyl.
radiata (Pers.) Ach.
ravenelii Tuck.
redingeri Grube (Grube 2007)
reniformis (Pers.) Ach.
+rhoidis Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
rubella (Fée) Nyl.
rupicola Fink
+sanguinea Willey (Grube 2007)
+sexlocularis Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
siderea Degel.
spadicea Leighton
speciosa (Müll. Arg.) Grube (Grube 2007)
stellaris Kremp.
subastroidella Nyl.
subdiffusa Willey
subdispuncta Nyl.
*subfuscicola (Lindsay) Triebel
subminutissima Nyl.
subminutula Nyl.
subrubella Nyl.
taedescens Nyl.
terrigena Nyl.
+tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse (Grube 2007)
torulosa Fée
tremelloides Etayo (Grube 2007)
tuckermaniana Willey
varia (Ach.) Nyl.
*varians (Davies) Nyl. Syn.: Celidium varians (Hawksworth 2003)
vernans Willey
verrucosa Egea & Torrente (Grube 2007)
vinosa Leighton
viridicans Willey
xylographica Nyl.
alba Müll. Arg.
= a Stirtonia sp.
aspersa Leighton = A. arthonioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = erroneous listing for Arthopyrenia atractospora
carneorufa Willey = Catillaria erysiboides
chiodectella Nyl. = A. pruinata (Grube 2007)
convexella Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus (Mycoporum sp.?)
epipastoides auct. N.A. non Nyl. = A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp = A. lapidicola
galactitella Nyl. = A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
glaucescens Nyl. = Schismatomma glaucescens
glaucomaria (Nyl.) Nyl. = A. varians
(Hawksworth 2003)
gregaria (Weigel) Körber = A. cinnabarina
gregarina Willey = Coniarthonia gregarina
impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer = A. pruinata
lecideella Nyl. ex Willey = A. caesia (Lendemer 2008)
leucodontis (Poelt & Döbb.) Coppins = A. muscigena
lurida Ach. nom. rej. = A. spadicea
melaspora Tuck. = Sporostigma melaspora (Grube 2001)
pyrrhula Nyl. = Coniarthonia pyrrhula
spectabilis (A. Massal.) Flotow = Arthothelium spectabile
+stictella Stizenb. = A. albopulverea (Grube 2007)
tumidula (Ach.) Ach. = A. cinnabarina
willeyi Tuck. = A. diffusa (Lendemer 2004a)

ARTHOPHACOPSIS Hafellner
*parmeliarum Hafellner (Diederich 2003, Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)

ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal.
+analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 2002a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallax
cerasi (Schrader) A. Massal.
cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
cinereopruinosa (Schaerer) A. Massal.
confluens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
degelii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
esenbeckiana (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
exasperata R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
lyrata R. C. Harris
majuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
malaccitula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
minor R. C. Harris
oblongens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
planorbis (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
plumbaria (Stizenb.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Porina plumbaria, Pyrenula herrei
punctiformis (Stizenb.) R.C. Harris (Aptroot 2002a)
rappii Zahlbr.
rhyponta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Aptroot 2002a)
taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
*texensis (Cooke) D. Hawksw.
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = Strigula affinis North American records are S. jamesii
alba (Schrader) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
ambigua Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anacardii Vainio = Anisomeridium terminatum
analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold = misidentifications for North America
anisoloba Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium anisoloba
antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold = Mycoporum antecellens
atomarioides Müll. Arg. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
bifera Zahlbr. = A. malaccitula
biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca J. Steiner = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Acrocordia cavata
conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America, mostly Anisomeridium biforme
conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia conoidea
dimidiata Fink = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium distans
epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
faginea (Schaerer) Swinscow = Strigula stigmatella
fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta
finkii Zahlbr. = Acrocordia megalospora
floridana Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
fraxini A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe fraxini, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. = Acrocordia gemmata
halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold = Pyrenocollema halodytes
hyalospora (Nyl.) Fink = Lithothelium hyalosporum
lapponina Anzi = A. analepta
leucochlora Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrocarpa (Körber) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
macrospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
megalospora Lonnr. = Naetrocymbe megalospora, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
mycoporoides Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum mycoporoides
padi Rabenh. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
parvula Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium biforme
pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal. = A. cinereopruinosa
prospersella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenocollema prospersella
punctiformis (Pers.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis. to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
quinqueseptata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Polymeridium quinqueseptatum
rhyponta (Ach.) A. Massal. = misidentifications for North America
salicis A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe ?, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
sanfordensis Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium excaecariae
sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
sublitoralis (Leighton) Arnold = Pyrenocollema sublitorale
submuriformis R. C. Harris = Strigula submuriformis
subprostans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium subprostans
subpunctiformis Nyl. = A. atomarioides
tenuis R. C. Harris = Strigula americana
tichothecioides Arnold = Pyrenocollema tichothecioides
willeyana R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori

ARTHOTHELIOPSIS Vainio
floridensis Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
planicarpa (Lücking) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)  A tentative report.

ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal.
abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
adveniens Nyl.
albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink
anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold
distendens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
macounii (G. Merr.) W. Noble
macrothecum (Fée) A. Massal.
norvegicum Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Williams 2006)
orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse
ruanum (A. Massal.) Körber
spectabile A. Massal.
subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse
taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
violascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
gregarinum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Coniarthonia gregarina
ilicinum (Taylor) P. James = Arthonia ilicina
+pruinascens Zahlbr. = Arthonia pruinascens (Grube 2007)
ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold = A. ruanum
+sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Arthonia sanguinea (Grube 2007)


ARTHRORHAPHIS Th. Fr.
*aeruginosa R. Sant. & Tønsberg
alpina (Schaerer) R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia alpina
citrinella (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Bacidia citrinella, B. flavovirescens
#grisea Th. Fr. Syn.: Lahmia fueistingii

ARTHROSPORUM A. Massal.
populorum A. Massal. Syns.: Bacidia populorum, B. acclinis
accline (Flotow) A. Massal. = A. populorum

ASAHINEA Culb. & C. Culb.
chrysantha (Tuck.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chrysantha
scholanderi (Llano) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria scholanderi

ASPICILIA A. Massal.
albomarginata B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora albomarginata
[Lecanora albopruinosa Looman]
alboradiata (H. Magn.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora alboradiata
aliena (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora aliena
americana B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora americana
anglica Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
annulata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora annulata
anseris (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Synonym: Lecanora anseris
aquatica Körber Syn.: Lecanora aquatica
arctica (Lynge) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora arctica
arizonica Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
aurantiaca Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Knudsen et al. 2008b)
boykinii
Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
brucei
Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora caesiopruinosa
calcarea (L.) Mudd Syn.: Lecanora calcarea
californica Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
candida (Anzi) Hue Syn.: Lecanora candida
cinerea (L.) Körber Syn.: Lecanora cinerea
cingulata (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora cingulata
composita (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora composita
concinna (J. W. Thomson) J. W. Thomson (Thomson 1997)
confusa Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
contigua (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. Syn.: Lecanora contorta
cuprea Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
curvabilis (Nyl.) Hue (Hansen 2006)
cyanescens Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk. Syns.: Lecanora desertorum, L. elmorei
determinata (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk. (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
disserpens (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora disserpens
elevata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora elevata
filiformis Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
fimbriata (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon Syn.: Lecanora fimbriata
fruticulosa (Eversm.) Flagey
fumosa Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
gibbosa (Ach.) Körber Syns.: Lecanora gibbosa, L. gibbosula
glaucopsina (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  (Knudsen 2005b, Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
grisea Arnold (Fryday 2001)
hispida Mereschk. Syns.: Agrestia hispida, A. cyphellata
heteroplaca (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora heteroplaca
humboldtii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
karelica (H. Magn.) Oksner
knudsenii Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
laevata (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora laevata
laxula (H. Magn.) Brodo
leprosescens (Sandst.) Hav.
lesleyana
Darb. Syn.: Lecanora lesleyana
limitata (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora limitata
mashiginensis (Zahlbr.)
Oksner
mastoidea (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora mastoidea
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (Wetmore 1967, as Lecanora mastrucata)
mazarina (Wahlenb.) R. Sant.
moenium (Vainio) Thor & Timdal
narssaquensis (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Lecanora basaltica, L. narssaquensis
nashii Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
nathorstii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
nikrapensis Darb. Syn.: Lecanora nikrapensis
nordlandica (H. Magn.) Degel.
novae-semliae (Zahlbr.) Oksner
olivaceobrunnea Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
pacifica Owe-Larss.
& A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
pergibbosa (H. Magn.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora pergibbosa
perradiata (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Lecanora perradiata
pertusa (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora pertusa
phaea Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
plicigera (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora plicigera
polychroma Anzi Syn.: Lecanora polychroma
praecrenata (Nyl.) Hue  Syn. : Lecanora praecrenata (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
quartzitica W. A. Weber
reptans (Looman) Wetmore Syn.: Lecanora reptans
rolleana Hue Syn.: Lecanora rolleana
rosulata Körber Syn.: Lecanora rosulata
ryrkaipiae (H. Magn.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora ryrkaipiae
santamonicae Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
simoënsis Räsänen (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
sipeana (H. Magn.) Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin  Syn. : Lecanora sipeana (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
sorediza (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
sublapponica (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora sublapponica
submersa (Lamy) Hue
subplicigera (H. Magn.) Oksner
subradians (Nyl.) Hue Syns.: Lecanora stygioplaca, L. subradiascens, L. subradians
substictica Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin (Owe-Larss. et al. 2007)
supertegens Arnold Syn.: Lecanora supertegens
tenuis (H. Magn.) Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin  Syn. : Lecanora tenuis (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
verrucigera Hue  Syn.: Lecanora verrucigera
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina (Sommerf.) Arnold = Bellemerea alpina
bennettii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. mashiginensis
cinereorufescens (Ach.) A. Massal. = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Boistel = Bellemerea diamarta
excavata Thor & Timdal = A. moenium
flavida (Hepp) Rehm = Eiglera flavida
lacustris (With.) Th. Fr. = Ionaspis lacustris
melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia melanaspis
melinodes Körber = Porpidia melinodes
myrinii (Fr.) Stein = Aspilidea myrinii
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.)
Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia radiosa
sanguinea Kremp. = Bellemerea sanguinea
stygioplaca (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subradiascens (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. = Bellemerea subsorediza

ASPIDOTHELIUM Vainio
fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.

ASPILIDEA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)

myrinii (Fr.) Hafellner

ASTEROPHOMA D. Hawksw.
*mazaediicola D. Hawksw.

ASTEROTHYRIUM Müll. Arg.
decipiens (Rehm) R. Sant.
leucophthalmum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
rotuliforme (Mull. Arg.) Sérus. Syns.: Gyalectidium rotuliforme, Lopadiopsis floridana

ASTROTHELIUM Eschw.
cinnamomeum (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
confusum Müll. Arg.
diplocarpum Nyl. (Harris 1995a)
galbineum Kremp.
variolosum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Trypethelium catervarium
versicolor Müll. Arg.
conicum auct. = A. cinnamomeum
conicum Eschw.
= (?) type not found
ochrothelizum Müll. Arg. = A. galbineum

ATHELIA Pers.
*arachnoidea (Berk.) Jülich (Haffelner et al. 2002)
+epiphylla Pers.
poeltii Jülich

AULAXINA Fée
microphana (Vainio) R. Sant.
quadrangula (Stirton) R. Sant.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

BACHMANNIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw.

BACIDIA De Not.
absistens (Nyl.) Arnold
aggregatula Malme
arceutina (Ach.) Arnold
[Bilimbia artyta (Ach.) Fink]
auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig.
augustinii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta
beckhausii Körber = misplaced here? (Ekman 1996)
biatorina (Körber) Vainio
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb
circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vainio) Malme
coprodes (Körber) Lettau (Llop & Ekman 2004)
coruscans S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
diffracta S. Ekman
flavens (Willey) Zahlbr. = a species of Lecania (Ekman 1996)
friesiana (Hepp) Körber
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio
helicospora S. Ekman
herbarum (Stizenb.) Arnold
heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
hostheleoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
igniarii (Nyl.) Oksner
illudens (Nyl.) Lynge
insularis Zahlbr.
ioessa Herre = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996, 2004a)
kingmanii Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. subsp. laurocerasi (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis (H. Magn.) S. Ekman
lobarica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2007)
medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) B. de Lesd. (Ekman 1996)
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Lettau Syn.: Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Ekman 1996)
mutabilis Malme
phyllopsoropsis R. C. Harris & Lendemer  (Harris & Lendemer 2006)
polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körber
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
reagens Malme
rosella (Pers.) De Not.
rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
rubidofusca (Willey) Zahlbr. = possibly a species of Gyalidea (Ekman 1996)
russeola (Kremp.) Zahlbr.
salmonea S. Ekman
saxicola Looman = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
schweinitzii (Fr. ex E. Michener) A. Schneider
scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
siberiensis (Willey) Zahlbr.
subgranulosa (Tuck.) Riddle Erroneously listed as a synonym of Phyllopsora canoumbrina in the checklist; possibly belongs to Psorella (Ekman 1996)
subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold
suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider
veneta S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Ekman 1996)
viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997)
abbrevians (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = B. igniarii
abductans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = B. schweinitzii
accedens (Arnold) Lettau = Myxobilimbia accedens
accedens sensu Harris = unnamed species (Ekman 1996)
acclinis (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Arthrosporum populorum
affinis (Stizenb.) Vainio = B. subincompta
akompsa (Tuck.) Fink = a Lecanactis sp.
alaskensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Herteliana alaskensis
albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh = Bacidina phacodes, but misidentifications for N.A. (Ekman 1996)
alpina (Schaerer) Vainio = Arthrorhaphis alpina
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica
arnoldiana Körber = Bacidina arnoldiana
arthoniza (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
assulata (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina assulata
atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körber = B. laurocerasi
aurantiaca Vězda = Fellhanera aurantiaca
bacillifera (Nyl.) Arnold = B. circumspecta
caloosensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. hostheleoides
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins = a species of Mycobilimbia (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)
chlorantha (Tuck.) Fink = Ropalospora chlorantha
chlorococca (Stenh.) Lettau = Scoliciosporum chlorococcum
chlorosticta (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Micarea chlorosticta
citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
clementis Hasse = Bactrospora patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
cuprea (A. Massal.) Lettau = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
cupreorosella (Nyl.) A. Schneider = Lecania cuprea
declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Catillaria nigroclavata
dryina (Ach.) Fink = Bactrospora dryina
effusa auct. = B. assulata
egenula (Nyl.) Arnold = Bacidina egenula
egenuloidea Fink = Bacidina egenuloidea
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea endocyanea
endoleuca auct. = B. laurocerasi
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Lettau = a species of Mycobilimbia (Ekman 1996)
flavovirescens (Dickson) Anzi = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera floridana
fusca (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Mycobilimbia tetramera
fuscorubella (Ach.) Bausch = B. polychroa
globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V. Wirth = Biatora globulosa
granosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. coprodes
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse =
Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pachphiale gyalizella
hegetschweileri auct. = B. vermifera (Ekman 1996)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio = B. subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold (Ekman 1996)
herrei Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr. =
Myxobilimbia sabuletorum
idahoensis H. Magn. = B. laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis
incompta (Borrer ex Hooker) Anzi = misidentifications for North America
inundata (Fr.) Körber = Bacidina inundata
leucophyllina (Nyl.) Fink = misidentifications for North America
lignaria (Ach.) Lettau = Micarea lignaria
lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris
luteola "(Ach.) Mudd" = B. rubella
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Byssoloma meadii
melaena (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Micarea melaena
microphyllina auct. =
Phyllopsora santensis
microphyllina (Tuck.)
Riddle = misidentifications for North America
minuscula Anzi = B. beckhausii
molybditis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. medialis
muscorum (Sw.) Mudd = B. bagliettoana
naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. = Lecania naegelii
nivalis Follmann = Stereocaulon nivale
obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia tetramera
pallens (Kullhem) Zahlbr. = Biatora pallens (Printzen & Otte 2005)
pammellii (Fink) Zahlbr. = B. coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
phacodes auct. N. Am. = Bacidina californica, in part
populorum (A. Massal.) Trevisan = Arthrosporum populorum
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
sabuletorum (Schreber) Lettau = Myxobilimbia sabuletorum
sphaeroides (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia pilularis
sphaeroides auct. non (Dickson) Zahlbr. = B. carneoalbida
stigmatella (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecania stigmatella
subfuscula (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Lecania subfuscula
tetramera (De Not.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia tetramera
trachona (Ach.) Lettau  North American reports are B. coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Hellbom) Zahlbr. = Micarea peliocarpa
umbrina (Ach.) Bausch = Scoliciosporum umbrinum
verecundula (Th. Fr.) = misidentification for North America (Ekman 1996)

BACIDINA Vězda
aenea S. Ekman
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia apiahica
arnoldiana (Körber) Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana
assulata (Körber) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia assulata, B. effusa
californica S. Ekman
chloroticula (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt (Ekman 1996)
crystallifera S. Ekman
delicata (Leighton) V. Wirth & Vězda (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
egenula (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia egenula
egenuloidea (Fink) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia egenuloidea
inundata (Fr.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia inundata
neosquamulosa (Aptroot & van Herk) S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004b)
ramea S. Ekman
squamellosa S. Ekman
varia S. Ekman
phacodes (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina californica, in part, for N.A. records

BACTROSPORA A. Massal.
acicularis (C. W. Dodge) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004a)
brevispora R.C. Harris
brodoi Egea & Torrente
cascadensis Ponzetti & McCune  (Ponzetti & McCune 2006)
denticulata (Vainio) Egea & Torrente
dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Bacidia dryina
lamprospora (Nyl.) Lendemer  Syns.: Gyalecta lamprospora, Melampylidium macrosporum (Lendemer 2004a)
mesospora R.C. Harris
myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio Syns.: Lecanactis patellarioides, Bacidia clementis
spiralis Egea & Torrente
integrispora Seaver = B. denticulata (Harris 1995a)
macrospora R.C. Harris = B. lamprospora
nematospora R.C. Harris = B. myriadea

BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb
curtisii (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia curtisii (Marbach 2000)
imshaugiana (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia imshaugiana (Marbach 2000)

BAEOMYCES Pers.
carneus Flörke
placophyllus Ach.
rufus (Hudson) Rebent.
absolutus Tuck. = Dibaeis absoluta
fungoides (Sw.) Ach. North American reports are Dibaeis baeomyces
roseus Pers. = Dibaeis baeomyces

BAGLIETTOA A. Massal.
baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda (Breuss 2007a)

BATHELIUM Ach. (Harris 1995a)
carolinianum (Tuck.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Trypethelium carolinianum
madreporiforme (Eschw.) Trevisan (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Laurera madreporiformis

BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Cl. Roux
alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Lecanora alpina, L. applegatei, Aspicilia alpina
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens, Lecanora cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syn.: Aspicilia diamarta
sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia sanguinea, Lecanora sanguinea
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. Syns.: Lecidea subsorediza, Aspicilia subsorediza

BELLEMERELLA Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux
*ritae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2007)

BELONIA Körber ex Nyl.
russula Körber ex Nyl.
americana Fink ex Hedr. = Robergea pupula, but excluded as a non-lichen
fennica Vainio = B. russula

BIATORA Fr.
aegrefaciens Printzen (Printzen et al. 2002)
alaskana Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
appalachensis Printzen & Tønsberg  (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
botryosa Fr. (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea botryosa
caulophylla Tuck.   Possibly belongs to Lecanora (Ryan & Nash 1997a)
chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen in V. Wirth (Printzen 1995)
chrysanthoides Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
cuprea (Sommerf.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea cuprea
efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea efflorescens, L. epixanthoidiza
fallax Hepp (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavopunctata (Tønsberg) Hinteregger & Printzen Syn.: Lecanora flavopunctata
globulosa (Flörke) Fr.  Syns.:  Bacidia globulosa, Catillaria globulosa, Lecidea globulosa, L. sylvana (Printzen 2004)
helvola Körber ex Hellbom (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea helvola
hypophaea Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
kodiakensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
longispora (Degel.) Lendemer & Printzen  Syn.: Lecidea helvola var. longispora (Lendemer 2004b)
meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa, L. minuta
meiocarpa var. tacomensis (Printzen & Tønsberg) Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
nobilis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
ocelliformis (Nyl.) Arnold (Printzen & Otte 2005)
oligocarpa Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
pallens (Kullhem) Printzen (Printzen & Otte 2005)  Syns.: Cliostomum pallens, Bacidia pallens
pausiaca Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
pontica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
printzenii Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2002)
pycnidiata Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
subduplex (Nyl.) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea subduplex, L.apochroeiza, L. internectens
toensbergii Holien & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecidea turgidula
vacciniicola (Tønsberg) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea vacciniicola
vernalis (L.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea vernalis
albohyalina (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia = Lecidea albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner = Hypocenomyce anthracophila
botryosa Fr. (Printzen 1995) = Hertelidea botryosa
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
cladoniscum Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
franciscana Tuck. = Lecania franciscana
furvonigrans Tuck. ex Willey =Lecidea furvonigrans

meadii Tuck. ex Willey = Byssoloma meadii
papillariae Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
porphyrospoda Anzi = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
pullata Norman = Lecidea amaurospoda
pullula Tuck. = Lecidea pullula   According to Printzen (1995), belongs to Lecanora
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
scrupulosa Eckf. = Fuscidea scrupolosa
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber = Mycobilimbia pilularis

BIATORELLA De Not.
contigua N. S. Golubk. & Piin (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
cyphalea (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
floridensis H. Magn.
hemisphaerica Anzi
rappii Zahlbr.
albidula (Willey) Zahlbr. = Myrionora albidula
campestris (Fr.) Almq. = Sarcosagium campestre
clavus (DC.) Th. Fr. = Sarcogyne clavus
clauzadeana Llimona & Vězda = Acarospora clauzadeana
conspersa (Fèe) Vainio = Piccolia conspersa
fossarum (Dufour ex Fr.) Th. Fr. = B. hemisphaerica for North American records
hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss. = Sarcogyne privigna
kulshanensis Herre = a Sarcogyne sp.
microhaema Norman = Strangospora microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Strangospora moriformis
nannaria (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Sarcogyne privigna (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
ochrophora (Nyl.) Arnold = Picolia ochrophora
plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr. = Sarcogyne privigna (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
pruinosa "(Körber) Mudd" = Sarcogyne regularis
+resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Sarea resinae
simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostrup = Polysporina simplex
terrena Hasse Identity uncertain
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. = Sporastatia testudinea

BIATOROPSIS Räsänen
*usnearum Räsänen

BIATORIDIUM J. Lahm
delitescens (Arnold) Hafellner (Ekman 1996)

BILIMBIA De Not. = MYCOBILIMBIA
caudata (Nyl.) Fink = Ropalospora lugubris
gyalectiformis Zahlbr. =
Ramonia gyalectiformis
pammellii Fink = Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
tricholoma (Mont.) Fink = Byssoloma tricholomum

BISPORA Fuckel
*lichenum Diederich (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*christiansenii D. Hawksw.
(Alstrup & Cole 1998) = Intralichen christiansenii

BLASTENIA A. Massal. = CALOPLACA
diphasia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca diphasia
novomexicana Fink = a Caloplaca sp.
rubrofusca B. de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.

BOMBYLIOSPORA De Not. ex A. Massal. = MEGALOSPORA
domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis
pachycheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Megalospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) De Not. = Megalospora tuberculosa
vulpina (Nyl.) J. M. Burgess = nom. inval. = Letrouitia vulpina

BOTRYDINA Bréb. = LICHENOMPHALIA
botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
vulgaris Bréb. sens. str. = Lichenomphalia umbellifera

BOTRYOLEPRARIA Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona
lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona Syn.: Lepraria lesdainii (Canals et al. 1997)

BOTTARIA A. Massal. = MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
cruentata Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruentata

BRIGANTIAEA Trevisan
fuscolutea (Dickson) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium fuscoluteum
leucoxantha (Sprengel) R. Sant. & Hafellner Syn.: Lopadium leucoxanthum
praetermissa Hafellner & St. Clair (Hafellner 1997)
purpurata (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Bellem. (Goward et al. 1996) = B. praetermissa (Hafellner 1997)

BRODOA Goward
oroarctica (Krog) Goward Syn.: Hypogymnia oroarctica.
atrofusca (Schaerer) Goward Syns.: Hypogymnia atrofusca, Parmelia atrofusca.
North American reports are probably misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica(Krog) Goward.
intestiniformis (Vill.) Goward Syns.: Hypogymnia intestiniformis, H. encausta, Parmelia intestiniformis, P. encausta. North American reports are misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica (Krog) Goward.

BRYOCAULON Kärnefelt
divergens (Ach.) Kärnefelt Syns.: Cornicularia divergens, Coelocaulon divergens
pseudosatoanum (Asahina) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cornicularia pseudosatoana

BRYONORA Poelt
castanea (Hepp) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora castanea
curvescens (Mudd) Poelt Syn.: Lecania curvescens
pruinosa (Th. Fr.) Holtan-Hartwig
septentrionalis Holtan-Hartwig

BRYOPHAGUS Nitschke ex Arnold
gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold (fide J. Hafellner, see Appendix)

BRYOPOGON Link
negativus Gyelnik = Bryoria lanestris
pacificus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens

BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
ambigua (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria bicolor
capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria capillaris, A. setacea for North American records
carlottae Brodo & D. Hawksw.
cervinula Motyka ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria cervinula
chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria chalybeiformis
fabiszewskiana Bystr. (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fremontii, A. corneliae, A. tenerrima
friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Holien, 1989, considers this taxon to be a synonym of and conspecific with B. implexa)
furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nidulifera, Cornicularia fibrillosa
furcellata subsp. hawksworthiana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fuscescens, A. positiva, Bryopogon pacificus
glabra (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria glabra
implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria implexa (See notes under B. friabilis and B. pseudofuscescens)
lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria lanestris, Bryopogon negativus
nadvornikiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nadvornikiana, A. altaica
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nitidula, A. irvingii, A. lanea auct.
pikei Brodo & D. Hawksw.
pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw.
pseudofuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria achariana, A. norstictica nom. nudum, A. subtilis nom.nudum (Holien, 1989, considers this taxon to be a synonym and conspecific with B. implexa)
salazinica Brodo & D. Hawksw.
simplicior (Vainio) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria simplicior, A. nana nom. nudum
spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw.
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria subcana
tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria tenuis
tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria tortuosa, A. virens for North American records
trichodes (Michaux) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. trichodes Syns.: Alectoria canadensis, A. delicata nom. nudum
trichodes subsp. americana (
Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria ambigua, A. americana
trichodes subsp. brodoana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
trichodes subsp. canadensis (
Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck. ex Willey) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
= Nodobryoria oregana
setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Not in North America.
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria subdivergens
vrangiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. sens. str. is known only from Europe and is considered a synonym of B. implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. by Holien (1989).

BRYOSCYPHUS Spooner
*lichenicola Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

BUELLIA De Not.
aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.
arborea Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & McCune 2001)
arnoldii Servít & Nádv.
#badia (Fr.) A. Massal.  Syn.: Amandinea turgescens
bolacina Tuck.
calcariaecola B. de Lesd.
capitis-regum W. A. Weber
cedricola Werner (Nordin 1999)
chloroleuca Körber (Bungartz et al. 2007)
christophii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004a)
concinna Th. Fr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
conspirans (Nyl.) Vainio (Bungartz 2004)
crystallifera (Vainio) Hav. (Goward et al. 1996)
dispersa A. Massal.
eganii Bungartz (Bungartz & Nash. 2004a)
elegans Poelt
epigaea (Pers.) Tuck.
erubescens Arnold
georgei Trinkaus, H. Mayrhofer & Elix (Bungartz et al. 2007)
griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb.
halonia (Ach.) Tuck.
immersa Lynge
*imshaugii Hafellner
insignis (Naeg. ex Hepp) Th. Fr.
japonica (Tuck.) Tuck. (Sheard et al. 2008)
jugorum (Arnold) Arnold
lacteoidea B. de Lesd.
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)
lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck.
lepidastroidea Imshaug ex Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
leptocline (Flotow) A. Massal.
maculata Bungartz (Bungartz 2004a)
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Rinodina mamillana
maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl. (Bungartz et al. 2007)
mexicana J. Steiner (Nordin 2000)
microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina microbola
#miriquidica Scheid. (Fryday 2006)
muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg (Nordin 1999)
nantiana B. de Lesd.
nashii Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
navajoensis Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
nigra (Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina nigra
notabilis Lynge
occidentalis Lynge (Lepage 1972)
ocellata (Flotow) Körber
oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Rhizocarpon oidaleum
papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. Syn.: Buelliopsis papillata
prospersa (Nyl.) Riddle (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
pullata Tuck. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
ryanii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
schaereri De Not.
sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
silicicola B. de Lesd.
smaragdula B. de Lesd.
spuria (Schaerer) Anzi
stellulata (Taylor) Mudd
stigmatea Körber
stillingiana J. Steiner
subaethalea B. de Lesd. (Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
subalbula (Nyl.) Müll Arg. (Bungartz & Nash 2004b)
subdispersa Mig. (Nordin 1999)
terricola A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
tesserata Körber (Rico et al. 2003)
triphragmioides Anzi
triseptata A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
tyrolensis Körber (Bungartz 2004)
uberior Anzi
vilis Th. Fr.
*adjuncta Th. Fr. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Amandinea adjuncta
aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier = B. aethalea
alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum
ambigua (Ach.) Malme = Diplotomma ambiguum
amphidexia Imshaug ex R. C. Harris = Endohyalina circumpallida
atrata (Sm.) Anzi = Orphniospora moriopsis
badioatra (Flörke ex Sprengel) Körber = Rhizocarpon badioatrum
bahiana Malme = Hafellia bahiana
blasteniospora Zahlbr. = Hafellia parastata
blumeri Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner = Hafellia callispora
caloosensis Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
canescens (Dickson) De Not. = Diploicia canescens
catasema (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
chlorophaea (Hepp ex Leighton) Lettau = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
coccinea (Fée) Aptroot = Gassicurtia coccinea
colludens (Nyl.)
Arnold = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amandinea coniops
contermina Arnold = B. uberior
coracina (Nyl.) Körber = Orphniospora moriopsis
curatellae Malme = Hafellia curatellae
curtisii (Tuck.) Imshaug = Baculifera curtisii
dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chrismofulvea dialyta
disciformis (Fr.) Mudd = Hafellia disciformis
elizae (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia elizae
epipolia (Ach.) Mong. = Diplotomma epipolium
fimbriata (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. tesserata
geophila (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Lynge = Tetramelas geophila
glaucomarioidea Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora glaucomarioides
glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = B. mamillana
hassei Imshaug = B. griseovirens
imshaugiana R. C. Harris = Baculifera imshaugiana
*inquilina Tuck. = Dactylospora inquilina
isidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = excluded as doubtful
lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria lauricassiae
lecanoroides H. Magn. = Diplotomma venusta (Bungartz et al. 2007)
leucomela Imshaug = Amandinea leucomela
malmei Lynge = B. aethalea
maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl. = B. subalbula
melanochlora (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria melanochlora
modesta (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.= Cratiria americana
moriopsis (A. Massal.) Th. Fr. = Orphniospora moriopsis
myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. = Amandinea punctata
nivalis (Bagl. & Car.) Hertel ex Hafellner = Diplotomma nivalis
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = B. tyrolensis
pachnidisca R. C. Harris = Gassicurtia subpulcella
parasema (Ach.) De Not. = Hafellia disciformis
penichra (Tuck.) Hasse = Diplotomma penichrum
pertusariicola Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora pertusariicola
pinastri Erichsen (Erichsen 1940) = Chrismofulvea pinastri
placodiomorpha Vainio = Amandinea placodiomorpha
polyspora (Willey) Vainio = Amandinea polyspora
pruinella Imshaug = B. fimbriata
pueblae B. de Lesd. = B. retrovertens
pulchella (Schrader) Tuck. = Catolechia wahlenbergii
pullata Tuck. = Amandinea punctata
pulverulenta (Anzi) Jatta = Diplotomma pulverulentum
punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Amandinea punctata
punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink = Amandinea polyspora
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
rappii Imshaug ex R.C. Harris = Endohyalina rappii
retrovertens Tuck. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2002)
rinodinoides Anzi = misidentifications for North America
rinodinospora Riddle = Hafellia parastata
rubifaciens R.C. Harris = Chrismofulvea rubifaciens
saurina W. A. Weber = Rhizocarpon saurinum
saxicola B. de Lesd. = B. sequax
scabrosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Epilichen scabrosus
semitensis Tuck. = B. concinna
stigmaea Tuck. = B. maculata
subpulcella Vainio = Gassicurtia subpulcella
tergestina J. Steiner & Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. mamillana
tolucae B. de Lesd. (Nordin 1999) = B. mexicana (Bungartz et al. 2007)
tucsonensis Zahlbr. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2007)

turgescens Tuck. =
B. badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)
turgescentoides Fink =
B. badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)
venusta (Körber) Lettau = Diplotomma ventusum
vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia vernicoma
verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea
verruculosa auct. = B. ocellata
wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard = Catolechia wahlenbergii
wheeleri R. C. Harris = Ciposia wheeleri
zahlbruckneri J. Steiner = B. erubescens

BUELLIELLA Fink
*inops (Triebel & Rambold) Hafellner  Syn.:  Karschia inops (Hafellner 2004a)
*minimula (Tuck.) Fink
*physciicola Poelt & Hafellner (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*trypethelii (Tuck.) Fink
*inquilina (Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora inquilina
*nuttallii (Calk. & Nyl.) Fink = Dactylospora lobariella
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink = Abrothallus parmeliarum
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Fink = Dactylospora saxatilis var. saxatilis
*usneae (Rabenh.)
Fink = misidentification for North America

BUELLIOPSIS A. Schneider = BUELLIA
papillata (Sommerf.) Fink = Buellia papillata
vernicoma (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Buellia vernicoma

BULBOTHRIX Hale
confoederata (Culb.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia confoederata
coronata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia coronata
goebelii (Zenker) Hale Syn.: Parmelia goebelii, P. scortella, P. njalensis
isidiza (Nyl.) Hale
laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigatula

BULLATINA Vězda & Poelt
aspidota (Vainio) Vězda & Poelt = Calenia aspidotum

BUNODOPHORON A. Massal.
melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin Syn.: Sphaerophorus melanocarpus

BYSSOLOMA Trevisan
leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vainio
marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia meadii, Biatora meadii
subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James
tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Bilimbia tricholoma
pubescens Vězda ex R.C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = B. meadii (Brodo et al. 2001)
rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
= B. subdiscordans

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

CALENIA Müll. Arg.
aspidotum (Vainio) Vězda  Syn.: Bullatina aspidota (Lücking et al. 2007)

CALICIELLA Vainio = non-lichenized fungi

CALICIUM Pers.
abietinum Pers.
adaequatum Nyl.
adspersum Pers.
chlorosporum F. Wilson
corynellum (Ach.) Ach.
glaucellum Ach.
hyperelloides Nyl.
lenticulare Ach.
leucochlorum Tuck.
montanum Tibell (Kolb & Spribille 2001)
parvum Tibell
quercinum Pers.
salicinum Pers.
sequoiae C. Williams & Tibell (Williams & Tibell 2008)
trabinellum
(Ach.) Ach
viride Pers.
albonigrum Nyl. = Mycocalicium albonigrum
#asikkalense Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
curtisii Tuck. = Phaeocalicium curtisii
*disseminatum Ach. = Microcalicium disseminatum
#floerkei Zahlbr. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
fuscipes Tuck. = Mycocalicium fuscipes
hemisphaericum Howard = C. adaequatum
hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. = C. viride
lentigerellum Tuck. = C. lenticulare
lichenoides (L.) Schumacher = C. salicinum
microcephalum (Sm.) Ach. = Sphinctrina anglica
minutissimum G. Merr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+populneum Brond. ex Duby = Phaeocalicium populneum
#pusillum auct. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
pusiolum Ach. = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
queenslandiae (F. Wilson) Tibell = C. chlorosporum
ravenelii Tuck. = Mycocalicium ravenelii
roscidum (Ach.) Ach. nom. superfl. = C. adspersum
roscidum var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaerer = C. trabinellum for North American records
sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach. = (?) C. lichenoides
#subpusillum Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
subquercinum Asahina = C. lenticulare
+subtile Pers. = Mycocalicium subtile
trachelinum Ach. = C. salicinum

CALOPADIA Vězda
fusca (Müll Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium fuscum
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium puiggarii

CALOPLACA Th. Fr.
adnexa Vězda
ahtii Søchting
alaskensis Wetm. (Wetmore 2004b)
albovariegata (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore Syn.:  Pyrenodesmia albovariegata
alcarum Poelt
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier
approximata (Lynge) H. Magn.
arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg.
arizonica H. Magn.
atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Lecania perproxima (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
atroflava (Turner) Mong.
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) I. M. Lamb
aurantia (Pers.) Hellbom
bolacina (Tuck.) Herre
borealis (Vainio) Poelt
brattiae W. A. Weber
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. (Nash et al. 1998)
brunneola Wetmore
californica Zahlbr.
camptidia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
carolinae H. Magn.
cascadensis H. Magn.
catalinae H. Magn.
celata Th. Fr.
cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedwig) Th. Fr. (Laundon 2005)
chlorina (Flotow) H. Olivier
chrysodeta (Vainio ex Räsänen) Dombr. Syn.: Leproplaca chrysodeta
chrysophthalma Degel.
cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.
cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr.
citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
conversa (Kremp.) Jatta
coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting Syn.: Polycauliona coralloides
crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Knudsen & La Doux 2005)
dakotensis Wetmore
decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forss.
demissa (Körber) Arup & Grube Syns.: Lecanora demissa, L. subolivascens (Arup & Grube 1999)
diphasia (Tuck.) Wetmore Syns.: Lecanora diphasia, Blastenia diphasia
diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta Syn.: Lecania arctica
dispersa B. de Lesd.
durietzii H. Magn
epiphora (Taylor) Dodge (Wetmore 2004a)
*epithallina Lynge
[Candelariella epixantha (Ach.) Sandst.]
erythrantha (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2007b)
eugyra
(Tuck.) Zahlbr.
exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
feracissima H. Magn.
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr.
ferrugineofusca (Vainio) H. Magn.
flavogranulosa Arup
flavorubescens (Hudson) J. R. Laundon
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
floridana (Tuck.) S. Tucker Syn.: Lecanora floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier
fraxinea I. M. Lamb
fulvolutea (Nyl.) Jatta (Thomson 1997)
furfuracea H. Magn. (Wetmore 2004a)
galactophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
granularis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2004b)
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Jatta
*grimmiae (Nyl.) H. Olivier
groenlandica Lynge
holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A. E. Wade
ignea Arup
impolita Arup
inconspecta Arup
insularis Poelt
invadens Lynge (Thomson 1997)
jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr.
kamczatica (Savicz) Savicz  (Søchting 2004)
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
lithophila H. Magn.
litoricola Brodo
livida (Hepp) Jatta
lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd.
ludificans Arup
luteoalba (Turner) Th. Fr. Syn.: Candelariella luteoalba
luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. luteominia
luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup
marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup
marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta  (Knudsen & La Doux 2005)
microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse
microthallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr.
[Pyrenodesmia montana B. de Lesd.]
nashii Nav.-Ros., Gaya & Hladun (Kudsen & La Doux 2005)

neonii B. de Lesd.
neotropica Wetmore
nivalis (Körber) Th. Fr.
[Blastenia novomexicana Fink]
obesimarginata Søchting  (Søchting 2004)
obliterans (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss.
oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore Syns.: Apatoplaca oblongula, Lecidea oblongula
obscurella (Körber) Th. Fr.
oleicola (Steiner) v.d. Boom & Breuss (Goward et al. 1996)
oregona H. Magn.
oxfordensis Fink
parvula Wetmore
parviloba Wetmore (Wetmore 2003)
peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse Syn.: Pyrenodesmia elaeodes
persimilis Wetm. (Wetmore 2004b)
phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
phyllidizans Wetmore (Wetmore 2003)
pinicola H. Magn.
pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta
pygmaea Wetmore (Wetmore 2007a)
quercicola H. Magn.
rosei Hasse
rubelliana (Ach.) Lojka
[Blastenia rubrofusca B. de Lesd.]
saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin
saxifragarum Poelt
schaereri (Flörke) Zahlbr.
schoeferi Poelt (Wetmore 2007a)
scopularis (Nyl.) Lettau
sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Maheu & A. Gillet
sipeana H. Magn.
sonorae Wetmore (Wetmore 1996)
sorocarpa (Vainio) Zahlbr.
spaldingii Zahlbr.
spitsbergensis H. Magn.
squamosa (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
stanfordensis H. Magn.
stantonii W. A. Weber ex Arup
stellata Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
stipitata Wetmore (Wetmore 1999)
subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr.
subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2003)
tetraspora (Nyl.) H. Olivier
texana Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
tiroliensis Zahlbr.
tominii (Savicz) Ahlner (Wetmore 2001)
tornoënsis H. Magn.
trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
ulcerosa Coppins & James (Wetmore 2004b)
urceolata B. de Lesd.
variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg.
velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz
verrucosa Hasse
verruculifera (Vainio) Zahlbr.
vitellinula (Nyl.) H. Olivier
wetmorei Nimis, Poelt & Tretiach
wrightii (Tuck.) Fink
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr.
amabilis Zahlbr. = C. pellodella
arizonica E. Rudolph non H. Magn. = C. pellodella
atrocyanescens (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = misidentifications for North America
aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = C. flavorubescens
bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. = C. luteominea var. bolanderi
bracteata (Hoffm.) Jatta = Fulgensia bracteata
bryochrysion Poelt = C. xanthostigmoidea
caesiorufa (Wibel) Flagey = removed as a nomen confusum (Wetmore 1996)
caesiorufella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. phaeocarpella
callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. = C. aurantia
castellana (Räsänen) Poelt  If treated as separate from C. invadens as done by e.g. Alstrup (1991), this species has not yet been reported for North America
cinnamomea (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = C. ammiospila
constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Edrudia constipans
crenularia (With.) J. R. Laundon = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
diplacia (Ach.) Riddle = doesn't occur N of Mexico (Wetmore 1994)
discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. saxicola
discoidalis (Vainio) Lynge = C. ammiospila
discolor (Willey) Fink = C. xanthostigmoidea (Wetmore 2001)
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. = Xanthoria elegans
epiphyta Lynge = C. xanthostigmoidea (Søchting & Tønsberg 1997)
erythrella (Ach.) Kieffer = C. flavovirescens
festiva (Ach.) Zwackh = C. crenularia, but North American records incorrect according to Wetmore (1996)
fulgens (Sw.) Körber = Fulgensia fulgens
gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = C. cerina
gloriae sensu Aptroot (1996) non Werner & Llimona = C. verruculifera (Arup 1997)
herbidella (Hue) H. Magn. = misidentifications for North America (Wetmore 2004a)
herrei Hasse = C. atrosanguinea
intermedia (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1999)
irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = C. subsoluta
laeta H. Magn. = C. luteominia var. luteominia
lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey = C. arenaria
leucoraea (Ach. ex Flörke) Branth = C. sinapisperma
modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink = C. subsoluta
murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola
paulsenii (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
pyracea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = C. holocarpa
sarcopisioides (Körber) Zahlbr. = C. obscurella
scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn. = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
sorediata (Vainio) Du Rietz = Xanthoria sorediata
splendens (Darb.) Zahlbr. = Xanthoria elegans var. splendens
stillicidiora (Vahl) Lynge = C. cerina
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Candelina submexicana
subnigricans H. Magn. = C. atrosanguinea
subolivacea (Th. Fr.) Lynge = C. tiroliensis
teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
thallincola (Wedd.) Du Rietz Not in North America
ulmorum (Fink) Fink = C. cerina (Wetmore 2007b)
vicaria H. Magn.
= C. kamczatica

CALOPLACOPSIS (Zahlbr.) B. de Lesd. = CANDELARIELLA
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana

CALVITIMELA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
aglaea
(Sommerf.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea aglaea, Tephromela aglaea

armeniaca (DC.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea armeniaca, Tephromela armeniaca
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea testaceoatra, L. arctogena, Tephromela testaceoatra

CAMPYLOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.
amylosporum (Vainio) R. C. Harris = Polymeridium proponens
nitidum Zahlbr. = Laurera megasperma

CANDELARIA A. Massal.
concolor (Dickson) Stein
concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham
fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.

CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg.
aggregata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
antennaria Räsänen
arctica (Körber) R. Sant.
athallina (Wedd.) Du Rietz
aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
biatorina M. Westb. (Westberg 2007c)
borealis M. Westb.
(Westberg 2007b)
californica M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
citrina B. de Lesd.
complanata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.
corallizoides M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
deppeanae M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
dispersa
(Räsänen) Hakul.
efflorescens R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck
immarginata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
kansuensis H. Magn. (Westberg 2007a)
kuusamoensis Räsänen var. areolata Hakul.
lutella (Vainio) Räsänen
placodizans (Nyl.) H. Magn.
plumbea Poelt & Vězda
reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
stenospora B. de Lesd.
subdeflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.
xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau
cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. = C. aurella
crenulata (Wahlenb.) Zahlbr. = C. arctica
deflexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. aurella, but N. American reports are mostly C. antennaria (Westberg 2007a)
epixantha auct. = C. aurella
epixantha (Ach.) Sandst. = a Caloplaca sp.
holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Solenopsora holophaea
hudsonica Hakul. = C. canadensis
luteoalba (Turner) Lettau = Caloplaca luteoalba
medians (Nyl.) Sm. North American reports probably refer to Candelina submexicana
submexicana B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana
terrigena Räsänen = C. citrina (Westberg 2007a)

CANDELINA Poelt
mexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt Syns.: Caloplacopsis submexicana, Candelariella submexicana, Caloplaca submexicana. North American reports of Candelariella medians (Nyl.) Sm. probably belong here.

CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale = PARMOTREMA  (Blanco et al. 2005)
conferenda (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema conferendum

haitiensis (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema haitiensis
neotropica (Kurok.) Elix = Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Elix = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Elix = Parmotrema subtinctorium

CANOPARMELIA Elix & Hale
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001) Syns: Paraparmelia alabamensis, Parmelia alabamensis
amabilis Heiman & Elix (Heiman & Elix 1999)
amazonica (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia amazonica, Pseudoparmelia amazonica
caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia caroliniana, Pseudoparmelia caroliniana
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia crozalsiana, Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia cryptochlorophaea, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia martinicana, Pseudoparmelia martinicana
salacinifera (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia salacinifera, Pseudoparmelia salacinifera
texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia texana, Pseudoparmelia texana

CAPRONIA Sacc.
*peltigerae (Fuckel) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)

CARBACANTHOGRAPHIS Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)
marcescens (Fée) Staiger & Kalb Syn.: Graphina marcescens, Graphis marcescens (Staiger 2002)
candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb Syn.: Graphis candidata (Staiger 2002)

CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel
*aggregantula (Müll. Arg.) Diederich & Triebel (Goward et al. 1996)
assimilis (Körber) Hafellner & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea assimilis
atronivea (Arnold) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea atronivea
latypizodes (Nyl.) Knoph & Rambold (Knoph et al. 2004) Syns.:  Lecidea austrocalifornica, L. subplebeia (Knudsen et al. 2008b),  L. subcontinuior, L. amabilis, Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica
*supersparsa (Nyl.)
Hertel (Diederich 2003)
*vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vorticosa
intrusa (Th. Fr.) Rambold & Triebel (Hinds et al. 2002) = Scoliciosporum intrusum

CATAPYRENIUM Flotow (Breuss 1996)
cinereum (Pers.) Körber Syn.: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein
globosum J. W. Thomson
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Endopyrenium crustaceum, E. granulosum, Dermatocarpon granulosum
psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant.
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant.
squamellum (Nyl. ex Hasse) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Dermatocarpon squamellum
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides
andicolum Breuss = Placidium andicola
caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss = Placidium chilense
compactum (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Verrucaria compacta (Breuss 2007b)
congestum Breuss & McCune = Heteroplacidium congestum
heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. = Placidium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium lacinulatum
michelii (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Placidium michelii
norvegicum Breuss = Placidium norvegicum
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson (p.p.) = Verrucaria inficiens Breuss (Breuss 1998)
podolepis Breuss = Heteroplacidium podolepis
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium rufescens
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium squamulosum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium arboreum
umbrinum Breuss = Clavascidium umbrinum
waltheri (Kremp.) Körber = Involucropyrenium waltheri
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium stanfordii

CATILLARIA A. Massal.
chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.
contristans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Miller et al. 2005)

cupressi Zahlbr.
endochroma (Fée) Zahlbr.
erysiboides (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Arthonia carneorufa (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavens (Willey) Fink
glauconigrans (Tuck.)
Hasse
lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
muscicola Lynge
nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler Syn.: Bacidia declinis
subnegans (Nyl.) Boistel
subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
terrena (Willey) Zahlbr.
tristis (Müll. Arg.)
Arnold
arctica Lynge = Toninia philippea
athallina (Hepp) Hellbom = Toninia athallina
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Catinaria atropurpurea
bahusiensis (Blomb.) Th. Fr. = Tylothallia biformigera
biformigera (Leighton) H. Magn. = Tylothallia biformigera
bouteillei (Desmaz.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei
columbiana (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Megalaria columbiana
crystallifera R. Kilias = Toninia lutosa
franciscana (Tuck.) Herre = Lecania franciscana
globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. = Biatora globulosa
graniformis (K. G. Hagen) Vainio = Cliostomum corrugatum
griffithii (Sm.) Malme = Cliostomum griffithii
groenlandica Lynge = a Lecania sp.
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.)
Körber = Megalaria grossa
heeri (Hepp) H. Olivier = Scutula heeri (Hepp) Trevisan, but not in North America (Triebel et al. 1997)
jemtlandica Th. Fr. & Almq. = Megalaria jemtlandica
kansuensis H. Magn. = Toninia philippea
laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Megalaria laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Riddle = Catillochroma leptocheila
micrococca (Körber) Th. Fr. = Micarea micrococca (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
philippea (Mont.) A. Massal. = Toninia philippea (Thomson 1997)
prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Micarea prasina
pulverea (Borrer) Lettau = Megalaria pulverea
sculpturata H. Magn. = Toninia sculpturata
sphaeroides (A. Massal.) Schuler = Mycobilimbia pilularis
subnitida Hellbom = Toninia subnitida
subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = a European species
superflua (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = ?Megalaria grossa (Printzen 1995)
tricolor auct. = Cliostomum griffithii
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Arnold = Toninia subnitida

CATILLOCHROMA Kalb (Kalb 2007)
albocincta (Degel.) Kalb  Syn.: Catinaria albocincta (Kalb 2007)
leptocheila (Tuck.) Kalb Syn.: Catillaria leptocheila (Kalb 2007)

CATINARIA Vainio
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Vězda & Poelt Syn.: Catillaria atropurpurea
subcorallina (Zahlbr.) Brako Syn.: Phyllopsora subcorallina
albocincta Degel. = Catillochroma albocincta
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Vainio = Megalaria grossa
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Degel. = Megalaria laureri
leucoplaca auct. = Megalaria grossa
versicolor (Fée) Sipman = Lopezaria versicolor

CATOLECHIA Flotow
wahlenbergii (Ach.) Körber Syns.: Buellia wahlenbergii, B. pulchella

CAVERNULARIA Degel.
hultenii Degel.
lophyrea (Ach.) Degel.

CECIDONIA Triebel & Rambold
*umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea umbonella
*xenophana (Körber) Triebel & Rambold (Hinds et al. 2002)  Syn.: Lecidea columnata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)

CELIDIUM Tul. = ARTHONIA
*varians Arnold = Arthonia varians (Hawksworth 2003)

CELOTHELIUM A. Massal. (Harris 1995a)
aciculiferum (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)

CEPHALOPHYSIS (Hertel) H. Kilias
leucospila (Anzi) H. Kilias & Scheid. Syn.: Lecidea ultima

CERCIDOSPORA Körber
*caudata Kernst.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*cecidiiformans Grube & Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002)

#decolorella (Nyl.) O. E. Erikss. & J. Z. Yue
*epicarphinea (Nyl.) Grube & Hafellner
*epipolytropa (Mudd) Arnold
*lobothalliae Nav.-Ros. & Calat.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*soror Obermayer & Triebel  (McCune & Ponzetti 2005)

*stereocaulorum (Arnold) Hafellner (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*ulothii Körber
*verrucosaria (Lindsay) Arnold  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*xanthoriae (Wedd.) R. Sant. (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)

CETRADONIA J.-C. Wei & Ahti (Wei & Ahti 2002)
linearis (Evans) J.-C. Wei & Ahti Syn.: Gymnoderma linearis, Cladonia linearis

CETRARIA Ach.
aculeata (Schreber) Fr. Syn.: Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata
arenaria Kärnefelt
ericetorum Opiz subsp. ericetorum
ericetorum subsp. reticulata (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica (L.) Ach. subsp. islandica
islandica subsp. crispiformis (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica subsp. orientalis (Asahina) Kärnefelt
kamczatica Savicz
laevigata Rass.
muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt Syn.: Coelocaulon muricatum
nigricans Nyl.
odontella (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Cornicularia odontella, Coelocaulon odontellum
agnata (Nyl.) Kristinsson = Melanelia agnata
alaskana C. Culb. & Culb. = Cetrelia alaskana
andrejevii Oksner = Arctocetraria andrejevii
arborialis (Zahlbr. ) Howard = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
atlantica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Platismatia tuckermanii
aurescens Tuck. = Ahtiana aurescens
californica Tuck. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen = Vulpicida canadensis
chicitae Culb. = Cetrelia chicitae
chlorophylla (Willd.) Vainio = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
chrysantha Tuck. = Asahinea chrysantha
ciliaris Ach. = Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
ciliaris Ach. var. halei (Culb. & C. Culb.) Ahti = Tuckermannopsis americana
commixta (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Melanelia commixta
coralligera (W. A. Weber) Hale = Tuckermanella coralligera
crispa (Ach.) Nyl. = C. ericetorum subsp. ericetorum
cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. = Flavocetraria cucullata
culbersonii Hale = Melanelia culbersonii
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Nyl. = Cetrariella delisei
elenkinii Krog = Arctocetraria nigricascens
fahlunensis (L.) Schreber = Melanelia commixta
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Cetrariella fastigiata
fendleri (Nyl.) Tuck. = Tuckermanella fendleri
glauca (L.) Ach. = Platismatia glauca
halei Culb. & C. Culb. = Tuckermannopsis americana
hepatizon (Ach.) Vainio = Melanelia hepatizon
herrei Imshaug = Platismatia herrei
hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella delisei
idahoensis Essl. = Esslingeriana idahoensis
inermis (Nyl.) Krog = Tuckermannopsis inermis
juniperina (L.) Ach.
= North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
lacunosa Ach. = Platismatia lacunosa
lacunosa Ach. var. atlantica Tuck. = Platismatia tuckermanii
merrillii Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia merrillii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin = Arctocetraria nigricascens
nivalis (L.) Ach. = Flavocetraria nivalis
norvegica (Lynge) Du Rietz = Platismatia norvegica
oakesiana Tuck. = Allocetraria oakesiana
orbata (Nyl.) Fink = Tuckermannopsis orbata
pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Gray = Vulpicida pinastri
platyphylla Tuck. = Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
polyschiza (Nyl.) Jatta = Melanelia hepatizon
richardsonii Hooker = Masonhalea richardsonii
scholanderi Llano = Asahinea scholanderi
scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
scutata auct. = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
sibirica H. Magn. = Arctocetraria nigricascens
simmonsii Krog = Arctocetraria andrejevii
stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Platismatia stenophylla
subalpina Imshaug = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
tilesii Ach. = Vulpicida tilesii
tuckermanii Oakes non Herre = Platismatia tuckermanii
tuckermanii Herre non Oakes = Platismatia herrei
viridis Schwein. = Vulpicida viridis
weberi Essl. = Tuckermanella weberi

CETRARIASTRUM Sipman
catawbiense (Degel.) Culb. & C. Culb. = Everniastrum catawbiense

CETRARIELLA Kärnefelt & Thell
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria delisei, C. hiascens
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria fastigiata

CETRELIA Culb. & C. Culb.
alaskana (C. Culb. & Culb.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria alaskana
cetrarioides (Duby) Culb. & C. Culb.
chicitae (Culb.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chicitae
monachorum (Zahlbr.) Culb. & C. Culb.
olivetorum (Nyl.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syns.: Parmelia olivetorum, P. olivaria

CHAENOTHECA Th. Fr.
brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe sulphurea
brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Coniocybe gracilescens
cinerea (Pers.) Tibell
ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
floridana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
furfuracea (L.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe furfuracea
gracilenta (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & Middelborg  Syn.:  Cybebe gracilenta (Tibell 2001)
gracillima (Vainio) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe gracillima
hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hygrophila Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
laevigata Nádv.
nitidula Tibell (Tibell & Koffman 2002)
olivaceorufa Vainio (Rikkinen 1998)
phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
servitii Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
sphaerocephala Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
stemonea (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr.
trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
xyloxena Nádv.
carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau = C. chlorella
melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh = C. ferruginea
savonica (Räsänen) Tibell = Chaenothecopsis savonica
schaereri (De Not.) Zahlbr. = C. cinerea
sulphurea (Retz.) Middleborg & J.-E. Mattsson = C. brachypoda
trichialis var. cinerea (Pers.) Blomb. & Forss. = C. cinerea

CHAENOTHECOPSIS Vainio
+asperopoda Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*brevipes Tibell
*consociata (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt
+debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell
+edbergii Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*epithallina Tibell
+exilis Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+haematopus Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+irregularis Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+nana Tibell
*nigra Tibell (tentative record, Harris & Lendemer 2005)
+norstictica R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
*ochroleuca (Körber) Tibell & K. Ryman (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*pilosa Tibell & Kalb (Harris 1995a)
#pusilla (Ach.) A. F. W. Schmidt Syns.: Calicium pusillum, C. floerkei, C. subpusillum, C. asikkalense
#pusiola (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Calicium pusiolum, Mycocalicium pusiolum
+rappii (Nádv.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+rubescens Vainio
*rubina Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+savonica (Räsänen) Tibell Syns.: Mycocalicium savonicum, Chaenotheca savonica
+sitchensis Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
*subparoica (Nyl.) Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+tasmanica Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+thujae Rikkinen (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+tsugae Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
+ussuriensis Titov (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
*viridialba (Kremp.) A. F. W. Schmidt
#viridireagens (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt
#lignicola (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt = C. pusiola
#subpusilla (Vainio) Tibell = C. pusilla

CHAPSA A. Massal. (Frisch 2006)
alborosella (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Ocellularia alborosella, Thelotrema alborosellum (Frisch 2006)
leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Graphina leptocarpa, Thelotrema leptocarpum (Frisch 2006)
platycarpa (Tuck.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Thelotrema platycarpoides, T. platycarpum (Frisch 2006)

CHEIROMYCINA B. Sutton
flabelliformis B. Sutton (Tønsberg 2002)

CHIODECTON Ach.
malmei Thor
ochroleucum Zahlbr.
subochroleucum Fink
californicum Tuck. = Llimonaea californica
inscriptum (Nyl.) Fink = Sclerophyton inscriptum
montagnaei Tuck. = Cryptothecia striata
perplexum Nyl. = Syncesia graphica (Tehler 1996)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Nyl. = Cryptothecia rubrocincta
sanguineum (Sw.) Vainio = Cryptothecia rubrocincta
sphaerale Ach. Misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)

CHIONOSPHAERA Cox
*apobasidialis Cox (According to Diederich [1996, and pers. comm.], only non-lichenicolous specimens are known for North America, and the lichenicolous specimens from Europe may represent a distinct species.)

CHRISMOFULVEA Marbach
dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia dialyta (Marbach 2000)
pinastri (Erichsen) Marbach Syn.: Buellia pinastri (Marbach 2000)
rubifaciens (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia rubifaciens (Marbach 2000)

CHROMATOCHLAMYS Trevisan = THELENELLA Nyl.
muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt var. muscorum = Thelenella muscorum
muscorum var. octospora (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt = Thelenella muscorum var. octosporum

CHRYSOPSORA M. Choisy
testacea (Hoffm.) M. Choisy = Protoblastenia testacea , but not in North American flora.

CHRYSOTHRIX Mont.
candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lepraria candelaris, L. flava, L. citrina sens. lat.
chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: Lepraria chlorina
chrysophthalma (P. James) P. James & J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 2002)
flavovirens Tønsberg (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
granulosa G. Thor  (Tønsberg 2004a)
insulizans R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
onokoensis (Wolle) R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
xanthina (Vainio) Kalb (Harris & Ladd 2008)

CIPOSIA Marbach
wheeleri (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia wheeleri (Marbach 2000)

CLADIDIUM Hafellner
bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan Syns: Lecanora thamnitis, L. bolanderi
thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner = C. bolanderi

CLADINA Nyl. = CLADONIA (Ahti & DePriest 2001)
aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia stellaris var. aberrans
alpestris (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia stellaris
arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
beringiana (Ahti) Trass = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
ciliata (Stirton) Trass var. ciliata = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M. J. Lai = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
conspicua Ahti = Cladonia conspicua
evansii (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia evansii
impexa B. de Lesd. = Cladonia portentosa
leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
mitis (Sandst.) Hustich = Cladonia mitis
pacifica (Ahti) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa (Dufour) Follmann = Cladonia portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
pseudoëvansii (Asahina) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia pseudoevansii
rangiferina (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia rangiferina
sandstedei (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia sandstedei
stellaris (Opiz) Brodo = Cladonia stellaris
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia stellaris var. aberrans
stygia (Fr.) Ahti = Cladonia stygia
submitis (A. Evans) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia submitis
subtenuis (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia subtenuis f. cinerea
tenuis (Flörke) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
terrae-novae (Ahti) Hale & Culb. = Cladonia terrae-novae

CLADONIA P. Browne
abbreviatula G. Merr.
acuminata (Ach.) Norrlin
alaskana A. Evans
albonigra Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
amaurocraea (Flörke) Schaerer
andereggii S. Hammer
anitae Culb. & C. Culb.
apodocarpa Robbins
arbuscula (Wallr.) Flotow Syn.: Cladina arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana Ahti Syn.: Cladina arbuscula subsp. beringiana
artuata S. Hammer
asahinae J. W. Thomson
atlantica A. Evans
bacilliformis (Nyl.) Glück
beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio
bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaerer
borealis S. Stenroos
boryi Tuck.
botryocarpa G. Merr.
botrytes (K. G. Hagen) Willd.
brevis (Sandst.)
Sandst.
buckii R. C. Harris
caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke
cariosa (Ach.) Sprengel
carneola (Fr.) Fr.
caroliniana Tuck.
cenotea (Ach.) Schaerer
cervicornis (Ach.) Flotow subsp. cervicornis
cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti
chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel
ciliata Stirton Syn.: Cladina ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti Syn.: Cladina ciliata var. tenuis
coccifera (L.)
Willd.
concinna Ahti & Goward (Ahti 2007)
coniocraea (Flörke) Sprengel
conspicua (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina conspicua
cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. cornuta
cornuta subsp. groenlandica (E. Dahl) Ahti
crispata (Ach.) Flotow var. crispata
crispata var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vainio
cristatella Tuck.
cryptochlorophaea Asahina
cyanipes (Sommerf.) Nyl.
cylindrica (A. Evans) A. Evans
dactylota Tuck.
dahliana Kristinsson
decorticata (Flörke) Sprengel
deformis (L.) Hoffm.
didyma (Fée) Vainio
didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vainio
digitata (L.) Hoffm.
dimorpha S. Hammer
dimorphoclada Robbins
diversa Asperges (Lendemer 2006)
ecmocyna Leighton subsp. ecmocyna
ecmocyna subsp. intermedia (Robbins) Ahti
ecmocyna subsp. occidentalis Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
evansii Abbayes Syn.: Cladina evansii
extracorticata S. Hammer
farinacea (Vainio) A. Evans
fimbriata (L.) Fr.
firma (Nyl.) Nyl.
floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
floridana Vainio
furcata (Hudson) Schrader
furcata subsp. subrangiformis (Scriba ex Sandst.) Pisút
glauca Flörke
graciliformis Zahlbr.
gracilis (L.) Willd. subsp. gracilis
gracilis subsp. elongata (Jacq.) Vainio
gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti
gracilis subsp. vulnerata Ahti
granulans Vainio
grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst.
hammeri Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
homosekikaica Nuno
humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon
hypoxantha Tuck.
imbricarica Kristinsson
incrassata Flörke
innominata Lendemer (Lendemer 2008)
jaliscana Ahti & Guzm.-Dáv. (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
kanewskii Oksner
labradorica Ahti & Brodo
lacryma S. Hammer (Hammer 2001)
leporina Fr.
luteoalba Wheldon & A. Wilson
macilenta Hoffm.
macilenta var. bacillaris (Genth) Schaerer
macroceras (Delise) Hav.
macrophylla (Schaerer) Stenh.
macrophyllodes Nyl.
magyarica Vainio
mateocyatha Robbins
maxima (Asahina) Ahti
merochlorophaea Asahina
merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea Sipman
metacorallifera Asahina
mitis Sandst. Syn.: Cladina mitis
multiformis G. Merr.
nana Vainio
nashii Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
nipponica Asahina
nitens Ahti (Ahti 2007)
norvegica Tønsberg & Holien
novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
ochrochlora Flörke
pachycladodes Vainio
parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.
perforata A. Evans
perlomera Kristinsson
petrophila R. C. Harris
peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon
phyllophora Hoffm.
piedmontensis G. Merr.
pleurota (Flörke) Schaerer
pocillum (Ach.) Grognot
poroscypha S. Hammer
portentosa (Dufour) Coem. Syn.: Cladina portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer
prostrata A. Evans
pseudalcicornis Asahina (Ahti 2007)
pseudoëvansii Asahina  Syn.: Cladina pseudoëvansii
psoromica J. P. Dey
pulvinella S. Hammer
pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laundon
rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Cladina rangiferina
rappii A. Evans
ravenelii Tuck.
robbinsii A. Evans
sandstedei Abbayes Syn.: Cladina sandstedei
santensis Tuck.
scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
simulata Robbins
singularis S. Hammer
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio
squamosa Hoffm.
squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Vainio
stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda Syn.: Cladina stellaris
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) ined.? Syn.: Cladina stellaris var. aberrans, Cladina aberrans
strepsilis (Ach.) Grognot
stricta (Nyl.) Nyl.
stygia (Fr.) Ruoss Syn.: Cladina stygia
subcariosa Nyl. (Ahti 2000)
subfimbriata Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
subfurcata (Nyl.) Arnold
submitis A. Evans Syn.: Cladina submitis
subradiata (Vainio) Sandst.
subsetacea Robbins ex A. Evans
subsquamosa Kremp.
subtenuis (Abbayes) Mattick Syn.: Cladina subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea Ahti Syn.: Cladina subtenuis f. cinerea
subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg.
sulphurina (Michaux) Fr.
symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr. (Ahti 2000)
terrae-novae Ahti Syn.: Cladina terrae-novae
thiersii S. Hammer
thomsonii Ahti
transcendens (Vainio) Vainio
trassii Ahti (Ahti 1998)
turgida Hoffm.
uliginosa (Ahti) Ahti (Ahti 1998)
umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti
uncialis (L.) F. H. Wigg.
verruculosa (Vainio) Ahti
wainioi Savicz
aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb. = Cladonia stellaris var. aberrans
acuminata var. norrlinii (Vainio) Lynge = C. acuminata var. acuminata
alpestris (L.) Rabenh. = C. stellaris
alpestris f. aberrans Abbayes = C. stellaris var. aberrans
alpicola (Flotow) Vainio = C. macrophylla
anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James = C. ramulosa
arbuscula subsp. mitis = C. mitis
bacillaris Nyl. = C. macilenta var. bacillaris
balfourii auct. = C. subradiata
balfourii Crombie = C. macilenta
blakei Robbins = C. coccifera
calycantha Delise ex Nyl. = C. rappii for North American records.
capitata (Michaux) Sprengel = C. peziziformis
carassensis Vainio = misidentifications for North America
clavulifera Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
conista A. Evans = C. humilis
conistea auct. = C. humilis
conoidea Ahti = C. humilis
cornutoradiata (Navás) Sandst. = C. subulata
degenerans (Flörke) Sprengel = C. phyllophora
delessertii Vainio = C. subfurcata
delicata auct.
= C. parasitica
elongata auct. non (Jacq.) Hoffm. = largely misidentifications for North America, possibly C. macroceras or C. maxima,
elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. = C. gracilis var. elongata
flabelliformis Vainio = C. polydactyla
flavescens Vainio = misidentifications for North America
foliacea (Hudson) Willd. = misidentifications for North America
furcata subsp. subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata (fide T. Ahti)
gonecha (Ach.) Asahina = C. sulphurina
gracilescens auct. = C. stricta
gracilis subsp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti = C. gracilis subsp. elongata
herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick = C. furcata
hookeri Tuck. = C. bellidiflora
hookeri sensu J. W. Thomson = C. graciliformis
humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer = C. humilis
invisa Robbins = C. ochrochlora
japonica Vainio = C. crispata
lepidota auct. = C. stricta
leptothallina G. Merr. = C. peziziformis
linearis A. Evans = Cetradonia linearis
macroptera Räsänen = C. scabriuscula (fide T. Ahti)
major (K. G. Hagen) Sandst. = C. fimbriata
mitrula Tuck. = C. peziziformis
nanodes Robbins ex Sandst. = nom. invalid., identity uncertain
nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold = C. rei
norrlinii Vainio = C. acuminata var. acuminata
papillaria (Ehrh.) Hoffm. = Pycnothelia papillaria
pityrea (Flörke) Fr. = C. ramulosa
polycarpia G. Merr. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polycarpoides Nyl. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polydactyla (Flörke) Sprengel = misidentifications for North America, mostly refers to C. umbricola (fide T. Ahti)
pseudodigitata Gyelnik = C. coccifera
pseudohondoensis Asahina = misidentifications for North America
pseudomacilenta Asahina = misidentifications for North America
pseudorangiformis Asahina = C. wainioi
pseudostellata Asahina = C. uncialis
psoromica J. P. Dey = C. dimorphoclada Robbins (Ahti 2000)
rangiformis Hoffm. = not in North America
rappii var. exilior (Abbayes) Ahti = C. rappii var. rappii
rei Schaerer = Cl subulata (Spier & Aptroot 2007)
schofieldii Ahti & Brodo (Brodo & Ahti 1996) = C. pseudalcicornis
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
stricta var. uliginosa Ahti = C. uliginosa
subcervicornis (Vainio) Kernst.
= misidentifications for North America, known in Greenland
subclavulifera Asahina = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata
subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Crombie nom. illeg.
= C. squamosa var. subsquamosa
subsubulata Nyl. = misidentifications for North America
sylvatica auct. (nom. rej. prop.) = C arbuscula
theiophila Asahina = C. vulcani, but not present in North America
verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
vulcani Savicz = misidentifications for North America
vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi = C. didyma var. vulcanica
yunnana (Vainio) Abbayes ex J. C. Wei & Y. M. Jiang (nom. inval.) = misidentifications for North America

CLATHROPORINA Müll. Arg.
isidiifera R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
subpungens (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
tetracerae (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
amygdalina sensu Fink = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a).
confinis Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)
diphloea Zahlbr. = Laurera megasperma
exiguella Zahlbr. = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a)
nuculastrum Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)

CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellem.
immersa (Hoffm.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syn.: Lecidea calcivora
monticola (Ach. ex Schaerer) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lecidea monticola, Protoblastenia monticola

CLAUZADEANA Cl. Roux
macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold (Hertel 1991) Syn.: Lecanora morioides

CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
umbrinum (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium umbrinum

CLIOSTOMUM Fr.
corrugatum (Ach.: Fr.) Fr. Syn.: Catillaria graniformis
flavidulum Hafellner & K. Kalb (Tønsberg 1997)
griffithii (Sm.) Coppins Syns.: Catillaria griffithii, C. tricolor auct.
leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg
vitellinum Gowan
graniforme (K. G. Hagen) Coppins = C. corrugatum
luteolum Gowan = C. leprosum
pallens (Kullhem) S. Ekman = Biatora pallens

CLYPEOCOCCUM D. Hawksw.
*grossum (Körber) D. Hawksw.
*hypocenomycis D. Hawksw.

COCCOCARPIA Pers.
domingensis Vainio
erythroxyli (Sprengel) Swinscow & Krog
palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D. J. Galloway
stellata Tuck. Syn.: Parmeliella stellata
asterella (Nyl.) Vainio = C. stellata
cronia (Tuck.) Vainio = C. palmicola
incisa Pers. = C. erythroxyli
parmelioides (Hooker) Tuck. ex M. A. Curtis = C. erythroxyli
pellita (Ach.)
Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America, but known from Cuba & Mexico

COCCOTREMA Müll. Arg.
maritimum Brodo
pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo Syns.: Ochrolechia pacifica, Perforaria minuta

COELOCAULON Link
aculeatum (Schreber) Link = Cetraria aculeata
divergens (Ach.) R. Howe = Bryocaulon divergens
muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon = Cetraria muricata
odontellum (Ach.) R. Howe = Cetraria odontella

COENOGONIUM Ehrenb.
disjunctum Nyl.
implexum Nyl.
interplexum Nyl.
interpositum Nyl.
linkii Ehrenb.
luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking  Syn.: Dimerella luteum (Lücking & Kalb 2000)
missouriense J. Davis
moniliforme Tuck.
pineti (Ach.) ined.  Syn. Dimerella pineti, D. diluta

COLLEMA F. H. Wigg.
auriforme (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon
bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. Syn.: Collemodes bachmanianum
callibotrys Tuck.
callopismum A. Massal.
callopismum var. rhyparodes (Nyl.) Degel.
ceraniscum Nyl.
coccophorum Tuck.
conglomeratum Hoffm.
conglomeratum var. corynesporum (Malme) Degel.
conglomeratum var. crassiusculum (Malme) Degel. Syn.: Synechoblastus pycnocarpus
crispum (Hudson) F. H. Wigg.
cristatum (L.) F. H. Wigg.
cristatum var. marginale (Hudson) Degel.
curtisporum Degel.
dichotomum (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon
fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Synechoblastus aggregatus
fecundum Degel.
flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Synechoblastus rupestris
fragrans (Sm.) Ach.
furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz
furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel.
fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laundon
glebulentum (Nyl. ex Crombie) Degel.
kauaiense H. Magn.
leptaleum Tuck.
limosum (Ach.) Ach.
multipartitum Sm.
nigrescens (Hudson) DC.
occultatum Bagl.
polycarpon Hoffm. Syns.: Synechoblastus polycarpus, S. wyomingensis
pulcellum Ach.
pulcellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel.
pulcellum var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel.
pustulatum Ach.
ryssoleum (Tuck.) A. Schneider
subflaccidum Degel.
subnigrescens Degel.
subparvum Degel.
tenax (Sw.) Ach.
tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel.
tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel.
tenax var. crustaceum (Kremp.) Degel.
tenax var. substellatum (H. Magn.) Degel.
texanum Tuck. Syn.: Synechoblastus texanus
thamnodes Riddle
undulatum Laurer ex Flotow
undulatum var. granulosum Degel.
arcticum Lynge = C. ceraniscum
auriculatum Hoffm. = C. auriforme
cheileum (Ach.) Ach. = C. crispum
cristatellum Tuck. = C. tenax
cyrtaspis Tuck. = C. conglomeratum var. crassiusculum
dubium B. de Lesd. = C. coccophorum
fayettense Fink = C. pustulatum
fluviatile (Hudson) Steudel = C. dichotomum
furvum (Ach.) Ach. = C. fuscovirens
glaucescens Hoffm. = C. limosum
granosum auct. = C. auriforme
laciniatum Nyl. = C. texanum
leucocarpum Hooker & Taylor = misidentifications for North America
leucopeplum (Tuck.) A. Schneider = C. pulcellum var. leucopeplum
microphyllum Ach. = C. fragrans
microptychium Tuck. = C. leptaleum
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = C. coccophorum
nylanderianum Zahlbr. = C. texanum
ohioense (Fink) Zahlbr. = Collema conglomeratum Hoffm.
plicatile (Ach.) Ach. = Leptogium plicatile
pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. = C. tenax
pycnocarpum Nyl. = C. conglomeratum var. crassiusculum
rugosum Kremp. Syn.: C. subfurvum Not known from North America.
stenophyllum Nyl. = C. dichotomum
subfurfuraceum Degel. = C. furfuraceum var. luzonense
subfurvum sensu Degelius = C. subflaccidum Degel.
subfurvum (Müll. Arg.)
Degel. = C. rugosum, but this taxon is not known from North America
tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. = C. fuscovirens
verruciforme auct. = excluded as doubtful

COLLEMODES Fink = COLLEMA
bachmanianum Fink = Collema bachmanianum

COLLEMOPSIDIUM Nyl.
angermannicum (Degel.) A. Nordin Syn.: Pyrenocollema strontianense (Nordin 2002)
bryospilum (Nyl.) Coppins  (Fryday 2004a)
elegans (R. Sant.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Pyrenocollema elegans
halodytes (Nyl.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Pyrenocollema halodytes
sublitoralis (Leighton) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Pyrenocollema sublitorale

COLLEMOPSIS Nyl. ex Crombie
segregata Nyl. ex Hasse = Lempholemma chalazanum

COMBEA De Not.
californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer = Schizopelte californica

CONIAMBIGUA Etayo & Diederich
*phaeographidis Etay & Diederich (Diederich 2003)

CONIARTHONIA Grube
gregarina (Willey) Grube (Grube 2001) Syns: Arthonia gregarina, Arthothelium gregarinum
pyrrhula (Nyl.) Grube (Grube 2001) Syn.: Arthonia pyrrhula

CONIOCYBE Ach.
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Chaenotheca furfuracea
gracilescens Willey = Chaenotheca chysocephala (Selva 2004)
gracillima Vainio = Chaenotheca gracillima
nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold non Tuck. & Mont. = Sclerophora nivea
pallida (Pers.) Fr. = Sclerophora nivea
sulphurea (Retz.) Nyl. = Chaenotheca brachypoda

CONIOCYBOPSIS Vainio
arenaria (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Vainio = Microcalicium arenarium

CONOTREMA Tuck.
urceolatum (Ach.)
Tuck.
albonigrum Zahlbr. = Ocellularia stictidea

CORA Fr. = DICTYONEMA
pavonia (Sw.) Fr. = Dictyonema glabratum

CORISCIUM Vainio = LICHENOMPHALIA
viride (Ach.) Vainio = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana

CORNICULARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
normoerica (Gunn.) Du Rietz
aculeata (Schreber) Ach. = Cetraria aculeata
californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia californica
divergens Ach. = Bryocaulon divergens
fibrillosa (Ach.) Halsey = Bryoria furcellata
muricata (Ach.) Ach. = Cetraria muricata
odontella (Ach.) Westend. = Cetraria odontella
pseudosatoana Asahina = Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum

CORNUTISPORA Piroz.
*ciliata Kalb (Cole & Hawksw. 2001)
*intermedia Punith & D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*lichenicola D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (Kalb et al. 1995)

CORTICIFRAGA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*chugachiana Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*fuckelii (Rehm) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. Syn.: Phragmonaevia fuckelii
*peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii Zhurb. & Zavarzin (Zhurbenko 2007a)

CRATIRIA Marbach (Marbach 2000)

americana (Fée) Kalb & Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia modesta

lauricassiae (Fée) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia lauricassiae
melanochlora (Kremp.) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia melanochlora

CRESPONEA
Egea & Torrente
chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis chloroconia
flava (Vainio) Egea & Torrente (Harris 1995a)
leprieurii (Mont.) Egea & Torrente
premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis premnea
premnea var. saxicola (Leighton) Egea & Torrente
proximata (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente

CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
gossypina (Sw.) A. Massal.
pyxinoides Nyl.
aliciae Hue = Lepraria lobificans
americana B. de Lesd. = Lepraria lobificans
moxleyi Plitt = non-lichenized Septobasidium sp.
neglecta (Nyl.) Hue = Lepraria neglecta

CRYPTOLECHIA A. Massal.
carneolutea (Turner) A. Massal. Syns.: Gyalectina carneolutea, Gyalecta carneolutea

CRYPTOTHECIA Stirton
rubrocincta (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Thor Syns: Chiodecton rubrocinctum, C. sanguineum, Herpothallon sanguineum
striata Thor Syn.: Chiodecton montagnei

CRYPTOTHELE Th. Fr.
granuliformis (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Pyrenopsidium granuliforme
permiscens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Pyrenopsis phylliscina

CULBERSONIA Essl. (Esslinger 2000a)
nubila (Moberg) Essl. (Esslinger 2002b)
americana Essl.= C. nubila

CYBEBE Tibell = CHAENOTHECA (Tibell 2001)
gracilenta (Ach.) Tibell = Chaenotheca gracilenta (Tibell 2001)

CYPHELIOPSIS Vainio = THELOMMA
bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Thelomma mammosum

CYPHELIUM Ach.
brachysporum Nádv.
brunneum W. A. Weber
chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
inquinans (Sm.) Trevisan
karelicum (Vainio) Räsänen
lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forss.
pinicola Tibell
*sessile (Pers.) Trevisan
tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostrup) Erichsen
andersonii Herre = Thelomma californicum
caliciforme (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Thelomma occidentale for most North American records
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma californicum
carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma carolinianum
farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre = Thelomma californicum
occidentale Herre = Thelomma occidentale
ocellatum (Körber) Trevisan = Thelomma ocellatum
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Texosporium sancti-jacobi
tigillare subsp. notarisii (Tul.) W. A. Weber = C. notarisii
ventricosulum (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = C. inquinans

CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff (Diederich 1996)
*hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti (Diederich 1996)
*usneicola Diederich & Alstrup (Diederich 1996)

CYSTOCOLEUS Thwaites
ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

DACAMPIA A. Massal.
*engeleana (Sauter) A. Massal. (Henssen 1995)
hookeri (Borrer) A. Massal.
*rufescentis (Vouaux) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

DACTYLINA Nyl.
arctica (Richardson) Nyl.
beringica C. D. Bird & J. W. Thomson (Treated as subsp. of D. arctica by Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
ramulosa (Hooker) Tuck.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DACTYLOSPORA Körber
*aeruginosa Holien & Ihlen (Ihlen et al. 2004a)
*borealis Holien & Ihlen  (Ihlen et al. 2004a)
*amygdalariae Triebel
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner Syn.: Karschia athallina
*attendenda (Nyl.) Arnold
*deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel
*glaucomarioides (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia glaucomarioidea
*inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia inquilina, Buelliella inquilina
*lobariella (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Buelliella nuttallii
*lurida Hafellner (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
*parasitica (Flörke ex Sprengel) Zopf Syn.: Leciographa inspersa
*parellaria (Nyl.) Arnold
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia pertusariicola, Leciographa pertusariicola
*pleiosperma Triebel  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*porphyrea Hafellner & Kalb (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*purpurascens Triebel
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Hafellner var. saxatilis Syn.: Buelliella saxatilis
*urceolata (Th. Fr.) Arnold Syn.: Leciographa urceolata

DEGELIA Arv. & D. J. Galloway
plumbea (Lightf.) P. M. Jørg. & P. James Syn.: Parmeliella plumbea

DENDRISCOCAULON Nyl.
intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen Syns.: Leptogidium intricatulum, Polychidium intricatulum
umhausense (Auersw.) Degel. Syn.: Polychidium umhausense

DENDRODOCHIUM Bonord
*subeffusum Ellis & Everh.

DENDROGRAPHA Darb.
alectoroides Sundin & Tehler (Sundin & Tehler 1996)
leucophaea (Tuck.)
Darb. Syn.: Roccella leucophaea
minor
Darb. = D. leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. (Sundin & Tehler 1996)

DERMATINA (Almq.) Zahlbr. = PEZICULA
"pyrenocarpa" (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mycoporum compositum

DERMATISCUM Nyl.
catawbense (Willey) Nyl. = Dermiscellum oulocheila

DERMATOCARPON Eschw.
americanum Vainio  (Heipmarsson & Breuss 2004)
arenosaxi Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
arnoldianum Degel.
atrogranulosum Breuss (Breuss 2003)
bachmannii Anders  (Heipmarsson & Breuss 2004)
dolomiticum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
intestiniforme (Körber) Hasse
leptophyllodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  (Heipmarsson & Breuss 2004)
linkolae Räsänen (Goward et al. 1996)
lorenzianum Anders
luridum (With.) J. R. Laundon
luridum var. xerophilum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
meiophyllizum Vainio  (Glavich & Geiser 2004)
miniatum (L.) W. Mann
moulinsii (Mont.) Zahlbr.
muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Amtoft et al. 2008)
multifolium Amtoft (Amtoft et al.d 2008)
polyphyllizum (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell  (Heipmarsson & Breuss 2004)
reticulatum H. Magn.
rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
[Entosthelia saxicola B. de Lesd.]
schaechtelinii Werner  (Heipmarsson & Breuss 2004)

taminium Heipmarsson (Heipmarsson 2003)
tenue (Müll. Arg.) Heipmarsson  (Heipmarsson 2003)
toment
ulosum Amtoft (Amtoft 2006)
vellereum Zschacke
acarosporoides Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. = D. luridum
arboreum (Schwein.) Fink = Placidium arboreum
cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
compactum (A. Massal.) Lettau = Verrucaria compacta
daedaleum (Kremp.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium daedaleum
fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. = D. luridum
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium granulosum
hepaticum auct. = Placidium squamulosum
hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
heppioides Zahlbr. = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. = Placidium lachneum
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse = Verrucaria lecideoides
leptophyllum (Ach.) Lång = D. miniatum
lyngei Servít  Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not U. S. or Canada
michelii (A. Massal.) Zwackh = Placidium michelii
novomexicanum ( B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr. = a sterile psoroid lichen; a misidentifcation for North America
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Verrucaria inficiens
polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. intestiniforme
rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Placidium rufescens
rupicola (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. =
Verrucaria compacta
squamellum (Nyl.) Herre = Catapyrenium squamellum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.)
Zahlbr. = Placidium arboreum
vagans Imshaug = D. reticulatum H. Magn.
waltheri (Kremp.) Blomb. & Forss. = Involucropyrenidium waltheri
weberi (Ach.) W. Mann = D. luridum
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Placopyrenium stanfordii

DERMISCELLUM Hafellner, H. Mayrh. & Poelt
oulocheila (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Dermatiscum catawbense, Opegrapha oulocheila (Lendemer 2003)
catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt = D. oulocheila

DESMAZIERIA Mont.
evernioides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina lacera
cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.) Trevisan = Vermilacinia ceruchis , but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
combeoides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia combeoides
homalea (Ach.) Mont. = Niebla homalea
peruviana (Ach.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina peruviana
testudinaria (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla homalea

DIBAEIS Clem.
absoluta (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl Syn.: Baeomyces absolutus
baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel Syn.: Baeomyces roseus
fungoides (Sw.) Kalb & Gierl = A tropical species, not in North America
rosea (Pers.) Clem. = D. baeomyces

DICTYOCATENULATA Finley & E. F. Morris
alba Finley & E. F. Morris  (Lendemer & Harris 2004)

DICTYONEMA
C. Agardh
glabratum (Sprengel) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Cora pavonia
moorei (Nyl.) Henssen
sericeum (Sw.) Berk.
guadalupense (Rabenh.) Zahlbr. = D. sericeum
irpicinum Mont. = misidentifications for North America
pavonium (Sw.) Parmasto = D. glabratum

DIDYMOSPHAERIA Fuckel
*epicrassa (H. Olivier) Vouaux = Polycoccum epicrassum, but see note there

DIGITOTHYREA P. P. Moreno & Egea
polyglossa (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2002b)

DIMELAENA Norman
californica (H. Magn.) Sheard
oreina (Ach.) Norman Syns.: Rinodina oreina, R. hueana, R. novomexicana, R. suboreina
radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. (Matzer et al. 1996) Syns.: Buellia radiata, Rinodina radiata
tenuis (Müll. Arg.) Mayrhofer & Wippel (Beeching 2007)
thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Rinodina thysanota
weberi Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) Hale & Culb. = Mobergia angelica
chrysomelaena (Ach.) Hale & Culb. = Rinodina chrysomelaena
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) Hale & Culb. = D. oreina
suboreina (B. de Lesd.) Hale & Culb. = D. oreina

DIMERELLA Trevisan = COENOGONIUM (Lücking & Kalb 2000)
diluta (Pers.) Trevisan = Coenogonium pineti
lutea (Dickson) Trevisan = Coenogonium luteum
pineti (Ach.) V
ězda = Coenogonium pineti

DINEMASPORIUM Lév.
*strigosum (Fr.) Sacc. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

DIORYGMA Eschw.
poitaei (Fée) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Kalb et al. 2004)

DIPLOICIA
A. Massal.
canescens (Dickson) A. Massal. Syn.: Buellia canescens

DIPLOLAEVIOPSIS Giralt & D. Hawksw.
*ranula Giralt & D. Hawksw.  (Diederich 2003)

DIPLOSCHISTELLA Vainio

athalloides (Nyl.) Lücking, Knudsen & Fryday (Lücking et al. 2007)

DIPLOSCHISTES Norman
actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Urceolaria actinostoma
aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch
arabiensis Lumbsch
badius Lumbsch & Elix
bisporus (Bagl.) J. Steiner
caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vainio (Lumbsch 2002)
candidissimus (Kremp.) Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch Syn.: Urceolaria albissima
gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hypoleucus Zahlbr.
muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman Syn.: Urceolaria scruposa
albissimus (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. diacapsis
bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
canadensis Räsänen = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
straminescens Zahlbr. = D. hypoleucus

DIPLOTOMMA Flotow
alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flotow Syns.: Buellia alboatra, Rhizocarpon alboatrum
ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey Syn.: Buellia ambigua
chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leighton) Szatala Syns.: Rhizocarpon chlorophaeum, Buellia chlorophaea
epipolium (Ach.) Arnold Syns.: Buellia epipolia, Rhizocarpon cumulatum
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 1995) Syn.: Buellia nivalis
penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala Syns.: Buellia penichra, Rhizocarpon penichrum
pulverulentum (Anzi) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Buellia pulverulenta (Molina et al. 2002)
venustum (Körber) Körber Syn.: Buellia venusta

DIRINA Fr.
calcicola Sparrius  (Sparrius 2004a)
catalinariae Hasse
paradoxa (Fée) Tehler
approximata Zahlbr. subsp. hioramii (B. de Lesd.) Tehler = D. paradoxa
californica Tuck. = Sigridea californica
franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre = Roccellina franciscana
hassei Zahlbr. = Sigridea californica
rediunta Hasse = Schismatomma rediunta

DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
aegialita (Afz.) B. Moore Syn.: Physcia aspera
applanata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi
confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi
confusa D. D. Awasthi
confusa var. saxicola (Räsänen) D. D. Awasthi
frostii (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. Syns.: Physcia frostii, Pyxine frostii
leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi
neotropica Kalb  (Kalb 2004a)
papillulifera (Nyl.) D. D. Awasthi
picta (Sw.) Clem. & Shear Syns.: Physcia picta, Pyxine picta
purpurascens (Vainio) B. Moore
aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi = D. aegialita

DISCOTHECIUM Zopf = ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*gemmiferum Vouaux = an uncertain species of Endococcus

DISTOPYRENIS Aptroot
americana Aptroot
pachyospora Aptroot (Harris 1995a)
quercicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

DITREMIS Clem. = ANISOMERIDIUM
albiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium albisedum
ambigua (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium anisolobum
biformis (Borrer) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca (Steiner) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium distans
finkii R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium finkii
leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium aureopunctatum
nyssigena (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori
quaternaria R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium quaternarium
sanfordensis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium sanfordense
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium subprostans
tamarindii (Fée) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tamarindii
terminata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium terminatum
tuckerae (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tuckerae

DUFOUREA Ach.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Ach. = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DYPLOLABIA A. Massal.
afzelii (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Graphis afzelii (Staiger 2002)

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ECHINOPLACA Fée
areolata Lücking & W. R. Buck  (Lücking et al. 2007)
furcata Sérus. subsp. neotropica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2007)
intercedens Vězda
lucernifera Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)
pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
similis Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)

ECHINOTHECIUM Zopf
*aerophilum Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*reticulatum Zopf

EDRUDIA W. P. Jordan
constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jordan Syn.: Caloplaca constipans

EIGLERA Hafellner
flavida (Hepp) Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora flavida, Aspicilia flavida

ENDOCARPON Hedwig
adscendens (Anzi) Müll. Arg.
adsurgens Vainio
lepidallum Nyl.
loscosii Müll. Arg. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidum Ach.
petrolepideum (Nyl.) Hasse
pseudosubnitescens Breuss  (Knudsen 2005b)
pulvinatum Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenothamnia brandegei, P. spraguei
pusillum Hedwig
schisticola B. de Lesd. (Breuss 2002a)
simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
subnitescens Nyl.
tortuosum Herre
drummondii (Tuck.) M. Choisy = Staurothele drummondii
monicae Zahlbr. = Staurothele monicae
*ochroleucum Tuck. = Heterocarpon ochroleucum
tuckermanii Rav. ex Mont. = Placidium arboreum (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
wilmsoides Zahlbr. = Staurothele drummondii

ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*apiciicola (J. Steiner) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
*buelliae (Dodge) Matzer (Matzer et al. 1996)
*macrosporus (Arnold) Nyl.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*nanellus Ohlert (Diederich 2003)
*oreinae Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*perpusillus Nyl.
*propinquus (Körber) D. Hawksw.

*rugulosus Nyl.
*stigma (Körber) Stizenb.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*verrucosus Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Ticothecium zahlbrucknerella

ENDOHYALINA Marbach

circumpallida (H. Magn.) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia amphidexia (Marbach 2000)
rappii (Imshaug ex R. C. Harris) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia rappii (Marbach 2000)

ENDOPYRENIUM Flotow
americanum B. de Lesd. =
Verrucaria americana
bajadanae B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
crustaceum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
granulosum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
plumbeum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria inficiens
rupicola B. de Lesd. =
Verrucaria compacta
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Placidium arboreum

ENTEROGRAPHA Fée
anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger (Sparrius 2004b) Syn.: Schismatomma pallidellum auct.
hutchinsiae (Leighton) A. Massal.  (Sparrius 2004b)
oregonensis Sparrius & Björk (Sparrius & Björk 2008)

quassiaecola Fée
carnea (Eckf.) R. C. Harris = Mazosia ocellata
elegans (Eschw.) Tuck. = Sclerophyton elegans
lecanoroides R. C. Harris = E. anguinella 
zonata (Körber) Källsten = Opegrapha zonata

EOPYRENULA R. C. Harris
intermedia Coppins Syn.: Pyrenula leucoplaca var. pluriloculata
parvispora R. C. Harris & Aptroot
leucoplaca (Wallr.)
R. C. Harris = misidentifications for North America (fide R. Harris)

EPAPHROCONIDIA Calatayud & V. Atienza
*hawksworthii Calatayud & V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)

EPHEBE Fr.
americana Henssen
hispidula (Ach.) Horwood Syn.: Ephebeia hispidula
lanata (L.) Vainio
ocellata Henssen
perspinulosa Nyl.
solida Bornet

EPHEBEIA Nyl. = EPHEBE
hispidula (Ach.) Nyl. = Ephebe hispidula

EPICLADONIA D. Hawksw.
*sandstedei (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (Scholz 1998)
*simplex D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

EPICOCCUM Link
*purpurascens Schltdl. (Diederich 2003)

EPIGLOEA Zukal
intermedia Döbbeler (Lendemer & Harris 2004)

medioincrassata (Grummann) Döbbeler (Fryday 2004a)
pleiospora Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)
soleiformis Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)

EPILICHEN Clem.
*scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. Syn.: Buellia scabrosa
*stellatus Triebel

ERIODERMA Fée
mollissimum (Samp.) Du Rietz
pedicellatum (Hue) P. M. Jørg.
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.
boreale Ahlner = E. pedicellatum

ESSLINGERIANA Hale & M. J. Lai
idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria idahoensis

EUOPSIS Nyl.
granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syns.: Pyrenopsis granatina, Lecanora granatina, Pannaria granatina
pulvinata (Schaerer) Nyl. Syn.: Pyrenopsis pulvinata

EVERNIA Ach.
divaricata (L.) Ach.
mesomorpha Nyl.
perfragilis Llano
prunastri (L.) Ach.
esorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz = misidentifications for North America (Bird 1974)
furfuracea (L.) W. Mann = Pseudevernia consocians and P. intensa for North American records
thamnodes (Flotow) Arnold = E. mesomorpha
vulpina (L.) Ach. = Letharia vulpina

EVERNIASTRUM Hale ex Sipman
catawbiense (Degel.) Hale ex Sipman Syns.: Cetrariastrum catawbiense, Parmelia catawbiensis
sorocheilum (Vainio) Hale ex Sipman Syn.: Parmelia sorocheila. Reports may be E. catawbiense.

EVERNIICOLA D. Hawksw.
*flexispora D. Hawksw.

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FARNOLDIA Hertel
hypocrita (A. Massal.) Frøberg Syns.: Lecidea hypocrita, L. lithospersa, L. ypocrita
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea jurana, L. albosuffusa, Tremolecia jurana, Melanolecia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea rhaetica, Melanolecia micropsis, Tremolecia nivalis, T. micropsis

FAYODIA Kühner
*leucophylla (A. Gillet) M. T. Lange
*striatula (Kühner) Singer

FELLHANERA Vězda
aurantiaca (Vězda) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia aurantiaca
bouteillei (Desmaz.) Vězda Syn.: Catillaria bouteillei
floridana (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia floridana
subtilis (Vězda) Diederich & Sérusiaux (Goward et al. 1996)

FELLHANEROPSIS Sérus. & Coppins
vezdae (Coppins & P. James) Sérus. & Coppins (Tønsberg 1997)

FIBRILLITHECIS  A. Frisch  (Frisch 2006)
insignis (Zahlbr.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)


FISSURINA Fée
columbina (Tuck.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina columbina, Graphis columbina, Phaeographina columbina (Staiger 2002)
cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina cypressi (Lendemer 2007a)
dumastioides (Fink) Staiger Syn.: Graphina dumastioides (Staiger 2002)
humilis (Vainio) Staiger  (Staiger & Kalb 2004)
illiterata (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphis illiterata (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
incrustans Fée Syns.: Graphina incrustans, Graphis incrustans (Staiger 2002)
nitidescens (Nyl.) Nyl. Syns.: Graphina nitidescens, Graphis nitidescens (Staiger 2002)
rufula (Mont.) Staiger Syn.:  Graphis rufula (Staiger 2002)
scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Graphina scolecitis, Graphis scolecitis (Lendemer 2007a) 
North American records of Graphina adscribens belong here
subcontexta (Nyl.) Nyl. Syn.: Graphis subparilis (Staiger 2002)

subnitidula (Nyl.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina subnitidiula, Graphis subnitidula (Staiger 2002)

FISTULARIELLA Bowler & Rundel
almquistii (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina almquistii
geniculata (Hooker f & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina geniculata
inflata (Hooker f & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina inflata
minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina roesleri
scoparia (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina scoparia

FLAKEA O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)
papillata O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)

FLAVOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & Thell
cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Cetraria cucullata, Allocetraria cucullata
minuscula (Elenkin & Savicz) Ahti, Poryadina & Zhurb. (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Cetraria nivalis, Allocetraria nivalis

FLAVOPARMELIA Hale
baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale Syns.: Parmelia baltimorensis, Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia caperata, Pseudoparmelia caperata, P. cylisphora, P. flavicans, P. herreana, P. negativa
[Parmelia concreta Stizenb.]
rutidota (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rutidota, Pseudoparmelia rutidota, and P. conspersa var. subconspersa andXanthoparmelia subconspersa for North American records.
subcapitata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hale ex DePriest & B. Hale (Knudsen et al. 2005)

FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale
darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Hale Syns.: Parmelia darrowi, Punctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Hale Syns.: Parmelia flaventior, P. andreana, P. kernstockii, Punctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesignis, P. incorrupta, P. caperata var. incorrupta, Punctelia praesignis
soredica (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia soredica, P. ulophyllodes, P. manshurica, Punctelia soredica

FORAMINELLA S. F. Meyer = PARMELIOPSIS

FORSSELLIA Zahlbr. = PTERYGIOPSIS
minnesotensis (Fink) Fink = Lichinella minnesotensis

FRUTIDELLA Kalb (Kalb 1994)
caesioatra (Schaerer) Kalb (Kalb 1994) Syn.: Lecidea caesioatra, L. arctica

FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not.
bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen subsp. bracteata Syn.: Caloplaca bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) Poelt
bracteata subsp. deformis Poelt  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
desertorum (Tomin) Poelt
fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin Syn.: Caloplaca fulgens
subbracteata (Nyl.) Poelt (Brodo et al. 2001, Kasalicky 2004)

FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vězda
aleutica (Degel.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
appalachensis Fryday (Fryday 2008)
arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg
gothoburgensis (H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda (Fryday 2006)
[Lecidea gyrodes H. Magn.]
intercincta (Nyl.) Poelt
lowensis (H. Magn.) R. Anderson & Hertel  Syn.: Lecidea lowensis
mollis (Wahlenb.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea mollis
praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea praeruptorum
pusilla Tønsberg
recensa (Stirton) Hertel, V. Wirth & Vězda Syns.: Lecidea recensa
recensa var arcuatula (Arnold) Fryday  Syns. Lecidea arcuatula, L. gyrodes (Fryday 2008)

scrupulosa (Eckf.) Fryday (Fryday 2008)  Syn.: Biatora scrupulosa, Lecidea scrupulosa
texana
Fryday  (Fryday 2008)

thomsonii Brodo & Wirth (Brodo & Wirth 1998)
cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda  Misidentifications for North America (Fryday 2008)
kochiana (Hepp) V. Wirth & Vězda   Misidentifications for North America (Fryday 2008)
lightfootii (Sm.) Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996) = misidentifications for North America (Tønsberg 2002, Fryday 2008)
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Brako = Lecidea subfilamentosa (Fryday 2008)
subreagens (H. Magn.) Oberholl. & V. Wirth = Fuscidea scrupulosa (Fryday 2008)

FUSCOPANNARIA P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria ahlneri
alaskana P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
aurita P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cheiroloba (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2000c) Syn.: Parmeliella cheiroloba
confusa (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
convexa P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005)
coralloidea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
crustacea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
incisa (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria laceratula
leprosa P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucostictoides
maritima (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Synyonym: Pannaria maritima
mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria mediterranea
pacifica P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria praetermissa, Parmeliella praetermissa, P. lepidiota
pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria pulveracea
ramulina P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
sorediata P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
thiersii P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
viridescens P. M. Jørg. & Zhurb. (Jørgensen & Zhurbenko 2002)
californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella californica
globuligera Fryday & P. M. Jørg. (Fryday 2004a) = Vahliella globuligera
hookerioides P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella hookerioides
labrata P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005) = Vahliella labrata
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg.
= Vahliella leucophaea
saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella saubinetii

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GASPARRINIA Tornab. = CALOPLACA

GASSICURTIA Fée
catasema (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia catasema, B. caloosensis (Marbach 2000)
coccinea Fée  Syn.:  Buellia coccinea (Marbach 2000)
elizae (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia elizae (Marbach 2000)
subpulcella (Vainio) Marbach Syn.: Buellia subpulcella, B. pachnidisca (Marbach 2000)
vernicoma (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia vernicoma, Buelliella vernicoma, Lecidea vernicoma (Marbach 2000)

GEISLERIA Nitschke
sychnogonioides Nitschke = Strigula sychnogonioides

GELTINGIA Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*associata (Th. Fr.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Lecidea associata

GLAUCOMARIA M. Choisy
rupicola (L.) M. Choisy = Lecanora rupicola
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Lecanora rupicola

GLOBOSPHAERIA D. Hawksw.
*jamesii D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

GLOEOHEPPIA Gyeln.
polyspora Henssen (Schultz 2002c)
squamulosa (Zahlbr.) M. Schultz  Syn. : Psorotichia squamulosa (Schultz 2007b)

GLYPHIS Ach.
cicatricosa Ach.
achariana Tuck. = G. cicatricosa
confluens Zenker = G. cicatricosa
favulosa Ach. = G. cicatricosa

GLYPHOLECIA Nyl.
scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg. Syns.: Acarospora scabra, A. saxicola

GOMPHILLUS Nyl.
americanus Essl.
calycioides (Duby) Nyl. (Buck 1998)

GONGYLIA Körber
muscorum Zschacke (North American only) = Protothelenella pluriseptata (Fryday 2004b)
nadvornikii Servít = Segestria mammillosa, but misidentifications for N. A. (Fryday 2004b)

GONOHYMENIA J. Steiner = LICHINELLA
cribellifera (Nyl.) Henssen = Lichinella cribellifera
melamphylla (Tuck.) Henssen = Lichinella melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Henssen = Lichinella minnesotensis
nigritella (Lettau) Henssen = Lichinella nigritella

GRANULOPYRENIS Aptroot
hymnothora (Ach.) Aptroot Syns.: Verrucaria hymnothora, Microthelia hymnothora, Sphaeria bignoniae

GRAPHINA Müll. Arg.
acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg.
According to Harris, North American reports may be G. xylophaga
anguina (Mont.) Müll. Arg.
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr.
babingtonii (Mont.) Zahlbr. Possibly misidentifications for North America
colliculosa (Mont.) Hale
leuconephela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.
peplophora M. Wirth & Hale
platyleuca (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris 1995a)
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
subnitida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Possibly misidentifications for North America
substriatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
subvirginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
abaphoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis abaphoides
acrophaea Müll. Arg. = G. parilis
adscribens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = G. scolecitis for North American records
columbina (Tuck.) M. Wirth & Hale = Fissurina columbina
cypressi Müll. Arg. = Fissurina cypressi
dimidiata (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
floridana (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Platythecium floridanum
glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
incrustans (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
leprocarpa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Chapsa leprocarpa
marcescens (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mendax (Nyl.)
Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America
nitidescens (Nyl.) Riddle = Fissurina nitidescens
platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
plittii Zahlbr. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
scolecitis (Tuck.) Fink = Fissurina scolecitis
subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitidula
virginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina columbina
virginea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.= Diorygma poitaei
xylophaga R. C. Harris = Graphis xylophaga

GRAPHIS Adans.
anfractuosa Eschw.
aperiens Müll. Arg.
botryosa Tuck.
caesiella Vainio
chromothecia R. C. Harris
desquamescens (Fée) Zahlbr.
elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach.
eulectra Tuck. Syn.: Phaeographis eulectra
glaucescens Fée
haleana R. C. Harris
insidiosa (C. Knight & Mitten) Hooker f.
intricata Fée
inversa R. C. Harris
leptocarpa Fée
leucopepla Tuck.  (belongs to Acanthothecis?; Kalb et al. 2004)
librata C. Knight
lineola Ach.
lucifica R. C. Harris
lumbricina Vainio
mosquitensis Tuck.  (belongs to Acanthothecis?; Kalb et al. 2004)
pavoniana Fée
platycarpella Müll. Arg.
poitaeoides Nyl.
rigidula Müll. Arg.  (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
rimulosa (Mont.) Trevisan
saxorum Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1997)
scripta (L.) Ach.
striatula (Ach.) Sprengel
subamylacea Zahlbr.
subelegans Nyl.
tenella Ach.
xylophaga (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina xylophaga (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
afzelii Ach. = Dyplolabia afzelii
atrorubens Tuck. ex Fink = Opegrapha longissima
beaumontii Tuck. = G. insidiosa
candidata Nyl. = Carbacanthographis candidata
celtidis Müll. Arg. = G. librata
dumastioides Fink = Fissurina dumastioides
floridana Tuck. = Platythecium floridanum
grammatis Fée = Platythecium grammitis
illiterata R. C. Harris = Fissurina illiterata
incrustans  = Fissurina incrustans

intertexta Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
marcescens  = Carbacanthographis marcescens
nitida (Eschw.) Tuck. = Medusulina nitida
nitidescens Nyl. = Fissurina nitidescens
rufula Mont. = Fissurina rufula
scolecitis Tuck. = Fissurina scolecitis
subnitidula Nyl. = Fissurina subnitidula
subparilis Nyl. = Fissurina subcontexta
turbulenta Nyl. = Anomomorpha turbulenta

GRAPHIUM Corda
*aphthosae Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

GYALECTA Ach.
erythrozona Lettau
flotowii Körber
foveolaris (Ach.) Schaerer
friesii Flotow ex Körber
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Secoliga geoica
herrei Vězda
jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr.
kukriensis (Räsänen) Räsänen
peziza (Mont.)
Anzi
truncigena (Ach.) Hepp
carneolutea (Turner) H. Olivier = Cryptolechia carneolutea
lamprospora Nyl. = Bactrospora lamprospora
radiatilis Tuck. = Skyttea radiatilis

GYALECTIDIUM Müll. Arg.
appendiculatum Lücking, Lendemer & E. Tripp (Lücking et al. 2007, Lendemer & Tripp 2008)
catenulatum (Cavalc. & A. A. Silva) L. I. Ferraro, Lücking & Sérus.  (Lücking et al. 2007)
filicinum Müll. Arg.
floridense Safranek & Lücking  (Safranek & Lücking 2005)
imperfectum Vězda (Ferraro, Lücking & Serusiaux 2001)
tuckerae Lücking & Lendemer (Lücking et al. 2007)
viride Lücking, W. R. Buck & Rivas Plata (Lücking et al. 2007)
yahriae W. R. Buck & Sérus. (Buck & Sérusiaux 2000)
rotuliforme Müll. Arg. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

GYALECTINA Vězda = CRYPTOLECHIA
carneolutea (Turner) Vězda = Cryptolechia carneolutea

GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vězda
hyalinescens (Nyl.) Vězda
lecideopsis (A. Massal.) Lettau ex Vězda
lecideopsis var. eucarpa (Servít) Vězda
lecideopsis var. kurdistanica (Steiner) Vězda
roseola (Arnold) Lettau (Brodo 1995)
dodgei Vězda = G. hyalinescens
lecideopsis var. convarians (Nyl.) Vězda = G. lecideopsis var. eucarpa

GYALIDEOPSIS Vězda
africana Kalb & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)
americana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
berenice (Ellis & Everh.) Lücking & W. R. Buck
buckii Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Tricharia vezdae
epicorticis (A. Funk) Tønsberg & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Microlychnus epicorticis
floridae Etayo & Diederich (Etayo & Diederich 2001)
lambinonii Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) 
macarthurii Lücking, Umaña & Aptroot (Lücking et al. 2007)
moodyae Lendemer & Lücking (Lendemer & Lücking 2004)
ozarkensis Lücking, W. R. Buck & R. C. Harris (Lücking et al. 2007)
piceicola (Nyl.) Vězda
subaequatoriana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
submonospora Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. semicirculata Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. vainioi
wesselsii
Lücking, Sipman & Chaves (Lücking et al. 2007)
alnicola W. Noble & Vězda = G. piceicola
anastomosans P. James & Vězda = Jamesiella anastomosans
athalloides (Nyl.) Vězda = Diploschistella athalloides
muscicola P. James & Vězda (Tønsberg 1997) Misidentification of G. moodyae (Lücking et al. 2007)

GYMNODERMA Nyl.
lineare (A. Evans) Yoshim. & Sharp = Cetradonia linearis

GYPSOPLACA Timdal
macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal

GYROPHORA Ach. = UMBILICARIA
angulata (Tuck.) Herre = Umbilicaria angulata
anthracina (Wulfen) Körber = Umbilicaria rigida
arctica Ach. = Umbilicaria arctica
cylindrica (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. = Umbilicaria decussata
deusta (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria deusta
dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Umbilicaria mammulata
erosa (G. Weber) Ach. = Umbilicaria torrefacta
hyperborea Ach. = Umbilicaria hyperborea var. hyperborea
muehlenbergii Ach. = Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. = Umbilicaria phaea
polyphylla (L.) Fink = Umbilicaria polyphylla
polyrrhiza (L.) Körber = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza
vellea (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria vellea

GYROSTOMUM Fr.
scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl.

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HAEMATOMMA A. Massal.
accolens (Stirton) Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
americanum Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
fenzlianum A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
flexuosum Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
guyanense Kalb & Staiger (Brodo et al. 2008)
ochroleucum
(Necker) J. R. Laundon var. porphyrium (Pers.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: H. porphyrium
persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
rufidulum (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
californicum Sigal & D. Toren = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman1996)
caesium Coppins & P. James = Mycoblastus caesius
cismonicum Beltr.
= Loxospora cismonica
coccineum (Dickson) Körber = misidentifications for North America
elatinum (Ach.) A. Massal. = Loxospora elatina
lapponicum Räsänen = Ophioparma lapponica
ochrophaeum (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Loxospora ochrophaea
pacificum Hasse = Ophioparma rubricosa (Staiger & Kalb 1995, Ekman 1996)
porphyrium (Pers.) Zopf = H. ochroleucum var. porphyrium
puniceum auct. North America = H. persoonii
pustulatum Brodo & Culb. = Loxospora pustulata
rappii Zahlbr. = Schismatomma rappii
subpuniceum (Fée) B. de Lesd. = H. fenzlianum
ventosum (L.) A. Massal. = Ophioparma lapponica for North American records

HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrh. & Scheid.
arnoldii (Servít) Hafellner & Türk (Hafellner & Türk 2001) Syn.: Buellia arnoldii
bahiana (Malme) Sheard Syn.: Buellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotropa (Malme) Sheard
callispora (C. Knight) H. Mayrh. & Sheard Syn.: Buellia callispora
curatellae (Malme) Marbach  (Marbach 2000)
disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer Syns.: Buellia disciformis, B. parasema (Marbach 2000)
fosteri Imshaug & Sheard
parastata (Nyl.) Kalb  Syns.: Buellia blasteniospora, B. rinodinospora

HAFELLNERA Houmeau & Cl. Roux
parasemella (Nyl.) Houmeau & Cl. Roux = Schaereria parasemella

HALECANIA M. Mayrh.
alpivaga (Th. Fr.) M. Mayrh. Syns.: Lecania alpivaga, L. thallophila
australis Lumbsch  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004a)
pepegospora (H. Magn.) van den Boom (van den Boom & Elix 2005)
viridescens Coppins & P. James

HARPIDIUM Körber
nashii Scheidegger (Schultz et al. 2000)
glaucophanum (Hasse) Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana

HASSEA Zahlbr.
bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Sarcopyrenia bacillosa

HAWKSWORTHIANA U. Braun
*peltigericola (D. Hawks.) U. Braun

HELMINTHOCARPON Fée
leprevostii Fée

HELOCARPON Th. Fr.
crassipes Th. Fr. Syns.: Lecidea crassipes, Micarea crassipes
lesdainii (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss 2001)
corticola Breuss (Etayo 1998) = H. lesdainii

HENRICA B. de Lesd.
americana Breuss (Breuss 2002c)

HEPPIA Nägeli
adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.
conchiloba Zahlbr.
despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. (Büdel et al. 2002) Syns.:  Anema dodgei, Solorinaria despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Solorinaria despreauxii
alumenensis Herre Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Peltula bolanderi
deserticola Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. deserticola
euploca (Ach.) Vainio = Peltula euploca
guepinii (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca
hassei Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. hassei
leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
macrospora B. de Lesd.
= H. conchiloba
placodizans Zahlbr. = Peltula placodizans.
planescens Nyl. Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
polyphylla B. de Lesd. = Peltula euploca
polyspora Tuck. = Peltula patellata
psammophila Nyl. = misidentifications for North America
richardsii Herre = Peltula richardsii
terrena Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
tortuosa (Nees) Vainio = Peltula tortuosa
virescens (Despr.) Nyl. = H. lutosa
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Peltula zahlbruckneri

HERPOTHALLON Tobler = CRYPTOTHECIA
sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler = Cryptothecia rubrocincta

HERTELIANA P. James
alaskensis (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia alaskensis, Lecidea alaskensis (Ekman 1996)

HERTELIDEA Printzen & Kantvilas (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
botryosa (Fr.) Kantvilas & Printzen  Syns.:  Biatora botryosa, Lecidea botryosa (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
pseudobotryosa R. C. Harris, Ladd & Printzen (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)

HETEROCARPON Müll. Arg.
*ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Endocarpon ochroleucum

HETEROCYPHELIUM Vainio
leucampyx (Tuck.)
Vainio

HETERODERMIA Trevisan
albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog Syns.: Anaptychia domingensis, A. ravenelii
appalachensis (Kurok.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia appalachensis
barbifera (Nyl.) K. P. Singh
boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh Syns.: Anaptychia boryi, A. neoleucomelaena
casarettiana (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia casarettiana
chondroidea W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia chondroidea
comosa (Eschw.) Follm. & Redón (Harris 1995b)
crocea R. C. Harris North American reports of H. corallophora belong here
dendritica (Pers.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia diademata
echinata (Taylor) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Anaptychia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Culb. Syns.: Anaptychia comosa (for North American records), A. galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia granulifera
hypoleuca (Ach.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia hypoleuca
japonica (Sato) Swinscow & Krog
leucomela (L.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia "leucomelaena"
microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa
namaquana Brusse (Esslinger & Bratt 1998)
neglecta Lendemer, R. C. Harris & E. Tripp (Lendemer et al. 2007)
obscurata (Nyl.) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia heterochroa, A. hypoleuca var. colorata, A. obscurata, A. sorediifera
podocarpa (Bél.) Awasthi (Moberg & Nash 1999)
propagulifera (Vainio) J. P. Dey
pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa
rugulosa (Kurok.) Wetmore
sitchensis Goward & W. Noble
speciosa (Wulfen) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans, A. speciosa
squamulosa (Degel.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia squamulosa
tropica (Kurok.) Sipman Syn.: Anaptychia tropica (Marcano et al. 1996)
corallophora (Taylor) Skorepa = H. crocea for North American reports
domingensis (Ach.) Trevisan = H. albicans
leucomelaena (L.) Poelt = H. leucomela
neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón = H. boryi
tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Culb. = H. speciosa

HETEROPLACIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
congestum (Breuss & McCune) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium congestum
podolepis (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium podolepis
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides

HETEROTHECIUM Flotow
nannarium Tuck. = Piccolia nannaria

HOBSONIA Massee
*christiansenii B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw. = Illosporiopsis christiansenii

HOBSONIOPSIS D. Hawksw. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)
*santessonii (Lowen & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

HOMOSTEGIA Fuckel
*hertelii D. Hawksw., V. Atienza & M. Cole  (Hawksworth et al. 2004)
*dermatocarpi Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*parmeliana (Jacz.) Vouaux (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*piggotii (Berk. & Broome) P. Karst.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

HUBBSIA W. A. Weber (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber Syn.: Reinkella californica
parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Lohtander, Myllys & Sundin
lumbricoides W. A. Weber = H. californica

HUILIA Zahlbr. = PORPIDIA
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel = Porpidia albocaerulescens
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia cinereoatra
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia crustulata
elegantior ( H. Magn.) Hertel = Amygdalaria elegantior
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel = Porpidia flavocaerulescens
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia glaucophaea
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
melinodes (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia melinodes
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel = Amygdalaria panaeola
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel = Porpidia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Hertel = Porpidia soredizodes
superba (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia superba
tuberculosa (Sm.) P. James = Porpidia tuberculosa

HYDROTHYRIA J. L. Russell = PELTIGERA
venosa J. L. Russell = Peltigera hydrothyria

HYMENELIA Kremp.
arctica (Lynge) Lutzoni Syn.: Ionaspis arctica
ceracea (Arnold ) Poelt & Vězda (Status uncertain)
cyanocarpa (Anzi) Lutzoni (Miller et al. 2005)
epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis epulotica, Lecanora epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis heteromorpha, I. annularis, I. ochracella, I. reducta, I. schismatopis
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold Syn.: Ionaspis melanocarpa
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis ochromicra, I. rhodopis
lacustris (With.) M. Choisy = Ionaspis lacustris
ochrolemma (Vainio) Gowan & Ahti = Porpidia ochrolemma
prevostii (Duby) Kremp. = H. epulotica

HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg.
adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syns.: Physcia adglutinata, P. elaeina, Physciopsis adglutinata, P. elaeina
minor (Fée) D. D. Awasthi Syns.: Physcia minor, Physciopsis minor
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb Syns.: Physcia syncolla, Physciopsis syncolla

HYPOCENOMYCE M. Choisy
anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Biatora anthracophila, Lecidea anthracophila, Psora anthracophila (Timdal 2002a)
castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal
friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea friesii, Psora friesii
oligospora Timdal (Timdal 2001)
scalaris (Ach.) M. Choisy Syns.: Lecidea scalaris, L. ostreata, Psora scalaris, P. ostreata
sierrae Timdal (Timdal 2001)
leucococca R. Sant. = Pycnora leucococca
praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal = Pycnora praestabilis
sorophora (Vainio) P. James & Poelt = Pycnora sorophora
xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Pycnora xanthococca

HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl.
apinnata Goward & McCune
austerodes (Nyl.) Räsänen Syn.: Parmelia austerodes
bitteri (Lynge) Ahti Syn.: Parmelia bitteri
canadensis Goward & McCune (Goward & McCune 2007)
duplicata (Ach.) Rass.
enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl.
farinacea Zopf
gracilis McCune (McCune 2002)
heterophylla L. Pike
imshaugii Krog
inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson
incurvoides  Rass.  (McCune et al. 2006)
krogiae Ohlsson
lugubris (Pers.) Krog
metaphysodes (Asahina) Rass.
mollis L. Pike & Hale
occidentalis L. Pike
oceanica Goward
physodes (L.) Nyl. Syns.: Parmelia duplicata var. douglasicola, P. physodes, P. oregana
pulverata (Nyl. ex Crombie) Elix
rugosa (G. Merr.) L. Pike
schizidiata McCune (McCune 2002)
subcapitata (Nyl.) Rass.
subobscura (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Parmelia subobscura
subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson (McCune & Rosentreter 1997)
tubulosa (Schaerer) Hav. Syn.: Parmelia tubulosa
vittata (Ach.) Parrique Syn.: Parmelia vittata
atrofusca (Schaerer) Räsänen = Brodoa atrofusca, but North American reports are misidentifications
bitteriana (Zahlbr.) Räsänen = H. farinacea
elongata (Hillm.) Rass. = H. duplicata
encausta (Sm.) Walter Watson = Brodoa intestiniformis (but see below)
intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen = Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American records are misidentifications of, e.g., Brodoaoroarctica
oroarctica Krog = Brodoa oroarctica
pseudophysodes (Asahina) Rass. North American reports are H. oceanica

HYPOTRACHYNA (Vainio) Hale
afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale
croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia croceopustulata
dactylifera (Vainio) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia densirhizinata
dentella (Hale & Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dentella
ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ensifolia, P. lobulifera var. insensitiva
gondylophora (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia gondylophora
imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia imbricatula, P. lobulifera, P. lobulifera var. luteoreagens
laevigata (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigata
livida (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia livida
meridensis Hale & López (Nash, et al. 2002)
oostingii (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia oostingii
osseoalba (Vainio) Park & Hale Syns.: Parmelia formosana
polydactyla (Krog & Swinscow) T. H. Nash
producta Hale Syn.: Parmelia producta
prolongata (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia prolongata, P. lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens, P. rachista
pseudosinuosa (Asahina) Hale
pulvinata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia pulvinata
punoensis Kurok. & K. H. Moon (Nash et al. 2002)
pustulifera (Hale) Skorepa Syn.: Parmelia pustulifera
revoluta (Flörke) Hale Syn.: Parmelia revoluta
riparia McCune (McCune 1998a)
rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia rockii
showmanii Hale
sinuosa (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sinuosa
subsaxatilis (B. de Lesd.)
Hale
thysanota (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia thysanota
taylorensis (M. E. Mitch.) Hale (Groner & Dietrich 1996)
virginica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia virginica
formosana (Zahlbr.) Hale = H. osseoalba
rachista (Hale) Hale = H. prolongata

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ICMADOPHILA Trevisan
ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr.

ILLOSPORIOPSIS D. Hawksw.
*christiansenii (B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawks. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)

ILLOSPORIUM Martius
*carneum Fr.
*corallinum Roberge = Marchandiomyces corallinus

IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschmann
athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.
carbonoidea (J. W. Thomson) Esnault & Cl. Roux Syn.: Lecidea carbonoidea

IMSHAUGIA S. F. Meyer
aleurites (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis aleurites
placorodia (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis placorodia

INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch
bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch  (Lumbsch 2004)

INTRALICHEN D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole
*baccisporus Hawksworth & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole Syn.: Bispora christiansenii (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)

INVOLUCROPYRENIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
waltheri (Kremp.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium waltheri

IONASPIS Th. Fr.
alba Lutzoni
lacustris (With.) Lutzoni Syn.: Hymenelia lacustris, Aspicilia lacustris, Lecanora lacustris, L. deplanans
lavata H. Magn. Syn.: Lecanora lavata
odora (Ach.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
suaveolens (Fr.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
annularis H. Magn. (Thomson 1997) = Hymenelia heteromorpha
arctica Lynge = Hymenelia arctica
chrysophana (Körber) Stein = I. suaveolens
epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia heteromorpha
epulotica var. arctica (Lynge) H. Magn. = Hymenelia arctica
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia melanocarpa
ochracella (Nyl.) H. Magn.
= Hymenelia heteromorpha
ochromicra (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia rhodopis
reducta H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia rhodopis
schismatopis (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia heteromorpha
spitsbergensis H. Magn. = nom. invalidum

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JAMESIELLA Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda
anastomosans (P. James & Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)

JAPEWIA
Tønsberg
subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg
tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg Syns.: Lecidea tornoënsis, Mycoblastus tornoënsis
carrollii (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Printzen 1999)

JARXIA D. Hawksw. (Harris 1995a)
ilicicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
thelenula R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

JULELLA Fabre
+asema R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
dispora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis dispora
fallaciosa (Arnold) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
geminella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis rappii
+lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)
+sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins (Aptroot 2002b)
sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Clathroporina exiguella, C. amygdalina
+taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
variiformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+vitrispora (Cooke & Harkness) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)

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KAERNEFELTIA Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996)
californica (Tuck.) Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.: Alectoria californica, A. cetrariza, Cetraria californica,Cornicularia californica
merrillii (Du Rietz) Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.:Cetraria merrillii, Tuckermannopsis merrillii

KALCHBRENNERIELLA Diederich & M. S. Christ.
*cyanescens (Kalchbr.) Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 2002)

KARSCHIA Körber
*talcophila (Ach.) Körber  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Vouaux = Dactylospora athallina
*inops Triebel & Rambold = Buelliella inops

KARSTENIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*peltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

KILIASIA Hafellner = TONINIA
athallina (Hepp) Hafellner = Toninia athallina
philippea (Mont.)
Hafellner = Toninia philippea

KIRSCHSTEINIOTHELIA D. Hawksw. Omitted as a totally saprophytic genus

KOERBERIA A. Massal.
biformis A. Massal.
sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen Syn.: Pannaria sonomensis

KOERBERIELLA Stein
wimmeriana (Körber) Stein

KOHLMEYERA Schatz
complicatula (Nyl.) Schatz Syns.: Mastodia tesselata, Turgidosculum complicatulum

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LAEVIOMYCES D. Hawksw. = LICHENODIPLIS
*lecanoricola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Lichenodiplis lecanoricola
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. = Lichenodiplis pertusariicola

LAHMIA Körber
fueistingii Körber = Arthrorhaphis grisea

LASALLIA Mérat
papulosa (Ach.) Llano Syns.: Umbilicaria pustulata var. papulosa, U. papulosa
pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano Syn.: Umbilicaria pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Mérat Syn.: Umbilicaria pustulata
pustulata subsp. papulosa (Ach.) W. A. Weber = L. papulosa

LASIOSPHAERIOPSIS D. Hawksw. & Sivan.
*stereocaulicola (Lindsay) O. E. Eriksson & R. Sant. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

LAUDERLINDSAYA J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a)
*borreri (Tul.) J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a)

LAURERA Rchb.
megasperma (Mont.) Riddle Syns.: Campylothelium nitidum, Clathroporina diphloea
subdisjuncta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle = Bathelium madreporiforme (Harris 1995a)
varia (Fée) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America

LECANACTIS Körber
abietina (Ach.) Körber
[Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Fink]
californica Tuck.
dubia G. Merr.
epileuca (Nyl.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha subattingens, Schismatomma subattingens
salicina Zahlbr.
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Arnold = Lecanographa amylacea
chloroconia Tuck. = Cresponea chloroconia
dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa grumulosa
illicebrosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa amylacea
megaspora (G. Merr.) Brodo = L. abietina
nashii Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa hypothallina
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio = Bactrospora patellarioides
premnea (Ach.) Arnold = Cresponea premnea
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = L. epileuca
subdryophila Follmann & Vězda = Lecanographa subdryophila

LECANIA A. Massal.
arizonica B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
brunonis (Tuck.) Herre
caloplacicola B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
chalcophila B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
coeruleorubella (Mudd) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
constricta W. A. Weber
cuprea (A. Massal.) v. d. Boom & Coppins Syn.: Bacidia cuprea, B. cupreorosella,
cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr.
disceptans (Nyl.) Lynge
dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
dudleyi Herre
erysibe (Ach.) Mudd
flavescens Lynge (Thomson 1997)
franciscana (Tuck.) K. Knudsen & Lendemer Syns.: Biatora franciscana, Catillaria franciscana (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
fructigena Zahlbr.
fuscella (Schaerer) Körber
fuscelloides B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
[Catillaria groenlandica Lynge]
hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble Syn.: Solenopsora hassei
inundata (Hepp ex Körber) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & v. d. Boom Syn.: Bacidia naegelii (Ekman 1996)
nylanderiana A. Massal.
pacifica Zahlbr. ex B. D. Ryan & van den Boom  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
polycycla (Anzi) Lettau (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
ryaniana van den Boom  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
shastensis Herre
stigmatella (Tuck.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syn.: Bacidia stigmatella
subcaesia (Nyl.) B. de Lesd.
subfuscula (Nyl.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syn.: Bacidia subfuscula
toninioides Zahlbr.
turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg.
albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = L. turicensis
alpivaga Th. Fr. = Halecania alpivaga
arctica Lynge = Caloplaca diphyodes
brattiae B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b) = L. hassei (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
californica (Zahlbr.)
Fink = L. turicensis (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
cyathiformis
Szatala (Tavares et al. 1997) = Solenopsora cyathiformis

cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. = L. cyrtella
curvescens (Mudd) A. L. Sm. = Bryonora curvescens
dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = L. dubitans
pepegospora H. Magn. = Halecania pepegospora
perproxima (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca atroalba (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
subdispersa B. D. Ryan [non (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse] = L. franciscana
subdispersa
(Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. fuscella
tenera (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Lecanora tenera
thallophila H. Magn. = Halecania alpivaga

LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
aggregata Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b, as Lecanographa “aff.” aggregata)
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Lecanactis amylacea, L. illecebrosa, Opegrapha illecebrosa
dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Opegrapha diaphoroides, Lecanactis grumulosa, but questionable for North America
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum, Opegrapha hypothallina, O. hassei, Lecanactis nashii
lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al.  2004b)
lynceoides (Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b)
subdryophila
(Follmann & Vězda) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis subdryophila

LECANORA Ach.
achroides Vainio
actophila Wedd.
agardhiana Ach. (Śliwa 2007b)
alaskensis H. Magn.
albella (Pers.) Ach. var. albella
albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch
albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)
albescens (Hoffm.) Flörke (Śliwa 2007b)
albocaesiella
B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
albula (Nyl.) Hue
aleutica H. Magn.
allophana Nyl.
andrewii B. de Lesd. (Śliwa 2007b)
anoptiza Nyl.
apochraeoides Vainio
arenisaxicola B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
argentata (Ach.) Malme
argentea Oksner & Volkova
argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
atrosulphurea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
beringii Nyl. ("behringii")
bicincta Ramond
bipruinosa Fink
boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl.
brattiae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
brodoana Lumbsch & T. H. Nash
[Parmularia brouardii B. de Lesd.]
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. Syns.: Lecidea cadubriae, L. ramulicola
caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
caesiorubella subsp. glaucomodes (Nyl.) Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. saximontana Imshaug & Brodo
caesiosora Poelt (Miller et al. 2005)
caesiosulphurea
Vainio
californica Brodo
campestris (Schaerer) Hue
canadensis Lynge & H. Magn.
carneolutescens Nyl. (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
carpinea (L.) Vainio
cateilea (Ach.) A. Massal.
[Lecidea caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
cavicola Creveld (Nash et al. 1998)
cenisia Ach.
chlarotera Nyl.
chlorophaeodes Nyl.
cinereofusca H. Magn. var. cinereofusca
cinereofusca var. appalachensis Brodo
circumborealis Brodo & Vitik.
cladonioides Lynge
collatolica J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash
comonduensis T. H. Nash & Hertel (Nash & Hertel 1997)
confusa Almb.
congesta Lynge
coniferarum Printzen (Printzen 2001)
conizaeoides Nyl. ex Crombie
contractula Nyl.
crenulata
Hooker  (Śliwa 2007b)
crustacea (Savicz) Zahlbr. (Ryan & Nash 1997b)
cupressi Tuck.
demosthenesii Lumbsch & Messuti (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
densa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
deplanans Nyl.
discoënsis Lynge
dispersa (Pers. ) Sommerf.
dispersoareolata (Schaerer) Lamy
epanora (Ach.) Ach.
epibryon (Ach.) Ach.
expallens Ach.
farinaria Borrer
floridula Lumbsch
flowersiana H. Magn.
fugiens Nyl. (Ryan et al. 2004, as  Lecanora “aff.” fugiens, Śliwa 2007b)
fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecidea fuscescens
fuscidula Degel.
gangaleoides Nyl.
garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr. subsp. garovaglii
garovaglii subsp. cascadensis (H. Magn.) B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
geiserae B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
geophila
(Th. Fr.) Poelt
glabrata (Ach.) Malme
granulifera (Ach.) Nyl.
groenlandica Lynge
gyalectodes Nyl.
gypsicola St. Clair & Newberry (Rajvanshi et al. 1998)
hagenii (Ach.) Ach.
helicopis (Wahlenb.)
Ach. (identification uncertain)
horiza (Ach.) Lindsay
hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo
hypopta (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Lecidea hypopta
hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
impudens Degel.
imshaugii Brodo
insignis Degel.
intricata (Schrader) Ach.
intumescens (Rebent.) Rabenh.
invadens H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b)
iowensis Fink
jamesii Laundon (Tønsberg 1997)
juniperina Ðliwa  (Ryan et al. 2004)
kariana Räsänen
kofae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt
latens Printzen (Printzen 2001)
laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
leprosa Fée
leptacina Sommerf.
leptacinella Nyl.
lividolutea Räsänen
louisianae B. de Lesd.
luteovernalis Brodo
marginata (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea marginata, L. elata, L. purissima. See note under "Lecidea amylacea."
maxima Lynge
mazatzalensis B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
melaena (Hedl.) Fink
mellea W. A. Weber
meridionalis H. Magn.
microbola I. M. Lamb
microfusca Lynge
miculata Ach.
minutella Nyl.
monticola H. Magn.
mughicola Nyl.
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. Syn.: Protoparmeliopsis muralis
muralis var. brunneola (Mereschk.) Ryan & T. H. Nash (Nash et al. 1998)
muralis var. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck.
nashii B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al.  2004)
neoalbomarginata Gyelnik
neodegelii B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  Syn.:  Squamarina degelii (Ryan et al. 2004)
nigromarginata H. Magn.
nordenskioeldii Vainio
novae-semliae Zahlbr.
novomexicana H. Magn. Syn.: Parmularia novomexicana
ochraceorubescens Arnold (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
olivaceopallida H. Magn.
opiniconensis Brodo
orae-frigidae R. Sant.
oreinoides (Körber) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea oreinodes, L. tennessensis, L. tesselina
orizabana Vainio (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea orosthea
pacifica Tuck. Syn.: L. tetraspora
peltastictoides Hasse (Knudsen 2003)
percrenata H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b)
permutata Zahlbr.
perplexa Brodo
perpruinosa Fröberg (Śliwa 2007b)
persimilis (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
phaedrophthalma Poelt var. phaedrophthalma
phaedrophthalma var. christoi (W. A. Weber) B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. Syn.: Lecidea phaeophora
phryganitis Tuck.
pinguis Tuck.
placidensis (Magnusson) Knoph, Leuckert & Rambold (Knoph & Leuckert 1994) Syns.: Lecidea placidensis, Lecidella placidensis, Fuscidea placidensis
plumosa Müll. Arg. (Nash et al. 1998)
poliophaea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
poluninii Lynge
polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh.
populicola (DC.) Duby
pringlei (Tuck.) I. M. Lamb subsp. pringlei  Syn: Lecidea pringlei
pringlei subsp. brandegei (Tuck.) Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
pseudargentata Lumbsch (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
pseudistera Nyl.
pseudomellea B. D. Ryan
pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.
[Biatora pullula Tuck.] (Printzen 1995)
ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. May (Printzen & May 2002)
reagens Norman
rhodi Szatala (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
rubicunda Bagl.
rugosella Zahlbr.
rupicola (L.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Glaucomaria rupicola, G. sordida
salicicola H. Magn.
saligna (Schrader) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecanoropsis saligna
salina H. Magn.
sambuci (Pers.) Nyl.
scrobiculata (Th. Fr.) Øvstedal & Elix  Syn.:  Lecidea scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
semipallida H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a)
semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
sophodopsella Nyl.
stenospora Stizenb.  Syn.: Acarospora stenospora
stenotropa Nyl.
(LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
straminea Ach.
strobilina (Sprengel) Kieffer
subaurea Zahlbr.
subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach.

subcavicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
subimmergens Vainio
subintricata (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
subpallens Zahlbr.  (Lumbsch et al. 1997, Lendemer 2004e)
subrugosa Nyl.
substrobilina Printzen (Printzen 2001)
sulphurea (Hoffm.)
Ach. Syn.: Lecidea sulphurea
swartzii (Ach.) Ach. (Nash et al. 1998)
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea symmicta
tenera (Nyl.) Crombie
texana W. A. Weber
thallophila H. Magn.
thomsonii H. Magn.
thysanophora Harris (Harris et al. 2000)
torrida Vainio
tristiuscula H. Magn.
umbrosa Degel.
valesiaca (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.
varia (Hoffm.) Ach.
vegae Malme
verrucariicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)

victoriae (F. Wilson) Tibell (Nash et al. 1998)
viriduloflava B. de Lesd.
weberi B. D. Ryan
wetmorei Ðliwa  (Ryan et al. 2004)
willeyi Tuck.
wisconsinensis H. Magn.
xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt
xylophila Hue
zosterae (Ach.) Nyl. var. zosterae

zosterae var. beringii (Nyl.) Śliwa (Śliwa 2007b)

zosterae var. palanderi (Vainio) Śliwa 2007b)
albomarginata (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia albomarginata
albopruinosa Looman = an Aspicilia sp.
alboradiata H. Magn. = Aspicilia alboradiata
aliena Zahlbr. = Aspicilia aliena
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.)
Ach. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina Sommerf. = Bellemerea alpina
americana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia americana
annulata Lynge = Aspicilia annulata
anseris Lynge = Aspicilia anseris
applegatei Herre = Bellemerea alpina (Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2007)
aquatica (Körber) Hepp = Aspicilia aquatica
arctica Lynge = Aspicilia arctica
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) W. A. Weber = Omphalora arizonica
atra (Hudson) Ach. = Tephromela atra
atriseda (Fr.) Nyl. = Protoparmelia atriseda
atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. = Lecanora cenisia
badia (Hoffm.) Ach. = Protoparmelia badia
basaltica Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. = Rimularia gibbosa
bolanderi Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr. = Aspicilia caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia caesiopruinosa
caesiorubella subsp. lathamii Imshaug & Brodo = L. caesiorubella subsp. prolifera
caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (Fink) R. C. Harris = L. subpallens
calcarea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia calcarea
cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vainio = L. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
candida (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia candida
cascadensis H. Magn. = L. garovaglii
castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. = Bryonora castanea
chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
chloropolia (Erichsen) Almb. = L. impudens for most North American records
christoi W. A. Weber = L. phaedrophthalma var. christoi
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
cingulata Zahlbr. = Aspicilia cingulata
circinata (Pers.) Ach. = Lobothallia radiosa
coilocarpa auct. = L. circumborealis
coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
composita Lynge = Aspicilia composita
concinna J. W. Thomson = an Aspicilia sp.
conizaea auct. = L. strobilina
conizaea (Ach.) Nyl. ex Crombie = L. expallens
contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner = Aspicilia contorta
degelii Schauer & Brodo = L. cinereofusca var. cinereofusca
demissa (Körber) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca demissa
deplanans Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
desertorum Kremp. = Aspicilia desertorum
diffracta Ach.
= L. muralis
diphasia Tuck. = Caloplaca diphasia
disserpens (Zahlbr.) H. Magn. = Aspicilia disserpens
distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. = L. populicola
effusa (Hoffm.) Ach. = L. saligna
elevata Lynge = Aspicilia elevata
elmorei E. D. Rudolph = Aspicilia desertorum (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
epulotica (Ach.) Nyl. = Hymenelia epulotica
eyerdamii Herre = L. xylophila
fimbriata H. Magn. = Aspicilia fimbriata
flavida Hepp = Eiglera flavida
flavopunctata Tønsberg = Biatora flavopunctata
floridana Tuck.
= Caloplaca floridana
flotoviana Sprengel  (Ryan et al. 2004) = L. semipallida for North American reports (Śliwa 2007a)
frustulosa (Dickson) Ach. = L. argopholis for North American records excluding Greenland
fuliginosa Brodo = L. argentea
fuscidula Degelius = L. minutella Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
galactinula Vainio = L. pseudistera
gelida (L.) Ach. = Placopsis gelida
gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Aspicilia gibbosa
gibbosula H. Magn. = Aspicilia gibbosa
glaucomela Tuck. = Pertusaria glaucomela
glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana
glaucopsina Nyl. = Aspicilia glaucopsina
granatina Sommerf. = Euopsis granatina
grandis H. Magn. = Protoparmelia badia
grantii H. Magn. = L. xylophila
haydenii Tuck. = Rhizoplaca haydenii
heteroplaca Zahlbr. = Aspicilia heteroplaca
holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. = Solenopsora holophaea
hypospilota Vainio = L. oreinoides
incusa (Fr.) Vainio = L. demissa
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
lacustris (With.) Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris
laevata (Ach.) Nyl.
= Aspicilia laevata
laevis Poelt = L. horiza, but N. American records are L. xylophila
lavata (H. Magn.) Fink = Ionaspis lavata
lentigera (Weber) Ach. = Squamarina lentigera
lesleyana (Darb.) Paulson = Aspicilia lesleyana
limitata H. Magn. = Aspicilia limitata
marginalis Hasse = Rhizoplaca marginalis
mastoidea Lynge = Aspicilia mastoidea
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Ach. (Wetmore 1967) = Aspicilia mastrucata
melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. = Lobothallia melanaspis
melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond = Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
mniaroeiza Nyl. = Rinodina mniaroeiza
morioides (Blomb. ex Arnold) Blomb. = Clauzadeana macula
mutabilis Sommerf. = L. intricata
mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. = Megaspora verrucosa
myrinii (Fr.) Tuck. = Aspilidea myrinii
narssaquensis Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
nephaea Sommerf. = Protoparmelia nephaea
nikrapensis (
Darb.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia nikrapensis
nevadensis H. Magn. = L. garovaglii
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = identity uncertain
obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse = Acarospora obpallens
occidentalis (Lynge) Lynge = L. argopholis
ochrococca (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Protoparmelia ochrococca
oregana Tuck. = L. argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
pachythallina Lynge = L. geophila
palanderi Vainio = L. zosterae
pallida (Schreber) Rabenh. var. pallida = L. albella var. albella
pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo = L. albella var. rubescens
parisiensis Nyl. = L. horiza
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Sommerf. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
peltata (Ramond) Steudel = Rhizoplaca peltata
pergibbosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia pergibbosa
perradiata Nyl. = Aspicilia perradiata
pertusa Lynge = Aspicilia pertusa
phaeobola Tuck. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
pinastri (Schaerer) H. Magn. = L. pulicaris
piniperda Körber = L. albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)

pleiospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
pleistospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
plicigera Zahlbr. = Aspicilia plicigera
polychroma (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia polychroma
praecrenata Nyl. = Aspicilia praecrenata
praeradiosa Nyl. = Lobothallia praeradiosa
pruinosa Chaub.  Not in North America
pseudochlarotera Brodo = L. hybocarpa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Lobothallia radiosa
reptans Looman = Aspicilia reptans
riparia G. Merr. non (Flotow) M. Steiner = L. xylophila
rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia rolleana
rosulata (Körber) Stizenb. = Aspicilia rosulata
rubina (Vill.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
ryrkaipiae H. Magn. = Aspicilia ryrkaipiae
sanguinea (Kremp.) Mig. = Bellemerea sanguinea
scotopholis (Tuck.) Timdal = Miriquidica scotopholis
sipeana H. Magn. = Aspicilia sipeana
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = L. rupicola
stygioplaca Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subdispersa Nyl. ex Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
subfusca (L.) Ach. = nom. rej. prop. = L. allophana
subfuscata H. Magn. = L. argentata
sublapponica Zahlbr. = Aspicilia sublapponica
subolivascens Nyl. = Caloplaca demissa
subpallida G. Merr. non C. Knight = L. caesiorubella subsp. prolifera
subradians Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subradiascens Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
superfluens H. Magn. = L. geophila
supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia supertegens
sylvestris (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = L. rubicunda
symmictera Nyl. = L. symmicta
tenuis H. Magn. =
Aspicilia tenuis
tesselina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = L. oreinoides
tetraspora H. Magn. = L. pacifica
thamnitis Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
thamnoplaca Tuck. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
thelococcoides Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
thomsonii H. Magn. = L. novomexicana
umbrina (Ach.) A. Massal. = L. hagenii (Śliwa 2007b)
urceolata (Fr.) Wetmore = Megaspora verrucosa
utahensis H. Magn. = L. peltastictoides
varia subsp. densa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. densa
varia subsp. laxa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. laxa
variolascens auct. = L. impudens for North American records
verrucigera (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia verrucigera
verrucosa (Ach.) Laurer = Megaspora verrucosa
versicolor (Pers.) Ach. = L. muralis var. versicolor

LECANOROPSIS M. Choisy
saligna (Schrader) M. Choisy = Lecanora saligna

LECIDEA Ach.
admiscens Nyl.
ahlesii (Körber) Nyl. (Harris 1995b)
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday & Coppins (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
aitema Ach.
albofuscescens Nyl.
albohyalina (Nyl.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Biatora albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
alpestris Sommerf.
amaurospoda (Anzi) Vainio Syns.: Biatora pullata, Lecidea pullata (Printzen 1995)
amniculensis Lowe  Possibly a syn. of Micarea lutulata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
atomaria Th. Fr.
atrobrunnea (Lam. & DC.) Schaerer subsp. atrobrunnea

atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
atrobrunnea subsp. stictica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
atromarginata H. Magn.
atroviridis (Arnold) Th. Fr.
auriculata Th. Fr. ssp. auriculata (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
auriculata ssp. brachyspora Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
baffiniana H. Magn.
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
betulicola (Kullh.) H. Magn. f. endamylea (Hedl.) Hinteregger (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
brachyspora (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
brodoana Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
brunneofusca H. Magn.
californica Zahlbr.
carneoalbens Nyl.
carnulenta (Tuck.) Fink
cascadensis H. Magn.
cellularis Lowe
cinerata Zahlbr.
commaculans Nyl. (Fryday 2006)
confluens (Weber) Ach.
congesta Fink
crassilabra Müll. Arg.
crisima Nyl.
cruciaria Tuck.
cyrtidia Tuck.
(Harris 1997)
degelii H. Magn.
deminutula H. Magn.
despecta Th. Fr.
diapensiae Th. Fr.
diducens Nyl.
eckfeldtii Zahlbr.
ecrustacea (Anzi ex Arnold) Arnold
ementiens Nyl.
enterophaea Vainio
erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf.
extenuata Vainio
flavidolivens (Tuck.) Fink
floridensis Nyl.
fuliginosa Taylor
furfurosa Tuck. ex Nyl.
furvonigrans (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
fuscatoatra Nyl.
fuscoatra (L.) Ach.
fuscoatrina Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
goniophiloides B. de Lesd.
haerjedalica H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a)
hassei Zahlbr.
holopolia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
homosema Nyl.
hypomela Nyl.
intropallida Fink
katahdinensis Degel.
kingmanii (Hasse) Hertel & S. Ekman  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
laboriosa Müll. Arg. (Hertel 1995)
labradorica Arnold
lapicida (Ach.) Ach. var. lapicida (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lapicida var. pantherina Ach. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lepidastra (Tuck.) Hasse
leprarioides Tønsberg
leucothallina Arnold
lithophila (Ach.) Ach.
louisianae B. de Lesd.
lyngei Degel.
mamillana Tuck.
mannii Tuck.
meiocarpa Nyl. var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
melaphanoides Nyl.
merrillii H. Magn.
microps Tuck. (Fink 1935, Perlmutter & Greene 2005)
micytho Tuck. ex Willey (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
moreliiensis B. de Lesd.
mutabilis Fée
myriocarpella (G. Merr.) Zahlbr.
nearingii H. Magn.
nylanderi (Anzi) Th. Fr.
occidentalis Lynge
olivascens Th. Fr.
pacifica Herre
paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
paupercula Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
peliaspis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
perlatolica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
phaeopelidna Vainio
phaeops Nyl.
picea Lynge
plana (J. Lahm) Nyl.
plebeja Nyl.
polaris Lynge
polycocca Sommerf.
populina Müll. Arg. ex Nyl. Syn.: Micarea populina
praenubila Nyl.
praetermissa Tønsberg
promiscens Nyl.
protabacina Nyl.
pseudaglaea Hertel  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
pulla Lowe
pullula (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Biatora pullula   Acc. to Printzen (1995), belongs to Lecanora
pumicicola H. Magn.
pycnocarpa (Körber) Ohlert
ramulosa Th. Fr.
rivulorum H. Magn.
roseotincta Coppins & Tønsberg
rubrocastanea T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille & Printzen 2007)
sauteri Körber  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
silacea Ach.
somphoterella Vainio
sphaerella Hedl. = a species of Lecania? (Printzen 1995)
steineri Hertel
subaglaea B. de Lesd.
subcandida H. Magn.
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
subplebeja Vainio
subrhagadiella Lynge
subtilis Degel.
swartzioidea Nyl.
syncarpa Zahlbr. (McCune 1998b)
tenayucae B. de Lesd.
tenuissima Lynge
tessellata Flörke
tessellata var. caesia (Anzi) Arnold
theodori Lynge
torquens Müll. Arg. = a species of Lecanora? (Printzen 1995)
trapelioides Printzen  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
truckeei Herre
umbonata (Hepp) Mudd
varians Ach.  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
versicolor Schwein. (Printzen 1995)
virginiensis Calk. & Nyl.
xanthococcoides Zahlbr.
ablephora Nyl. = Ramonia ablephora
acrocyanea (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. = Lecidella patavina
adirondackii H. Magn. = Psilolechia clavulifera
aenea (Fr.) Nyl. = Miriquidica garovaglii
aeruginosa Borrer = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
aglaea Sommerf. = Calvitimela aglaea
aglaeida Nyl. = Calvitimela aglaea
alaiensis Vainio = Lecidella patavina
alaskensis Nyl. = Herteliana alaskensis
albidocinerella (Vainio) Vainio = Lecidella effugiens
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Ach. = Porpidia albocaerulescens
albonigra H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
albosuffusa Th. Fr. = Farnoldia jurana
aleutica Degel. = Fuscidea aleutica
amabilis B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
"amylacea Ach. 1810" nom. illeg. Probably refers to Lecanora marginata
aniptiza Stirton = Micarea denigrata
anthracophila Nyl. = Hypocenomyce anthracophila
antoniensis H. Magn. = L. hassei
apochroeiza Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
arctica Sommerf. = Frutidella caesioatra
arctogena (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Calvitimela testaceoatra
arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
armeniaca (DC.) Fr. = Calvitimela armeniaca
assimilata Nyl. = Micarea assimilata
assimilis (Körber) Th. Fr. = Carbonea assimilis
associata Th. Fr. = Geltingia associata
atrata (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Tremolecia atrata
atrofulva Sommerf. = Miriquidica atrofulva
atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
atrolutescens Nyl. = L. mannii
atronivea Arnold = Carbonea atronivea
austrocalifornica Zahlbr. = Carbonea latypizodes
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Mycobilimbia berengeriana
botryosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Hertelidea botryosa
brandegei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegei
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Psorula rufonigra
brujeriana (D. Dietr.) Leighton = Trapelia mooreana
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Lecanora cadubriae
caeca Lowe = Rimularia caeca
caesioatra Schaerer = Frutidella caesioatra
caesiocoronata Lowe = L. olivascens
calcivora (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Clauzadea immersa
carbonoidea J. W. Thomson = Immersaria carbonoidea
carpathica (Körber) Szatala = Lecidella carpathica
catalinaria Stizenb. = Lecidella asema
caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = a Lecanora sp.
chalybeiza Nyl.= Micarea erratica (Harris 1997; Coppins & Muhr 1997)
cinereoatra Ach. = Porpidia cinereoatra
cinereorufa Schaerer = Schaereria cinereorufa
cinnabarina Sommerf. = Pyrrhospora cinnabarina
circumnigrata H. Magn. = Miriquidica pulvinata
circumnigrata var. reagens H. Magn. = Miriquidica lulensis
coarctata (Sm.) Nyl. = Trapelia coarctata
columbiana H. Magn. = L. tessellata
columnata Lowe = Cecidonia xenophana
conferenda Nyl. = Adelolecia kolaensis
contigua Fr. = Porpidia macrocarpa
coroniformis Kremp. = Psora crenata
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Helocarpon crassipes
crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata
crustulata (Ach.) Sprengel = Porpidia crustulata
cuprea Sommerf. = Biatora cuprea
cyanea (Ach.) Rohl. = L. tessellata
cyanescens Lynge = L. lapicida
cyathoides (Ach.) Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but misidentification for North America
decipiens (Hedwig) Ach. = Psora decipiens
delincta Nyl. = L. ahlesii  (Arup 2004)
demissa (Rutstr.) Ach. = Lecidoma demissum
deustata Zahlbr. = Miriquidica deusta
dicksonii auct. = Tremolecia atrata
dicksonii (Gmelin) Ach. = nomen dubium
dilutiuscula Nyl. = Micarea bauschiana
diversa Lowe = Porpidia diversa
dolodes Nyl. ex Hasse = Schaeraria dolodes
efflorescens (Hedl.) Erichsen = Biatora efflorescens
elabens Fr. = Ramboldia elabens
elaeochroma (Ach.) Ach. = Lecidella elaeochroma
elata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
elegantior H. Magn. = Amygdalaria elegantior
endolithea Lynge = Lecidella patavina
enteroleuca auct. = Lecidella spp.
epiiodiza Nyl. = Schaereria endocyanea
epixanthoidiza Nyl. nom. rej. prop. = Biatora efflorescens
erratica Körber = Micarea erratica
euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. = Lecidella euphorea
evansii H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica
fissuriseda Poelt = Mycobilimbia fissuriseda
flavocaerulescens Hornem. = Porpidia flavocaerulescens
flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
friesii Ach. = Hypocenomyce friesii
furfuracea Pers. = Phyllopsora furfuracea
furva Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
furvella Nyl. ex Mudd = Rimularia furvella
fusca (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
fuscescens Sommerf. = Lecanora fuscescens
fuscocinerea Nyl. = Schaereria fuscocinerea
garovaglii Schaerer = Miriquidica garovaglii
gelatinosa Flörke = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
geophana Nyl. = Steinia geophana
glaucophaea Körber = Porpidia glaucophaea
glaucopholis Nyl. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
glebulosa (Fr.) Clem. = Trapeliopsis wallrothii
globulosa Flörke = Biatora globulosa
globifera Ach. = Psora globifera
glomerulosa (DC.) Steudel = Lecidella euphorea
goniophila auct. = Lecidella anomaloides
granosa Tuck. = Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2007)
granulata H. Magn. = Lecidella granulata
granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa
gregaria G. Merr. = Trapelia glebulosa
grisella Flörke ex Schaerer = L. fuscoatra
gyrodes H. Magn. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
hebescens Nyl. = Porpidia albocaerulescens (Lendemer 2004a)
helvola (Körber) Th. Fr. = Biatora helvola
helvola var. longispora Degel. = Biatora longispora
heppii R. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Lecidella wulfenii
homalodes Nyl. = L. tessellata Flörke (Hertel 1991)
humilis Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
humosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Placynthiella uliginosa
hypnorum Lib. = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
hypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
hypopta Ach. = Lecanora hypopta
icterica (Mont.) Taylor = Psora icterica
impavida Th. Fr. = Rimularia impavida
instrata Nyl. = Miriquidica instrata
insularis Nyl. = Rimularia insularis
internectens Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
intumescens (Flotow) Nyl.
= Rimularia insularis
jurana Schaerer = Farnoldia jurana
kochiana Hepp = Fuscidea kochiana, but apparently misidentification for N.A. (Fryday 2008)
kochiana var. subreagens H. Magn. = Fuscidea scrupulosa
lactea Flörke ex Schaerer = L. lapicida
lacus-crateris H. Magn. = Lecidella stigmatea
latypea auct. non Ach. = Lecidella carpathica
latypea Ach. = L. plana
latypiza Nyl. = Lecidella carpathica
leptoboloides Nyl. = L. laboriosa
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaea
leucophaeoides Nyl. =
Miriquidica leucophaeoides
limborina (Nyl.) Lamy = Rimularia limborina
limitata auct. = Lecidella elaeochroma
limosa Ach. = Protomicarea limosa
lithospersa Zahlbr. = Farnoldia hypocrita
lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann = Trapelia mooreana
lowensis H. Magn. = Fuscidea lowensis
lucida (Ach.) Ach. = Psilolechia lucida
lugubris Sommerf. = Ropalospora lugubris
lulensis (Hellbom) Stizenb. = Miriquidica lulensis
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Romjularia lurida
luridella Tuck. = Psora luridella
lynceola Th. Fr. = Micarea lynceola (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lynceola auct. N. Am. = Micarea bauschiana (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lyngeana Zahlbr. = Adelolecia pilati
macrocarpa (DC.) Steudel = Porpidia macrocarpa
macrocarpa var. trullisata (Arnold) Mig. = Porpidia zeoroides
marciensis Lowe = Miriquidica pycnocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
marginata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
marylandensis H. Magn. = Miriquidica leucophaea  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
meiocarpa Nyl. = Biatora meiocarpa
meiocarpa var. tacomensis = Biatora meiocarpa var. tacomensis
melancheima Tuck. = Ramboldia elabens
melinodes (Körber) H. Magn. ex Lynge = Porpidia melinodes
micacea Körber = Lecidella stigmatea
minuta (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora meiocarpa
misella (Nyl.) Nyl. = Micarea misella
mollis (Wahlenb.) Nyl. = Fuscidea mollis
monticola Ach. = Clauzadea monticola
myriocarpoides Nyl. = L. plebeja
nemoralis Lowe = Lecidea ahlesii var. nemoralis
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) W. A. Weber ex R. Anderson = Psora nipponica
oblongula H. Magn. = Caloplaca oblongula
obtegens Th. Fr. = Trapelia obtegens
occidentalis Lynge = L. tessellata (Hertel 1991)
ochrococca Nyl. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
oligotropha J. R. Laundon = Placynthiella oligotropha
olivacea (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Lecidella elaeochroma
oreinodes (Körber) W. A. Weber & Hertel = Lecanora oreinoides
ornata (Sommerf.) Hue = Trapelia glebulosa
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora orosthea
ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Hypocenomyce scalaris
*oxyspora (Tul.) Nyl. = Phacopsis oxyspora
pallida Th. Fr. = Pilophorus dovrensis
panaeola (Ach.) Ach. = Amygdalaria panaeola
pantherina (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. lapicida
parasemella Nyl. = Schaereria parasemella
parvifolia Pers. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
"pelobotrion" = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leighton = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
petri (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Romjularia lurida
phaeophora Stizenb. = Lecanora phaeophora
phylliscina Nyl. = Porpidia macrocarpa
pilati (Hepp) Körber = Adelolecia pilati
placidensis H. Magn. = Lecanora placidensis
planetica Tuck. ex Willey = Micarea erratica (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
platycarpa Ach. = Porpidia macrocarpa
plumbeoatra Vainio = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Th. Fr. = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
praeruptorum Du Rietz & H. Magn. = Fuscidea praeruptorum
prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd. = Lecidella scabra
pringlei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei
pruinosa Ach. = L. lithophila
pulcherrima Vainio = Anamylopsora pulcherrima
pullata (Norman) Th. Fr. = Lecidea amaurospoda
punctella (Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea rhabdogena
purissima Darb. = Lecanora marginata
quadricolor (Dickson) Borrer = Trapeliopsis granulosa
quernea (Dickson) Ach. = Pyrrhospora quernea
ramulicola H. Magn. = Lecanora cadubriae
recedens Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus
recensa Stirton = Fuscidea recensa
rhaetica Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Farnoldia micropsis
rivulosa Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but misidentification for North America
rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Psora rubiformis
rufofusca (Anzi) Nyl. = Myochroidea rufofusca
rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl. = Psorula rufonigra
rugosa Lowe = Schaereria cinereorufa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
russula Ach. = Pyrrhospora russula
sanguineoatra sens. Nyl. = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
santae-monicae H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
santensis Tuck. = Phyllopsora santensis
saxosa R. Anderson = L. syncarpa (Hertel 1995, Leuckert & Hertel 2003)
scabra Taylor = Lecidella scabra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
schizopeltica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. truckeei (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007)
scholanderi Lynge = Toninia tristis subsp. scholanderi
scotopholis (Tuck.) Herre = Miriquidica scotopholis
scrobiculata Th. Fr. = Lecanora scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
scrupulosa (Eckf.) H. Magn. = Fuscidea scrupulosa
shushanii J. W. Thomson = a Tephromela sp.?

soredifera Lowe = Porpidia macrocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
sorediza Nyl. = Porpidia tuberculosa
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Vainio = Porpidia soredizodes
speirea (Ach.) Ach. = Porpidia speirea
sphacelata Th. Fr. = Rimularia sphacelata
stenotera (Nyl.) Nyl. = L. alpestris
steriza (Ach.) Vainio = Porpidia macrocarpa
stigmatea Ach. = Lecidella stigmatea
suballinita Nyl. = Micarea ternaria (Nyl.) Vězda (Printzen 1995)
subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge = Lecidella spp.
subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd. = Adelolecia pilati
subcinnabarina Tønsberg = Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina 
subcontinuior B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
suberratica Lowe = Micarea erratica
sublimosa Nyl. = Megalaria jemtlandica
subplebeia Nyl. = Carbonea latypizodes
subplumbea Anzi = (?) Miriquidica griseoatra
subramosa Lowe = “Toninia” squalescens  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
subsimplex H. Magn. = Porpidia subsimplex
subsorediza Lynge = Bellemerea subsorediza
sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb. = Lecanora sulphurea
sylvana (Körber) Th. Fr. = Biatoraa globulosa
sylvicola Flotow = Micarea sylvicola
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora symmicta
templetonii Taylor = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
tenebrosa Flotow = Schaereria fuscocinerea
tennessensis Nyl. = Lecanora oreinoides
tesselina Tuck. = Lecanora oreinoides
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. = Psora testacea  Not included in the North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana
tornoënsis Nyl. = Japewia tornoënsis
trochodes (Taylor ex Leighton) Crombie = Rimularia limborina
tumida A. Massal. = Porpidia tuberculosa
turgidula Fr. = Biatora turgidula
uliginosa (Schrader) Ach. = Placynthiella uliginosa
ultima Th. Fr. = Cephalophysis leucospila
umbonella Nyl. = Cecidonia umbonella
vacciniicola Tønsberg = Biatora vacciniicola
varians Ach. = Pyrrhospora varians
vernalis (L.) Ach. = Biatora vernalis
vernicoma Tuck. = Gassicurtia vernicoma
violascens H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
viridans (Flotow) Lamy = Lecidella viridans
viridescens (Schrader) Ach. = Trapeliopsis viridescens
*vitellinaria Nyl. = Carbonea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Körber = Carbonea vorticosa
vulgata Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
wallrothii Flörke ex Sprengel = Trapeliopsis wallrothii
washingtonensis H. Magn. = L. cascadensis
wulfenii (Hepp) Arnold = Lecidella wulfenii
xanthococca Sommerf. = Pycnora xanthococca
ypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
zahlbruckneri Fink = Lecidella latypiza (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)

LECIDELLA Körber
anomaloides (A. Massal.) Hertel & H. Kilias Syn.: Lecidea goniophila auct.
asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea catalinaria
bullata Körber
carpathica Körber Syns.: Lecidea latypiza, L. carpathica, L. latypea auct., L. evansi, L. albonigra
chiricahuana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)

dimelaenophila Hertel
effugiens (Nilson) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea albidocinerella
elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syns.: Lecidea elaeochroma, L. olivacea, L. limitata auct.
enteroleucella (Nyl.) Hertel
euphorea (Flörke) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea euphorea, L. glomerulosa
flavosorediata (Vězda) Hertel & Leuckert
granulata (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea granulata
granulosula (Nyl.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
latypiza (Nyl.) M. Choisy
meiococca (Nyl.) Leuckert & Hertel
nashiana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
patavina (A. Massal.)
Knoph & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea acrocyanea, L. alaiensis, L. endolithea
pulveracea (Flörke ex Th. Fr.) P. Sydow  (Laundon 2005)
scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea scabra, L. prasinula
stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea micacea, L. stigmatea, L. vulgata, L. lacus-crateris
[Lecidea subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge]
subviridis Tønsberg  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
tumidula (A. Massal.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)

viridans (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Lecidea viridans
wulfenii (Hepp) Körber Syns.: Lecidea heppii, L. wulfenii
alaiensis (Vainio) Hertel = L. patavina
chodatii (Samp.) Knoph & Leuckert = L. granulosula
elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel = L. asema
enteroleuca auct. = various Lecidella spp.
glomerulosa (DC.) M. Choisy = L. euphorea
goniophila auct. = L. anomaloides
inamoena (Müll. Arg.) Hertel = L. patavina
incongruella (Vainio) Hertel & Leuckert = L. effugiens
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Körber (Goward et al. 1996) = Megalaria laureri
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel = L. scabra
spitsbergensis (Lynge) Hertel & Leuckert = L. patavina
subincongrua (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert = L. asema

LECIDOMA Gotth. Schneider & Hertel
demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea demissa, Lepidoma demissum, Psora demissa

LECIOGRAPHA A. Massal. = OPEGRAPHA
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Opegrapha glaucomaria
*inspersa (Tul.) Rehm = possibly Dactylospora parasitica
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc. = Opegrapha lamyi
*parasitica A. Massal. = Opegrapha rupestris
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora pertusariicola
*urceolata (Fr.) Körber = Dactylospora urceolata

LECIOPHYSMA Th. Fr.
finmarkicum Th. Fr.
furfurascens (Nyl.) Gyelnik

LEIODERMA Nyl.
cherokeense P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2005)
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.

LEIORREUMA Eschw.
exaltatum (Mont. & v.d. Bosch) Staiger Syn.: Phaeographis exaltata (Staiger 2002)
explicans (Fink) Lendemer Syn.:  Phaeographina explicans (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
sericeum (Eschw.) Staiger Syn.: Phaeographis sericea (Staiger 2002)

LEMMOPSIS (Vainio) Zahlbr.
arnoldiana (Hepp) Zahlbr. (Schultz 2002d)

LEMPHOLEMMA Körber
chalazanum (Ach.) B. de Lesd. 
Syn.: Psorotichia segregata, Collemopsis segregata (Schultz 2007b)
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
isidiodes (Nyl. ex Arnold) H. Magn.
oblique-peltatum (Eschw.) C. W. Dodge
polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme
radiatum (Sommerf.) Henssen
umbella (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
vesiculiferum Henssen
albonigrumH. Magn. = L. cladodes
myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. polyanthes

LEPIDOMA (Ach.) Gray
demissum (Rutstr.) M. Choisy = Lecidoma demissum

LEPRARIA Ach.
adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2007)
alpina (B. de Lesd.) Tretiach & Baruffo (Knudsen & Elix 2007a)
borealis Lohtander & Tønsberg
cacuminum (A. Massal.) Lohtander
caesiella R. C. Harris  (Lendemer 2005a)
caesioalba (B. de Lesd.) J. R. Laundon
crassissima (Hue) Lettau
crassissima var. isidiata Llimona
diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa var. diffusa Syn.: Leproloma diffusum var. diffusum (Kukwa 2002)
diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa var. chrysodetoides (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa Syn.: Leproloma diffusum var. chrysodetoides (Kukwa 2002)
eburnea J. R. Laundon
elobataTønsberg (Tønsberg 1997)
friabilis Lendemer, K. Knudsen & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008b)
incana (L.) Ach.
jackii Tønsberg (Kümmerling et al. 1995)
lanata Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007)
lecanorica Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)

lobificans Nyl. Syns.: Crocynia aliciae, C. americana
membranacea (Dickson) Vainio Syn.: Leproloma membranaceum, Amphiloma lanuginosum (Kukwa 2002)
neglecta (Nyl.)
Erichsen  Syn.: Crocynia neglecta
nivalis J. R. Laundon
normandinoides Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2007)
rigidula (B. de Lesd.) Tønsberg
salazinica Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007)
santamonicae K. Knudsen & Elix (Knudsen & Elix 2007b)
squamatica Elix (Lendemer 2008)
texta K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen & Elix 2007a)
vouauxii (Hue) R. C. Harris Syn.: Leproloma vouauxii (Kukwa 2002)
xerophila Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
aeruginosa auct. = L. incana
aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm. = not a lichen-forming fungus
arctica (Lynge) Wetmore = L. vouauxii
candelaris (L.) Fr. = Chrysothrix candelaris
chlorina (Ach.) Ach. = Chrysothrix chlorina
citrina (Schaerer) Rabenh. = Chrysothrix candelaris
finkii (B. de Lesd.) R. C. Harris = L. lobificans
flava (Schreber) Sm. = Chrysothrix candelaris

frigida J. R. Laundon = L. eburnea (Tønsberg 2004b)
lesdainii (Hue) R. C. Harris = Botryolepraria lesdainii
zonata Brodo = L. caesioalba or L. neglecta

LEPROCAULON Nyl. ex Lamy
albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl. ex Hue Syn.: Stereocaulon albicans
arbuscula (Nyl.) Nyl.  Syn.: Stereocaulon arbuscula
gracilescens (Nyl.)
I. M. Lamb & Ward
microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. Syns.: Stereocaulon microscopicum, S. quisquiliare
subalbicans (
I. M. Lamb) I. M. Lamb & Ward  Syn.: Stereocaulon subalbicans  North American records of S. pseudoarbuscula belong here.

LEPROCOLLEMA Vainio
americanum Vainio  (Schultz 2007a)


LEPROLOMA Nyl. ex Crombie = LEPRARIA  (Kukwa 2002)
angardianum (Øvstedal) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria cacuminum
cacuminum (A. Massal.) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria cacuminum
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. diffusum = Lepraria diffusa var. diffusa
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. chrysodetoides J. R. Laundon (Goward et al. 1996) = Lepraria diffusa var. chrysodetoides
membranaceum (Dickson) Vainio = Lepraria membranacea
"membranaceum var. chrysodetoides" Removed as a typographical error here
vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria vouauxii

LEPROPLACA (Nyl.) Hue = CALOPLACA
chrysodeta (Vainio ex Räsänen) J. R. Laundon = Caloplaca chrysodeta

LEPTOCHIDIUM M. Choisy
albociliatum (Desmaz.) M. Choisy Syns.: Polychidium albociliatum, Leptogium albociliatum, L. pilosellum
crenatulum (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2006)

LEPTOGIDIUM Nyl. = POLYCHIDIUM
dendriscum (Nyl.) Nyl. = Polychidium dendriscum
intricatulum Nyl. = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum

LEPTOGIUM (Ach.) Gray
adpressum Nyl.
apalachense Nyl.
aquale (Arnold) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
arcticum P. M. Jørg.
arsenei Sierk
austroamericanum (Malme) C. W. Dodge
azureum (Sw. ex Ach.) Mont.
biatorinum (Nyl.) Leighton (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
brebissonii Mont.
burgessii (L.) Mont.
burnetiae C. W. Dodge
byssinum (Hoffm.) Zwackh ex Nyl.
californicum Tuck.
cellulosum P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
chloromelum (Sw.) Nyl.
contortum Sierk
coralloideum (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
corticola (Taylor) Tuck.
crenatulum (Nyl.) Vainio
cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körber
dactylinum Tuck.
denticulatum Nyl.
digitatum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
erectum Sierk
floridanum Sierk
fusisporum (Tuck.) C. W. Dodge
gelatinosum (With.) J. R. Laundon
hirsutum Sierk
hypotrachynum Müll. Arg.
imbricatum P. M. Jørg.
intermedium (Arnold) Arnold
isidiosellum (Riddle) Sierk
juniperinum Tuck.
laceroides (B. de Lesd.) P. M. Jørg.
lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr.
marginellum (Sw.) Gray
microstictum Vainio
milligranum Sierk
palmatum (Hudson) Mont.  (Hoffman & Hafellner 2000; Santesson et al. 2004)
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge  (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
parculum Nyl.
phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.
platynum (Tuck.) Herre
plicatile (Ach.) Leighton Syn.: Collema plicatile
polycarpum P. M. Jørg. & Goward
pseudofurfuraceum P. M. Jørg. & Wallace (Jørgensen 1997)
rivale Tuck. Syn.: Polychidium rivale
rivulare (Ach.) Mont.
rugosum Sierk
saturninum (Dickson) Nyl.
schraderi (Ach.) Nyl.
sessile Vainio
siskyouensis Daphne Stone & Andrea Ruchty (Stone & Ruchty 2008)
stipitatum Vainio
subaridum P. M. Jørg. & Goward
subtile (Schrader) Torss.
tacomae P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
tenuissimum (Dickson) Körber
teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold
albociliatum Desmaz. = Leptochidium albociliatum
americanum Degel. = L. laceroides
amphineum Ach. ex Nyl. = L. byssinum
arizonicum Zahlbr. = L. juniperinum
burnetiae C. W. Dodge var. hirsutum (Sierk) P. M. Jørg. = L. hirsutum
caesiellum Tuck. = L. byssinum
caesium (Ach.) Vainio = L. cyanescens
corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks = L. palmatum
crenatellum (Nyl.) Tuck. = L. rivulare
furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk = L. pseudofurfuraceum (for North American reports; Jørgensen 1997)
inflexum Nyl. = L. burgessii (fide Jørgensen)
lividofuscum (Florke ex Schlecht.) Flotow = L. tenuissimum
minutissimum (Flörke) Fr.
= L. subtile
nanum Herre = L. biatorinum
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge North American reports refer to L. pseudofurfuraceum
perminutum Hedr. = L. subtile
pilosellum G. Merr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
plectenchymum Fink = L. juniperinum
sinuatum (Hudson) A. Massal. = L. gelatinosum
tremelloides auct. = L. cyanescens

LEPTORHAPHIS Körber
atomaria (Ach.) Szatala
#contorta Degel.
#epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
lucida Körber
+parameca (A. Massal.) Körber
quercus (Beltr.) Körber = identity uncertain

LEPTOSPHAERULINA McAlpine
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Riedel

LEPTOTREMA Mont. & Bosch (Frisch 2006)
wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg. (Frisch 2006)
auberianum (Mont.) Fink = Stegobolus auberianus
glaucescens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. =
Leucodecton glaucescens
heterosporum (C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema santense
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema laeviusculum
lepadodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema monosporum
monosporum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Thelotrema monosporum
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale =
Ocellularia bahiana
polycarpum Müll. Arg. =
Leucodecton subcompunctum
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink = L. wightii
reclusum (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema reclusum
santense (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Reimnitzia santensis

LETHARIA (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr.
columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson
vulpina (L.) Hue Syn.: Evernia vulpina
californica (Lév.) Hue = L. columbiana
vulpina (L.) Hue f. californica (Lév.) W. A. Weber = L. columbiana

LETHARIICOLA Grummann
*cucularis (Norman) Lumbsch & D. Hawksw.
*sipei Grummann = L. cucularis

LETROUITIA Hafellner & Bellem.
domingensis (Pers.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium domingense, Bombyliospora domingensis
parabola (Nyl.) R. Sant. & Hafellner
vulpina (Tuck.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium vulpinum, Bombyliospora vulpina

LETTAUIA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*santessonii Ihlen & Tønsberg (Ihlen & Tønsberg 1996)

LEUCOCARPIA Vězda
biatorella (Arnold) Vězda (Buck & Harris 2001)
dictyospora (Orange) R. Sant.  (Alstrup 2004)

LEUCODECTON Massal. (Frisch 2006)
glaucescens (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema glaucescens, Myriotrema glaucescens (Frisch 2006)
occultum (Eschw.) A. Frisch  Syn: Myriotrema compunctum (Frisch 2006)
subcompunctum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema polycarpum (Frisch 2006),
Myriotrema subcompunctum

LEUCOGYROPHANA
Pouzar
*lichenicola Thorn, Malloch & Ginns (Thorn et al. 1998)

LICHENOCHORA Hafellner
*galligena R. Sant. & Hafellner (Diederich 2003)
*obscuroides (Lindsay) Triebel & Rambold (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*verrucicola (Wedd.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant.
*xanthoriae Triebel & Rambold
*thallina (Cooke) Hafellner = L. obscuroides

LICHENOCONIUM Petrak & H. Sydow
*cargillianum (Linds.) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*christansenii M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2004)
*edgewoodensis Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*erodens M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.
*follmannii Kondratyuk & Galloway (Kondratyuk & Galloway 1995)
*laevisporum Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb et al. 1995)
*lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw.
*lichenicola (P. Karst.) Petrak & H. Sydow (Etayo et al. 2007)
*pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petrak & H. Sydow
*usneae (Anzi) D. Hawksw.
*xanthoriae M. S. Christ.

LICHENODIPLIS Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*dendrographae Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*lecanoricola (M. S. Cole & Hawksw.) Diederich Syn.: Laeviomyces lecanoricola (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) Diederich (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOMPHALIA Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalyis (Redhead et al. 2002)
alpina (Britzelmayr) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina alpina, O. luteovitellina, Phytoconisluteovitellina, Botrydina luteovitellina(Redhead et al. 2002)
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina hudsoniana, Botrydina viridis, Coriscium viride, Phytoconis viridis(Redhead et al. 2002)

umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina umbellifera, O. ericetorum, Phytoconisericetorum, Botrydina botryoides, B.vulgaris (Redhead et al. 2002)
velutina (Quél.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina velutina, Phytoconis velutina, Botrydina velutina (Redhead et al. 2002)

LICHENOPELTELLA Höhn.
*heterodermiicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2002)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii (P. M. Kirk & Spooner) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* thamnoliae R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOPUCCINIA D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*poeltii D. Hawksw. & Haffelner (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOSTICTA Zopf
*alcicorniaria (Lindsay) D. Hawksw.

LICHENOSTIGMA Hafellner
*cosmopolites Hafellner & Calatayud (Hafellner & Calatayud 1999)
*dimelaenae Calat. & Hafellner  (Calatayud et al. 2004)
*elongatum Nav.-Ros. & Hafellner (Navarro-Rosines & Hafellner 1996)
*maureri Hafellner  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*rugosum Thor
*semiimmersum Hafellner (Hafellner 1999)
*subradians Hafellner, Calatyud & Nav.-Ros. (Calatayud et al. 2002)

LICHENOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
#calcarea Henssen
#convexa Henssen
#intermixta Henssen
#metzleri (J. Lahm) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia metzleri
#scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Microthelia aterrima, Rinodina aterrima
#tenuissima Henssen

LICHENOTHRIX Henssen = PYRENOTHRIX
riddlei Henssen = Pyrenothrix nigra

LICHINA C. Agardh
confinis (O. F. Müller) C. Agardh
willeyi (Tuck.) Henssen

LICHINELLA Nyl.
americana Henssen
cribellifera (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea Syn.: Gonohymenia cribellifera
flexa Henssen, Büdel & T. H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
granulosa M. Schultz (Schultz 2005)
intermedia Henssen (Schultz 2005)

iodopulchra (Croz.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
melamphylla (Tuck.) Essl. Syn.: Gonohymenia melamphylla, Pannaria melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Essl. Syns.: Forsellia minnesotensis, Gonohymenia minnesotensis
myriospora (Zahlbr.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
nigritella (Lettau) P. P. Moreno & Egea Syn.: Gonohymenia nigritella

robustoides Henssen, Büdel & T.H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
sinaica (Marton & Galun) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
stipatula Nyl.

LICHINODIUM Nyl.
canadense Henssen
saxicola Henssen
sirosiphoideum Nyl.

LIGNOSCRIPTA B. D. Ryan
atroalba B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan 2004a)

LITHOGRAPHA Nyl.
tesserata (DC.) Nyl.

LITHOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.
hyalosporum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Arthopyrenia hyalospora, Plagiocarpa hyalospora, Pleurotrema solivagum
illotum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa illota, P. langloisii
macrosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa macrospora
microsporum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
phaeosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa phaeosporum
septemseptatum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa septemseptata

LLIMONAEA Egea & Torrente
californica (Tuck.) Sparrius  Syns.:  Chiodecton californicum, Sclerophyton californicum (Sparrius 2004b)
cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius  Syn.: Sclerophyton cerebriforme (Sparrius 2004b)

LLIMONIELLA Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.
*pertusariae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*pyrenulae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*neglecta (Vainio) Triebel & Rambold = Rhymbocarpus neglectus

LOBARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
amplissima (Scop.) Forss. (Tønsberg & Goward 2001)
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Sticta hallii
kurokawae Yoshim.
linita (Ach.) Rabenh. Syn.: Sticta linita
oregana (Tuck.)
Müll. Arg. Syn.: Sticta oregana
pseudopulmonaria Gyelnik
pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Syn.: Sticta pulmonaria
quercizans Michaux
ravenelii (Tuck.) Yoshim. Syn.: Sticta erosa
retigera (Bory) Trevisan
scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. Syn.: Sticta verrucosa
silvae-veteris (Goward & Goffinet) Goward & Goffinet Syn.: Nephroma silvae-veteris (Goffinet & Goward 1998)
tenuis Vainio
erosa (Eschw.) Nyl. = L. ravenelii
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vainio Not in North America.
laetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr. = L. virens but not known from North America
lobulifera B. Moore = L. tenuis
verrucosa (Hudson) Hoffm. = L. scrobiculata
 

LOBOTHALLIA (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia alphoplaca, Lecanora alphoplaca, Lecanora thamnoplaca
melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia melanaspis, Lecanora melanaspis
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia praeradiosa, Lecanora praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia radiosa, Lecanora radiosa, L. circinata

LOPADIOPSIS Vainio = GYALECTIDIUM
floridana Zahlbr. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

LOPADIUM Körber
augustini (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
coralloideum (Nyl.) Lynge
disciforme (Flotow) Kullhem
dodgei Herre
pezizoideum (Ach.) Körber
alpinum (Körber) R. Sant. = Schadonia alpina
domingense (Pers.) Fink = Letrouitia domingensis
fecundum Th. Fr. = Schadonia fecunda
fuscum Müll. Arg. = Calopadia fusca
fuscoluteum (Dickson) Mudd = Brigantiaea fuscolutea
gemellum (Anzi) Stizenb. = Schadonia alpina
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) Zahlbr. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Calopadia puiggarii
phyllocharis (Mont.) Fink = Tapellaria epiphylla
vulpinum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia vulpina

LOPEZARIA Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990)
versicolor (Fée) Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) Syn.: Catinaria versicolor, Megalospora versicolor

LOXOSPORA A. Massal.
cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner Syn.: Haematomma cismonicum
elatina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Haematomma elatinum
ochrophaea (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma ochrophaeum
pustulata (Brodo & Culb.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma pustulatum

LOXOSPOROPSIS Henssen
corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

MACENTINA Vězda
dictyospora Orange (Will-Wolf 1998) = Psoroglaena dictyospora (Harada 2003)

MALCOMIELLA Vězda
granifera (Ach.) Kalb & Lücking (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007)

MARCHANDIOMYCES
Diederich & D. Hawksw.
*corallinus (Roberge) Diederich & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Illosporium corallinum
#lignicola Lawrey & Diederich (DePriest et al. 2005)

MARONEA A. Massal.
constans (Nyl.) Hepp  Questionable for N.Am. (Harris 2006)
polyphaea H. Magn.
carolinae H. Magn. = M. polyphaea (Harris 2006)
porinoidea Zahlbr. = Ramonia valenzueliana

MASONHALEA Kärnefelt
richardsonii (Hooker) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cetraria richardsonii

MASSALONGIA Körber
carnosa (Dickson) Körber
microphylliza (Nyl. ex Hasse) Henssen Syns.: Placynthium dubium, P. microphyllizum

MASTODIA Hooker f. & Harvey
tessellata Hooker f. & Harvey = Kohlmeyera complicatula

MAZOSIA A. Massal.
ocellata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Platygrapha ocellata, Schismatomma ocellatum, Thelotrema carneum, Enterographa carnea, Ocellularia carnea

MEDUSULINA Müll. Arg.
nitida (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Graphis nitida
texana Müll. Arg.

MEGALARIA Hafellner
beechingii Lendemer (Lendemer 2007b)
brodoana S. Ekman & Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
columbiana (G. Merr.) S. Ekman (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Catillaria columbiana
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.)
Hafellner Syns.: Catillaria grossa, Catinaria grossa, C. leucoplaca auct.
jemtlandica (Th. Fr. & Almq.) Fryday  Syn.:  Lecidea sublimosa (Fryday 2004a)
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Hafellner (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Syns.: Catillaria laureri, Catinaria laureri, Lecidella laureri
pulverea (Borrer) Hafellner & Schreiner Syn.: Catillaria pulverea
albocincta (Degel.) Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) = Catillochroma albocincta

MEGALOSPORA Meyen
pachycheila (Tuck.) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bombyliospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora tuberculosa
versicolor (Fée) Zahlbr. = Lopezaria versicolor

MEGASPORA (Clauz. & Cl. Roux) Hafellner & V. Wirth
verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth Syns.: Pachyospora verrucosa, P. mutabilis, Lecanora verrucosa, L. mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl.non Sommerf., L. urceolata, Pertusaria freyi

MELANARIA Erichsen = PERTUSARIA
macounii I. M. Lamb = Pertusaria macounii

MELANELIA Essl.
agnata (Nyl.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria agnata
commixta (Nyl.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria commixta, C. fahlunensis
culbersonii (Hale) Thell Syn.: Cetraria culbersonii
disjuncta (Erichsen) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia granulosa, P. disjuncta, P. denalii
hepatizon (Ach.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria hepatizon, C. polyschiza
panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia panniformis
sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti Syns.: Parmelia sorediosa, P. sorediata
stygia (L.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia stygia
tominii (Oksner) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia substygia, P. saximontana
albertana (Ahti) Essl.  = Melanelixia albertana
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperata

exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. =  Melanelixia fuliginosa

glabra (Schaerer) Essl.  Syn.: Melanelixia glabra

glabratula (Lamy) Essl. = Melanelixia fuliginosa

glabroides (Essl.) Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides

granulosa (Lynge) Essl. = Melanelia disjuncta

halei (Ahti) Essl.  Syn.: Melanohalea halei
incolorata (Parrique) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula

infumata (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) Essl. = Melanohalea multispora

olivacea (L.) Essl. = Melanohalea olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) Essl. = Melanohalea olivaceoides

septentrionalis (Lynge) Essl. =  Melanohalea septentrionalis

sorediosa (Almb.) Essl. = Melanelia sorediata

subargentifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subargentifera

subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subaurifera

subelegantula (Essl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subolivacea
substygia (Räsänen) Essl. = Melanelia tominii

trabeculata (Ahti) Essl. = Melanohalea trabeculata

villosella (Essl.) Essl. (Esslinger 2002c) = Melanelixia villosella

MELANELIXIA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004)

albertana (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia albertana, Parmelia albertana
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia fuliginosa, M. glabratula, Parmelia fuliginosa, P. glabratula

glabra (Schaerer) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia glabra, Parmelia glabra

glabroides (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia glabroides, Parmelia glabroides
subargentifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subargentifera, Parmelia subargentifera, P. conspurcata

subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subaurifera, Parmelia subaurifera

villosella (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia villosella, Parmelia villosella

 

MELANOHALEA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004)

elegantula (Zahlbr.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia elegantula, M. incolorata, Parmelia elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia exasperata, Parmelia exasperata,  P. aspera, P. aspidota

exasperatula (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia exasperatula, Parmelia exasperatula

halei (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia halei, Parmelia halei

infumata (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia infumata, Parmelia infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia multispora, Parmelia multispora

olivacea (L.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia olivacea, Parmelia olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia olivaceoides, Parmelia olivaceoides

septentrionalis (Lynge) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia septentrionalis, Parmelia septentrionalis

subelegantula (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subelegantula, Parmelia subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subolivacea, Parmelia subolivacea
trabeculata (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia trabeculata, Parmelia trabeculata

MELANOLECIA Hertel
transitoria (Arnold) Hertel ex Poelt
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel = Farnoldia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.)
Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis

MELANOMMA Nitschke ex Fuckel
+oxysporum (Zahlbr.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia oxyspora

MELANOTHECA Körber = PYRENULA
achariana Fée = Pyrenula anomala
aggregata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
= not in North America
anomala (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pyrenula anomala
cinerata Zahlbr. = (?) Pyrenula concatervans
concatervans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula concatervans
cruenta (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruenta
esenbeckiana Fée Syn.: Tomasellia esenbeckiana = misidentifications for North America
subincruenta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula cruenta
wrightii Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North American records

MELANOTREMA A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)
meiospermum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syn.: Ocellularia meiosperma (Frisch 2006)

MELASPILEA Nyl.
amota Nyl.
arthonioides (Fée) Nyl.
cinerascens (Willey) Fink
constrictella (Stirton) A. L. Sm.
*cupularis Müll. Arg.
deformis (Schaerer) Nyl.
demissa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
*epigena Müll. Arg.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*lentiginosula (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
maculosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
mesophlebia Müll. Arg.
octomera Müll. Arg.
proximella (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Norrlin
stellans Zahlbr.
*tribuloides (Tuck.) Müll. Arg.

MENEGAZZIA A. Massal.
subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant.  (Bjerke 2003)
terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia pertusa, P. sipeana
pertusa (Schrank) Stein = M. terebrata

MERISMATIUM Zopf
*coccisporum (Norman) Vouaux
*decolorans (Rehm ex Arnold) Triebel
*heterophractum (Nyl.) Vouaux (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*peregrinum (Flotow) Triebel (Harris & Lendemer 2005)

METAMELANEA Henssen
melambola (Tuck.) Henssen Syns.: Synalissa melambola, Pyrenopsis melambola
umbonata Henssen (Fryday 2006)

METASPHAERIA Sacc.
*tartarina (Nyl.) Keissler (Talbot et al. 2000) = Sagediopsis campsteriana

MICAREA Fr.
alabastrites (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
assimilata (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea assimilata
bauschiana (Körber) V. Wirth & Vězda Syns.:  L. dilutiuscula
botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins (McCune 1996)
chlorosticta (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia chlorosticta
cinerea (Schaerer) Hedl.
coppinsii Tønsberg (Fryday 2006)
deminuta Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
denigrata (Fr.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea aniptiza
elachista (Körber) Coppins & R. Sant.
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia endocyanea
erratica (Körber) Hertel, Rambold & Pietschmann Syns.: Lecidea erratica, L. suberratica, L. chalybeiza, L. planetica
globulosella (Nyl.) Coppins
hedlundii Coppins
incrassata Hedl.
leprosula (Th. Fr.) Coppins & A. Fletcher
lignaria (Ach.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia lignaria
lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl.
lutulata (Nyl.) Coppins
marginata Coppins & Muhr (Fryday 2006)
melaena (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia melaena
micrococca (Körber) Gams ex Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
misella (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea misella
myriocarpa Coppins (Tønsberg 1999a)
neostipitata Coppins & P. May (Coppins & May 2001)
nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm.
peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia trisepta
perparvula (Nyl.) Coppins & Printzen (Printzen 1995, Coppins 2008)
prasina Fr. Syns.: Catillaria prasina
pycnidiophora Coppins & P. James
rhabdogena (Norm.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea punctella (Printzen 1995)
subalpina Coppins & Spribille  (Coppins & Spribille 2004)
subviolascens (H. Magn.) Coppins
sylvicola (Flotow) Vězda & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecidea sylvicola
synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
ternaria (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Lecidea suballinita
tuberculata (Sommerf.) R. Anderson
turfosa (A. Massal.) Du Rietz
vulpinaris (Nyl.) Muhr
xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (Coppins & Tønsberg 2001)
clavopycnidiata Brodo & Tønsberg = Szczawinskia tsugae (Aptroot et al. 1997)
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Coppins = Helocarpon crassipes
gelatinosa (Flörke) Brodo = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
globularis "(Ach. ex Nyl.) Hedl." = M. misella
lynceola (Th. Fr.) Palice = misidentifications for N. Am.? (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
melanobola (Nyl.) Coppins = misidentifactions for N. Am. (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
populina (Müll. Arg. ex Nyl.) R. Anderson & M. P. Carmer = Lecidea populina
trisepta (Hellbom) Wetmore = M. peliocarpa
violacea (Crouan ex Nyl.) Hedl. = M. peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant.
viridescens (Schrader) Brodo = Trapeliopsis viridescens (Schrader) Coppins & P. James

MICROCALICIUM Vainio
+ahlneri Tibell
#arenarium (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybopsis arenaria
*conversum Tibell  (Tibell & Ryan 2004)
*disseminatum (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Mycocalicium disseminatum, Calicium disseminatum
*subpedicellatum (Schaerer) Tibell = M. disseminatum

MICROGLAENA Körber nom. illegit. = THELENELLA
corrosa (Körber) Arnold = Protothelenella corrosa
hassei Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei
inductula (Nyl.) Servít = Thelenella inductula
muscorum (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Thelenella muscorum
sordidula Th. Fr. = Thelenella sordidula
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Lönnr. = Protothelenella sphinctrinoides
subcorallina Hasse = Thelenella modesta
sychnogonoides Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei

MICROLYCHNUS A. Funk
epicorticis A. Funk = Gyalideopsis epicorticis

MICROPHIALE (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = COENOGONIUM

MICROTHELIA Körber = ANISOMERIDUM
#aterrima (Kremp. ex Anzi) Zahlbr. = Lichenothelia scopularia
hymnothora (Ach.) Trevisan = Granulopyrenis hymnothora
#inops Degel. = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops
#metzleri J. Lahm = Lichenothelia metzleri
#micula auct. non Flotow ex Körber = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops for most North American records
+oblongata Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
+oxyspora Zahlbr. = Melanomma oxysporum
+thelena (Ach.) Trevisan = Mycomicrothelia thelena, but not found in North America
verruculosa Anastasiou = identity uncertain
+wallrothii (Hepp) Rehm = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
#willeyana Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia willeyana

MINUTOEXCIPULA V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.
*mariana V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)
*tuckerae V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.

MIRIQUIDICA Hertel & Rambold (Hertel & Rambold 1987)
atrofulva (Sommerf.) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea atrofulva
deusta (Stenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea deustata
garovaglii (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea garovaglii, L. aenea
griseoatra (Flotow) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: (?) Lecidea subplumbea
instrata (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea instrata
intrudens (H. Magn.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecanora intrudens, Lecidea intrudens
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea leucophaea, L. marylandensis
leucophaeoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Andreev (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lulensis (Hellbom) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea lulensis, L. circumnigrata var. reagens
plumbeoatra (Vainio) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea plumbeoatra, L. furva, L. humilis
pulvinatula (Arnold) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea circumnigrata
pycnocarpa (Körber) Andreev (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
scotopholis (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan & Timdal  Syns.:  Lecanora scotopholis, Lecidea scotopholis, Psorula scotopholis (Nash et al. 2004a)
mexicana Rambold, Sipman & Hertel (Knudsen & Owe-Larson 2005) = M. scotopholis (Knudsen et al. 2008b, Lendemer & Knudsen 2008)

MOBERGIA H. Mayrh. & Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) H. Mayrh. & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina angelica, R. bolodes, R. dirinoides, Dimelaena angelica
calculiformis (W. A. Weber) H. Mayrh. & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina calculiformis, R. platyloba

MOELLEROPSIS Gyelnik
nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln. ssp. nebulosa (Jørgensen 2002)
nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln. ssp. frullaniae Maass (Jørgensen 2000a, Maass 1986)

MONOBLASTIA Riddle
borinquensis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris
cypressi R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rappii Zahlbr.

MONOBLASTIOPSIS R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse
konzana R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse (Harris & Morse 2008)
nigrocortina R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse (Harris & Morse 2008)

MONODICTYS S. Hughes
*cellulosa S. Hughes (Diederich 2003)

MOSIGIA Fr. ex A. Massal. = RIMULARIA
gibbosa (Ach.) Fr. ex A. Massal. = Rimularia gibbosa

MUELLERELLA Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
*lecanactidis Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola (Sommerf. ex Fr.) D. Hawksw.
*pygmaea (Körber) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Tichothecium pygmaeum
*pygmaea var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel
*pygmaea var. ventosicola (Mudd) Triebel

MULTICLAVULA R. Petersen
coronilla (G. W. Martin) R. Petersen
corynoides (Peck) R. Petersen
mucida (Fr.) R. Petersen
sharpii R. Petersen
vernalis (Schwein.) R. Petersen

MYCOBILIMBIA Rehm
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecidea berengeriana
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman (Ekman 2004c)
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Vitik., Ahti, Kuusinen, Lommi & T. Ulvinen Syns: Biatora epixanthoides, Lecidea epixanthoides (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
fissuriseda (Poelt) Poelt & Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea fissuriseda
hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea hypnorum, L. fusca, L. templetonii, L. atrofusca, L. sanguineoatra sens. Nyl.
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner Syn.: Toninia lobulata
pilularis (Körber) Hafellner & Türk  Syns.: Bacidia sphaeroides, Biatora sphaeroides, Catillaria sphaeroides (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
tetramera (De Not.) Vitik., Ahti, Kuusinen, Lommi & T. Ulvinen
(Hafellner & Türk 2001)  Syn.: Bacidia fusca
accedens (Arnold) V. Wirth ex Hafellner =
Myxobilimbia sabuletorum
austrocalifornica (Zahlbr.) Knudsen (Knudsen 2005b) = Carbonea latypizodes
fusca (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth = M. tetramera
lurida (Ach.) Hafellner & Türk (Hafellner & Türk 2001) = Romjularia lurida
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) W. Brunnbauer = Bacidia microcarpa (Ekman 1996)
obscurata (Sommerf.) Rehm = M. tetramera
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner =
Myxobilimbia sabuletorum

MYCOBLASTUS Norman
affinis (Schaerer) Schauer
alpinus (Fr.) Kernst.
caesius (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg Syn.: Haematomma caesium
fucatus (Stirton) Zahlbr.
sanguinarius (L.) Norman
marginatus Degel. = M. affinis (Spribille & Tønsberg 2007)
melinus (Kremp. ex Nyl.) Hellbom = M. affinis
tornoënsis (Nyl.) R. Anderson = Japewia tornoënsis

MYCOCALICIUM Vainio
+albonigrum (Nyl.) Fink Syn.: Calicium albonigrum
+americanun (R. Sant.) Tibell
+calicioides (Nádv.) Tibell Syn.: Sphinctrinella calicioides
fuscipes (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Calicium fuscipes
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink Syn.: Calicium ravenelii
reticulatum Nádv.
+sequoiae Bonar
+subtile (Pers.) Szatala Syns.: M. parietinum, Calicium subtile
victoriae (C. Knight & F. Wilson) Nádv. (Tibell 2007)
+compressulum Nyl. ex Szatala = Phaeocalicium compressulum
*disseminatum (Ach.) Fink = Microcalicium disseminatum
*microcephalum (Sm.) Fink = Sphinctrina anglica
+parietinum (Ach. ex Schaerer) D. Hawksw. = M. subtile
#pusiolum (Ach.) Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
+rappii Nádv. = Chaenothecopsis rappii (Harris 1995a)
+savonicum Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis savonica

MYCOGLAENA Höhnel
+acuminans (Nyl.) Vainio
+alni (Dearness & House) Barr
+canadensis (Ellis & Everh.) Barr
+elegans (Berk. & Curtis) Höhnel
+meridionalis (Zahlbr.) Szatala
+myricae (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
+quercicola R. C. Harris
+subcoerulescens (Nyl.) Höhnel

MYCOMICROTHELIA Keissler
#captiosa (Kremp.) D. Hawksw.
+dothideaspora (Cook & Harkn.) D. Hawksw.
#hemispherica (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+inaequalis (Fabre) D. Hawksw.
#subfallens (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+wallrothii (Hepp) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia wallrothii
#willeyana (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia willeyana
thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia thelena, but not found in North America

MYCOPORELLUM Müll. Arg.
californicum Zahlbr.
= Mycoporum californicum (Harris 1995a)
difforme (Minks) Fink = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
hassei Zahlbr. = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum sparsellum (Harris 1995a)

MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
acervatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
antecellens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia antecellens (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
californicum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia californica, Mycoporellum californicum
compositum (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Dermatina "pyrenocarpa"
eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Tomasellia eschweileri
+hippocastani (DC) Coppins (Aptroot 2002c)
lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Tomasellia lactaea
mycoporoides (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Arthopyrenia mycoporoides
pycnocarpoides Müll. Arg.
sparsellum Nyl. (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia sparsella, Mycoporellum sparsellum
uniloculatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
ohiense Nyl. ex Fink = M. compositum
pycnocarpum Nyl. = M. compositum

MYELOCHROA (Asahina) Elix & Hale
aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina aurulenta, Parmelia aurulenta, P. silvestris
galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina galbina, Parmelia galbina, P. subquercifolia
metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina metarevoluta, Parmelia metarevoluta
obsessa (Ach.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina obsessa, Parmelia obsessa, P. finkii

MYOCHROIDEA Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Printzen et al. 2008)
leprosula (Arnold) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg
minutula Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg  Syns.:  Biatora porphyrospoda, Lecidea porphyrospoda
rufofusca (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg  Syn.:  Lecidea rufofusca

MYRIONORA R. C. Harris
albidula (Willey) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Biatorella albidula

MYRIOSPORA Nägeli
heppii (Nägeli ex Körber) Hue  Syn.: Acarospora heppii (Harris & Knudsen 2006)
immersa (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris  Syn.:  Acarospora  immersa (Harris 2004)

MYRIOTREMA Fée
erodens R. C. Harris
glaucophaenum (Kremp.)
Hale Syn.: Ocellularia glaucophaena Presence in North America is doubtful
glauculum (Nyl.) Hale
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema laeviusculum
microporum (Mont.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia micropora
peninsulae R. C. Harris
reclusum (Kremp.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema reclusum
rugiferum (Harm.) Hale
terebratulum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia terebratula
bahianum (Ach.) Hale = Ocellularia bahiana
clandestinum (Fée) Hale  Not present in North America
compunctum (Ach.) Hale = Leucodecton occultum
glaucescens (Nyl.) Hale = Leucodecton glaucescens
granulosum (Leighton) Hale  Erroneously reported for North America
halei (Tuck.) Hale = Thelotrema halei
subcompunctum (Nyl.) Hale = Leucodecton subcompunctum
wightii (Taylor) Hale = Leptotrema wightii, L. ravenelii, Thelotrema wightii

MYXOBILIMBIA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
accedens (Arnold) Hafellner Syn.: Bacidia accedens
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner Syns.: Bacidia sabuletorum, Mycobilimbia sabuletorum

MYXOPHORA Döbbeler & Poelt
+ leptogiophila (Minks ex G. Winter) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)

MYXOTRICHUM Kunze
bicolor (Ehrenb. ex Pers.)
Fr.
poluninii Apinis = M. bicolor

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NADVORNIKIA Tibell
hawaiensis (Tuck.) Tibell
sorediata R. C. Harris

NANOSTICTIS M. S. Christ.
*christiansenii Etayo (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*pseudocyphellariae Sherwood

NECTRIA (Fr.) Fr.
+zonata Seaver
*lecanodes Ces. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Nectriopsis lecanodes
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) D. Hawksw. = Nectriopsis parmeliae
*rubefaciens Ellis & Everh. = Nectriopsis rubefaciens

NECTRIELLA Nitschke ex Fuckel
*anisospora Lowen = Pronectria anisospora

NECTRIOPSIS Maire
*cladoniicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*lecanodes (Ces.) Diederich & Schroers  Syn. Nectria lecanodes (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Nectria parmeliae, Diplodia parmeliae (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*rubifaciens (Ellis & Everh.) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.  Syn.:  Nectria rubefaciens (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)

NEOCATAPYRENIUM Harada
disparatum Breuss (Breuss 2005)

NEOFUSCELIA Essl.
ahtii (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia ahtii
atticoides (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia atticoides
brunella (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia brunella
chiricahuensis (R. Anderson & W. A. Weber) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia chiricahuensis
infrapallida (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia infrapallida
loxodes (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia loxodes, P. isidiotyla
occidentalis (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia occidentalis
pustulosa (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia pustulosa
subhosseana (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia subhosseana
verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia verruculifera
pulla (Ach.)
Essl. Syns.: Parmelia pulla, P. prolixa but not in North America

NEOLAMYA Theiss. & Syd.
*peltigerae (Mont.) Theiss. & Syd. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

NEPHROMA Ach.
arcticum (L.) Torss.
bellum (Sprengel) Tuck.
expallidum (Nyl.) Nyl.
helveticum Ach. subsp. helveticum
helveticum subsp. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Goward & Ahti
isidiosum (Nyl.) Gyelnik
laevigatum Ach.
occultum Wetmore
parile (Ach.) Ach.
resupinatum (L.) Ach.
helveticum Ach. var. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Wetmore = N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
laevigatum auct. non Ach. = N. bellum
lusitanicum Schaerer = N. laevigatum Ach. non auct.
silvae-veteris Goward & Goffinet = Lobaria silvae-veteris
subtomentellum (Nyl.) Gyelnik = N. bellum

NESOLECHIA A. Massal.
cladoniscum (Willey) Fink = apothecia of Pycnothelia papillaria
*oxyspora (Tul.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis oxyspora
*thallicola (A. Massal.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis thallicola

NEUROPOGON Nees & Flotow = USNEA
lambii Imshaug = Usnea sphacelata
sulphureus (J. König) Hellbom = Usnea sphacelata

NIEBLA Rundel & Bowler
cedrosensis J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash  Syns.:  Vermilacinia cedrosensis, V. reptiloderma (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria cephalota, Ramalina, cephalota, Vermilacinia cephalota  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ceruchis Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria ceruchis, Ramalina, ceruchis, Vermilacinia  cerebra, V. corrugata, V. ceruchis, V. howei, V. leoni, V. leopardina, V. nylanderi, V. vesiculosa, V. zebrina  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ceruchoides Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria ceruchoides, Vermilacinia ceruchoides, V. acicularis, V. pumila  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
combeoides (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.: Desmazieria combeoides, Ramalina combeoides, Vermilacinia combeoides  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
homalea (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.: Desmazieria homalea, D. testudinaria, Ramalina homalea, R. testudinaria
isidiascens Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash & Riefner
laevigata Bowler & Rundel  Syns.:  Vermilacinia johncassadyi, V. laevigata, V. ligulata, V. paleoderma, V. rigida, V. rosei, V. varicosa (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
polymorpha Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash, & Riefner  Syn.:  Vermilacinia polymorpha (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
procera Rundel & Bowler  Syn.:  Vermilacinia procera (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
robusta (R. Howe) Rundel  Syns.:  Ramalina combeoides var. robusta,  Vermilacinia robusta  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
tuberculata Riefner, Bowler, J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
caespitosa Spjut (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
cornea Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
dactylifera Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
disrupta (Nyl.) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
dissecta Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
eburnea Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
fimbriata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
flaccescens (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler = a South American species, not in North America
flagelliforma Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
halei Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
infundibula Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
laminaria Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
palmeri Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
ramosissima Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
siphonoloba Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
sorediata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
sorocarpia Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
testudinaria (Nyl.) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
undulata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea

NIESSLIA Auersw.
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & W. Gams (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)

NIGROPUNCTA D. Hawksw.
*rugulosa D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

NODOBRYORIA Common & Brodo
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria abbreviata, Alectoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria oregana, Alectoria oregana
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria subdivergens, Alectoria subdivergens

NORMANDINA Nyl.
pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.

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OBRYZUM Wallr.
*corniculatum Wallr. (Diederich 2007b)

OCELLULARIA
G. Meyer
americana Hale
bahiana (Ach.) A. Frisch Syn.: Leptotrema obturascens, Myriotrema bahianum, Thelotrema bahianum (Frisch 2006)
cavata (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
concolor Meyen & Flotow (Harris 1995a)
emersa (Krempelh.) Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a)
fissa (Nyl.) Hale
postposita (Nyl.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)
praestans (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema praestans
retispora R. C. Harris
sanfordiana (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema sanfordianum 
Possible synonym of Ocellularia interposita (Frisch 2006)
stictidea (Nyl.) Vězda Syns.: Conotrema albonigrum, Thelotrema texanum
alborosella (Nyl.) R. Sant. = Chapsa alborosella
auberiana (Mont.) Hale = Stegobolus auberianus
carnea (Eckf.) Zahlbr. = Mazosia ocellata
domingensis (Fée) Müll. Arg.
= misidentifications for North America
floridensis Fink = Thelotrema porinoides
glaucophaena (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema glaucophaenum
granulosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Stegobolus granulosus
interposita (Nyl.) Hale = misidentifications for North America
lathraea (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema lathraeum
leiostoma (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Redingeria leiostoma (Tuck.) A. Frisch, but not in North America (Frisch & Kalb 2006)
meiosperma (Nyl.) Hale = Melanotrema meiospermum
micropora (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema microporum
obturascens (Nyl.)
Hale = Ocellularia bahianum
subtilis (Tuck.) Riddle = Thelotrema subtile
terebratula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema terebratulum

OCHROLECHIA A. Massal.
africana Vainio
androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold
antillarum Brodo
arborea (Kreyer) Almb.
bryophaga (Erichsen) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch Syn.: Pertusaria bryophaga
farinacea Howard
frigida (Sw.) Lynge
gowardii Brodo
grimmiae Lynge
groenlandica Vers.
gyalectina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
inaequatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
juvenalis Brodo
laevigata (Räsänen) Vers. ex Brodo
mexicana Vainio
montana Brodo
oregonensis H. Magn.
pseudopallescens Brodo
rhodoleuca (Th. Fr.) Brodo Syn.: Pertusaria rhodoleuca
splendens Lumbsch & Messuti  (Roemer et al. 2004)
subathallina H. Magn.
subisidiata Brodo
subpallescens Vers.
subplicans (Nyl.) Brodo subsp. subplicans Syn.: Pertusaria subplicans
subplicans subsp. hultenii (Erichsen) Brodo Syn.: Pertusaria hultenii
szatalaënsis Vers.
tartarea (L.) A. Massal.
[Pertusaria trachydactyla Vainio]
trochophora (Vainio) Oshio var. trochophora
trochophora var. pruinirosella Brodo
turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot
upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal.
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch Syn.: Pertusaria xanthostoma
yasudae Vainio
alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr. = a European taxon, not in North America
apiculata Vers. Mistakenly reported for North America
californica Vers. = O. oregonensis
elisabethae-kolae Vers. = O. frigida
geminipara (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Pertusaria geminipara
gonatodes (Ach.) Räsänen = O. frigida
pacifica H. Magn. = Coccotrema pocillarium
pallescens (L.) A. Massal.
Not in North America
parella (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
pennsylvanica Vers. = O. yasudae
pseudotartarea (Vainio) Vers. = O. pallescens
pterulina (Nyl.) Howard = O. frigida
rhamni-purshianae E. Senft Identity uncertain
rosella (Müll. Arg.) Vers. = O. trochophora
sorediosa Howard = O. szatalaensis
subviridis (Høeg) Erichsen Not in North America
tuckermanii Vers. = O. yasudae
turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot North American report questionable

ODONTOTREMA Nyl.
*bryoriae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2002)
*intermedium Diederich, Zhurb. & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2002)
*lecanorae Diederich & Marson (Diederich et al. 2002)
*melaneliae Diederich & Zhurb. (Diederich et al. 2002)
*ochrolechiae Diederich, Holien & Zhurb. (Diederich et al. 2002)
*
sipei (Grummann) Diederich (Diederich et al. 2002)

OMPHALARIA Girard & Dunal ex Nyl. = THYREA
kansana Tuck. = Peccania kansana

OMPHALINA Quélet
alpina (Britzelm.) Bresinsky & Stangl = Lichenomphalia alpina
ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) M. T. Lange = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) H. E. Bigelow = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) M. T. Lange = Lichenomphalia alpina
*peltigerina (Peck) P. Collin = Arrhenia peltigerina
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Quélet = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
velutina (Quélet) Quélet = Lichenomphalia velutina

OMPHALODISCUS Schol. = UMBILICARIA
crustulosus (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria crustulosa
decussatus (Vill.) Schol. = Umbilicaria decussata
krascheninnikovii (Savicz) Schol. = Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii
virginis (Schaerer) Schol. = Umbilicaria virginis

OMPHALODIUM Meyen & Flotow
arizonicum (Tuck. ex Willey) Tuck. = Omphalora arizonica

OMPHALORA T. H. Nash & Hafellner
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) T. H. Nash & Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora arizonica, Omphalodium arizonicum

OPEGRAPHA Ach.
agelaea Fée
*anomea Nyl. (Ertz et al. 2004)
astraea Tuck.
atra Pers.
aurantiaca B. de Lesd. (Harris 1995a)
bicolor R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
bonplandii Fée
brattiae Egea & Ertz (Ertz & Egea 2007)
calcarea Turner ex Sm. & Sowerby
candida Müll. Arg.
corticola Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 2002)
cypressi R. C. Harris
diffracticola R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)
erosa Egea & Ertz (Ertz & Egea 2007)
filicina Mont.
*foreaui (Moreau) Hafellner & R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fumosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) Källsten ex Hafellner  Syn.: Leciographa glaucomaria
gyrocarpa Flotow
herbarum Mont.
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Triebel Syn.: Leciographa lamyi
leucoplaca Müll. Arg.
lithyrga Ach.
longissima Müll. Arg. Syn.: Graphis atrorubens
*melanospila Müll. Arg. (Diederich 2003)
microcycla Tuck.
niveoatra (Borrer) J. R. Laundon
ochrocheila
Nyl.
*physciaria (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & Coppins (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
 prosodea Ach.
protuberans Zahlbr.
*pulvinata Rehm Syn.: Opegraphoidea pulvinata
ravenelii (Tuck.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha ravenelii, Schismatomma ravenelii
rufescens Pers.
*rupestris Pers. Syn.: Leciographa parasitica
sorediifera P. James
*sphaerophoricola Isbrand & Alstrup
*[Opegraphoidea staurothelicola Fink]
*thelotrematis Coppins (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
umbellulariae Zahlbr.
varia Pers.
viridis (Pers. ex Ach.) Behlen & Desberger
vulgata Ach.
xerica Torrente & Egea (Ertz & Egea 2007)
zonata Körber  (Sparrius 2004b)
betulina Sm. = O. herbarum
cinerea Chevall. = O. vulgata
diaphora (Ach.) Ach. = O. varia
diaphoroides Nyl. = Lecanographa grumulosa
hassei Zahlbr. = Lecanographa hypothallina
herpetica (Ach.) Ach. = O. rufescens
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Tehler = Lecanographa hypothallina
lichenoides Pers. = O. varia
oulocheila Tuck. = Dermiscellum oulocheila
prosiliens Stirton = O. protuberans
pulicaris auct. = O. varia
*quaternella Nyl. = O. anomea (Ertz et al. 2004)
rimalis Pers. ex Ach. = O. varia
*saxicola Ach. = O. rupestris
*trassii S. Kondr. & Coppins (Coppins & Kondratyuk 1998) = O. foreaui
*wetmorei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = O. anomea (Ertz et al. 2004)

OPEGRAPHOIDEA Fink = OPEGRAPHA
*pulvinata (Rehm) Fink = Opegrapha pulvinata
*quaternella (Nyl.) Fink
= Opegrapha anomea
*staurothelicola Fink = a species of Opegrapha

OPHIOPARMA Norman
lapponica (Räsänen) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia rubricosa, B. herrei, Haematomma californicum
ventosa (L.)
Norman (May 1997)
herrei (Zahlbr.) Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995) = O. rubricosa (Ekman 1996)

ORPHNIOSPORA Körber
moriopsis (A. Massal.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Buellia atrata, B. moriopsis, B. coracina
atrata (Sm.) Poelt = O. moriopsis

OXNERIA S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Kondratyuk & Kärnefelt 2003a, 2003b) = XANTHOMENDOZA S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Lindblom 2006)
weberi S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt = Xanthomendoza weberi (Lindblom 2006)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

PACHYOSPORA A. Massal.
mutabilis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa
verrucosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa

PACHYPHIALE Lönnr.
carneola (Ach.) Arnold
fagicola (Hepp) Zwackh
gyalizella (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia gyalizella

PACHYPHYSIS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)
ozarkana R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)


PANNARIA Delise
elatior Stirton (Jørgensen 2000c)
conoplea (Ach.) Bory
hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl.
lurida (Mont.) Nyl. ssp. lurida
lurida ssp. quercicola P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
lurida ssp. russellii (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
mariana (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
rubiginella P. M. Jørg. & Sipman (Jørgensen 2005)
rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory
subfusca P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
tavaresii P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria ahlneri
crossophylla Tuck. = Santessoniella crossophylla
cyanolepra Tuck. = Fuscopannaria cyanolepra
granatina (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Euopsis granatina
halei Tuck. = Phyllopsora halei
hypnorum (Vahl) Körber = Psoroma hypnorum
isidiata Degel. = Vestergrenopsis isidiata
laceratula Hue = Fuscopannaria laceratula
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella leucophaea
leucosticta (Tuck.) Tuck. ex Nyl. = Fuscopannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides Ohlsson = Fuscopannaria leucostictoides
malmei Dodge (Jørgensen 2000c) = misidentification of P. rubiginella
maritima P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria maritima
mediterranea Tav. = Fuscopannaria mediterranea
melamphylla Tuck. = Lichinella melamphylla
microphylla "(Sw.)" Müll. Arg.. = Vahliella leucophaea
microphylla var. californica Tuck. = Vahliella californica
pezizoides (Weber) Trevisan = Protopannaria pezizoides
pityrea auct. = P. conoplea
praetermissa Nyl. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
pulveracea P. M. Jørg. & Henssen = Fuscopannaria pulveracea
rubiginosa var. lanuginosa (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = P. conoplea
saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl. =
Vahliella saubinetii
sonomensis Tuck. = Koerberia sonomensis
waghornei Eckfeldt = identity uncertain, possibly Santessoniella arctophila

PARANECTRIA Sacc.
*oropensis (Ces.) D. Hawks. & Piroz.
ssp. parviseptata M. S. Cole & D. Hawks.
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = P. oropensis (Diederich 2003)

PARAPARMELIA Elix & J. Johnston
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix & J. Johnston = Canoparmelia alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001)

PARATHELIUM Nyl. = PYRENULA
cuyabense Malme = Pyrenula cuyabensis
emergens Nyl. ex Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula erumpens
martinicanum Vainio = Pyrenula caraibica
microcarpum Riddle = Pyrenula microtheca
subferrugineum Malme = Pyrenula subferruginea

PARMELIA Ach.
fertilis Müll. Arg.
fraudans (Nyl.) Nyl.
hygrophila Goward & Ahti
neodiscordans Hale
omphalodes (L.) Ach. subsp. omphalodes
omphalodes subsp. pinnatifida (Kurok.) Skult
pseudosulcata Gyelnik
saxatilis (L.) Ach.
skultii Hale
squarrosa Hale
sulcata Taylor
acanthifolia Pers. = Parmotrema cetratum
abstrusa Vainio = Relicina abstrusa
ahtii Essl. = Neofuscelia ahtii
ajoensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia ajoensis
alabamensis Hale & McCull. = Canoparmelia alabamensis
albertana Ahti = Melanelixia albertana
aleuritica Nyl. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
almquistii Vainio = Allantoparmelia almquistii
alpicola Th. Fr. = Allantoparmelia alpicola
amazonica Nyl. = Canoparmelia amazonica
andreana Müll. Arg. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
antillensis Nyl. = Parmotremopsis antillensis
appalachensis Culb. = Punctelia appalachensis
arnoldii Du Rietz = Parmotrema arnoldii
arseneana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
aspera A. Massal. = Melanohalea exasperata
aspidota (Ach.) Poetsch = Melanohalea exasperata
atrofusca (Schaerer) Crombie = Brodoa atrofusca
atticoides Essl. = Neofuscelia atticoides
aurulenta Tuck. = Myelochroa aurulenta
austerodes Nyl. = Hypogymnia austerodes
austrosinensis Zahlbr. = Parmotrema austrosinense
baltimorensis Gyelnik & Fóriss = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
birulae Elenkin var. grumosa Llano = Arctoparmelia separata
bitteri Lynge = Hypogymnia bitteri
bolliana Müll. Arg. = Punctelia bolliana
borreri (Sm.) Turner = Punctelia borreri
brunella Essl. = Neofuscelia brunella
caperata (L.) Ach. = Flavoparmelia caperata
caperata var. incorrupta (J. Moore) E. C. Berry = Flavopunctelia praesignis
caroliniana Nyl. = Canoparmelia caroliniana
catawbiensis (Degel.) Hale & M. Wirth = Everniastrum catawbiense
centrifuga (L.) Ach. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl. = Cetrelia cetrarioides
cetrata Ach. = Parmotrema cetratum
cetrata var. hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema hypotropum
chiricahuensis R. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Neofuscelia chiricahuensis
chlorochroa Tuck. = Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa
chrysantha Tuck. = Parmotrema madagascariaceum
cirrhata Fr. = Everniastrum cirrhatum, but reports are misidentifications for North America.
cladonia (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Pseudevernia cladonia
claudelii (Harm.) Vainio = Parmotrema stuppeum
commensurata Hale = Parmotrema commensuratum
concreta Stizenb. = a Flavoparmelia sp.
confoederata Culb. = Bulbothrix confoederata
congensis Stein = Xanthoparmelia congensis, but not found in North America north of Mexico.
congruens auct. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Ach. = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
conspersa var. subconspersa (Nyl.) Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia rutidota
conspurcata (Schaerer) Vainio = Melanelixia subargentifera
coronata Fée = Bulbothrix coronata
crinita Ach. = Parmotrema crinitum
cristifera Taylor = Parmotrema cristiferum
croceopustulata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna croceopustulata
crozalsiana B. de Lesd. ex Harm. = Canoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
cubensis Nyl. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
cumberlandia (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
cylisphora (Ach.) Vainio = Flavoparmelia caperata
darrowi J. W. Thomson = Flavopunctelia darrowi
delavayi Hue = Hypogymnia delavayi (Hue) Rass., but misidentifications for North America
denalii Krog = Melanelia disjuncta
densirhizinata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna densirhizinata
dentella Hale & Kurok. = Hypotrachyna dentella
dierythra Hale = Xanthoparmelia dierythra
diffractaica Essl. = Parmotrema diffractaicum
digitata Lynge = Hypotrachyna physcioides (Nyl.) Hale, but misidentifications for North America (?)
dilatata Vainio = Parmotrema dilatatum
disjuncta Erichsen = Melanelia disjuncta
dissecta Nyl. = Parmelinopsis minarum
dissensa T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia dissensa
dominicana Vainio = Parmotrema dominicanum
dubia (Wulfen) Schaerer = Punctelia subrudecta
duplicata var. douglasicola Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Szatala = Melanohalea elegantula
encausta (Sm.) Nyl. = Brodoa intestiniformis, but this species is not found in North America
endosulphurea (Hillm.) Hale = Parmotrema endosulphureum
endoxantha G. Merr. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ensifolia Kurok. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
epiclada Hale = Parmotrema submarginale
erecta E. C. Berry = Parmotrema perforatum
eurysaca Hue = Parmotrema eurysacum
exasperata De Not. = Melanohalea exasperata
exasperatula Nyl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale & Kurok. = Relicina eximbricata
finkii Zahlbr. = Myelochroa obsessa
flaventior Stirton = Flavopunctelia flaventior
flavicans (Tuck.) Tuck. = Flavoparmelia caperata
formosana Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna osseoalba
frondifera G. Merr. = Punctelia bolliana
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Pseudevernia intensa and P. consocians for North American records
galbina Ach. = Myelochroa galbina
glabra (Schaerer) Nyl. = Melanelixia glabra
glabratula (Lamy) Nyl. = Melanelixia fuliginosa
glabroides Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides
goebelii Zenker = Bulbothrix goebelii
gondylophora Hale = Hypotrachyna gondylophora
graminicola B. de Lesd. = Punctelia graminicola
granulosa Lynge = Melanelia disjuncta
hababiana Gyelnik = Parmotrema hababianum
haitiensis Hale = Parmotrema haitiense
halei Ahti = Melanohalea halei
herreana Zahlbr. = Flavoparmelia caperata
herrei Zahlbr. = Parmotrema cetratum
horrescens Taylor = Parmelinopsis horrescens
huachucensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia huachucensis
hubrichtii E. C. Berry = Parmelinopsis minarum
hypoleucina J. Steiner = Parmotrema hypoleucinum
hypoleucites Nyl. = Punctelia hypoleucites
hypomelaena Hale = Xanthoparmelia hypomelaena
hypopsila Müll. Arg. = Xanthoparmelia hypopsila, but North American records are X. angustiphylla
hypotropa Nyl. = Parmotrema hypotropum
hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema perforatum
imbricatula Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
incorrupta J. Moore = Flavopunctelia praesignis
incurva (Pers.) Fr. = Arctoparmelia incurva
infrapallida Essl. = Neofuscelia infrapallida
infumata Nyl. = Melanohalea infumata
internexa Nyl. = Parmotrema internexum
intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach.
= Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American reports are B. oroarctica
ioanis-simae Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but western North American records are probably Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis
isidiata (Anzi) Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale = misidentifications for North America
isidiotyla Nyl. = Neofuscelia loxodes
joranadia T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia joranadia
kernstockii (Lynge) Zahlbr. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
kerguelensis A. Wilson = chemotype of Parmelia saxatilis
kerguelensis auct. N. Am. = Parmelia pseudosulcata
kurokawae Hale = Xanthoparmelia lavicola
laevigata (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna laevigata
laevigatula Nyl. = Bulbothrix laevigatula
lanata (L.) Wallr. = Pseudephebe pubescens
latissima Fée = Parmotrema latissimum, but reports are misidentifications for North America.
lecanorica Hale = Xanthoparmelia lecanorica, but reports are misidentifications for North America
leucochlora Tuck. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
lineola E. C. Berry = Xanthoparmelia lineola
livida Taylor = Hypotrachyna livida
lobulifera Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. insensitiva Degel. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
lobulifera var. luteoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
louisianae Hale = Parmotrema louisianae
loxodes Nyl. = Neofuscelia loxodes
madagascariacea (Hue) Abbayes = Parmotrema madagascariaceum
mandshurica Asahina = Flavopunctelia soredica
margaritata Hue = Parmotrema margaritatum
martinicana Nyl. = Canoparmelia martinicana
maxima Hue = Parmotrema stuppeum
mellissii C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema mellissii
metarevoluta Asahina = Myelochroa metarevoluta
mexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia mexicana
michauxiana Zahlbr. = Parmotrema submarginale
molliuscula Ach. = misidentifications for North America
monticola J. P. Dey = Xanthoparmelia monticola
mordenii Hale = Parmotrema mordenii
mougeotii Schaerer = Xanthoparmelia mougeotii
multispora A. Schneider = Melanohalea multispora
negativa Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia caperata
neoconspersa Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia neoconspersa
nigropsoromifera T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia nigropsoromifera
njalensis C. W. Dodge = Bulbothrix goebelii
novomexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
obsessa Ach. = Myelochroa obsessa
occidentalis Essl. = Neofuscelia occidentalis
olivacea (L.) Ach. = Melanohalea olivacea
olivaceoides Krog = Melanohalea olivaceoides
olivaria (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Cetrelia olivetorum
olivetorum Nyl. = Cetrelia olivetorum
omphalodes subsp. glacialis Skult = P. skultii
oostingii J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna oostingii
oregana Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
panniformis (Nyl.) Vainio = Melanelia panniformis
perforata (Jacq.) Ach. = Parmotrema perforatum
perlata (Hudson) Ach. = Parmotrema perlatum
permaculata Hale = Parmotrema eurysacum
perreticulata (Räsänen) Hale = Punctelia perreticulata
pertusa (Schrank) Schaerer = Menegazzia terebrata
physodes (L.) Ach. = Hypogymnia physodes
piedmontensis Hale = Xanthoparmelia piedmontensis
plittii Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia plittii
praesignis Nyl. = Flavopunctelia praesignis
praesorediosa Nyl. = Parmotrema praesorediosum
preperforata Culb. = Parmotrema preperforatum
producta (Hale) J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna producta
prolixa (Ach.) Carroll = Neofuscelia pulla, but misidentifications for North America.
prolongata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
pseudoborreri Asahina = Punctelia borreri
psoromifera Kurok. = Xanthoparmelia psoromifera
pulla Ach. = Neofuscelia pulla (Ach.) Essl., but misidentifications for North America
pulvinata Fée = Hypotrachyna pulvinata
pustulifera Hale = Hypotrachyna pustulifera
quercina (Willd.) Vainio  North American reports are Parmelina coleae
rachista Hale = Hypotrachyna prolongata
rampoddensis Nyl. = Parmotrema rampoddense
recipienda Nyl. = Parmotrema subcaperatum (Kremp.) Hale., but misidentifications for North America
reddenda Stirton = Punctelia reddenda
relicina Fr. = Relicina relicinula (Müll. Arg.) Hale, but misidentifications for North America
reparata Stirton = Parmotrema cetratum
reticulata Taylor = Parmotrema reticulatum
revoluta Flörke = Hypotrachyna revoluta
rigida Lynge = Parmotrema subrigidum (N. Am. records only)
robusta Degel. = Parmotrema robustum, but North American records are Parmotrema gardneri
rockii Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna rockii
rudecta Ach. = Punctelia rudecta
rutidota Hooker f. & Taylor = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
santae-crucis Vainio = Parmotrema praesorediosum
saximontana R. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Melanelia tominii
scortella Nyl. = Bulbothrix goebelii
semansiana Culb. & C. Culb. = Punctelia graminicola
separata Th. Fr. = Arctoparmelia separata
septentionalis (Lynge) Ahti = Melanohalea septentrionalis
sibirica Zahlbr. = Allantoparmelia sibirica
silvestris Degel. = Myelochroa aurulenta
simulans Hale = Parmotrema simulans
sinuosa (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna sinuosa
sipeana Gyelnik = Menegazzia terebrata
sorediata (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Melanelia sorediata
soredica Nyl. = Flavopunctelia soredica
sorediosa Almb. = Melanelia sorediata
sorocheila Vainio = Everniastrum sorocheilum, but North American records refer to E. catawbiense
sphaerospora Nyl. (North American records) = Pseudoparmelia uleana
sphaerosporella Müll. Arg. = Ahtiana sphaerosporella
spumosa Asahina = Parmelinopsis spumosa
stenophylla (Ach.) Du Rietz = Xanthoparmelia stenophylla
stictica (Duby) Nyl. = Punctelia stictica
stuppea Taylor = Parmotrema stuppeum
stygia (L.) Ach. = Melanelia stygia
subargentifera Nyl. = Melanelixia subargentifera
subarnoldii Abbayes = Parmotrema subarnoldii, but are misidentifications for North America north of Mexico
subaurifera Nyl. = Melanelixia subaurifera
subcapitata Nyl. ex Hasse = Flavoparmelia subcapitata
subcentrifuga Oksner = Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga
subcrinita auct. = Parmotrema ultralucens
subcrinita Nyl. = Parmotrema subtinctorium
subdecipiens Vainio = Xanthoparmelia subdecipiens
subelegantula Essl. = Melanohalea subelegantula
subhosseana Essl. = Neofuscelia subhosseana
subinvoluta Hale = Parmotrema rampoddense
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema subisidiosum
sublaevigata (Nyl.) Nyl. = Hypotrachyna sublaevigata, but misidentifications for North America (Hale 1979)
subobscura Vainio = Hypogymnia subobscura
subolivacea Nyl. = Melanohalea subolivacea
subpraesignis Nyl. = Punctelia subpraesignis
subquercifolia Hue = Myelochroa galbina
subramigera Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia subramigera
subrudecta Nyl. = Punctelia subrudecta
subrugata Kremp. = misidentifications for North America
substygia Räsänen = Melanelia tominii
subsumpta Nyl. = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria Zahlbr. = Parmotrema subtinctorium
sulphurata Nees & Flotow = Parmotrema sulphuratum
swinscowii Hale = Parmelinopsis swinscowii
taractica Kremp. = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but see note there
tasmanica Hooker f. & Taylor = Xanthoparmelia tasmanica
texana Tuck. = Canoparmelia texana
thysanota Kurok. = Hypotrachyna thysanota
tinctina Maheu & A. Gillet = Xanthoparmelia tinctina, but not found in North America
tinctorum Delise ex Nyl. = Parmotrema tinctorum
trabeculata Ahti = Melanohalea trabeculata
trichotera Hue = Parmotrema perlatum
tuberculata Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
tubulosa (Schaerer) Bitter = Hypogymnia tubulosa
tucsonensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia tucsonensis
uleana Müll. Arg. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ulophylla (Ach.) G. Merr. = Punctelia ulophylla (Ach.) van Herk & Aptroot, but misidentifications for N. Am. (Aptroot 2003)
ulophyllodes (Vainio) Savicz = Flavopunctelia soredica
ultralucens Krog = Parmotrema ultralucens
verruculifera Nyl. = Neofuscelia verruculifera
virginica Hale = Hypotrachyna virginica
vittata (Ach.) Nyl. = Hypogymnia vittata
weberi Hale = Xanthoparmelia weberi
wyomingica (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia wyomingica
xanthina (Müll. Arg.) Vainio = Parmotrema xanthinum
zollingeri Hepp = Parmotrema zollingeri

PARMELIELLA Müll. Arg.
appalachensis P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
corallinoides (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
cyanolepra (Tuck.) Herre
pannosa (Sw.) Nyl.
parvula P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
ruderatula (Nyl.) Hasse
stylophora (Vainio) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Malme = Santessoniella arctophila (Henssen 1997)
cheiroloba Müll. Arg. = Fuscopannaria cheiroloba
crossophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham = Santessoniella crossophylla
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Vainio = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
microphylla "(Sw.)" Müll. Arg. =
Vahliella leucophaea
plumbea (Lightf.) Vainio = Degelia plumbea
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. James = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
saubinetii (Mont.) Zahlbr. =
Vahliella saubinetii
stellata (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Coccocarpia stellata

PARMELINA Hale
coleae Argüello & A. Crespo (Argüello et al. 2007a, 2007b)
antillensis (Nyl.) Hale = Parmotremopsis antillensis
aurulenta (Tuck.) Hale = Myelochroa aurulenta
dissecta (Nyl.) Hale = Parmelinopsis minarum
galbina (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa galbina
horrescens (Taylor) Hale = Parmelinopsis horrescens
metarevoluta (Asahina) Hale = Myelochroa metarevoluta
minarum (Vainio) Skorepa = Parmelinopsis minarum
obsessa (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa obsessa
quercina (Willd.) Hale   North American reports are P. coleae
spumosa (Asahina) Hale = Parmelinopsis spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Hale = Parmelinopsis swinscowii

PARMELINOPSIS Elix & Hale
cryptochlora (Vainio) Elix & Hale
horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina horrescens, Parmelia horrescens
minarum (Vainio) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina minarum, P. dissecta, Parmelia dissecta, P. hubrichtii
spumosa (Asahina) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina spumosa, Parmelia spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina swinscowii, Parmelia swinscowii

PARMELIOPSIS Nyl.
ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl. Syn.: Foraminella ambigua
capitata R. C. Harris (Hinds & Hinds 1998)
hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Foraminella hyperopta
subambigua Gyelnik Syns.: Foraminella subambigua
aleurites (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia aleurites
diffusa (Weber) Riddle = P. hyperopta
halei (Tuck.) Hale = P. subambigua
placorodia (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia placorodia

PARMENTARIA Fée = PYRENULA
astroidea Fée = Pyrenula astroidea
[Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.] = ?
nana (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anthracothecium nanum
rappii Zahlbr. = Pyrenula leucostoma Ach.
ravenelii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ravenelii

PARMOTREMA A. Massal.
arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia arnoldii
austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia austrosinensis
cetratum (Ach.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia cetrata, Rimelia cetrata (Blanco et al. 2005)
commensuratum (Hale) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia commensuratum, Rimelia commensuratum
conferendum Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina conferenda, Rimeliella conferenda

crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syn.: Parmelia crinita
cristiferum (Taylor) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia cristifera
despectum Kurok. (Kurokawa 2001)
diffractaicum (Essl.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia diffractaica, Rimelia diffractaica
dilatatum (Vainio) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia dilatata
dominicanum (Vainio) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia dominicana
endosulphureum (Hillm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia endosulphurea
eurysacum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia eurysaca, P. permaculata
gardneri (C. W. Dodge) Sérus.
hababianum (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hababiana
haitiense (Hale) Hale  Syns:  Parmelia haitiensis, Canomaculina haitiensis
hypoleucinum (Steiner) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hypoleucina
hypotropum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia hypotropa, P. cetrata var. hypotropoides
internexum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia internexa
louisianae (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia louisianae
madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia madagascariacea, P. chrysantha
margaritatum (Hue) Hale Syn.: Parmelia margaritata
mellissii (C. W. Dodge) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mellissii
mordenii (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mordenii
neotropicum Kurok. ex Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina neotropica, Rimeliella neotropica
perforatum (Jacq.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia perforata, P. erecta, P. hypotropoides
perlatum (Hudson) M. Choisy  Syns.: Parmelia perlata, P. trichotera
praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesorediosa, P. santae-crucis
preperforatum (Culb.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia preperforata
rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rampoddensis, P. subinvoluta
reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy  Syns.: Parmelia reticulata, Rimelia reticulata
rubifaciens (Hale) Hale
simulans (Hale) Hale  Syns: Parmelia simulans, Rimelia simulans
stuppeum (Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia stuppea, P. claudelii, P. maxima
subisidiosum (Müll. Arg.) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia subisidiosa, Rimelia subisidiosa
submarginale (Michaux) DePriest & B. Hale Syns.: Parmelia michauxiana, P. epiclada (DePriest & Hale 1998)
subrigidum Egan (Egan et al. 2005)
subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina subsumpta, Rimeliella subsumpta, Parmelia subsumpta

subtinctorium (Zahlbr.) Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina subtinctoria, Rimeliella subtinctoria, Parmelia subtinctoria
sulphuratum (Nees & Flotow) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sulphurata
tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tinctorum
ultralucens (Krog) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ultralucens, P. subcrinita auct. non Nyl.
xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia xanthina
zollingeri (Hepp) Hale Syn.: Parmelia zollingeri
chinense (“Osbeck”) Hale & Ahti = P. perlatum (Hawksworth 2004)
michauxianum (Zahlbr.) Hale = P. submarginale
rigidum (Lynge) Hale   North American records are P. subrigidum
robustum (Degel.) Hale   North American records are P. gardneri

PARMOTREMOPSIS Elix & Hale
antillensis (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina antillensis, Parmelia antillensis

PARMULARIA Nilson
brouardii B. de Lesd. = a Lecanora sp.
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = Lecanora novomexicana

PATRICIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
valentinianus D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)

PAULIA Fée
pyrenoides (Nyl.) Henssen  Syn.: Thyrea pyrenoides

PECCANIA A. Massal. ex Arnold
arizonica
Tuck. ex Herre
kansana (Tuck.) Forss. Syn.: Omphalaria kansana
subnigra (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore Syns.: Placynthium subnigrum, Synalissa subnigra
texana (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Synalissa texana
tiruncula (Nyl.) Henssen (Tretiach & Schultz 2007)

PELTIGERA Willd.
aphthosa (L.)
Willd.
britannica (Gyelnik) Holt.-Hartw. & Tønsberg
canina (L.) Willd.
castanea Goward, Goffinet & Miadl. (Goffinet et al. 2003)
chionophila Goward & Goffinet (Goward & Goffinet 2000)
cinnamomea Goward
collina (Ach.) Schrader
degenii Gyelnik
didactyla (With.) J. R. Laundon
elisabethae Gyelnik
evansiana Gyelnik
extenuata (Vainio) Lojka (Goffinet et al. 2003)
fibrilloides (Gyeln.) Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2004)
frippii Holt.-Hartw. (Vitikainen 1994)

horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg.
hydrothyria Miadl. & Lutzoni  Syn.: Hydrothyria venosa (Miadlikowska & Lutzoni 2000)
hymenina (Ach.) Delise
kristinssonii Vitik.
latiloba Holt.-Hartw.  (Holtan-Hartwig 2005)
lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vainio) Bitter
leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyelnik
malacea (Ach.) Funck
membranacea (Ach.) Nyl.
monticola Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2004)
neckeri Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
neopolydactyla (Gyelnik) Gyelnik
pacifica Vitik.
phyllidiosa Goffinet & Miadl. (Goffinet & Miadlikowska 1999)
polydactylon (Necker) Hoffm.
ponojensis Gyelnik
praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
retifoveata Vitik.
rufescens (Weiss) Humb.
scabrosa Th. Fr.
scabrosella Holt.-Hartw.
tartarea (Llano) Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2006)
venosa (L.) Hoffm.
aphthosa f. complicata (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. = P. leucophlebia
aphthosa var. variolosa A. Massal. = P. leucophlebia
canina var. rufescens (Weiss) Mudd = P. rufescens
canina var. rufescens f. innovans (Körber) J. W. Thomson = P. praetextata
canina var. spuria (Ach.) Schaerer = P. didactyla
didactyla var. extenuata (Nyl. ex Vainio) Goffinet & Hastings (Goffinet & Hastings 1995) = P. extenuata
erumpens (Taylor) Elenkin = P. didactyla
hazslinszkyi Gyelnik = P. extenuata
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg. f. zopfii (Gyelnik) J. W. Thomson This name has often been used for P. elisabethae
lactucifolia (With.) J. R. Laundon = P. hymenina
occidentalis sensu Kristinsson = P. kristinssonii
occidentalis (E. Dahl) Kristinsson = P. neopolydactyla
polydactyla var. hymenina (Ach.) Flotow = P. hymenina
polydactyla var. neopolydactyla Gyelnik = P. neopolydactyla
pulverulenta (Taylor) Kremp. = P. scabrosa Th. Fr. for North American records
scutata (Dickson) Duby = P. collina
spuria (Ach.) DC. = P. didactyla
variolosa (A. Massal.) Gyelnik = P. leucophlebia

PELTULA Nyl.
bolanderi (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia bolanderi
clavata (Kremp.) Wetmore
corticola Büdel & R. Sant. (Büdel et al. 2007)
cylindrica Wetmore
euploca (Ach.) Poelt Syns.: Heppia euploca, H. geupinii, H. polyphylla
farinosa Büdel (Büdel & Nash 2002)
michoacanensis (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore
obscurans (Nyl.) Gyelnik var. obscurans
obscurans var. deserticola (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia deserticola
obscurans var. hassei (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia hassei
omphaliza (Nyl.) Wetmore
patellata (Bagl.) Swinscow & Krog Syn.: Heppia polyspora, H. terrena
placodizans (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia placodizans
radicata (Ach.) Nyl.
psammophila (Nyl.) Egea (Büdel & Nash 2002)
richardsii (Herre) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia richardsii
sonorensis Büdel & T. H. Nash
tortuosa (Nees) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia tortuosa
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia zahlbruckneri
polyspora (Tuck.) Wetmore = P. patellata

PERFORARIA Müll. Arg. =COCCOTREMA
minuta Degel. = Coccotrema pocillarium

PERIDIOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
+fuliguncta (Norman) D. Hawksw. (Aptroot 2002d)
+grandiuscula (Anzi) D. Hawksw.

PERIGRAPHA Hafellner
*superveniens (Nyl.) Hafellner (Diederich 2003)

PERTUSARIA DC.
alaskensis Erichsen
albescens (Hudson) M. Choisy & Werner
alpina Hepp ex Ahles
amara (Ach.) Nyl.
appalachensis Lendemer, R. C. Harris & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008a)
atra Lynge
azulensis B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
borealis Erichsen
brattiae Lumbsch & T. H. Nash (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
bryontha (Ach.) Nyl.
californica Dibben
carneopallida (Nyl.) Anzi
chiodectonoides Bagl. ex A. Massal.
coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. (Tønsberg 1999a)
consocians Dibben
copiosa Erichsen
coriacea (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
dactylina (Ach.) Nyl.
disticha Erichsen
epixantha R. C. Harris
excludens Nyl.
expolita R. C. Harris
flavicunda Tuck.
flavocorallina Coppins & Muhr
floridana Dibben
geminipara (Th. Fr.) C. Knight ex Brodo  Syn.: Ochrolechia geminipara
glaucomela (Tuck.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecanora glaucomela
globularis (Ach.) Tuck.
glomerata (Ach.) Schaerer
hakkodensis Yasuda ex Räsänen
hymenea (Ach.) Schaerer
hypothamnolica Dibben
iners R. C. Harris
islandica Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt (Schmitt et al. 2006)
lecanina Tuck.
leioplaca DC.
macounii (
I. M. Lamb) Dibben  Syn.: Melanaria macounii
mariae B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
moreliensis B. de Lesd. (Nash et al. 1998)
multipunctoides Dibben
neoscotica
I. M. Lamb
obruta R. C. Harris
occidentalis Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt (Schmitt et al. 2006)
octomela (Norman) Erichsen
oculata (Dickson) Th. Fr.
ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Nyl.
ostiolata Dibben
panyrga (Ach.) A. Massal.
papillata (Ach.) Tuck.
paratuberculifera Dibben
plittiana Erichsen
propinqua Müll. Arg.
pruinifera Erichsen
pseudocorallina (Lilj.) Arnold
pupillaris (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
pustulata (Ach.) Duby
rhexostoma Nyl.
rubefacta Erichsen
saximontana Wetmore
shenandoensis Hale & Dibben
sinusmexicani Dibben
sommerfeltii (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Fr.
stenhammarii Hellb.
subambigens Dibben
subamplicata Nyl.
subdactylina Nyl.
subobducens Nyl.
suboculata Brodo & Dibben
subpertusa Brodo
sulcata Dibben
tejocotensis B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
tetrathalamia (Fée) Nyl.
texana Müll. Arg.
trachythallina Erichsen
trochiscea Norman
valliculata Dibben
velata (Turner) Nyl.
ventosa Malme
virensica R. C. Harris
waghornei Hulting
wulfenioides B. de Lesd.
xanthodes Müll. Arg.
zeorina Erichsen
aleutensis Erichsen = P. alaskensis
amara var. flotowiana (Flörke) Vainio = P. amara var. amara, at least for Europe
ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. = P. subambigens, for North American records
arizonica Dibben = P. tejocotensis
bryophaga Erichsen = Ochrolechia bryophaga
canadensis Stirton = P. pustulata
ceuthocarpa (Sm.)
Turner & Borrer = P. excludens
ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. = P. excludens
concentrica Erichsen Type not found. May be P. multipunctoides
coriacea var. obducens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. coriacea
diffusilis Erichsen = P. glomerata
discoidea (Pers.) Malme = P. albescens
finkii Zahlbr. ex Fink = P. rhexostoma
flavida (DC.) J. R. Laundon = a European taxon, not in North America
freyi Erichsen = Megaspora verrucosa
granulata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = P. wulfenioides for North American records
hemisphaerica (Flörke) Erichsen = a European taxon, not in North America
hultenii Erichsen = Ochrolechia subplicans subsp. hultenii
laevigata (Nyl.) Arnold non (Th. Fr.) Anzi = P. trachythallina
leioterella Erichsen = P. macounii for North American reports
leucostoma A. Massal. = P. leioplaca
lutescens (Hoffm.) Lamy = P. flavida, but not in North America
marginata Nyl. = P. propinqua
microsticta (Sm. & Sow.) Erichsen = P. excludens
monogona Nyl. = P. excludens for North American records
multipuncta (Turner) Nyl. = misidentifications for North America
nolens Nyl. = P. chiodectonoides
ocellata (Wallr.) Körber = misidentifications for North America
pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. = misidentifications for North America
protuberans (Sommerf. ex Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. = P. carneopallida
pulchella Malme = P. velata (Archer & Messuti 1997)
raesaenenii Erichsen = misidentifications for North America
rhodoleuca Th. Fr. = Ochrolechia rhodoleuca
rubescens Erichsen = P. propinqua
santamonicae Dibben = P. velata (Archer & Messuti 1997)
subplicans Nyl. = Ochrolechia subplicans
subpupillaris Vězda = P. glaucomela
tabuliformis Erichsen = P. leioplaca
taeniata Erichsen = P. zeorina
torquata Müll. Arg. = P. propinqua
trachydactyla Vainio = identity uncertain, possibly an Ochrolechia sp.
tuberculifera Nyl. = misidentifications for North America; most specimens are P. paratuberculifera
tuckermanii Erichsen = P. subobducens
wulfenii DC. = P. hymenea
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) Fr. = Ochrolechia xanthostoma

PETRACTIS Fr.
farlowii (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Vězda

PEZIZELLA Fuckel
*epithallina (W. Phillips & Plowr.) Sacc. (Diederich 2003)

PHACOPSIS Tul.
*cephalodioides (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold (Diederich 2003)
*doerfeltii Alstrup & Scholz (Scholz 1998)
*fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*huuskonenii Räsänen
*oxyspora (Tul.)
Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Nesolechia oxyspora
*thallicola (A. Massal.) Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Nesolechia thallicola
*vulpina Tul.
*oxyspora var. defecta Triebel & Rambold = P. oxyspora
*oxsypora var. fusca Triebel & Rambold = P. fusca

PHAEOCALICIUM A. F. W. Schmidt
+betulinum (Nyl.) Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*compressulum (Nyl. ex Szatala) A. F. W. Schmidt  Syn.: Mycocalicium compressulum
+curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell Syn.: Calicium curtisii
+flabelliforme Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+matthewsianum Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+minutissimum (Merrill) Selva Syns.: Calicium minutissimum, Stenocybe minutissima (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell
+populneum (Brond. ex Duby) A. F. W. Schmidt  Syn.: Calicium populneum
+praecedens (Nyl.) A. F. W. Schmidt
+tremulicola (Norrl. ex Nyl.) Tibell  Syn. Stenocybe tremulicola (Tibell 1996; Selva & Tibell 1999)

PHAEOGRAPHINA Müll. Arg.
asteroides Fink = Phaeographis asteroides
caesiopruinosa (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Platygramme caesiopruinosa
columbina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. =
Fissurina columbina
explicans Fink = Leiorruma explicans
plurifera (Nyl.) Fink = Platygramme caesioipruinosa
quassiaecola (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Thecaria quassiaecola
scalpturata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Platygramme caesiopruinosa for North American records

PHAEOGRAPHIS Müll. Arg.
arthonioides (Vainio) Zahlbr.
asteroides (Fink) Lendemer  Syn.: Phaeographina asteroides (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
atromaculata (A. W. Archer) A. W. Archer (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
brasiliensis (A. Massal.) Kalb & Matthes-Leicht (Archer 2006)
dendritica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
dendriticella Müll. Arg.
erumpens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
haematites (Fée) Müll. Arg.
intricans (Nyl.) Staiger Syn.: Sarcographa intricans (Staiger 2002)
inusta (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
lobata (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
multicolor R. C. Harris
punctiformis (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
smithii (Leighton) B. de Lesd. (Tønsberg 1999a)
subfulgurata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tortuosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
exaltata (Mont. & Bosch) Müll. Arg. = Leiorreuma exaltatum
eulectra (Tuck.)
Zahlbr. = Graphis eulectra
lyellii (Sm.) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
sericea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = Leiorreuma sericea
sexloculata Fink = P. arthonioides
subtigrina (Vainio) Zahlbr. = P. brasiliensis

PHAEOPHYSCIA Moberg
adiastola (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia adiastola
ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg Syns.: Physcia ciliata, P. obscura auct.
constipata (Norrlin & Nyl.) Moberg Syn.: Physcia constipata
decolor (Kashiw.) Essl.
endococcina (Körber) Moberg Syns.: Physcia endococcina, P. lithotodes, (?) P. columbiana
endococcinodes (Poelt) Essl. Syn.: Physcia endococcinodes
erythrocardia (Tuck.) Essl.
hirsuta (Mereschk.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia hirsuta
hirtella Essl.
hispidula (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia hispidula, P. setosa
insignis (Mereschk.) Moberg
kairamoi (Vainio) Moberg Syn.: Physcia kairamoi
leana (Tuck.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia leana
nigricans (Flörke) Moberg Syn.: Physcia nigricans
orbicularis (Necker) Moberg Syn.: Physcia orbicularis
pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia orbicularis f. rubropulchra, P. endochrysea, P. rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.)
Moberg Syns.: Physcia sciastra, P. lithotea
squarrosa Kashiwadani (Moberg 1995) Syn: Physcia lacinulata, for North American records
cernohorskyi (Nádv.) Essl. = P. hirsuta (Esslinger 2004b)
chloantha (Ach.) Moberg = Physciella chloantha
imbricata sensu Esslinger (1978) = P. squarrosa
imbricata (Vainio) Essl. = P. hispidula
melanchra (Hue) Hale = Physciella melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) D. D. Awasthi = Physciella nepalensis

PHAEOPYXIS Rambold & Triebel (Rambold & Triebel 1990)
*punctum (A. Massal.) Rambold, Triebel & Coppins (Rambold & Triebel 1990)

PHAEORRHIZA H. Mayrh. & Poelt
nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syns.: Rinodina nimbosa, R. phaeocarpa
sareptana (Tomin) H. Mayrh. & Poelt

PHAEOSPORA Hepp ex Stein
*arctica Horáková & Alstrup
*parasitica (Lönnr.) Arnold
*rimosicola (Leighton ex Mudd) Hepp ex Stein Syn.: Pyrenulella endococcoidea

PHAEOSPOROBOLUS D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*alpinus R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*usneae D. Hawksw. & Hafellner

PHAEOTREMA Müll. Arg.
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema californicum
meiospermum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. =
Melanotrema meiospermum

PHARCIDIA Körber = STIGMIDIUM
*ephebes Henssen = Stigmidium ephebes
*epicymatia (Wallr.) Winter = a Stigmidium spp.
*dispersa (J. Lahm ex Körber) Winter ex Rabenh. = Zwackhiomyces dispersus
*parva Henssen (see Stigmidium)

PHLOEOPECCANIA J. Steiner (Schultz & Büdel 2005)
major Henssen ined.  (Schultz & Büdel 2005)
pulvinulina J. Steiner  (Schultz & Büdel 2005)


PHLYCTELLA
Kremp.
andensis Nyl.

PHLYCTIDIA Müll. Arg.
ludoviciensis Müll. Arg. = Phlyctis ludoviciensis

PHLYCTIS Wallr.
agelaea (Ach.) Flotow
argena (Sprengel) Flotow
ludoviciensis (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer  Syn.:  Phlyctidia ludoviciensis (Lendemer 2005a)
speirea G. Merr.
willeyi Tuck.

PHOEBUS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)
hydrophobius R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)


PHOMA Fr.
*cladoniicola Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2007)
*cytospora (Vouaux) D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
*fuliginosa M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.  (Hawksworth & Cole 2004)
*grumantiana Zhurb. & Diederich (Diederich et al. 2007)
*lobariae Diederich & Etayo (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*physciicola Keissl. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

PHRAGMONAEVIA Rehm
*fuckelii Rehm = Corticifraga fuckelii

PHYLLISCUM Nyl.
demangeonii (Moug. & Mont.) Nyl. Syn.: Thyrea demangeonii
tenue Henssen

PHYLLOPSORA Müll. Arg.
buettneri (Müll. Arg.)
Zahlbr. var. glauca (B. de Lesd.) Brako (Harris 1995a)
buettneri var. munda (Malme) Brako (Brako 1991)
confusa Swinscow & Krog
corallina (Eschw.)
Müll. Arg. var. corallina
corallina var. rappiana Brako (Brako 1991)
furfuracea (Pers.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecidea furfuracea
glabella (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider
glaucella (Vainio) Timdal  (Timdal 2008)
halei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Pannaria halei
isidiotyla (Vainio) Riddle (Brako 1991)
kalbii Brako (Brako 1991)
ochroxantha (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2008)
parvifolia (Pers.) Müll Arg. var. parvifolia Syn.: Lecidea parvifolia
parvifolia var. breviuscula (Nyl.) Brako (Brako 1991)
parvifoliella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
santensis (Tuck.) Swinscow & Krog (Timdal 2008)  Syns.: Bacidia microphyllina auct., Lecidea santensis
canoumbrina (Vainio) Brako Not known from North America; see note under Bacidia subgranulosa
corallina var. glaucella (Vainio) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. glaucella
corallina var. ochroxantha (Nyl.) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. ochroxantha
corallina var. santensis (Tuck.) Brako = P. santensis

subcorallina Zahlbr. = Catinaria subcorallina
subfilamentosa Zahlbr. = Lecidea subfilamentosa

PHYSALOSPORA Niessl
*xanthoriae (Wedd.) Sacc. = misidentification for North America

PHYSCIA (Schreber) Michaux
adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier
aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr. var. aipolia
aipolia var. alnophila (Vainio) Lynge
albinea (Ach.) Nyl.
americana G. Merr.
atrostriata Moberg
biziana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
caesia (Hoffm.) Fürnr.
cascadensis H. Magn.
clementei (Sm.) Lynge
convexa Müll. Arg.
crispa Nyl. Many old records using this name are actually P. atrostriata
dakotensis Essl.  (Esslinger 2004a)
dimidiata (Arnold) Nyl.
dubia (Hoffm.) Lettau
duplicorticata W. A. Weber & J. W. Thomson
erumpens Moberg (Moberg 1997)
halei J. W. Thomson
leptalea (Ach.) DC.
magnussonii Frey
mexicana B. de Lesd.
millegrana Degel.
montana B. de Lesd.
nashii Moberg (Moberg 1997)
neogaea R. C. Harris
phaea (Tuck.) J. W. Thomson
poncinsii Hue (Harris 1995a)
pseudospeciosa J. W. Thomson
pumilior R. C. Harris
solistella Essl. & Egan (Esslinger & Egan 1996)
sorediosa (Vainio) Lynge
stellaris (L.) Nyl.
subtilis Degel.
tenella (Scop.) DC.
tenella subsp. marina (A. Nyl.) D. Hawksw.
tenellula Moberg (Moberg 1997)
tribacia (Ach.) Nyl.
undulata Moberg (Harris 1995a)
wainioi Räsänen
adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl. = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
adiastola Essl. = Phaeophyscia adiastola
alba (Fée) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America
alba var. obsessa (Mont.) J. W. Thomson = P. integrata Nyl., but misidentifications for North America
"albicans (Pers.) J. W. Thomson" = P. atrostriata for North American reports
aspera H. Magn. = Dirinaria aegialita
astroidea (Clem.) Nyl. = P. clementei
cainii Räsänen = P. aipolia
callosa Nyl. = P. tribacia
cernohorskyi Nádv. = Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi
chloantha (Ach.) Vainio = Physciella chloantha
ciliata (Hoffm.) Du Rietz = Phaeophyscia ciliata
columbiana B. de Lesd. = (?) Phaeophyscia endococcina, but the type not seen
constipata Norrlin & Nyl. = Phaeophyscia constipata
convexella Moberg (Moberg 1997, in map) Erroneous report for the United States (Moberg 2002)
culbersonii Thoms. (nomen nudum) = Phaeophyscia squarrosa
detersa (Nyl.) Nyl. = Physconia detersa
elaeina (Sm.) A. L. Sm. = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
endochrysea (Hampe) Nyl. = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
endococcina (Körber) Th. Fr. = Phaeophyscia endococcina
endococcinodes Poelt = Phaeophyscia endococcinodes
fragilescens Zahlbr. = P. sorediosa
frostii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Dirinaria frostii
grisea (Lam.) Zahlbr. = Physconia grisea, but misidentifications for North America
hirsuta Mereschk. = Phaeophyscia hirsuta
hispida auct. = P. tenella
hispidula (Ach.) Frey = Phaeophyscia hispidula
intermedia Vainio = P. dubia
imbricata Vainio = Phaeophyscia hispidula
isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Fink = Physconia isidiigera
kairamoi Vainio = Phaeophyscia kairamoi
lacinulata Müll. Arg. = Phaeophyscia squarrosa, for North American records
leana (Tuck.) Tuck. = Phaeophyscia leana
lithotea "(Ach.) Nyl." = Phaeophyscia sciastra
lithotodes Nyl. = Phaeophyscia endococcina
luganensis Mereschk. = Physciella chloantha
melanchra Hue = Physciella melanchra
melops Dufour = P. phaea
minor (Fée) Vainio = Hyperphyscia minor
muscigena (Ach.) Nyl. = Physconia muscigena
nepalensis Poelt = Physciella nepalensis
nigricans (Flörke) Stizenb. = Phaeophyscia nigricans
obscura auct. = Phaeophyscia ciliata
obsessa (Mont.) Nyl. = P. integrata, but misidentifications for North America
orbicularis (Necker) Poetsch = Phaeophyscia orbicularis
orbicularis f. rubropulchra Degel. = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
picta (Sw.) Nyl. = Dirinaria picta
pulverulenta auct. non (Schreber) Fürnr. = Physconia distorta, but misidentifications for North America
pusilloides Zahlbr. = Phaeophyscia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Moberg = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.) Du Rietz = Phaeophyscia sciastra
semipinnata (J. F. Gmelin) Moberg = P. leptalea
setosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Phaeophyscia hispidula
subobscura Nyl. = P. tenella subsp. marina
syncolla Tuck. ex Nyl. = Hyperphyscia syncolla
teretiuscula (Ach.) Lynge = P. dubia
tribacoides auct. non Nyl.
= P. americana
venusta (Ach.) Nyl. = Physconia venusta, but misidentifications for North America

PHYSCIELLA Essl.
chloantha (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia chloantha, P. luganensis, Phaeophyscia chloantha
melanchra (Hue) Essl. Syns.: Physcia melanchra, Phaeophyscia melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) Essl. Syns.: Physcia nepalensis, Phaeophyscia nepalensis

PHYSCIOPSIS M. Choisy = HYPERPHYSCIA
adglutinata (Flörke) M. Choisy = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
elaeina (Sm.) Poelt = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
minor (Fée) B. Moore = Hyperphyscia minor
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.)
Poelt = Hyperphyscia syncolla

PHYSCONIA Poelt
americana Essl. (Esslinger 1994)
californica Essl. (Esslinger 2000b)
detersa (Nyl.) Poelt Syn.: Physcia detersa
elegantula Essl.
enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt
fallax Essl. (Esslinger 2000b)
isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Essl.
isidiomuscigena Essl. (Esslinger 2000b)
kurokawae Kashiw.
leucoleiptes (Tuck.) Essl.
muscigena (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Physcia muscigena
perisidiosa (Erichsen) Moberg
subpallida Essl.
distorta (With.) J. R. Laundon = misidentifications for North America
farrea sensu Poelt = P. perisidiosa [Parmelia farrea Ach. = Physconia grisea]
grisea (Lam.) Poelt = misidentifications for North America
pulverulacea Moberg = P. distorta, but misidentifications for North America
pulverulenta auct. non (Schreber) Poelt = P. distorta, but misidentifications for North America
thomsonii Essl.= Anaptychia elbursiana

PHYSMA A. Massal.
byrsaeum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ("byrsinum")
cataractaecola B. de Lesd.

PHYTOCONIS Bory
ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana

PICCOLIA A. Massal. (Hafellner 1995)
conspersa (Fée) Vainio Syn.: Biatorella conspersa (Hafellner 1995)
nannaria (Tuck.) Lendemer & Beeching  Syns.:  Biatorella nannaria, Heterothecium nannarium (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
ochrophora (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syn.: Biatora ochrophora (Hafellner 2004d)

PILOPHORUS Th. Fr.
acicularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
cereolus (Ach.) Th. Fr. in Hellb.
clavatus Th. Fr. Syn.: P. hallii
dovrensis (Nyl.) Timdal, Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea pallida
fibula (Tuck.) Th. Fr.
nigricaulis Satô
robustus Th. Fr.
vegae Krog
hallii (Tuck.) Vainio = P. clavatus
pallidus (Th. Fr.) Timdal = P. dovrensis

PLACIDIOPSIS Beltr.
cinerascens (Nyl.) Breuss
minor R. C. Harris
pseudocinerea Breuss
cervinula (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentifications for North America

PLACIDIUM A. Massal. (Breuss 1996)
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss & Bratt 2000) Syns.: Catapyrenium acarosporoides, Dermatocarpon acarosporoides, D. novomexicanum,Endopyrenium bajadanae, E. novomexicanum, Heteroplacidium acarosporoides
andicola (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium andicolum
arboreum (Schwein. ex Michener) Lendemer  Syns.:  Catapyrenium tuckermanii, Dermatocarpon tuckermanii, Dermatocarpon arboretum, Endocarpon tuckermanii, Endopyrenium tuckermanii (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
californicum Breuss (Breuss & Bratt 2000)
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium chilense
fingens (Breuss) Breuss (Breuss 2002d)
lachneum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium lacinulatum
lacinulatum var. erythrostratum Breuss (Breuss 2000)
lacinulatum var. atrans Breuss  (Lendemer 2004c)
michelii (A. Massal.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium michelii, Dermatocarpon michelii
norvegicum (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium norvegicum
pilosellum (Breuss) Breuss (Nash et al. 1998)
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium rufescens, Dermatocarpon rufescens
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium squamulosum, Dermatocarpon hepaticum auct. non (Ach.) Th. Fr.
tuckermanii (Ravenel ex Mont.) Breuss = P. arboreum

PLACOMARONEA Räsänen
mendozae (Räsänen) M. Westberg  (Westberg 2004a)

PLACOPSIS (Nyl.) Lindsay
cribellans (Nyl.) Räsänen
fusciduloides D. J. Galloway (Galloway 2005)
gelida (L.) Lindsay Syn.: Lecanora gelida
lambii Hertel & V. Wirth (Moberg & Carlin 1996; Brodo et al. 2001)
roseonigra
Brodo
effusa I. M. Lamb = misidentifications for North America

PLACOPYRENIUM Breuss
caeruleopulvinum (J.W. Thomson) Breuss (Breuss 2002e) Syn.: Catapyrenium caeruleopulvinum
heppioides (Zahlbr.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium heppioides, Dermatocarpon heppioides (Breuss 2002e)
noxium Breuss (Breuss 1998)
stanfordii (Herre) K. Knudsen Syns.: Catapyrenium zahlbruckneri, Dermatocarpon zahlbruckneri (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) Breuss (Breuss 2002e) = P. stanfordii

PLACYNTHIELLA Elenkin
dasaea (Stirton) Tønsberg (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Coppins & P. James Syn.: Saccomorpha hyporhoda
icmalea (Ach.) Coppins & P. James Syn.: Saccomorpha icmalea
knudsenii Lendemer  (Lendemer 2004d)
oligotropha (J. R. Laundon) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Saccomorpha oligotropha, Lecidea oligotropha
uliginosa (Schrader) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Saccomorpha uliginosa, Lecidea uliginosa, L. humosa

PLACYNTHIUM (Ach.) Gray
asperellum (Ach.) Trevisan
flabellosum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
nigrum (Hudson) Gray
petersii (Nyl.) Burnham
stenophyllum (Tuck.) Fink
stenophyllum var. isidiatum Henssen
subradiatum (Nyl.) Arnold
tantaleum (Hepp) Hue
aspratile (Ach.) Henssen = P. asperellum
dubium Herre = Massalongia microphylliza
microphyllizum (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Massalongia microphylliza
pannariellum (Nyl.) H. Magn. Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not the U. S. or Canada as yet
rosulans (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. Reported from Greenland but not the U. S. or Canada as yet
subnigrum B. de Lesd = Peccania subnigra

PLAGIOCARPA R. C. Harris = LITHOTHELIUM
hyalospora (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Lithothelium hyalosporum
illota (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum
langloisii R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Lithothelium macrosporum
phaeospora R. C. Harris = Lithothelium phaeosporum
septemseptata R. C. Harris = Lithothelium septemseptatum
langloisii R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum

PLATISMATIA Culb. & C. Culb.
glauca (L.) Culb.
& C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria glauca
herrei (Imshaug) Culb. & C. Culb. Syns.: Cetraria herrei, C. tuckermanii Herre non Oakes
lacunosa (Ach.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria lacunosa
norvegica (Lynge) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria norvegica
stenophylla (Tuck.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria stenophylla
tuckermanii (Oakes) Culb. & C. Culb. Syns.: Cetraria atlantica, C. lacunosa var. atlantica, C. tuckermanii Oakes non Herre

PLATYGRAMME Fée
caesiopruinosa (Fée) Fée Syn.: Phaeographina caesiopruinosa (Staiger 2002)

PLATYGRAPHA Nyl.
californica (Tuck.) Nyl. = Sigridea californica
hypothallina Zahlbr. = Lecanographa hypothallina
ocellata Nyl. = Mazosia ocellata
ravenelii Tuck. = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens Nyl. = Lecanactis epileuca

PLATYGRAPHOPSIS Müll. Arg.
interrupta (Fée) Müll. Arg.

PLATYTHECIUM Staiger
floridanum (Tuck.) Lendemer Syns.: Graphis floridana, Graphina floridana (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008)
grammitis (Fée) Staiger (Staiger 2002)

PLECTOCARPON Fée
*cladoniae R. Sant. (Ertz et al. 2005)
*lambinonii Diederich & Etayo (Ertz et al. 2005)
*lichenum (Sommerf.) D. Hawksw.
*nashii Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*nephromeum (Norman) Sant. (Goward et al. 1996)
*peltigerae Zhurb., Ertz, Diederich &
Miadl.  (Ertz et al. 2003)
*scrobiculatae Diederich & Etayo (Ertz et al. 2005)
*triebeliae Diederich & Ertz (Ertz et al. 2005)

PLEOPSIDIUM Körber
chlorophanum (Wahlenb.) Zopf Syns.: Acarospora chlorophana, A. erythrophora, A. incertula, A. novomexicana, A. texana, A. weldensis
flavum (Bellardi) Körber Syns.: Acarospora flava, A. oxytona
oxytonum (Ach.) Rabenh. = P. flavum

PLEUROTHELIOPSIS Zahlbr. = PYRENULA
australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (American record) = (?) Anthracothecium nanum
nana Zahlbr. = Anthracothecium nanum

PLEUROTREMA Müll. Arg. = LITHOTHELIUM
anacardii (Vainio) R. C. Harris nom. inval.
= Anisomeridium terminatum
inspersum Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium americanum, not present in North America? (Harris 1995)
solivagum Degel. = Lithothelium hyalospora

POELTINULA Hafellner
cerebrina (DC.) Hafellner

POLYBLASTIA A. Massal.
bryophila Lönnr.
cruenta (Körber) P. James & Swinscow
cucurbitula J. W. Thomson & B. M. Murray
cupularis A. Massal.
epigaea A. Massal.
gothica Th. Fr.
hyperborea Th. Fr.
hyperborea var. macrospora Lynge
melaspora (Taylor) Zahlbr.
obsoleta Arnold
sendtneri Kremp.
septentrionalis Lynge
terrestris Th. Fr.
theleodes (Sommerf.) Th. Fr.
integrascens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. hyperborea
intercedens (Nyl.) Lönnr. = P. cupularis
gelatinosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Agonimia gelatinosa
sommerfeltii Lynge = P. terrestris
tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold = Agonimia tristicula

POLYBLASTIOPSIS Zahlbr. = JULELLA
dealbens Fink = Polymeridium proponens
dispora (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Julella dispora
fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Zahlbr. = Julella fallaciosa
fallax (Nyl.) Fink = Arthopyrenia analepta
floridana Fink = Porina nuculastrum
inductula (Nyl.) Fink = Thelenella inductula
intrusa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = a Laurera sp., not in North America
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = Julella lactea
quercicola Brodo = Julella fallaciosa
rappii Zahlbr. = Julella geminella
sublactea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Julella vitrispora

POLYCAULIONA Hue = CALOPLACA
coralloides (Tuck.) Hue = Caloplaca coralloides

POLYCHIDIUM (Ach.) Gray
contortum Henssen
dendriscum (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Leptogidium dendriscum
muscicola (Sw.) Gray
albociliatum (Desmaz.) Zahlbr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum
rivale (Tuck.) Fink = Leptogium rivale
umhausense (Auersw.) Henssen = Dendriscocaulon umhausense

POLYCOCCUM Sauter ex Körber
*clauzadei Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*kerneri J. Steiner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*laursenii Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)

*microstictum (Leighton ex Mudd) Arnold
*minutulum Kocourková & F. Berger (Diederich 2003)
*opulentum (Th. Fr. & Almq.) Arnold  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Vězda  (Alstrup 2004)

*pulvinatum (Eitner) R. Sant.
*sporastatiae (Anzi) Arnold
*trypethelioides (Th. Fr.) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
*squamarioides (Mudd) Arnold
*vermicularium (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*epicrassum (H. Olivier) R. Sant. Syn.: Didymosphaeria epicrassa , but Canadian records are most likely based on Polycoccum squamarioides
*galligenum Vězda = P. pulvinatum
*gelidarium (Mudd) D. Hawksw. = Roselliniopsis gelidaria

POLYMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
albidum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
albocinereum (Kremp.) R. C. Harris
catapastum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
contendens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
proponens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Campylothelium amylosporum, Polyblastiopsis dealbens
quinqueseptatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia quinqueseptata
subcinereum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina subcinerea
pleiomerellum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = P. albocinereum

POLYPYRENULA D. Hawksw.
sexlocularis (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Polythelis sexlocularis. The implied occurrence of this species in Florida is questionable. No material seen from North America

POLYSPORINA Vězda
cyclocarpa (Anzi) Vězda (Knudsen 2007d)
*lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Degel. Syn.: Acarospora lapponica, A. subfuscescens, Sarcogyne bicolor
oligospora (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
simplex (Davies) Vězda Syns.: Biatorella simplex, Sarcogyne simplex
urceolata (Anzi) Brodo

POLYTHELIS Clem. = POLYPYRENULA
sexlocularis (Müll. Arg.) Clem. = Polypyrenula sexlocularis (q.v.)

PORINA Müll. Arg.
amygdalina Müll. Arg.
heterospora (Fink) R. C. Harris
nucula Ach.
nuculastrum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Clathroporina nuculastrum, C. confinis, Polyblastiopsis floridana (Harris 1995a)
pacifica Brodo  (Brodo 2004)
peregrina
Tretiach & McCarthy (Aptroot 2002e)
radicicola P. M. McCarthy & Tønsberg (McCarthy & Tønsberg 1998)
salicina Müll. Arg.
scabrida R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
aenea (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia aeneum
carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia aeneum
cestrensis (Tuck. ex Michener) Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia cestrensis
chlorotica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia chloroticum
cinerea "(Pers.) Zahlbr." = nom. illeg. = Strigula stigmatella
faginea (Schaerer) Arnold = Strigula stigmatella
guentheri (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia guentheri
hibernica P. James & Swinscow = misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)
lectissima (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Segrestia lectissima
leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) A. L. Sm. = Segestria leptalea
linearis (Leighton) Zahlbr. = Pseudosagedia linearis
mammillosa (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Segestria mammillosa
mastoidea (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)
nitidula Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia nitidulum
olivacea (Pers.) A. L. Sm. = misidentifications for North America
plumbaria (Stizenb.) Hasse = Arthopyrenia plumbaria
pulla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = an Arthopyrenia sp., not in North America
rhaphidosperma Müll. Arg. = Pseudosagedia rhaphidosperma
subcinerea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Polymeridium subcinereum
thaxteri R. Sant. = Pseudosagedia thaxteri
viridiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Strigula viridiseda

POROCYPHUS Körber
coccodes (Flotow) Körber Syn.: P. furfurellus
kenmorensis (Holl ex Nyl.) Henssen
dispersus E. Dahl = Thelignya lignyota
furfurellus (Nyl.) Forss. = P. coccodes

PORPIDIA Körber
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia albocaerulescens, Lecidea albocaerulescens,
L. hebescens
calcarea Gowan
carlottiana Gowan
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia cinereoatra, Lecidea cinereoatra
contraponenda (Arnold) Knoph & Hertel
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia crustulata, Lecidea crustulata
diversa (Lowe) Gowan Syn.: Lecidea diversa
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab Syns.: Huilia flavocaerulescens, Lecidea flavocaerulescens
flavocruenta Fryday & Buschbom (Fryday 2005)
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia glaucophaea, Lecidea glaucophaea
grisea Gowan
herteliana Gowan
lowiana Gowan
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab Syns.: Huilia macrocarpa, H. nigrocruenta, Lecidea steriza, L. macrocarpa, L.platycarpa, L.phylliscina, L. contigua, L. soredifera
melinodes (Körber) Gowan & Ahti Syns.: Aspicilia melinodes, Huilia melinodes
ochrolemma (Vainio) Brodo & R. Sant. Syn.: Hymenelia ochrolemma
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel Syn.: Huilia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lecidea soredizodes, Huilia soredizodes
(Fryday et al. 2007)
speirea (Ach.) Kremp. Syn.: Lecidea speirea
subsimplex (H. Magn.) Fryday  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
superba (Körber) Hertel & Knoph Syn.: Huilia superba
thomsonii Gowan
tuberculosa (Sm.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia tuberculosa, Lecidea sorediza, L. tumida
zeoroides (Anzi) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea macrocarpa var. trullisata
flavicunda (Ach.) Gowan = P. flavocaerulescens
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Diederich & Sérus. = P. macrocarpa
pseudomelinodes A. J. Schwab = Porpidia ochrolemma
tahawasiana Gowan = P. subsimplex

PRONECTRIA Clem.
*anisospora (Lowen) Lowen Syn.: Nectriella anisospora
*dillmaniae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
*erythrinella (Nyl.) Lowen Syn.: Nectriella erythrinella
*oligospora Lowen & Rogerson
*robergei (Mont. & Desm.) Lowen (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*tibellii Zhurb. (« tibellae ») (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*walkerorum Zhurb. (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)

PROTOBLASTENIA (Zahlbr.) J. Steiner
calva (Dickson) Zahlbr.
incrustans (DC.) J. Steiner
rupestris (Scop.) J. Steiner
terricola (Anzi) Lynge
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Räsänen = Pyrrhospora cinnabarina
monticola (Ach.) J. Steiner = Clauzadea monticola
quernea (Dickson) Clauzade = Pyrrhospora quernea
rupestris var. calva (Dickson) J. Steiner = P. calva

PROTOMICAREA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
limosa (Ach.) Hafellner

PROTOPANNARIA (Gyeln.) P. M. Jørg. & S. Ekman
pezizoides (Weber) P. M. Jørg. & S. Ekman (Jørgensen 2000c) Syn: Pannaria pezizoides

PROTOPARMELIA M. Choisy
atriseda (Fr.) R. Sant. & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecanora atriseda
badia (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecanora badia, L. grandis
capitata Lendemer (Lendemer & Lumbsch 2008)
cupreobadia (Nyl.)
Poelt
hypotremella Herk, Spier & V. Wirth (Brodo & Aptroot 2005)
isidiata Diederich, Aptroot & Sérus. (Lendemer & Lumbsch 2008)
nephaea (Sommerf.) R. Sant. ex Poelt & Obermayer
ochrococca (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg., Rambold & Hertel  Syns.: Lecidea ochrococca, Lecanora ochrococca, L. phaeobola
#ryaniana van den Boom, Sipman & Elix (van den Boom et al. 2007)

PROTOPARMELIOPSIS M. Choisy = LECANORA
muralis (Schreber) M. Choisy = Lecanora muralis (Schreber) Rabenh.

PROTOTHELENELLA Räsänen
corrosa (Körber) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syn.: Microglaena corrosa
leucothelia (Nyl.) Mayrhofer & Poelt (Goward et al. 1996)
pluriseptata Fryday (Fryday 2004a)
santessonii H. Mayrh.
sphinctrinoidella (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt (Mayrhofer 1987)
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syn.: Microglaena sphinctrinoides

PSEUDEPHEBE M. Choisy
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria minuscula
pubescens (L.) M. Choisy Syns.: Alectoria pubescens, Parmelia lanata

PSEUDEVERNIA Zopf
cladonia (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Parmelia cladonia
consocians (Vainio) Hale & Culb.
intensa (Nyl.) Hale & Culb.
furfuracea (L.) Zopf = misidentifications for North America; records are either P. consocians or P. intensa

PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA Vainio
anomala Brodo & Ahti
anthraspis (Ach.) H. Magn. Syn.: Sticta anthraspis
aurata (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Sticta aurata
crocata (L.) Vainio Syn.: Sticta crocata
mallota (Tuck.) H. Magn. (Tønsberg 1999b)
perpetua McCune &
Miadl. (Miadlikowska et al. 2002)
rainierensis Imshaug
mougeotiana (Delise) Vainio = P. crocata

PSEUDOPARMELIA Lynge (Elix & Nash 1997)
cubensis (Nyl.) Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1997) Syn.: Parmelia leucochlora Tuck. non (Mont.)
Mont.
floridense Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1997)
uleana (Müll. Arg.) Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1997) Syn.: Parmelia uleana, Parmelia endoxantha, Parmelia congrugens auct., Parmelia sphaerospora auct.
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Hale = Canoparmelia alabamensis
amazonica (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia amazonica
baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale = Flavoparmelia caperata
caroliniana (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia caroliniana
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd.) Hale = Canoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia martinicana
rutidota (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera (Hale) Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale (North American records) = Pseudoparmelia uleana
texana (Tuck.) Hale = Canoparmelia texana

PSEUDOPYRENULA Müll. Arg.
diluta (Fée) Müll Arg. var. degenerans Vainio (Harris 1998)
pupula (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Trypethelium floridanum for North American records
subgregaria Müll. Arg. = P. diluta
subnudata Müll. Arg. = P. diluta

PSEUDOSAGEDIA (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy  (Harris 2005)

aenea (Wallr.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium aeneum, Porina aenea, P. carpinea

cestrensis (E. Michener) R. C. Harris   Syns.: Porina cestrensis, Trichothelium cestrense, Verrucaria cestrensis

chlorotica (Ach.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium chloroticum

crocynoides (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Trichothelium crocynoides

guentheri (Flotow) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium guentheri

isidiata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Trichothelium isidiatum 

linearis (Leighton) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium lineare

nitidula (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium nitidulum

rhaphidosperma (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris  Syns.: Porina rhaphidosperma, Trichothelium rhaphidospermum
thaxteri (R. Sant.) Hafellner & Kalb  Syn.: Trichothelium thaxteri

PSILOLECHIA A. Massal.
clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea adirondackii
lucida (Ach.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea lucida

PSORA Hoffm.
brunneocarpa Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
californica Timdal
cerebriformis W. A. Weber
crenata (Taylor) Reinke Syns.: Lecidea crenata, L. coroniformis
decipiens (Hedwig) Hoffm. Syn.: Lecidea decipiens
globifera (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Lecidea globifera
himalayana (Church. Bab.) Timdal
hyporubescens Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
icterica (Mont.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Lecidea icterica
luridella (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Lecidea luridella
montana Timdal
nipponica (Zahlbr.) Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea novomexicana
pacifica Timdal
peninsularis Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
pruinosa Timdal (Timdal 2002a)
pseudorussellii Timdal
rubiformis (Ach.) Hooker Syn.: Lecidea rubiformis
russellii (Tuck.) A. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea russellii, Biatora russellii
tenuifolia Timdal
tuckermanii R. Anderson ex Timdal
vallesiaca (Schaerer) Timdal
anthracophila (Nyl.) Arnold = Hypocenomyce anthracophila
demissa (Rutstr.) Hepp = Lecidoma demissum
friesii (Ach.) Hellbom = Hypocenomyce friesii
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Romjularia lurida
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = P. nipponica
ostreata Hoffm. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
petri (Tuck.) Fink = Romjularia lurida
pulcherrima (Vainio) Elenkin = Anamylopsora pulcherrima
rufonigra (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Psorula rufonigra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Hooker = Hypocenomyce scalaris
scholanderi (Lynge) R. Anderson = Toninia tristis
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea testacea, Chrysopsora testacea, but not present in North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana

PSORINIA Gotth. Schneider
conglomerata (Ach.) Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Toninia conglomerata

PSOROGLAENA Müll. Arg.
cubensis Müll. Arg. var. cubensis
cubensis var. teretiloba O. Eriksson
dictyospora (Orange) H. Harada (Harada 2003)  Syn.: Macentina dictyospora

PSOROMA Michaux
cinnamomeum Malme (Jørgensen 2000c)
hirsutulum Nyl. (Jørgensen 2005)
hypnorum (Vahl) Gray Syn.: Pannaria hypnorum
tenue Henssen var. boreale Henssen

PSOROTICHIA A. Massal.
hassei Fink ex J. Hedrick
minuta H. Magn.
montinii (A. Massal.) Forss. (Schultz 2007c)
murorum A. Massal. (Schultz 2007c)
nigra H. Magn.
numidella (Nyl.) Forssell var. flageyana J. Steiner (Schultz 2007c)
schaereri (A. Massal.) Arnold Syn.: Pyrenopsis schaereri
taurica (Nyl.) Vainio  (Schultz 2007c)
segregata
(Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Lempholemma chalazanum
squamulosa Zahlbr. = Gloeoheppia squamulosa

PSORULA Gotth. Schneider
rufonigra (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea rufonigra, L. brouardii, Psora rufonigra
scotopholis (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider = Miriquidica scotopholis

PTERYGIOPSIS Vainio
atra Vainio
cava M. Schultz  (Schultz 2006)

PTYCHOGRAPHA Nyl. (McCune 1997b)
xylographoides Nyl. (McCune 1997b)

PUNCTELIA Krog
appalachensis (Culb.) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia appalachensis
bolliana (Müll. Arg.)
Krog  Syns.: Parmelia bolliana, P. frondifera
borreri (Turner) Krog  Syns.: Parmelia borreri, P. pseudoborreri
graminicola (B. de Lesd.) Egan  Syn.: Parmelia graminicola, P. semansiana (Egan 2003)
hypoleucites (Nyl.) Krog Syn.:  Parmelia hypoleucites
missouriensis G. Wilh. & Ladd (Adler 1997, van Herk & Aptroot 2000, Aptroot 2003)
perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd  Syn.: Parmelia perreticulata
punctilla (Hale) Krog
reddenda (Stirton) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia reddenda
rudecta (Ach.)
Krog  Syn.: Parmelia rudecta
stictica (Duby) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia stictica
subpraesignis (Nyl.) Krog  Syn.: Parmelia subpraesignis
subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog  Syns.: Parmelia subrudecta, P. dubia   Uncertain for N. Am., most specimens are P. perreticulata (Aptroot 2003)
darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Krog = Flavopunctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Krog = Flavopunctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Krog = Flavopunctelia praesignis
semansiana (Culb. & C. Culb.) Krog = P. graminicola
soredica (Nyl.) Krog = Flavopunctelia soredica

PYCNORA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
leucococca (R. Sant.) R. Sant. Syn.: Hypocenomyce leucocca  (Santesson et al. 2004)
praestabilis (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Hypocenomyce praestabilis

sorophora (Vainio) Hafellner Syn.: Hypocenomyce sorophora
xanthococca (Sommerf.) Hafellner Syns.: Hypocenomyce xanthococca, Lecidea xanthococca

PYCNOTHELIA Dufour
papillaria Dufour Syn.: Cladonia papillaria

PYRENASTRUM Eschw. = PYRENULA
cubanum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cubana
fuscum Mont. = Pyrenula septicollaris
pyrenastraeum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula septicollaris

PYRENIDIUM Nyl.
*actinellum Nyl.
*hyalosporum Alstrup, D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*octosporum Looman =
Thelenella muscorum var. octospora

PYRENOCOLLEMA Reinke
atlanticum (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
caesium (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
prospersellum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia prospersella
tichothecioides (Arnold) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia tichothecioides
elegans R. Sant. = Collemopsidium elegans
halodytes (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Collemopsidium halodytes
strontianense (Swinscow) R. C. Harris = Collemopsidium angermannicum
sublitorale (Leighton) R. C. Harris ex Fletcher = Collemopsidium sublitoralis

PYRENODESMIA A. Massal. = CALOPLACA
albovariegata B. de Lesd. = Caloplaca albovariegata
elaeodes E. D. Rudolph = Caloplaca pellodella
montana B. de Lesd.
= a Caloplaca sp.

PYRENOPSIDIUM (Nyl.) Forss. = CRYPTOTHELE
granuliforme (Nyl.) Forss. = Cryptothele granuliformis
homoeopsis (Nyl.) Forss. = Pyrenopsis furfurea
iivarensis (Vainio) Forss. (Thomson 1997) = Pyrenopsis furfurea (Henssen & Jørgensen 1990; Santesson 1993)

PYRENOPSIS (Nyl.) Nyl.
compacta Willey
furfurea (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenopsidium homoeopsis, P. iivarensis
fuscoatra Fink
grumulifera Nyl.
haemalella (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss.
lecidella Fink
phaeococca Tuck.
polycocca (Nyl.) Tuck.
sanguinea Anzi
subfuliginea Nyl.
tasmanica Nyl.
triptococca Nyl. (Schultz 2007d)
viridirufa Tuck.
granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. = Euopsis granatina
homoeopsis Nyl. = P. furfurea
melambola (Tuck.) Tuck. = Metamelanea melambola
"multispora E. Dahl" Report probably refers to P. myriospora E. Dahl = P. grumulifera
myriospora E. Dahl = P. grumulifera
phylliscina (Tuck.) Tuck. = Cryptothele permiscens
pulvinata (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Euopsis pulvinata
schaereri A. Massal. = Psorotichia schaereri

PYRENOTHAMNIA Tuck. = ENDOCARPON
brandegei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Endocarpon pulvinatum
spraguei Tuck. = Endocarpon pulvinatum

PYRENOTHRIX Riddle
nigra Riddle Syn.: Lichenothrix riddlei

PYRENOTRICHUM Mont.
splitgerberi Mont. = campylidia of lichens

PYRENULA A. Massal.
acutalis R. C. Harris
acutispora Kalb & Hafellner (Aptroot 1996)
anomala (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Melanotheca anomala, M. achariana
aquila R. C. Harris
aspistea (Ach.) Ach.
astroidea (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parmentaria astroidea
atrolaminata R. C. Harris (Aptroot 1996)
carabaica Aptroot & Etayo Syn.: Parathelium martinicanum (Etayo & Aptroot 2003)
caryae R. C. Harris (Aptroot 1996)
cerina Eschw.
citriformis R. C. Harris
cocoes Müll. Arg.
concatervans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Melanotheca concatervans, (?) M. cinerata
confoederata R. C. Harris
corticata (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium corticatum
cruenta (Mont.) Vainio Syns.: Melanotheca cruenta, M. subincruenta
cruentata (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bottaria cruentata
cubana (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Pyrenastrum cubanum
cuyabensis (Malme) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium cuyabense
erumpens R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium emergens
falsaria (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium falsarium
laetior Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a)
laevigata (Pers.) Arnold
leucostoma Ach. Syns.: Anthracothecium leucostomum, Parmentaria rappii
lucifera R. C. Harris
macounii R. C. Harris
macularis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium maculare
maculata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris
mamillana (Ach.) Trevisan (fide R. Harris)
micheneri R. C. Harris
microcarpa Müll. Arg.
microtheca R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium microcarpum
mucosa (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
nitidula (Bresadola) R. C. Harris ined. (Harris 1995a)
occidentalis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris
ochraceoflava (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium ochraceoflavum
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium ochraceoflavens
oleosa R. C. Harris
personata (Malme) R. C. Harris
plittii R. C. Harris
pseudobufonia (Rehm) R. C. Harris
punctella (Nyl.) Trevisan
pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium pyrenuloides
quassiaecola Fée
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parmentaria ravenelii
rubrostoma R. C. Harris
santensis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
septicollaris (Eschw.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Pyrenastrum fuscum, P. pyrenastraeum
subelliptica (Tuck.) R. C. Harris
subferruginea (Malme) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium subferrugineum
tenuisepta R. C. Harris
thelomorpha Tuck. Syn.: Anthracothecium thelomorphum
wetmorei R. C. Harris
wheeleri R. C. Harris
bahiana Malme = P. concatervans
brunnea Fée = misidentifications for North America
cinerea Zahlbr. = P. microcarpa
farrea auct. = Eopyrenula leucoplaca, but misidentifications for North America
fulvella R. C. Harris = P. personata
glabrata (Ach.) A. Massal. = P. laevigata
herrei Fink = Arthopyrenia plumbaria
imperfecta (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = P. subelliptica
leucoplaca (Wallr.) Körber = Eopyrenula leucoplaca, but misidentifications for North America
leucoplaca var. pluriloculata Fink = Eopyrenula intermedia
mamillana (Ach.) Trevisan = misidentifications for North America
marginata Hooker = P. mamillana
martinicana (Vainio) R. C. Harris = P. caraibica
megalospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
neglecta R. C. Harris = P. pseudobufonia
nitida (Weigel) Ach. = misidentifications for North America
nitidella (Flörke ex Schaerer) Müll. Arg. var. maculata R. C. Harris = P. maculata
pinguis (Sprengel) Fée = misidentifications for North America
subaggregata Müll. Arg. Not in North America
tropica (Ach.) Trev. = Trypethelium tropicum
texana Tuck. ex R. C. Harris = P. microcarpa
xyloides (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = P. mamillana

PYRENULELLA Fink = PHAEOSPORA
*endococcoidea (Nyl.) Fink = Phaeospora rimosicola

PYRGILLUS Nyl.
javanicus (Mont. & Bosch) Nyl.
americanus Nyl. = P. javanicus

PYRRHOSPORA Körber
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea cinnabarina, Protoblastenia cinnabarina
gowardiana Spribille & Hauck (Spribille & Hauck 2003)
quernea (Dickson) Körber Syns.: Protoblastenia quernea, Lecidea quernea
russula (Ach.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea russula
subcinnabarina (Tønsberg) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea subcinnabarina
varians (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea varians
elabens (Fr.) Hafellner = Ramboldia elabens

PYXINE Fr.
albovirens (G. Meyer) Aptroot
berteriana (Fée) Imshaug
caesiopruinosa (Nyl.) Imshaug Possibly a synonym of P. albovirens?
cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.
coralligera Malme
eschweileri (Tuck.) Vainio
meissneriana Nyl. (Nash et al. 1998)
petricola Nyl.
retirugella Nyl.
sorediata (Ach.) Mont.
subcinerea Stirton  (Amtoft 2002)
chrysanthoides Vainio = P. subcinerea
daedalea Krog & R. Sant. = misidentification for North America
frostii Tuck. = Dirinaria frostii
meissneri Tuck. = P. berteriana
picta (Sw.) Tuck. = Dirinaria picta
pringlei Imshaug = P. petricola

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

RACIBORSKIOMYCES Siemaszko (Diederich 2003)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) M. E. Barr Syn.: Wentiomyces peltigericola (Diederich 2003)

RACODIUM Pers. : Fr.
rupestre Pers.

RAMALINA Ach.
ahtii Kashiw. & T. H. Nash
almquistii Vainio Syn.: Fistulariella almquistii
americana Hale Earlier North American reports of R. fastigiata belong here.
baltica Lettau
bistorta Nyl.
calicaris (L.) Fr.
canariensis J. Steiner
celastri (Sprengel) Krog & Swinscow
complanata (Sw.) Ach.
culbersoniorum LaGreca (LaGreca 1999)
dasypoga Tuck.
dendriscoides Nyl.
denticulata Nyl.
dilacerata (Hoffm.) Hoffm. Syn.: Fistulariella minuscula
farinacea (L.) Ach.
fastigiata (Pers.) Ach. Earlier reports of this species from North America refer to R. americana
fraxinea (L.) Ach.
geniculata Hooker f. & Taylor Syn.: Fistulariella geniculata
inflata (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hooker f. & Taylor subsp. inflata Syn.: Fistulariella inflata
intermedia (Delise ex Nyl.) Nyl.
lacera (With.) J. R. Laundon
leptocarpha Tuck.
linearis (Sw.) Ach.
menziesii Taylor
montagnei De Not.
obtusata (Arnold) Bitter
paludosa B. Moore
peruviana Ach. Syn.: Desmazieria peruviana
petrina Bowler & Rundel
pollinaria (Westr.) Ach.
polymorpha (Lilj.) Ach.
puberulenta Riefner & Bowler
rigida Pers. ex Ach.
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Hue Syn.: Fistulariella roesleri
scoparia Vainio Syn.: Fistulariella scoparia
sinensis Jatta
sonorensis Kashiw. & T. H. Nash (Kashiwadani & Nash 2004)
sorediantha Nyl.
stenospora Müll. Arg.
subleptocarpha Rundel & Bowler
subpellucida Müll. Arg.
tenuis (Tuck.) G. Merr.
thrausta (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Alectoria thrausta
unifolia J. W. Thomson
usnea (L.) R. Howe
willeyi R. Howe
cephalota Tuck. = Niebla cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.) De Not. = Niebla ceruchis
cochlearis Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
combeoides Nyl. = Niebla combeoides
crinita Tuck. = Trichoramalina crinita
duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. = R. lacera
ecklonii auct.
= R. celastri
ecklonii (Sprengel) G. Meyer & Flotow  Not known from North America.
evernioides Nyl. = R. lacera
flaccescens Nyl. = Niebla flaccescens
homalea Ach. = Niebla homalea
hypoprotocetrarica Culb. = R. farinacea
menziesii Tuck. non Taylor = R. leptocarpha
minuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. = R. dilacerata
pollinariella Nyl. = R. roesleri
reagens (B. de Lesd.) Culb. = R. farinacea
reticulata (Nöhden) Kremp. = R. menziesii
subampliata (Nyl.)
Fink = misidentifications for North America
testudinaria Nyl. = Niebla homalea
yemensis (Ach.) Nyl. = R. celastri

RAMBOLDIA Kantvilas & Elix
elabens (Fr.) Kantvilas & Elix (Kantvilas & Elix 2007)  Syns.: Lecidea elabens, L. melancheima, Pyrrhospora elabens

RAMONIA Stizenb.
ablephora (Nyl. ex Hasse) R. C. Harris Syns.: Lecidea ablephora
absconsa (Tuck.) Vězda
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Vzda
malmei Vězda
microspora Vězda              
rappii Vězda
valenzueliana (Mont.) Stizenb. Syn.: Maronea porinoidea
vermispora Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008a)

RECHINGERIA Servít = LICHINELLA
cribellifera (Nyl.) Servít = Lichinella cribellifera

REFRACTOHILUM D. Hawksw.
*galligenum D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*peltigerae (Keissler) D. Hawksw.

REIMNITZIA Kalb            
santensis (Tuck.) Kalb Syns.: Leptotrema santense, Thelotrema santense (Kalb 2001)

REINKELLA
Darb. (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica Räsänen = Hubbsia californica
parishii Hasse = Hubbsia parishii
subcrustacea Räsänen = Hubbsia parishii

RELICINA (Hale & Kurok.) Hale
abstrusa (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia abstrusa
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia eximbricata

REQUIENELLA Fabre
#seminuda (Pers. : Fr.) Boise Syns.: Sphaeria seminuda, Lophiostoma subcollapsum
subcollapsa (Ellis & Everhart) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

RHABDOSPORA (Durieu & Mont.) Mont.
lecanorae B. de Lesd.
= pycnidia of Lecanora thalli (Hawksworth 1981, Kalb et al. 1995)

RHAGADOSTOMA Körber
*lichenicola (De Not.) Keissl. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

RHIZOCARPON Ramond ex DC.
alaxense J. W. Thomson
alpicolum (Anzi) Rabenh.
amphibium (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Hinds et al. 2002)
anaperum (Vainio) Vainio
anseris Lynge
arctogenum Gelting (Nash et al. 1998)
athalloides (Nyl.) Hasse
atroflavescens Lynge
badioatrum (Flörke ex Sprengel) Th. Fr. Syn.: Buellia badioatra
bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre
caesium Fryday (Fryday 2002)
chioneum (Norman) Th. Fr.
cinereonigrum Vainio
cinereovirens (Müll. Arg.) Vainio
concentricum (Davies) Beltr.
cookeanum H. Magn.
copelandii (Körber) Th. Fr.
dimelaenae Timdal  (Feuerer & Timdal 2004)
disporum (Nägeli ex Hepp) Müll. Arg.
distinctum Th. Fr.
effiguratum (Anzi) Th. Fr.
eupetraeoides (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss.
eupetraeum (Nyl.) Arnold
expallescens Th. Fr.
ferax H. Magn.
frigidum Räsänen
geminatum Körber
geographicum (L.) DC.
grande (Flörke ex Flotow) Arnold
hensseniae Brodo
hochstetteri (Körber) Vainio Syn.: Buellia colludens
inarense (Vainio) Vainio
infernulum (Nyl.) Lynge (Fryday 2002)
intermediellum Räsänen
intersitum Arnold
jemtlandicum (Malme) Malme
lavatum (Fr.) Hazsl.
lecanorinum Anders
lindsayanum Räsänen Possibly a subspecies of R. geographicum
macrosporum Räsänen
malenconianum (Llimona & Werner) Hafellner & Mayrhofer (McCune & Ponzetti 2005)
microsporum Lynge
norvegicum Räsänen
obscuratum (Ach.) A. Massal.
oederi (Weber) Körber
parvum Runem.
May not be distinct from R. norvegicum
petraeum (Wulfen) A. Massal.
polycarpoides Degel.
polycarpum (Hepp) Th. Fr.
postumum (Nyl.) Arnold
praebadium (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
*pusillum Runem.
*renneri Poelt
riparium Räsänen Possibly a subspecies of R. geographicum
rittokense (Hellbom) Th. Fr.
rubescens Th. Fr. (fide Fryday)
saanaënse Räsänen Syn.: R. sublucidum
*santessonii Timdal
saurinum (W. A. Weber) Bungartz  Syn.:  Buellia saurina (Bungartz & Fryday 2004)
simillimum (Anzi) Lettau
subgeminatum Eitner
submodestum (Vainio) Vainio
superficiale (Schaerer) Vainio
superficiale subsp. boreale Runem.
tetramerum (Vainio) Vainio
timdalii Ihlen & Fryday (Ihlen & Fryday 2002)
umbilicatum (Ramond) Flagey
vernicomoideum Fink
viridiatrum (Wulfen) Körber
albineum (Tuck.) Fink = R. obscuratum
alboatrum (Hoffm.) Anzi = Diplotomma alboatrum
ambiguum (Schaerer) Zahlbr. = R. distinctum
atroalbescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = R. eupetraeoides
chionophilum Th. Fr. = R. alpicola
chlorophaeum Hepp ex Leighton = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
concentricum auct. = R. petraeum
concretum (Ach.) Elenkin = R. geminatum
crystalligenum Lynge = R. superficiale subsp. boreale
cumulatum J. W. Thomson = Diplotomma epipolium (as Buellia, Feuerer 1991)
disporum auct. = R. geminatum
infernulum f. sylvaticum Fryday (Fryday 2002) = R. infernulum
intermedium Degel. = R. eupetraeum
interponens (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. = R. obscuratum
montagnei Körber = R. disporum
occidentale Lynge = R. superficiale
oidaleum (Nyl.)
Fink = Buellia oidalea
oreites (Vainio) Zahlbr. = R. alpicola
penichrum (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Diplotomma penichrum
permodestum Arnold = R. obscuratum
plicatile auct. North American = R. rubescens Th. Fr.?
plicatile (Leighton) A. L. Sm. = Stereocaulon plicatile (Leighton) Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 1996) Not known from North America
polare Räsänen = R. superficiale
reductum Th. Fr. = R. obscuratum
sphaerosporum Räsänen = R. macrosporum Räsänen
sublucidum Räsänen = R. saanaënse Räsänen.
subtile Runem. = R. viridiatrum

RHIZOPLACA Zopf
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Zopf Syns.: Lecanora chrysoleuca, L. rubina
glaucophana (Nyl. ex Hasse) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora glaucophana, Harpidium glaucophanum
haydenii (Tuck.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora haydenii
haydenii subsp. arbuscula Rosentreter (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
idahoensis Rosentreter & McCune (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
marginalis (Hasse) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora marginalis
melanophthalma (DC.) Leuckert & Poelt Syn.: Lecanora melanophthalma
melanophthalma subsp. cerebriformis Rosentreter & B. D. Ryan (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
melanophthalma subsp. crispa Rosentreter & B. D. Ryan (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
peltata (Ramond) Leuckert & Poelt Syn.: Lecanora peltata
subdiscrepans (Nyl.) R. Sant.

RHYMBOCARPUS Zopf
*boomii Etayo & Diederich  (Diederich & Etayo 2004a)
*cruciatus (Sherwood, D. Hawksw. & Coppins) Etayo & Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*neglectus (Vainio) Diederich & Etayo  Syn.:  Llimoniella neglecta (Diederich & Etayo 2000)

RIMELIA Hale & Fletcher = PARMOTREMA  (Blanco et al. 2005)
cetrata (Ach.) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema cetratum
commensurata (Hale) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema commensuratum
diffractaica (Essl.) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema diffractaicum
reticulata (Taylor) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema reticulatum
simulans (Hale) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema simulans
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale & Fletcher = Parmotrema subisidiosum

RIMELIELLA Kurok. = PARMOTREMA (Blanco et al. 2005)
conferenda (Hale) Kurok. = Parmotrema conferendum
neotropica (Kurok.) Kurok. = Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Kurok. = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.)
Kurok. = Parmotrema subtinctorium

RIMULARIA Nyl.
actinostoma Coppins & Fryday (Coppins & Fryday 2006a)
badioatra (Kremp.) Hertel & Rambold
caeca (Lowe) Rambold & Printzen Syn.: Lecidea caeca
furvella (Nyl. ex Mudd) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea furvella
gibbosa (Ach.) Coppins, Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Mosigia gibbosa, Lecanora bockii
gyrizans (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold
impavida (Th. Fr.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea impavida
*insularis (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea insularis, L. intumescens
limborina Nyl. Syns.: Lecidea limborina, L. trochodes
sphacelata (Th. Fr.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea sphacelata

RINODINA (Ach.) Gray
adirondackii H. Magn.
americana B. de Lesd.
annulata H. Magn.
applanata H. Magn.
archaea (Ach.) Arnold
arctica H. Magn.
ascociscana Tuck.
aspersa (Borrer) Laundon (Glew 1999)
athallina H. Magn.
aurantiaca Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
badiexcipula Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
bischoffii (Hepp) A. Massal.
bolanderi H. Magn.
boulderensis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
brouardii B. de Lesd.
calcigena (Th. Fr.) Lynge
californiensis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
cana (Arnold) Arnold (Wilhelm 1998)
capensis Hampe
castanomela (Nyl.) Arnold
castanomelodes H. Mayrh. & Poelt
chrysomelaena (Ach.) Tuck. (Lendemer & Sheard 2006)
cinereovirens (Vainio) Vainio
colobina (Ach.) Th. Fr.
colobinoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
coloradiana H. Magn.
confragosa (Ach.) Körber
conradii Körber
constrictula H. Magn.
degeliana Coppins
destituta (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
disjuncta Sheard & Tønsberg
dolichospora Malme (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
efflorescens Malme
endophragmia I. M. Lamb
endospora Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
excrescens Vainio
exigua (Ach.) Gray
flavosoralifera Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2002)
gennarii Bagl.
glauca Ropin
grandilocularis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
granulans Vainio
granuligera H. Magn.
griseosoralifera Coppins (Tønsberg 1993a)
guzzinii Jatta (Sheard 2004)
halei H. Magn.
hallii Tuck.
herrei H. Magn.
hyperborea H. Magn.
innata Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
*insularis (Arnold) Hafellner  (Sheard 2004)
intermedia Bagl. (Mayrhofer et al. 2001)
interpolata (Stirton) Sheard (Thomson 1997)
iowensis Zahlbr.
juniperina Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
laevigata (Ach.) Malme
lecanoides B. de Lesd.
lepida (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
lignaria H. Magn.
lobulata H. Mayrhofer & Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
luridata (Körber) H. Mayrh., Scheid. & Sheard
lycopodiicola B. de Lesd.
macrospora Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
marysvillensis H. Magn.
metaboliza Vainio
milvina (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr.
minutissima B. de Lesd.
mniaraea (Ach.) Körber
mniaroeiza (Nyl.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora mniaroeiza
ochrocea Willey ex Fink
olivaceobrunnea C. W. Dodge & Baker
orculata Poelt & M. Steiner (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2007)
oregana H. Magn.
oxydata (A. Massal.) A. Massal.
pachysperma H. Magn.
pacifica Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
papillata H. Magn.
parasitica H. Mayrh. & Poelt
perreagens Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
poeltiana Giralt & Obermayer  (Sheard 2004)
polyspora Th. Fr.
populicola H. Magn.
pyrina (Ach.) Arnold
rinodinoides (Anzi) H. Mayrh. & Scheidegger (Sheard 2004)
riparia Sheard (Sheard 1998)
roscida (Sommerf.) Arnold
santae-monicae H. Magn.
septentrionalis Malme
sheardii Tønsberg
silicicola B. de Lesd.
stictica Sheard & Tønsberg
subminuta H. Magn.
subsophodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tephraspis (Tuck.) Herre
terrestris Tomin (Zhurbenko et al. 2006)
thomsonii Sheard (Sheard 1995)
trevisanii (Hepp) Körber  (Sheard 2004)
turfacea (Wahlenb.) Körber
vegasii B. de Lesd.
verruciformis Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002)
vezdae H. Mayrh. (Lendemer & Macklin 2006)
willeyii Sheard & Giralt (Sheard 1995)
zwackhiana (Kremp.) Körber
angelica Stizenb. = Mobergia angelica
archaeoides H. Magn. = R. olivaceobrunnea
aterrima Kremp. ex Anzi = Lichenothelia scopularia
atrocinerea (Hooker) Körber = misidentifications for North America
biatorina Körber = R. oxydata
bolodes Tuck. ex Fink = Mobergia angelica
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) Malme = Amandinea cacuminum
calculiformis W. A. Weber = Mobergia calculiformis
californica H. Magn. = Dimelaena californica
corticola Arnold = R. capensis
dakotensis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
darrowii E. D. Rudolph ("darrovii") = R. intermedia
dirinoides Zahlbr. = Mobergia angelica
dissa (Stirton) H. Mayrh. = Hafellia dissa, but not in North America
euryspora Zahlbr. = R. luridata
finkii H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
hueana Vainio = Dimelaena oreina
inaequalis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
kentuckyensis Fink = R. tephraspis
lecanorina (A. Massal.) A. Massal.   Doubtful for North America
lecideoides (Nyl.) Kernst. = R. archaea (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2007)
lignicola Sheard (Sheard & Mayrhofer 2002) = R. archaea (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2007)
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber = Buellia mamillana

microbola Tuck. ex Fink = Buellia microbola
milliaria Tuck. = Amandinea milliaria
mucronatula H.Magn. = R. terrestris
nigra Fink = Buellia nigra
nimbosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Phaeorrhiza nimbosa
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = Dimelaena oreina
occidentalis Lynge = R. calcigena
ocellata (Hoffm.) Arnold = R. lecanorina
orbata (Ach.) Vainio = R. turfacea
oreina (Ach.) A. Massal. = Dimelaena oreina
penardiana Müll. Arg. = R. bischoffii
pennsylvanica H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
phaeocarpa (Sommerf.) Vainio = Phaeorrhiza nimbosa
platyloba Willey = nom. nudum = Mobergia calculiformis
pyriniformis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
roboris (Dufour ex Nyl.)
Arnold   Known only from Mexico
sabulosa Tuck. = R. intermedia
salina Degel. = R. gennarii
sophodes (Ach.) A. Massal. = misidentifications for North America
suboreina B. de Lesd. = Dimelaena oreina
subplumbea H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
thujae (H. Magn.) Sheard = R. excrescens
thysanota Tuck. = Dimelaena thysanota
violascens H. Magn. = R. zwackhiana

ROBERGEA Desmaz.
pupula (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Belonia americana   Excluded as a non-lichen

ROCCELLA DC.
decipiens
Darb.
gracilis Bory (Tehler 2006)
babingtonii Mont. = R. decipiens
babingtonii sensu auct. North American = R. gracilis (Tehler 2006)
difficilis
Darb. = R. gracilis (Tehler 2002b, 2006)
fimbriata
Darb. = R. decipiens (Tehler 2002b; Tehler et al. 2004)
fuciformis (L.) DC.  Misidentifications for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)
fucoides (Dickson) Vainio = R. phycopsis (Tehler 2002a, 2003)
leucophaea Tuck. = Dendrographa leucophaea
montagnei Bél.  Misidentifications for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)
peruensis Kremp. = R. gracilis (Tehler 2006)
phycopsis (Ach.) Ach.  Misidentifications for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)
tinctoria DC.  Misidentifications for North America (Tehler et al. 2004)

ROCCELLINA Darb.
conformis Tehler
franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Follmann Syns.: Dirina franciscana, Schismatomma cupressum

ROMJULARIA Timdal
lurida (Ach.) Timdal  Syns.: Mycobilimbia lurida, Lecidea lurida, Biatora lurida, Psora lurida (Timdal 2007)

ROPALOSPORA A. Massal.
chlorantha (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia chlorantha
hibernica (P. James & Poelt) Tønsberg
lugubris (Sommerf.) Poelt Syns.: Bacidia lugubris, Bilimbia caudata, Lecidea lugubris
viridis (Tønsberg) Tønsberg

ROSELLINIELLA Vainio (Goward et al. 1996)
*atlantica Matzer & Hafellner (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*cladoniae (Anzi) Matzer & Hafellner (Diederich 2003)
*microthelia (Wallr.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Kocourková 2007)
*nephromatis (Crouan) Matzer & Hafellner (Goward et al. 1996)
*peltigericola D. Hawksw. & Miadl. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)

ROSELLINIOPSIS Matzer & Hafellner
*gelidaria (Mudd) Matzer Syn.: Polycoccum gelidarium
*tartaricola (Nyl.) Matzer  (Hafellner 2004e)

ROSELLINULA R. Sant. (Kalb et al. 1995)
*kalbii (Hafellner) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers (Kalb et al. 1995)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

SACCOMORPHA Elenkin = PLACYNTHIELLA
hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Placynthiella hyporhoda
icmalea (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Placynthiella icmalea
oligotropha (J. R. Laundon) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Placynthiella oligotropha
uliginosa (Schrader) Hafellner = Placynthiella uliginosa

SAGEDIOPSIS (Sacc.) Vainio
*aquatica (Stein) Triebel (Brodo 1995)
*barbara (Th. Fr.) R. Sant. & Triebel Syn.: Gongylia nadvornikii
*campsteriana (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  Syn.: Metasphaeria tartarina

SAGIOLECHIA A. Massal.
protuberans (Ach.) A. Massal.
rhexoblephara (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

SANTESSONIELLA Henssen (Henssen 1997)
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Henssen var. arctophila Syn.: Parmeliella arctophila (Henssen 1997)
crossophylla (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg.  Syn.:  Parmeliella crossophylla, Pannaria crossophylla (Jørgensen 2000c, 2005)
grisea (Hue) Henssen (Tønsberg & Henssen 1999)
saximontana T. Sprib., P. M. Jørg. & M. Schultz (Spribille et al. 2007)

SARCOGRAPHA Fée
labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
medusulina (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
tricosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
intricans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Phaeographis intricans

SARCOGYNE Flotow
arenosa (Herre) Knudsen & Standley  (Knudsen 2005b) Syn.: Acarospora arenosa
athroocarpa H. Magn.
bolleana H. Magn.
californica H. Magn.
clavus (DC.) Kremp. Syn.: Biatorella clavus
dakotensis H. Magn.
desolata (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen & Standley (Knudsen & Standley 2007)
integra (B. de Lesd.) H. Magn.
[Biatorella kuleshanensis Herre]
magnussonii B. de Lesd.
novomexicana H. Magn.
privigna (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Biatorella hypophaea
reebiae K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Standley 2007)
regularis Körber Syns.: Biatorella pruinosa
similis H. Magn.
bicolor H. Magn. = Polysporina lapponica  (Knudsen 2005c)
californica H. Magn. = S. similis (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
oligospora H. Magn. = Polysporina oligospora
plicata H. Magn. = S. privigna (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
pruinosa auct. = S. regularis
simplex (Davies) Nyl. = Polysporina simplex

SARCOPYRENIA Nyl. (Harris 1995b)
*bacillosa (Nyl. ex Hasse) Nav.-Ros. & Hladun  Syn.:  Hassea bacillosa, Verrucaria bacillosa (Navarro-Rosinés & Hladun 2004)
*cylindrospora (P. Crouan & H. Crouan) Aguirre (Harris 1995b)

SARCOSAGIUM A. Massal.
campestre (Fr.) Poetsch & Schiedem. Syn.: Biatorella campestris

SAREA Fr.
+difformis (Fr. ) Fr.
+resinae (Fr.) Kuntze Syn.: Biatorella resinae

SCHADONIA Körber
alpina Körber Syns.: Lopadium alpinum, L. gemellum
fecunda (Th. Fr.) Vězda & Poelt Syn.: Lopadium fecundum

SCHAERERIA Körber
cinereorufa (Schaerer) Th. Fr. Syn.: Lecidea
cinereorufa, L. rugosa
corticola Muhr & Tønsberg
dolodes (Nyl. ex Hasse) Schmull & T. Sprib. (Schmull & Spribille 2005)
endocyanea (Stirton) Hertel & Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea epiiodiza
fuscocinerea (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Lecidea fuscocinerea, L. tenebrosa
#parasemella (Nyl.) Lumbsch (Lumbsch 1997)
tenebrosa (Flotow) Hertel & Poelt = S. fuscocinerea

SCHISMATOMMA Flotow & Körber ex A. Massal.
decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Clauz. & Vězda
glaucescens (Nyl. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthonia glaucescens
pericleum (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup
pluriloculare (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. (Tehler 2002c)
rappii (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma rappii
rediunta (Hasse) Tehler Syn.: Dirina rediunta
vernans (Tuck.)
Zahlbr.
abietinum (Humb.) A. Massal. = S. pericleum
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Sigridia californica
cupressum Herre = Roccellina franciscana
hypothallinum (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Lecanographa hypothallina
ocellatum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mazosia ocellata
palidellum auct. = Enterographa anguinella
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecanactis epileuca

SCHIZOPELTE Th. Fr.
californica Th. Fr. Syn.: Combea californica

SCLEROCOCCUM Fr.
*montagnei Hafellner  (Diederich 2004a)
*simplex D. Hawksw. (Cole & D. Hawksw. 2001)

SCLEROPHORA Chevall.
amabilis (Tibell) Tibell (Goward et al. 1996)
coniophaea (Norman) J. Mattsson & Middelb. (Goward et al. 1996)
farinacea (Chevall.) Chevall.
nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell Syns.: Coniocybe nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold non Tuck. & Mont., C. pallida
peronella (Ach.) Tibell (Goward et al. 1996)

SCLEROPHYTON Eschw.
elegans Eschw.  Syn.: Chiodecton inscriptum  (Sparrius 2004b)
californicum (Tuck.) Hasse = Llimonaea californica
cerebriforme Egea & Torrente = Llimonaea cerebriforme
inscriptum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = S. elegans
occidentale Herre = Dactylospora cf. parasitica, on a Pertusaria sp. (Sparrius 2004b)

SCOLICIOSPORUM A. Massal.
chlorococcum (Stenh.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia chlorococca
intrusum (Th. Fr.) Hafellner  Syn.: Carbonea intrusa (Hafellner 2004c)
pruinosum (P. James) Vězda (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
sarothamni (Vainio) Vězda
umbrinum (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Bacidia umbrina
umbrinum var. compacta (Körber) Vězda

SCUTULA Tul.
*cladoniicola Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)
*dedicata Triebel, Wedin & Rambold (Triebel et al. 1997)
*epiblastematica (Wallr.) Rehm (Triebel et al. 1997)
*miliaris (Wallr.) Trevisan
*stereocaulorum (Anzi) Körber
*tuberculosa (Th. Fr.) Rehm (Wedin et al. 2007)

SECOLIGA Norman = GYALECTA
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Körber = Gyalecta geoica

SEGESTRIA Fr. (Harris 1995a)
lectissima Fr.   Syn.: Porina lectissima (Harris 1995a)
leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) R. C. Harris   Syn.: Porina leptalea (Harris 1995a)
mammillosa Th. Fr.   Syn.: Porina mammillosa (Harris 1995a)
octomera (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rubentior (Stirton) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

SEIROPHORA Poelt  (Fröden & Lassen 2004)
aurantiaca (R. Br.) Fröden (Fröden & Lassen 2004)

californica (Sipman) Fröden  Syn.:  Teloschistes californicus
contortuplicata (Ach.) Fröden  Syn.:  Teloschistes contortuplicatus

SIGRIDEA Tehler
californica (Tuck.) Tehler Syn.: Dirina californica, D. hassei, Schismatomma californicum

SIPHULA Fr.
ceratites (Wahlenb.) Fr.
dactyliza Nyl. = a Stereocaulon spp. (Kantvilas 2002)
simplex (Taylor) Nyl. = S. ceratites

SKYTTEA Sherwood, D. Hawksw. & Coppins
*caesii Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*cismonicae Hafellner (Hafellner 2000)
*elachistophora (Nyl.) Sherwood & D. Hawksw.
*gregaria Sherwood, D. Hawks. & Coppins (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*lecanorae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*mayrhoferi Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*nitschkei (Körber) Sherwood, D. Hawks. & Coppins (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*pertusariicola Diederich & Etay  (Diederich & Etayo 2004b)
*radiatilis (Tuck.) R. Sant., Etayo & Diederich (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*richardsonii Iturr. & D. Hawksw. (Iturriaga & Hawksworth 2004)
*tavaresae R. Sant., Etayo & Diederich (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*tephromelarum Kalb & Hafellner (Diederich & Etayo 2004b)

SKYTTELLA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*mulleri (Willey) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.

SOLENOPSORA A. Massal.
candicans (Dickson) J. Steiner
cladonioides B. D. Ryan & Timdal ined. (Ryan & Timdal 2002)
crenata (Herre) Zahlbr.
cyathiformis (Szatala) van den Boom  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
holophaea (Mont.) Samp. Syns.: Lecanora holophaea, Candelariella holophaea
hassei (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. = Lecania hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble

SOLORINA Ach.
bispora Nyl.
bispora var. subspongiosa (Zschacke) Frey (Zhurbenko et al. 2006)
crocea (L.) Ach.
octospora (Arnold) Arnold
saccata (L.) Ach.
spongiosa (Ach.) Anzi

SOLORINARIA (Vainio) Gyelnik
despreauxii (Mont.) Fink = Heppia despreauxii

SOLORINELLA Anzi
asteriscus Anzi

SPEERSCHNEIDERA Trevisan
euploca (Tuck.) Trevisan Syn.: Teloschistes euplocus

SPHAERELLOTHECIUM Zopf
*abditum Triebel
*araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf
*araneosum var. cladoniae Alstrup & Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*atryneae (Arnold) Cl. Roux & Triebel  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*cladoniicola E. S. Hansen & Alstrup (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)
*contextum Triebel
#gowardii Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*minutum Hafellner
*parmeliae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich 2003)
*propinquellum (Nyl.) Cl. Roux & Triebel

SPHAERIA Haller = HYPOXYLON
bignoniae Schwein. = Granulopyrenis hymnothora

SPHAEROPHORUS Pers.
fragilis (L.) Pers.
globosus (Hudson) Vainio
globosus var. gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
melanocarpus (Sw.) DC. = Bunodophoron melanocarpus
tuckermanii Räsänen = S. globosus var. gracilis

SPHAERULINA Sacc.
*dolichotera (Nyl.) Vouax  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

SPHINCTRINA Fr.
*anglica Nyl. Syns.: Mycocalicium microcephalum, Calicium microcephalum
*benmargana Selva (Selva 2004)
*leucopoda Nyl.
*palidella (Willey) Selva (Selva 2004)
*tubaeformis A. Massal.
*turbinata (Pers. : Fr.) De Not.
*microcephala (Sm.) Körber = S. anglica
*microcephala Nyl. = S. tubiformis

SPHINCTRINELLA Nádv. = MYCOCALICIUM
caliciodes Nádv. = Mycocalicium calicioides

SPILONEMA Bornet
dendroides Henssen
paradoxum Bornet
revertens Nyl.

SPILONEMELLA Henssen & Tønsberg (Henssen & Tønsberg 2000)
americana Henssen & Tønsberg

SPIROGRAPHA Zahlbr.
*fusisporella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

SPORASTATIA A. Massal.
polyspora (Nyl.) Grummann Syn.: S. cinerea
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Biatorella testudinea
cinerea (Schaerer) Körber = S. polyspora

SPOROPODIUM Mont.
phyllocharis (Mont.) A. Massal.

SPOROSTIGMA Grube
melaspora (Tuck.) Grube (Grube 2001)

SQUAMARINA Poelt
cartilaginea (With.) P. James
lentigera (Weber) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora lentigera
crassa (Hudson) Poelt = S. cartilaginea
degelii Poelt = Lecanora neodegelii

STAUROLEMMA Körber
carolinianum P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2004)

STAUROTHELE Norman
arctica Lynge
areolata (Ach.) Lettau
bacilligera (Arnold) Arnold (Lendemer 2008)
clopimoides (Arnold) J. Stein
diffractella (Nyl.) Tuck.
discedens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
drummondii (Tuck.) Tuck.
effigurata J. W. Thomson
elenkinii Oksner
fissa (Taylor) Zwackh
guestphalica (Lahm ex Körber) Arnold (Lendemer 2008)
lecideoides B. de Lesd.
monicae (Zahlbr.) Wetmore
orispruinosa J. W. Thomson
polygonia B. de Lesd.
rugosa J. W. Thomson
rupifraga (A. Massal.) Arnold
tenuissima Degel.
verruculosa J. W. Thomson
ambrosiana (A. Massal.) Zschacke = S. drummondii for North American records
circinata Tuck.
= S. fissa
catalepta auct. N. Am. = mostly S. monicae
clopima (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. [epithet to be proposed for rejection under I.C.B.N. Art.69 (Thomson 1991)] = S. drummondii
fuscocuprea (Nyl.) Zschacke = S. drummondii
glacialis Herre = S. fissa
hazslinskyi (Körber) Blomb. & Forss. = S. fissa
hymenogonia (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = S. discedens for North American records
perradiata Lynge = S. drummondii
rufa (A. Massal.) Zschacke = S. elenkinii for North American records
sessilis H. Magn. = S. elenkinii
succedens (Rehm) Arnold = S. drummondii for North American record
umbrina (Wahlenb.) Tuck. = S. fissa

STEGOBOLUS Mont.
auberianus (Mont.) A. Frisch & Kalb  Syns.: Leptotrema auberianum, Ocellularia auberiana (Frisch & Kalb 2006)
granulosus (Tuck.) A. Frisch  Syn.: Ocellularia granulose (Frisch & Kalb 2006)


STEINIA Körber
geophana (Nyl.) Stein Syn.: Lecidea geophana

STENOCYBE (Nyl.) Körber
+clavata Tibell
+fragmenta E. B. Peterson & Rikkinen (Peterson & Rikkinen 1998)
+major (Nyl.) Körber
+pullatula (Ach.) Stein
+byssacea (Fr.) Körber = S. pullatula
+euspora (Nyl.) Anzi = (?) S. major
+minutissima (G. Merr.) Zahlbr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+tremulicola Norrlin ex Nyl. = Phaeocalicium tremulicola

STEREOCAULON Hoffm.
alpinum Laurer ex Funck
apocalypticum Nyl.
arcticum Lynge
arenarium (Savicz) I. M. Lamb
botryosum Ach.
capitellatum H. Magn.
condensatum Hoffm.
coniophyllum I. M. Lamb
dactylophyllum Flörke
dactylophyllum var. occidentale (H. Magn.) I. M. Lamb
depreaultii Delise ex Nyl.
depressum (Frey) I. M. Lamb (Zhurbenko et al 2006)
glareosum (Savicz) H. Magn.
glaucescens Tuck.
grande (H. Magn.) H. Magn.
groenlandicum (E. Dahl) I. M. Lamb
incrustatum Flörke
intermedium (Savicz) H. Magn.
leprocephalum Vainio
microcarpum Müll. Arg.
myriocarpum Th. Fr.
nanodes Tuck.
nivale (Follmann) Fryday Syn.: Bacidia nivalis (Fryday & Glew 2003)
octomerum Müll. Arg.
paschale (L.) Hoffm.
pileatum Ach.
plicatile (Leighton) Fryday & Coppins (Fryday 2006)
rivulorum H. Magn.
sasakii Zahlbr. var. simplex (Riddle) I. M. Lamb
sasakii var. tomentosoides I. M. Lamb
saviczii Du Rietz
saxatile H. Magn.
spathuliferum Vainio
sterile (Savicz) I. M. Lamb ex Krog
subcoralloides (Nyl.) Nyl.
symphycheilum I. M. Lamb
tennesseense H. Magn. ex Degel.
tomentosum Fr.
vesuvianum Pers.
albicans Th. Fr. = Leprocaulon albicans
arbuscula Nyl. = Leprocaulon arbuscula
coralloides Fr. = S. dactylophyllum
denudatum Flörke = S. vesuvianum
evolutoides (H. Magn.) Frey = S. saxatile
microscopicum (Vill.) Frey = Leprocaulon microscopicum
pseudoarbuscula Asahina = Leprocaulon subalbicans for North American records
quisquiliare (Leers) Hoffm. = Leprocaulon microscopicum
ramulosum Raeuschel = not in North America north of Mexico
subalbicans I. M. Lamb = Leprocaulon subalbicans
uliginosum I. M. Lamb  Known from Greenland but not from the United States or Canada.
wrightii Tuck. = not in North America

STICTA (Schreber) Ach.
arctica Degel.
beauvoisii Delise
canariensis (Bory) Bory ex Delise
carolinensis T. McDonald (McDonald et al. 2003)
fragilinata
T. McDonald (McDonald et al. 2003)
fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach.
leucoblephara (Müll. Arg.) D. J. Galloway  (Galloway & Thomas 2004)
limbata (Sm.) Ach.
oroborealis Goward & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Goward 2001)
sylvatica (Hudson) Ach.
wrightii Tuck.
xanthotropa (Kremp.) D. J. Galloway  (Galloway & Thomas 2004)
anthraspis Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis
aurata Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria aurata
crocata (L.) Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria crocata
erosa (Eschw.) Tuck. = Lobaria ravenelii
hallii Tuck. = Lobaria hallii
herbacea (Hudson) Ach. = misidentifications for North America
laciniata Ach. = misidentifications for North America
linita Ach. = Lobaria linita
oregana Tuck. = Lobaria oregana
pulmonaria (L.) Biroli = Lobaria pulmonaria
verrucosa (Hudson) Fink = Lobaria scrobiculata
weigelii (Ach.) Vainio = misidentifications for North America

STIGMIDIUM Trevisan
*cerinae Cl. Roux & Triebel (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
*croceae (Arnold) Cl. Roux & Triebel (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)
*ephebes (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Pharcidia ephebes (Henssen) D. Hawksw.
*epixanthum Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*frigidum (Sacc.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant.
*glebarum (Arnold) Hafellner (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*gyrophorarum (Arnold) D. Hawksw. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*marinum (Deakin) Swinscow
*mycobilimbiae Cl. Roux, Triebel & Etayo (Diederich 2003)
*[Pharcidia parva Henssen]
*peltideae (Vainio) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*pseudopeltideae Cl. Roux & Triebel  (Diederich 2003; Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*psorae (Anzi) Hafellner
*pumilum (Lett.) Matzer & Hafellner (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
*schaereri (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Reinstated for N.Am. by Henssen 1995)
*squamariae (B. de Lesd.) Cl. Roux & Triebel
*tabacinae (Arnold) Triebel
*atryneae (Arnold) Hafellner = Sphaerellothecium atryneae, but North American specimens are Stigmidium squamariae
*congestum (Körber) Triebel = Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, for North American records only
*schaereri (A. Massal.) Trevisan = misidentifications for North America

STIRTONIA A. L. Sm.
[Arthonia alba Müll. Arg.]

STRANGOSPORA Körber
deplanata (Almq.) Clauz. & Cl. Roux (Knudsen 2007c)
microhaema (Norman) R. Anderson  Syn.: Biatorella microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Stein Syn.: Biatorella moriformis
pinicola (A. Massal.) Körber
ochrophora (Nyl.) R. Anderson = Piccolia ochrophora

STRIGULA Fr.
americana R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia tenuis
bermudana (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
complanata (Fée) Mont.
connivens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
griseonitens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
hypothallina R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
jamesii (Swinscow) R. C. Harris
laceribracae R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
nitidula Mont.
phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris
smaragdula Fr. : Fr. (Harris 1995a)
stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia faginea, Porina cinerea, P. faginea
subelegans Vainio (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia submuriformis
sychnogonioides (Nitschke) R. C. Harris Syn.: Geisleria sychnogonioides
viridiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina viridiseda
wilsonii (Riddle) R. C. Harris
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = S. jamesii for North American records
elegans (Fée) Müll. Arg. = S. smaragdula (Harris 1995a)

STROMATELLA Henssen
bermudana (Riddle) Henssen (Schultz 2002e)

SULCARIA Bystrek
badia Brodo & D. Hawksw.
isidiifera Brodo

SULCOPYRENULA H. Harada
canellae-albae (Fée) H. Harada Syn.: Anthracothecium carellae-albae (Harada 1999)
staurospora (Tuck.) H. Harada (Harada 1999)

SYNALISSA Fr.
matogrossensis (Malme) Henssen (Schultz 2002f)
symphorea (Ach.) Nyl.
melambola Tuck. = Metamelaena melambola
ramulosa (Hoffm.) Fr. = S. symphorea
subnigra (B. de Lesd.) Henssen = Peccania subnigra
texana Tuck. = Peccania texana

SYNCESIA Taylor (Tehler 1996)
byssina (Vainio) Tehler
depressa (Fée) Tehler
graphica (Fries) Tehler Syn.: Chiodecton perplexum
psaroleuca (Nyl.) Tehler

SYNECHOBLASTUS Trevisan = COLLEMA
aggregatus ("Ach.") Th. Fr. = Collema fasciculare
polycarpus (Hoffm.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = Collema polycarpon
pycnocarpus Nyl. = Collema conglomeratum Hoffm. var. crassiusculum
rupestris (Sw.) Trevisan = Collema flaccidum
texanus (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Collema texanum
wyomingensis Fink = Collema polycarpon

SYZYGOSPORA G. W. Martin (Diederich 1996)
*bachmannii Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
*physciacearum Diederich (Diederich 1996)

SZCZAWINSKIA A. Funk
leucopoda Holien & Tønsberg (Holien & Tønsberg 2002)
tsugae A. Funk Syn.: Micarea clavopycnidiata (Aptroot et al. 1997)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

TAENIOLELLA S. Hughes
*beschiana Diederich (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*delicata M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*caespitosa M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*christiansenii Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)
*laevistipitata M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*phaeophysciae D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*rolfii Diederich & Zhurb. (Diederich & Zhurbenko 2001)
*serusiauxii Diederich (Diederich 2003)

TALPAPELLIS Alstrup & M. Cole
*peltigerae Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

TAPELLARIA Müll. Arg.
bilimbioides R. Sant.
epiphylla (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium phyllocharis
nana (Fée) R. Sant.

TELOSCHISTES Norman
chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr.
exilis (Michaux) Vainio
flavicans (Sw.) Norman
arcticus Zahlbr. = Seirophora aurantiaca
californicus Sipman = Seirophora californica
candelarius (L.) Fink = Xanthoria candelaria
contortuplicatus (Ach.) Clauzade & Rondon ex Vězda = Seirophora contortuplicata
euplocus (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Speerschneidera euploca
parietinus (L.) Norman = Xanthoria parietina
polycarpus (Hoffm.) Tuck. = Xanthoria polycarpa
ramulosus Tuck. = Xanthoria ramulosa
villosus auct. non (Ach.)
Norman = T. californicus for North American records

TEPHROMELA M. Choisy
atra (Hudson) Hafellner Syn.: Lecanora atra
*cerasina (Müll. Arg.) Rambold & Triebel  (Nash et al. 2004b)

nashii Kalb  (Nash et al. 2004b)
aglaea (Sommerf.) Hertel & Rambold = Calvitimela aglaea
“aglaeida” Nyl. = Calvitimela aglaea
armeniaca (DC.) Hertel & Rambold = Calvitimela armeniaca
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hertel & Rambold = Calvitimela testaceoatra

TETRAMELAS Norman
geophila (Sommerf.) Norman  Syn.:  Buellia geophila (Marbach 2000)

TEXOSPORIUM Nádv. ex Tibell & Hofsten
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Nádv. Syn.: Cyphelium sancti-jacobi

THALLOLOMA Trevisan
hypoleptum (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)


THAMNOGALLA D. Hawksw.
* crombiei (Mudd) D. Hawksw.

THAMNOLIA Ach. ex Schaerer
subuliformis (Ehrh.) Culb.
vermicularis (Sw.) Ach. ex Schaerer
subvermicularis Asahina = T. subuliformis

THECARIA Fée
quassi
aecola Fée  Syn.: Phaeographina quassaecola (Staiger 2002)

THELENELLA Nyl.
brasiliensis (Müll. Arg.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)
cinerascens (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Aspidothelium fugiens
geminipara (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
harrisii H. Mayrh.
hassei (Zahlbr.) H. Mayrh. Syns.: Microglaena hassei, M. sychnogonoides
humilis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
inductula (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. Syns.: Microglaena inductula, Polyblastiopsis inductula
luridella R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
modesta (Nyl.) Nyl. Syn.: Microglaena subcorallina
muscorum (Fries) Vainio var. muscorum  Syn.:  Chromatochlamys muscorum  (Lendemer & Harris 2004)
muscorum var. octospora (Nyl.) Coppins & Fryday  Syn.:  Chromatochlamys muscorum var. octospora (Fryday & Coppins 2004)
pertusariella (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)
rappii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
sastreana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
sordidula (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrh. Syn.: Microglaena sordidula
sychnogonioides (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
weberi H. Mayrh.

THELIDIELLA Fink ex J. Hedrick
blastenicola Fink = a non-lichenized fungus

THELIDIUM A. Massal.
absconditum (Hepp) Rabenh.
aeneovinosum (Anzi) Arnold
areolatum J. W. Thomson
circumspersellum (Nyl.) Zschacke Syn.: Verrucaria circumspersella
decipiens (Nyl.) Kremp.
incavatum Nyl. ex Mudd
microbolum (Tuck.) Hasse
microsporum Lynge
minimum (A. Massal. ex Körber) Arnold
minutulum Körber
olivaceum (Fr.) Körber
papulare (Fr.) Arnold
parvulum Arnold
pyrenophorum (Ach.) Mudd
transsylvanicum Zschacke
velutinum (Bernh.) Körber
zwackhii (Hepp) A. Massal. (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
acrotellum Arnold = T. minutulum
mesotropum (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. = T. minutulum

THELIGNYA A. Massal.
lignyota (Wahlenb.) P. M. Jørg. & Henssen Syn.: Porocyphus dispersus

THELOCARPON Nyl. ex Hue
epibolum Nyl.
*epibolum var. epithallinum (Leighton ex Nyl.) G. Salisb.
hassei B. de Lesd.
intermediellum Nyl.
laureri (Flotow) Nyl. Syns.: T. epilithellum, T. majusculum, T. prasinellum
lichenicola (Fuckel) Poelt & Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002)
sphaerosporum H. Magn. Syn.: Ahlesia sphaerospora
superellum Nyl.
albomarginatum Herre =
Acarospora elevata
epilithellum Nyl. = T. laureri
fimicola Fink = T. intermediellum
majusculum Nyl. = T. laureri
prasinellum Nyl.
= T. laureri

THELOMMA A. Massal.
californicum (Tuck.) Tibell Syns.: Cyphelium californicum, C. farlowii, C. andersonii
carolinianum (Tuck.) Tibell Syn.: Cyphelium carolinianum
mammosum (Hepp) A. Massal. Syn.: Cypheliopsis bolanderi
occidentale (Herre) Tibell Syn.: Cyphelium occidentale. North American records of Cyphelium caliciforme probably belong here.
ocellatum (Körber) Tibell
santessonii Tibell

THELOPSIS Nyl.
flaveola Arnold
inordinata Nyl.
isiaca Stizenb.
melathelia Nyl.
rubella Nyl.
subporinella Nyl. = T. isiaca

THELOTREMA Ach.
adjectum Nyl.
californicum Tuck. Syn.: Phaeotrema californicum
defectum Hale
dilatatum (Müll. Arg.) Hale
eximium R. C. Harris
floridense R. C. Harris
halei (Tuck. & Mont.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Myriotrema halei
lacteum Kremp.
lathraeum Tuck. Syn.: Ocellularia lathraea
lepadinum (Ach.) Ach.
monospermum R. C. Harris
petractoides P. M. Jørg. & Brodo (Purvis et al. 1995)
porinoides Mont. & Bosch Syn.: Ocellularia floridensis
subtile Tuck. Syn.: Ocellularia subtilis
suecicum (H. Magn.) P. James  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
alborosellum (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chapsa alborosella
bahianum Ach. var. obturascens Nyl. = Ocellularia bahiana
carneum Eckfeldt = Mazosia ocellata
clandestinum Fée = Myriotrema clandestinum
heterosporum C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey = T. santense
interpositum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Ocellularia interposita, but misidentifications for North America
leiostomum Tuck. = Redingeria leiostoma (Tuck.) A. Frisch, but misidentifications for North America (Frisch & Kalb 2006)
leprocarpum (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chapsa leprocarpa
monosporum Nyl. = T. monospermum for North American records
platycarpoides Tuck. (Harris 1995a) = Chapsa platycarpoides
platycarpum Tuck. = Chapsa platycarpoides
postpositum Nyl. = Ocellularia postposita

praestans Müll. Arg. = Ocellularia praestans
ravenelii Tuck. = Leptotrema wightii
sanfordianum Zahlbr. = Ocellularia sanfordiana
santense Tuck. = Reimnitzia santensis
texanum Willey ex Nyl. = Ocellularia stictidea
wightii (Taylor) Nyl. = Leptotrema wightii

THERMUTIS Fr.
velutina (Ach.) Flotow

THOLURNA Norman
dissimilis (Norman) Norman

THROMBIUM Wallr.
aoristum (Nyl.) Arnold (Breuss 2002f)
discordans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
epigaeum (Pers.) Wallr.
mongolicum H. Magn.

THYREA A. Massal.
confusa Henssen (Henssen & Jørgensen 1990)
girardii (Durieu & Mont.) Bagl. & Carestia
demangeonii (Moug. & Mont.) Fink = Phylliscum demangeonii
nigritella Lettau = Lichinella nigritella
pulvinata auct. North American = T. confusa
pulvinata (Schaerer) A. Massal. = Gonohymenia iodopulchra (Croz.) Henssen, but not in North America
pyrenoides (Nyl.) Fink = Paulia pyrenoides

TICHOTHECIUM Flotow = VERRUCARIA
*pygmaeum Körber = Muellerella pygmaea
*zahlbrucknerella Henssen = Endococcus zahlbrucknerellae

TOMASELLIA A. Massal.
americana (Minks ex Willey) R. C. Harris
[Mycoporellum difforme (Minks) Fink]
macularis (Minks ex willey) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Cyrtidula macularis
californica (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum californicum
eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum eschweileri
esenbeckiana (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Melanotheca esenbeckiana
lactea (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum lactaeum
sparsella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum sparsellum

TONINIA A. Massal.
alutacea (Anzi) Jatta
arctica Timdal
aromatica (Sm.) A. Massal.
athallina (Hepp) Timdal Syns.: Catillaria athallina, Kiliasia athallina
bullata (Meyen & Flotow) Zahlbr.
candida (Weber) Th. Fr.
cinereovirens (Schaerer) A. Massal.
lutosa (Ach.) Timdal Syn.: (?)Catillaria crystallifera
massata (Tuck.) Herre
nashii Timdal (Timdal 2002b)
opuntioides (Vill.) Timdal
pennina (Schaerer) Gyelnik
philippea (Mont.) Timdal Syns.: Kiliasia philippea, Catillaria arctica, C. kansuensis, C. philippea
physaroides (Opiz) Zahlbr.
ruginosa (Tuck.) Herre subsp. ruginosa
ruginosa subsp. pacifica Timdal
sculpturata (H. Magn.) Timdal Syn.: Catillaria sculpturata
sedifolia (Scop.) Timdal
squalescens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Coppins & Fryday 2006b) But misplaced here?
squalida (Ach.) A. Massal.
subdiffracta Timdal
subdispersa (Nyl. ex Hasse) K. Knudsen  Syn.: Lecania subdispersa (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
submexicana B. de Lesd.
subnitida (Hellb.) Hafellner & Türk Syn.: Catillaria subnitida (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
*subtalparum van den Boom  (van den Boom 2004)
superioris Timdal
tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. subsp. tristis
tristis subsp. arizonica Timdal
tristis subsp. asiae-centralis (H. Magn.) Timdal
tristis subsp. canadensis Timdal
tristis subsp. scholanderi (Lynge) Timdal Syn.: Lecidea scholanderi, Psora scholanderi
*verrucarioides (Nyl.) Timdal
weberi Timdal
caeruleonigricans auct. = T. sedifolia
caeruleonigricans (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = Pannaria praetermissa, nom. rej. prop.
caulescens Anzi = T. squalida
conglomerata (Ach.)
Boistel = Psorinia conglomerata
cumulata (Sommerf.) Th. Fr.  Excluded from Toninia; misidentifications for North America
kolax Poelt = T. verrucarioides
lobulata (Sommerf.) Lynge = Mycobilimbia lobulata
squarrosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = T. squalida
tabacina auct. = T. tristis
talparum Timdal = T. subdispersa

TOPELIA P. M. Jørg. & Vězda
aperiens P. M. Jørg. & Vězda
californica P. M. Jørg. & Vězda
gyalectodes (Nyl.) B. D. Ryan & H. T. Lumbsch (Ryan & Lumbsch 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)

TOPELIOPSIS Kantvilas & Vězda
toensbergii Kantvilas & Vězda (Kantvilas & Vězda 2000)

TORNABEA Østh. (Nimis & Tretiach 1997)
Tornabea scutellifera (With.) J. R. Laundon (Nimis & Tretiach 1997)

TRAPELIA M. Choisy
coarctata (Turner ex Sm. & Sow.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea coarctata
corticola Coppins & P. James
glebulosa (Sm.) J. R. Laundon  Syns.: Lecidea gregaria, L. ornata (Laundon 2005)
mooreana (Carroll) P. James Syns.: Lecidea lopadioides, L. brujeriana
obtegens (Th. Fr.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea obtegens
placodioides Coppins & P. James
brujeriana (D. Dietr.) M. Choisy = Trapelia mooreana
involuta (Taylor) Hertel = T. glebulosa
torellii (Anzi) Hertel = T. mooreana

TRAPELIOPSIS Hertel & Gotth. Schneider
aeneofusca (Flotow) Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996)
bisorediata McCune & Camacho (McCune et al. 2002)
flexuosa (Fr.) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Lecidea aeruginosa, L. flexuosa
gelatinosa (Flörke) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Lecidea gelatinosa, Micarea gelatinosa
glaucopholis (Nyl. ex Hasse) Printzen & McCune  Syn.: Lecidea glaucopholis (Printzen & McCune 2004)
granulosa (Hoffm.) Lumbsch Syns.: Lecidea granulosa, L. quadricolor
pseudogranulosa Coppins & P. James
steppica McCune & Camacho (McCune et al. 2002)
viridescens (Schrader) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Lecidea viridescens, Micarea viridescens
wallrothii (Flörke) Hertel & Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea wallrothii, L. glebosula
californica McCune & Camacho (McCune et al. 2002)  = T. glaucopholis

TREMATOSPHAERIOPSIS Elenkin
*parmeliana (Jacz.) Elenkin (Hafellner 2001)

TREMELLA Pers.
*caloplacae (Zahlbr.) Diederich (Diederich 2007a)
*candelariellae Diederich & Etayo (Harris 2006)
*cetrariicola Diederich & Coppins (Diederich 1996)
*cladoniae Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
*dendrographae Diederich & Tehler (Diederich 1996)
*everniae Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*haematommatis Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*harrisii Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*hypogymniae Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
*
lethariae Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*nashii Diederich (Diederich 2007a)
*nephromatis Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*nieblae Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2007a)
*papuana Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*parmeliarum Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*pertusariae Diederich (Diederich 1996)
*phaeographinae Diederich & Aptroot (Diederich 1996)
*phaeophysciae Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 2003)
*ramalinae Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*tuckerae Diederich (Diederich 2007a)
*leptogii Diederich (Diederich 2003)  According to Diederich (2004b), in N.A. known only from Mexico.

TREMOLECIA M. Choisy
atrata (Ach.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea atrata, L. dicksonii auct.
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel = Farnoldia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis
nivalis (Anzi) Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis

TRICHARIA Fée
cretacea Vězda
cuneata L. I. Ferraro & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)
floridensis Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
santessonii D. Hawksw.
subumbrosa Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
tuckerae Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi R. Sant. (Lücking et al. 2007)
melanothrix Fée = T. santessonii and T. vezdae for North American records
vezdae W. R. Buck = Gyalideopsis buckii

TRICHONECTRIA Kirschst.
*rubefaciens (Ellis & Everh.) Diederich & Schroers (Sèrusiaux et al. 1999) = Nectriopsis rubefaciens

TRICHORAMALINA Rundel & Bowler
crinita (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler Syn.: Ramalina crinita

TRICHOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.  (Harris 2005)
angustisporum Cáceres & Lücking (Lücking & Cáceres 2001)
epiphyllum Müll. Arg.
horridulum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
aeneum (Wallr.) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedium aenea
cestrense (Michener) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedium cestrensis
chloroticum (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedium chlorotica
crocynioides R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedia crocynioides
guentheri (Flotow) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedia guentheri
isidiatum R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedia isidiata
lineare (Leighton) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedia linearis
nitidulum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedium nitidula
rhaphidospermum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedia raphidosperma
thaxteri (R. Sant.) R. C. Harris = Pseudosagedia thaxteri


TRIMMATOTHELE Norman ex Zahlbr.
umbellulariae Herre = Anisomeridium biforme (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007)

TRYPETHELIUM Sprengel
aeneum (Eschw.) Zahlbr.
eluteriae Sprengel
floridanum (Zahlbr. ex M. Choisy) R. C. Harris Most North American records of Pseudopyrenula pupula and Trypethelium annulare belong here.
nitidiusculum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris North American records of T. catervarium auct. belong here.
ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl.
subeluteriae Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
tropicum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Pyrenula tropica
variolosum Ach. (Harris 1995a)
virens Tuck. ex Michener
annulare (Fée) Mont. = T. floridanum for North American records
carolinianum Tuck. = Bathelium carolinianum
catervarium auct. = T. nitidiusculum for most North American records
catervarium (Fée) Tuck. = Astrothelium variolosum
exocanthum Tuck. = T. virens
mastoideum (Ach.) Ach. = misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)
pallescens Fée = T. ochroleucum
scorites Tuck. = T. virens

TUCKERMANELLA Essl.
arizonica Essl. (Esslinger 2003)
coralligera (W. A. Weber) Essl. Syns.: Cetraria coralligera, Tuckermannopsis coralligera (Esslinger 2003)

fendleri (Nyl.) Essl. Syns.: Cetraria fendleri, Tuckermannopsis fendleri (Esslinger 2003)
pseudoweberi Essl. (Esslinger 2003)
weberi (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Cetraria weberi (Esslinger 2003)

TUCKERMANNOPSIS Gyelnik
americana (Sprengel) Hale Syns.: Cetraria halei, C. ciliaris var. halei
chlorophylla (Willd.) Hale Syns.: Cetraria chlorophylla, C. scutata auct. non (Wulfen) Poetsch
ciliaris (Ach.) Gyelnik Syn.: Cetraria ciliaris
inermis (Nyl.) Kärnefelt
orbata (Nyl.) M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria orbata
platyphylla (Tuck.) Hale Syn.: Cetraria platyphylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Hale Syn.: Cetraria sepincola, C. scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch non auct.
subalpina (Imshaug) Kärnefelt Syns: Cetraria subalpina, C. arborialis
aurescens (Tuck.) Hale = Ahtiana aurescens
"californica" = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Hale = Vulpicida canadensis
coralligera (W. A. Weber) W. A. Weber = Tuckermanella coralligera
fendleri (Nyl.) Hale = Tuckermanella fendleri
halei (Culb. & C. Culb.) M. J. Lai = T. americana
juniperina (L.) Hale = North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
merrillii (Du Rietz) Hale = Kaernefeltia merrillii
oakesiana (Tuck.) Hale = Allocetraria oakesiana
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Hale = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Hale = Vulpicida pinastri
viridis (Schwein.) Hale = Vulpicida viridis
[Cetraria weberi Essl.] = Tuckermanella weberi

TURGIDOSCULUM Kohlm. & E. Kohlm.
complicatulum (Nyl.) Kohlm. & E. Kohlm. = Kohlmeyera complicatula

TYLOPHORON Nyl. ex Stizenb.
moderatum Nyl.
protrudens Nyl.

TYLOTHALLIA P. James & R. Kilias
biformigera (Leighton) P. James & R. Kilias Syns.: Catillaria biformigera, C. bahusiensis

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UMBILICARIA Hoffm.
americana Poelt & T. H. Nash
angulata Tuck. Syn.: Gyrophora angulata
aprina Nyl.
arctica (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Gyrophora arctica
caroliniana Tuck.
cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Frey
crustulosa (Ach.) Frey Syn.: Omphalodiscus crustulosus
cylindrica (L.) Delise ex Duby Syn.: Gyrophora cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Omphalodiscus decussatus, Gyrophora decussata
deusta (L.) Baumg. Syn.: Gyrophora deusta
havaasii Llano
hirsuta (Sw. ex Westr.) Hoffm.
hyperborea (Ach.) Hoffm. var. hyperborea Syn.: Gyrophora hyperborea
hyperborea var. radicicula (J. E. Zetterst.) Hasselrot
krascheninnikovii (Savicz) Zahlbr. Syn.: Omphalodiscus krascheninnikovii
lambii Imshaug
leiocarpa DC. Syn.: Agyrophora leiocarpa
lyngei Schol. Syn.: Agyrophora lyngei
mammulata (Ach.) Tuck. Syn.: Gyrophora dillenii
muehlenbergii (Ach.) Tuck. Syns.: Actinogyra muehlenbergii, Gyrophora muehlenbergii
nylanderiana (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.
phaea Tuck. Syn.: Gyrophora phaea
polyphylla (L.) Baumg. Syn.: Gyrophora polyphylla
polyrhiza (L.) Fr. Syns.: Actinogyra polyrhiza, Gyrophora polyrhiza
proboscidea (L.) Schrader
rigida (Du Rietz) Frey Syns.: U. coriacea, Agyrophora rigida, Gyrophora anthracina
scholanderi (Llano) Krog Syn.: Agyrophora scholanderi
subglabra (Nyl.) Harm. (Nash et al. 1998)
torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrader Syn.: Gyrophora erosa
vellea (L.) Hoffm. Syn.: Gyrophora vellea
virginis Schaerer Syns.: Omphalodiscus virginis
coriacea Imshaug = U. rigida
dillenii Tuck. = U. mammulata
papulosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Lasallia papulosa
pensylvanica Hoffm. = Lasallia pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Hoffm. = Lasallia pustulata
pustulata var. papulosa (Ach.) Tuck. = Lasallia papulosa

UNGUICULARIOPSIS Rehm
*lettaui (Grummann) Coppins (Diederich 2003)
*nephromatis Zhurb.
& Zavarzin (Zhurbenko 2007b)
*thallophila (P. Karst.) W. Y. Zhuang (Diederich 2003)

URCEOLARIA Hooker = ASPICILIA
actinostoma Ach. = Diploschistes actinostomus
albissima (Ach.) Fink = Diploschistes diacapsis
scruposa (Schreber) Ach. = Diploschistes scruposus

USNEA Dill. ex Adans.
aculeata
Motyka (apparent nomen nudum, identity uncertain)
affinis
Motyka (apparent nomen nudum, identity uncertain)
alpina
Motyka
amabilis
Motyka
amblyoclada (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
angulata Ach.
australis Fr.
baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr.
brattiae P. Clerc (Clerc 2007)
californica Herre
capillaris
Motyka
catenulata
Motyka (Identification uncertain)
cavernosa Tuck.
ceratina Ach.
chaetophora Stirton (Halonen et al. 1998)
cirrosa
Motyka
condensata
Motyka
cornuta Körber subsp. cornuta
cornuta subsp. brasiliensis (Zahlbr.) P. Clerc (Clerc 2007)
cristatula Motyka (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)
dasaea Stirton (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
deformis
Motyka
dimorpha (Müll. Arg.)
Motyka
diplotypus Vainio (Halonen et al. 1998)
duriuscula
Motyka
endochrysea Stirton
entoviolata Motyka (Clerc 2004, Lendemer & Tripp 2008)
erinacea Vainio
(questionable for North America, Tavares & Sanders 1998)
esperantiana Clerc (Halonen et al. 1998)
evansii
Motyka
fibrillosa
Motyka
filipendula Stirton
finkii Zahlbr.
flammea Stirton (Clerc & May 2007)
flavocardia Räsänen (Clerc 2004)
florida (L.) F. H. Wigg. (questionable for North America, Tavares & Sanders 1998)
fragilescens Hav. ex Lynge
fragilescens var. mollis (Vainio) Clerc
freyi
Motyka
fulvoreagens (Räsänen) Räsänen
furfurosula (Zahlbr.)
Motyka
glabrata (Ach.) Vainio
glabrescens (Nyl. ex Vainio) Vainio
graciosa
Motyka (Identification uncertain)
halei P. Clerc (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
hirta (L.) F. H. Wigg.
intermedia (A. Massal.) Jatta  (Clerc 2007)
lapponica Vainio
leucosticta Vainio
longissima Ach.
merrillii
Motyka
michauxii I. Tav.
mirabilis
Motyka
monstruosa Vainio
mutabilis Stirton
myrmaiacaina P. Clerc (Clerc 2007)
nidulans
Motyka (Halonen et al. 1998)
occidentalis
Motyka
pachyclada
Motyka
pacificana P. Halonen (Halonen 2000)
parvula Motyka (Clerc 2007)
pensylvanica Motyka
perplectata
Motyka
praetervisa (Asahina) P. Clerc  (Clerc 2004)
quasirigida Lendemer & Tavares (Lendemer & Tavares 2003)
ramillosa
Motyka
roseola Vainio
rubicunda Stirton
scabiosa
Motyka
scabrata Nyl.
scholanderi Llano
silesiaca Motyka  (Tavares 1997; Gams 2004)
silvatica
Motyka
sphacelata R. Br.
Syns.: Neuropogon sulphureus, N. lambii
spinulifera (Vainio)
Motyka
strigosa (Ach.) Eaton subsp. major (Michaux) I. Tav.
strigosa subsp. rubiginea (Michaux) I. Tav. Syn.: U. rubiginea
strigosa subsp. strigosa
stuppea (Räsänen)
Motyka
subcornuta Stirton (Brodo et al. 2001)
subfloridana
Stirton
subfusca Stirton
subgracilis Vainio  (Tavares 1997; Clerc 2004)
subhirta
Motyka
subscabrosa
Motyka
substerilis
Motyka
trichodea Ach.
tristis
Motyka
vainioi
Motyka
variegata Stirton
wasmuthii Räsänen
xanthopoga Nyl.
ammannii P. Clerc & Herrera-Campos  In North America, only known in Mexico (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr.
= U. baileyi
arizonica Motyka = U. intermedia (Clerc 2007)
articulata (L.) Hoffm. = misidentifications for North America
barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. = misidentifications for North America?
barbata var. xanthopoga Müll. Arg. = U. xanthopoga
betulina
Motyka = (?) U. glabrescens
caucasica Vainio = (?) U. filipendula
ciliifera Motyka (apparent nomen nudum) = U. cirrosa (fide J. Lendemer)
comosa auct. = U. subfloridana
compacta (Räsänen)
Motyka = U. glabrescens
confusa Asahina = U. cornuta
dasypoga auct. non (Ach.) Shirley = U. filipendula
diplotypus Vainio = saxicolous specimens were misidentifications for North America (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
distincta
Motyka = U. glabrescens
esthonica Räsänen = U. filipendula
flagellata
Motyka = U. filipendula
globularis
Motyka = U. amblyoclada
herrei Hale = nom. nud.
hesperina
Motyka = U. subgracilis
implicita (Stirton) Zahlbr. = U. baileyi
inflata Delise ex Duby nom. nudum = U. cornuta
intermedia (A. Massal.) Jatta = misidentifications for North America
kujalae Räsänen = U. glabrata
laricina Vainio ex Räsänen = (?)
U. lapponica
madeirensis Motyka = U. silesiaca
mollis Stirton = U. fragilescens var. mollis
montana Motyka = misidentifications for North America
nashii P. Clerc & Herrera-Campos  In North America, only known in Mexico (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
perplexans Stirton (Clerc 1987) = an Asian taxon, not present in North America
plicata (L.) Weber = misidentifications for North America
prostrata Vainio ex Räsänen = U. barbata, misidentifications for North America?
retifera Motyka = U. intermedia (Clerc 2007)
rigida Motyka (Halonen et al. 1998) = U. quasirigida
rubiginea (Michaux) A. Massal. = U. strigosa subsp. rubiginea
rugulosa Vainio = U. scabrata
scabrata subsp. nylanderiana Motyka = chemotype of U. scabrata
shimadai Asahina  In North America, only known in Mexico (Clerc 2004)
similis Motyka ex Räsänen = U. subfloridana
sorediifera (Arnold) Lynge = U. glabrata
sorediifera sens. Motyka = U. lapponica
subcavata Motyka = U. perplectata
sublaxa Vainio = U. filipendula
variolosa Motyka = U. hirta (L.) F. H. Wigg (Clerc 1997)
wirthii Clerc = U. flavocardia

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VAHLIELLA P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2008)
californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2008)  Syns.  Fuscopannaria californica, Pannaria microphylla var. californica
globuligera (Fryday & P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2008)  Syn.: Fuscopannaria globuligera
hookerioides (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2008)  Syn.: Fuscopannaria hookerioides
labrata (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2008)  Syn.: Fuscopannaria labrata
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2008)  Syns.: Fuscopannaria leucophaea, Pannaria leucophaea, Parmeliella microphylla
saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2008)  Syns. : Fuscopannaria saubinetii, Parmeliella saubinetii

VAINIONORA Kalb
americana Kalb, Tønsberg & Elix  (Kalb 2004b)

VARICELLARIA Nyl.
rhodocarpa (Körber) Th. Fr.
kemensis Räsänen = V. rhodocarpa

VERMILACINIA Spjut & Hale (Spjut 1996) = NIEBLA (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
acicularis Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchoides
cephalota (Tuck.) Spjut & Hale  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla cephalota
cerebra Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchis
ceruchoides (Rundel & Bowler) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchoides
combeoides (Nyl.) Spjut & Hale  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla combeoides
corrugata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchis
howei Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchis
laevigata (Rundel & Bowler) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla laevigata
leopardina Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchis
nylanderi Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchis
paleoderma Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla laevigata
polymorpha (Bowler, Marsh, T. H. Nash & Riefner) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla polymorpha
procera (Bowler & Rundel) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla procera
pumila Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchoides
robusta (Howe) Spjut & Hale  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla robusta
tigrina (Follmann) Spjut & Hale  (Spjut 1996) = Misidentification for North America
tuberculata (Riefner, Bowler, J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash) Spjut (Spjut 1996) = Niebla tuberculata
zebrina Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = Niebla ceruchis

VERRUCARIA
Schrader
acrotella Ach.
adelminiennii Zschacke (Breuss 2007b)
aethiobola Wahlenb.
alutacea Wallr. (Breuss 2007b)
americana (B. de Lesd.) Breuss  Syn.: Endopyrenium americanum (Breuss 2007b)
amphibia Clemente
amylacea Hepp
applanata Hepp ex Zschacke
aquilella Nyl.
arctica Lynge
aspecta Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
asperula Servít (Breuss 2007b)
beltraminiana (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Breuss 2007b)
bernaicensis Malbr. (Breuss 2007b)
bernardinensis Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
bryoctona (Th. Fr.) A. Orange (Breuss 2002b)
caerulea DC.
calciseda DC.
calkinsiana Servít
canella Nyl.
cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
cetera Breuss (Breuss 1998)
ceuthocarpa Wahlenb.
compacta (A. Massal.) Jatta  Syns.: Catapyrenium compactum, Dermatocarpon compactum, D. rupicola, Endopyrenium rupicolum (Knudsen & La Doux 2005, Breuss 2007b)
dacryodes Nyl.
degelii R. Sant.
devergens Nyl.
devergescens Nyl.
deversa Vainio
ditmarsica Erichsen
dolosa Hepp
elaeina Borrer (Breuss 2007b, Knudsen 2007c)
elaeomelaena (A. Massal.) Arnold
endocarpoides Servít (Breuss 2007b)
epimaura Brodo (Brodo & Santesson 1997)

erichsenii Zschacke
falcata Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
fayettensis
Servít
finkiana Servít
floerkeana Dalla Torre & Sarnth (Breuss 2007b)
fraudulosa Nyl. (Breuss 2007b)
funckii
(Sprengel) Zahlbr.
furfuracea (B. de Lesd.) Breuss (Breuss 2007b, Knudsen 2007c)
fusca Pers. (Tucker et al. 2006)
fuscella
(Turner) Winch
fuscoatroides Servít (Knudsen & La Doux 2006)
fusconigrescens Nyl.
glaucovirens Grummann
halizoa Leighton
hydrela Ach.
incrassata Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
illinoisensis Servít
inficiens Breuss (Syn.: Catapyrenium plumbeum, Dermatocarpon plumbeum, Endopyrenium plumbeum) (Breuss 1998)
inornata Servít (Breuss 2007b)
integra (Nyl.) Nyl.
internigrescens (Nyl.) Erichsen
iovensis Servít
kootenaica Breuss & Spribille (Breuss & Spribille 2001)
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Dermatocarpon lecideoides
lobata J. W. Thomson
macrostoma Dufour ex DC.
maculicarpa Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
margacea (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb.
marmorea (Scop.) Arnold
maura Wahlenb.
melas Herre
memnonia (Flotow) Arnold (Tucker et al. 2006, Breuss 2007b)
mimicrans Servít (Breuss 2007b, Knudsen 2007c)
minor Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
mucosa Wahlenb.
muralis Ach.
murorum (Arnold) Lindau (Breuss 2007b)
nigrescens Pers.
nigrescentoidea Fink
nigrofusca Servít (Bruess 2007b)
novomexicana B. de Lesd.
obductilis (Nyl.) Zschacke (Nash et al. 1998)
obnigrescens Nyl.
obsoleta Lynge
onegensis Vainio (Breuss 2007b)
ossiseda Lynge
papillosa Ach. (Breuss 2007b, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
phaeothelena Th. Fr.
phloeophila Breuss (Breuss 2002b)
pinguicula A. Massal.
praetermissa (Trevisan) Anzi
prominula Nyl.
prosoplectenchymatica Servít (Breuss 2007b)
pseudonigrescens Servít
quercina Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
riddleana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rheitrophila Zschacke
rubrocincta Breuss (Breuss 2000)
ruderella Nyl.
rufofuscella Servít (Breuss 2007b, Knudsen 2007c)
rupestris Schrader
rupicola (B. de Lesd.) Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
sandstedei B. de Lesd.
schindleri Servít (Breuss 2007b)
schofieldii Brodo (Brodo & Santesson 1997)
silicicola Fink
sorbicola Servít
sordida Servít
sphaerospora Anzi (Goward et al. 1996)
sphinctrina Ach.
striatula Wahlenb.
subdivisa Breuss (Breuss 2007b)
subglaucina B. de Lesd.
submersella Servít
submuralis Nyl.
tavaresiae R. Moe (Moe 1997)
tectorum (A. Massal.) Körber
trabicola Arnold ex Servít (Nash et al. 1998, Breuss 2007b)
turgida Servít (Breuss 2007b, Knudsen 2007c)
umbrinula Nyl.
viridigrana Breuss (Breuss 2002b)
viridula (Schrader) Ach.
xyloxena Norman (Breuss 2002b)
zamenhofiana Clauzade & Cl. Roux
bacillosa Nyl. = Sarcopyrenia bacillosa
baldensis A. Massal.  (Halda 2003) = Bagliettoa baldensis (Breuss 2007b)
cestrensis Tuck. ex Michener = Pseudosagedia cestrensis
circumspersella Nyl. = Thelidium circumspersellum
fuscella var. glaucina (Ach.) Schaerer = V. caerulea
glaucina Ach. = V. caerulea
hymnothora Ach. = Granulopyrenis hymnothora
iowensis Servít = V. fayettensis
kernstockii Zschacke = V. rheitrophila
laevata Ach. = V. aethiobola
microspora auct. = V. halizoa
microspora Nyl. = V. striatula
mutabilis Borrer ex Leighton = nom. illegit.
papillosa Ach. = V. viridula (Orange 2004)
papillosa Flörke non Ach. = V. floerkeana (Breuss 2007b)
stanfordii Herre = Placopyrenium stanfordii
submersa Schaerer = V. submersella
subsuperficialis Fink = V. striatula
virens Nyl. = V. glaucovirens

VESTERGRENOPSIS Gyelnik
elaeina (Wahlenb.) Gyelnik
isidiata (Degel.) E. Dahl Syn.: Pannaria isidiata

VEZDAEA Tsch.-Woess & Poelt
acicularis Coppins  (Brodo 2001; Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
leprosa (P. James) Vězda (Buck et al. 1999)
retigera Poelt & Döbbeler  (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
rheocarpa Poelt & Döbbeler (Westberg 2004b)
stipitata Poelt & Döbbeler

VOUAUXIELLA Petrak & Sydow
*lichenicola (Lindsay) Petrak & Sydow  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*verrucosa (Vouaux) Petr. & Syd. (Diederich 2003)

VOUAUXIOMYCES Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*truncatus (B. de Lesd.)
Dyko & D. Hawksw. (= anamorph of Abrothallus microspermus)

VULPICIDA J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai
canadensis (Räsänen) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syns.: Cetraria canadensis, Tuckermannopsis canadensis
pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syns.: Cetraria pinastri, Tuckermannopsis pinastri
tilesii (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria tilesii
viridis (Schwein.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria viridis, Tuckermannopsis viridis

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WAYNEA Moberg
californica Moberg Erroneously listed as a synonym of W. stoechadiana
stoechadiana (Abbassi Maaf & Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux & Clerc = Not in North America

WENTIOMYCES Koord.
*peltigericola D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998) = Raciborskiomyces peltigericola

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XANTHOMENDOZA S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt
borealis (R. Sant. & Poelt) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr.  Syn.: Xanthoria borealis (Søchting et al. 2002)
concinna (J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr.  Syn.: Xanthoria concinna (Søchting et al. 2002)
fallax (Hepp ex Arnold) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr.  Syn.: Xanthoria fallax (Søchting et al. 2002)
fulva (Hoffm.) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr.  Syn.: Xanthoria fulva (Søchting et al. 2002)
galericulata L. Lindblom (Lindblom 2006)
hasseana (Räsänen) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr. Syn.: Xanthoria hasseana (Søchting et al. 2002)
mendozae (Räsänen) S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Lindblom 2004a)
montana (L. Lindblom) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr. Syn.: Xanthoria montana (Søchting et al. 2002)
oregana (Gyelnik) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr. Syn.: Xanthoria oregana (Søchting et al. 2002)
subramulosa (
Räsänen) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr.  Syn.: Xanthoria subramulosa (Søchting et al. 2002)  According to Lindblom (1997), this is a synonym of X. fulva
ulophyllodes (
Räsänen) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr. Syn.: Xanthoria ulophyllodes (Søchting et al. 2002)
weberi (S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt) L. Lindblom (Lindblom 2006)  Syn.: Oxneria weberi
alfredii (S. Kondr. & Poelt) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondr. = North American report is X. montana

XANTHOPARMELIA (Vainio) Hale
ajoensis (T. H. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia ajoensis
amableana (Gyelnik) Hale  (Nash & Elix 2004)
angustiphylla (Gyelnik) Hale
arida Egan & Derstine
australasica D. J. Galloway
barbatica (Elix) Egan
californica Hale
camtschadalis (Ach.) Hale
chlorochroa (Tuck.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia chlorochroa
coloradoënsis (Gyelnik) Hale
commonii Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1999)
consociata (Elix) Elix & Johnston (Nash et al. 1998)
conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia conspersa, P. isidiata
cumberlandia (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia cumberlandia
dierythra (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dierythra
digitiformis (Elix & P. M. Armstr.) Filson  (Nash & Elix 2004)
dissensa (T. H. Nash) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dissensa
eganii Elix & T. H. Nash (Elix & Nash 1999)
huachucensis (T. H. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia huachucensis
hypomelaena (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hypomelaena
idahoensis Hale
incerta (Kurok. & Filson) Elix & J. Johnst.  (Nash & Elix 2004)
isidiascens Hale
isidiigera (Müll. Arg.) Elix & J. Johnst.  (Nash & Elix 2004)
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Elix & Johnston (Nash et al. 1998)
joranadia (T. H. Nash) Hale Syn.: Parmelia joranadia
lavicola (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia kurokawae
lineola (E. C. Berry) Hale Syn.: Parmelia lineola
lipochlorochroa Hale & Elix
lobulatella T. H. Nash & Elix  (Nash & Elix 2004)
maricopensis T. H. Nash & Elix
mexicana (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mexicana
moctezumensis T. H. Nash
montanensis Hale
monticola (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia monticola
mougeotii (Schaerer) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mougeotii
neochlorochroa Hale
neocongensis (Hale) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
neoconspersa (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia neoconspersa
neorimalis (Elix & P. M. Armstr.) Elix & T. H. Nash  (Nash & Elix 2004)
neotaractica Hale
neowyomingica Hale
nigrolavicola T. H. Nash & Elix  (Nash & Elix 2004)
nigropsoromifera (T. H. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia nigropsoromifera
nigroweberi T. H. Nash & Ellix  (Nash & Elix 2004)
norchlorochroa Hale
norhypopsila Hale
novomexicana (Gyelnik) Hale Syns.: Parmelia novomexicana, P. tuberculata, P. arseneana
oleosa (Elix & P. M. Armstrong) Elix & T. H. Nash
piedmontensis (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia piedmontensis
planilobata (Gyelnik) Hale
plittii (Gyelnk) Hale Syn.: Parmelia plittii
pseudocongensis Hale  (Nash & Elix 2004)
psoromifera (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia psoromifera
schmidtii Hale
standaertii (Gyeln.) Hale  (Nash & Elix 2004)
stenophylla (Ach.) Ahti & D. Hawksw.  Syn.: Parmelia stenophylla (Ahti & Hawksworth 2005)

stenophylloides (Müll. Arg.) Hale
subcumberlandia Elix & T. H. Nash  (Nash & Elix 2004)
subdecipiens (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia subdecipiens
subplittii Hale  (Nash & Elix 2004)
subramigera (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia subramigera
substenophylloides Hale
subtasmanica Elix & T. H. Nash  (Nash & Elix 2004)
tasmanica (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tasmanica
tegeta Elix & Johnston (Nash et al. 1998)
tinctina (Maheu & Gillet) Hale  (Nash & Elix 2004)
tuberculata (Gyeln.) T. H. Nash & Elix  (Nash & Elix 2004)
tuckeriana Elix & T. H. Nash  (Nash & Elix 2004)
tucsonensis (T. H. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia tucsonensis
vagans (Nyl.) Hale
viriduloumbrina (Gyelnik) Lendemer (Lendemer 2005b)
weberi (Hale) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia weberi
wyomingica (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia wyomingica
arseneana (Gyelnik) Hale = X. novomexicana
centrifuga (L.) Hale = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
congensis (Stein) Hale Syn.: Parmelia congensis, but only known as far north as Mexico
hypopsila (Müll. Arg.) Hale = misidentifications for North America, most specimens are X. angustiphylla
incurva (Pers.) Hale = Arctoparmelia incurva
ioanis-simae (Gyelnik) Hale = X. taractica, but see note below
kurokawae (Hale) Hale = X. lavicola
lecanorica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia lecanorica Not in North America
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale = Arctoparmelia separata
somloënsis (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia stenophylla
subcentrifuga (Oksner) Hale = Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga
subconspersa (Nyl.) Hale = Flavoparmelia rutidota
taractica (Kremp.) Hale = known from Mexico, but misidentifications for our area; western N. A. specimens are mostly X. coloradoensis and eastern N. A. specimens are mostly X. viriduloumbrina
tinctina (Maheu & A. Gillet) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tinctina Not in North America

XANTHOPSORA Gotth. Schneider & W. A. Weber = XANTHOPSORELLA
texana (W. A. Weber) Gotth. Schneider & W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana

XANTHOPSORELLA Kalb & Hafellner
texana (W. A. Weber) Kalb & Hafellner Syns.: Xanthopsora texana, Psora texana, Lecidea texana

XANTHORIA (Fr.) Th. Fr.
alaskana J. W. Thomson
ascendens S. Kondr.  (Lindblom 2004b)
candelaria (L.) Th. Fr.
candelaria var. finmarkica (Ach.) Hillmann
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. Syn.: Caloplaca elegans
elegans var. splendens (Darb.) M. S. Christ. ex Poelt Syn.: Caloplaca splendens
mendozae Räsänen (Lindblom 1997)
papillifera (Vainio) Poelt
parietina (L.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Teloschistes parietinus
pollinarioides L. Lindblom & D. M. Wright  (Lindblom 2004b)
polycarpa (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ex Rieber Syn.: Teloschistes polycarpus
ramulosa (Tuck.) Herre Syn.: Teloschistes ramulosus
sorediata (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Caloplaca sorediata
tenax L. Lindblom (1997)
tenuiloba L. Lindblom  (Lindblom 2004b)
tibellii S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Kondratyuk & Kärnefelt 2003a)
wetmorei S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Kondratyuk & Kärnefelt 2003a)
alfredii S. Kondr. & Poelt (Kondratyuk & Poelt 1997) = North American report is Xanthomendoza montana (Lindblom 1997)
borealis R. Sant. & Poelt = Xanthomendoza borealis
concinna J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash = Xanthomendoza concinna
fallax (Hepp ex Arnold) Arnold = Xanthomendoza fallax
fulva (Hoffm.) Poelt & Petutschnig
(Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Xanthomendoza fulva
hasseana Räsänen = Xanthomendoza hasseana
lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Caloplaca lobulata
mendozae Räsänen = Xanthomendoza mendozae
montana L. Lindblom (Lindblom 1997) = Xanthomendoza montana
oregana Gyeln. (Lindblom 1997) = Xanthomendoza oregana
subramulosa Räsänen = Xanthomendoza subramulosa
ulophyllodes Räsänen = Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes
weberi S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt = Xanthomendoza weberi

XEROTREMA Sherw. & Coppins
+megalospora Sherw. & Coppins

XYLEBORUS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)
sporodochifer R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2007)

XYLOGRAPHA (Fr.) Fr.
crassithallina B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan 2004b)
disseminata Willey
hians Tuck.
opegraphella Nyl. ex Rothr.
parallela (Ach. : Fr.) Behlen & Desberger
pruinodisca B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan 2004b)
trunciseda (Th. Fr.) Minks
vitiligo (Ach.) J. R. Laundon
abietina (Pers.) Zahlbr. = X. parallela
micrographa G. Merr. = X. hians
spilomatica (Anzi) Th. Fr. = X. vitiligo

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ZAHLBRUCKNERELLA Herre
calcarea (Herre) Herre
californica Henssen
fabispora Henssen

ZAMENHOFIA Clauzade & Cl. Roux = PORINA
hibernica (P. James & Swinscow) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Porina hibernica

ZWACKHIOMYCES Grube & Hafellner
*arenicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
*berengerianus (Arnold) Grube & Triebel
*cladoniae (Dodge) Diederich (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*coepulonus (Norman) Grube & R. Sant. (Goward et al. 1996)
*dispersus (J. Lahm ex Körber) Triebel & Grube Syn.: Pharcidia dispersa
*euplocinus Hafellner, Grube & Egan

 

Appendix: Specimen Citations
Bryophagus gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold - Michigan. Cheboygan Co.: just N of Cheboygan Levering Rd. W of its intersection with Interstate 75; 45deg. 38' N, 84deg. 39' W; on terricolous bryophytes, J. Hafellner 7998 (GZU)

 

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References Cited:

Adler, M. T.  1997.  Polymorphism of vegetative propagules in Punctelia punctilla (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) and the delimitation of the species.  Mycotaxon 63: 57-70.

 

Ahti, T.  1998.  A revision of Cladonia stricta [Ülevaade liigist Cladonia stricta].  Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32: 5-8.

 

Ahti, T.   2000.  Cladoniaceae.  Flora Neotropica, 78.  Organization for Flora Neotropica and New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.  362 pages.

 

Ahti, T.  2007.  Further studies on the Cladonia verticillata group (Lecanorales) in East Asia and western North America.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 96: 5-19.

 

Ahti, T. & P. T. DePriest.  2001.  New combinations of Cladina epithets in Cladonia (Ascomycotina: Cladoniaceae).  Mycotaxon 78: 499-502.

 

Ahti, T. & S. Hammer.  2002.  Cladonia, pp. 131-158.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Ahti, T. & D. L. Hawksworth.  2005.  Xanthoparmelia stenophylla, the correct name for X. somloënsis, one of the most widespread usnic acid containing species of the genus.  Lichenologist 37: 363-366.

 

Alstrup, V.  2004.  New records in distribution of lichens and lichenicolous fungi.  Graphis Scripta 16: 46-57.

 

Alstrup, V. & M. S. Cole.  1998.  Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia.  The Bryologist 101: 221-229.

 

Amtoft, A.  2002.  Pyxine subcinerea in the eastern United States.  The Bryologist 105: 270-272.

 

Amtoft, A.  2006.  A new species of Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) from the United States and the Bahamas. The Bryologist 109(2): 182-184.

Amtoft, A., F. Lutzoni & J. Miadlikowska.  2008.  Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae) in the Ozark Highlands, North America. The Bryologist 111(1): 1-40

Aptroot, A.  1996.  New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from British Columbia.  The Bryologist 99: 196-198.

 

Aptroot, A.  1997.  Corticolous pyrenocarpous ascomycetes (lichenized and non-lichenized) from the Sonoran Desert (Arizona and Mexico).  Nova Hedwigia 64: 169-176.

 

Aptroot, A.  2002a.  Arthopyrenia, pp. 103-106.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Aptroot, A.  2002b.  Julella, pp. 254-256.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Aptroot, A.  2002c.  Mycoporum, pp. 287-288.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Aptroot, A.  2002d.  Peridiothelia, pp. 340-341.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Aptroot, A.  2002e.  Porina, pp. 402-405.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Aptroot, A.  2003.  A new perspective on the sorediate Punctelia (Parmeliaceae) species of North America.  The Bryologist 106: 317-319.

 

Aptroot, A., P. Diederich, E. Sérusiaux & H. J. M. Sipman.  1997.  Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi from New Guinea.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 64: 1-220.

 

Archer, A. W.  2006.  The Lichen Family Graphidaceae in Australia.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 94: 1-191.

 

Archer, A. W. & M. I. Messuti.  1997.  Pertusaria velata (Turner) Nyl. and its synonyms.  Mycotaxon 61: 375-379.

 

Argüello, A., A. Crespo & D. L. Hawksworth.  2007a.  Neo- and epitypifications to fix the application of the names Parmelina carporrhizans and P. quercina.  Lichenologist 39: 397-399.

 

Argüello, A., R. del Prado, P. Cubas & A. Crespo.  2007b.  Parmelina quercina (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) includes four phylogenetically supported morphospecies.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 455-467.

 

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Arup, U.  2004.  Three overlooked Lecidea species in Sweden.  Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 34: 39-48.

 

Arup, U. & M. Grube.  1999.  Where does Lecanora demissa (Ascomycota, Lecanorales) belong?  Lichenologist 31: 419-430.

 

Barr, M. E., S. B. Huhndorf & C. T. Rogerson.  1996.  The Pyrenomycetes Described by J. B. Ellis.  Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 79: 1-137.

 

Beeching, S. Q.  2007.  Dimelaena tenuis (lichenized Ascomycota) new to North America, and Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis new to Georgia, USA.  Opuscula Philolichenum 4: 55-56.

 

Bird, C. D.  1974.  Studies on the lichen genus Evernia in North America.  Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 2427-2434.

 

Bjerke, J. W.  2003.  Menegazzia subsimilis, a widespread sorediate lichen.  Lichenologist 35: 393-396.

 

Blanco, O., A. Crespo, P. K. Divakar, T. L. Esslinger, D. L. Hawksworth & H. T. Lumbsch.  2004.  Melanelixia and Melanohalea, two new genera segregated from Melanelia (Parmeliaceae) based on molecular and morphological data.  Mycological Research 108: 873-884.

 

Blanco, O., A. Crespo, P. K. Divakar, J. A. Elix & H. T. Lumbsch.  2005.  Molecular phylogeny of parmotremoid lichens (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae).  Mycologia 97: 150-159.

 

Bowler, P. A. & J. E. Marsh.  2004.  Niebla, pp. 368-380.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.   Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Brako, L.   1991.  Phyllopsora (Bacidiaceae).  Flora Neotropica, 55.  New York Botanical Garden (for Organization for Flora Neotropica), Bronx, NY.  66 pages.

 

Breuss, O.  1996.  Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten.  Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 98 B Suppl: 35-50.

 

Breuss, O.  1998.  On the taxonomy of "Catapyrenium" plumbeum (lichenized Ascomycetes, Verrucariaceae).  Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 100B: 671-676.

 

Breuss, O.  2000.  New taxa of pyrenocarpous lichens from the Sonoran region.  The Bryologist 103: 705-709.

 

Breuss, O.  2001.  Helocarpon lesdainii (Lichens, Helocarpaceae) in the Pacific Northwest.  The Bryologist 104: 600-601.

 

Breuss, O.  2002a.  Endocarpon, pp. 181-187.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Breuss, O.  2002b.  Four Verrucaria species new to America.  Evansia 19: 26-28.

 

Breuss, O.  2002c.  The lichen genus Henrica (Verrucariaceae) new to North America.  The Bryologist 105: 398-399.

 

Breuss, O.  2002d.  Placidium, pp. 384-393.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Breuss, O.  2002e.  Placopyrenium, pp. 393-397.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Breuss, O.  2002f.  Thrombium, pp. 483-484.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Breuss, O.  2003.  Eine neue Dermatocarpon-Art (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariales) aus Kanada, pp. 99-102.  In M. Jensen (ed.), Lichenological Contributions in Honour of G.B. Feige.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 86.  J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart.

 

Breuss, O.  2005.  A new species of the lichen genus Neocatapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) from North America.  The Bryologist 108: 537-539.

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Breuss, O. & T. Spribille.  2001.  Verrucaria kootenaica, a new pyrenocarpous lichen from the northern Rocky Mountains.  The Bryologist 104: 453-455.

 

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Brodo, I. M.  2001.  Vezdaea acicularis, an addition to the North American lichen flora.  The Bryologist 104: 297-298.

 

Brodo, I. M.  2004.  A new saxicolous Porina (Ascomycota, Porinaceae) from maritime rocks of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada, pp. 43-48.  In P. Döbbeler & G. Rambold (eds.), Contributions to Lichenology. Festschrift in Honour of Hannes Hertel.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88.  J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart.

 

Brodo, I. M. & T. Ahti.  1996.  Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 2. The Cladoniaceae.  Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1147-1180.

 

Brodo, I. M. & A. Aptroot.  2005.  Corticolous species of Protoparmelia (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 83(8): 1075-1081.

 

Brodo, I. M., W. L. Culberson, & C. F. Culberson.  2008.  Haematomma (Lecanoraceae) in North and Central America, incluging the West Indies. The Bryologist 111: 363-423.

 

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Buck, W. R.  1998.  Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Gomphillus (Gomphillaceae), pp. 71-76.  In M. G. Glenn, R. C. Harris, R. Dirig & M. S. Cole (eds.), Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson.  Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York.

 

Buck, W. R. & R. C. Harris.  2001.  Leucocarpia biatorella (Verrucariaceae), new to North America.  Evansia 18: 82-83.

 

Buck, W. R. & R. C. Harris.  2002.  Epigloea (Epigloeaceae) new to North America.  Evansia 19: 83-84.

 

Buck, W. R., R. C. Harris, A. J. Shaw, M. D. Piercey-Normore, A. Tabaee, J. Antonovics & E. E. Crone.  1999.  Unusual lichens under electricity pylons on zinc-enriched soil.  The Bryologist 102: 130-132.

 

Buck, W. R. & E. Sérusiaux.  2000.  Gyalectidium yahriae, sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycetes, Gomphillaceae) from Florida and Papua New Guinea.  The Bryologist 103: 134-138.

 

Büdel, B. & T. H. Nash III.  2002.  Peltula, pp. 331-340.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

Büdel, B., A. Rauhut & M. Schultz.  2007.  Peltula, pp. 388-389. In T. H. Nash, III, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Volume 3. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe.

 

Büdel, B., M. Schulz & T. H. Nash III.  2002.  Heppia, pp. 204-207.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Bungartz, F.  2004.  New and previously unrecorded saxicolous species of Buellia s.l. with one-septate ascospores from the Greater Sonoran Desert Region.  Mycotaxon 90: 81-123.

 

Bungartz, F., J. A. Elix & T. H. Nash III.  2004a.  The genus Buellia sensu lato in the Greater Sonoran Desert Region: saxicolous species with one-septate ascospores containing xanthones.  The Bryologist 107: 459-479.

 

Bungartz, F. & A. M. Fryday.  2004.  Buellia saurina belongs to the genus Rhizocarpon (Rhizocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes).  The Bryologist 107: 75-78.

 

Bungartz, F. & T. H. Nash III.  2004a.  The Buellia aethalea-group in the Greater Sonoran Desert Region with reference to similar species in North America.  The Bryologist 107: 441-458.

 

Bungartz, F. & T. H. Nash III.  2004b.  Buellia subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. and B. amabilis de Lesd., two species from North America with one-septate ascospores: A comparison with Buellia ["Diplotomma"] venusta (Körb.) Lettau, pp. 49-66.  In P. Döbbeler & G. Rambold (eds.), Contributions to Lichenology. Festschrift in Honour of Hannes Hertel.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88.  J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart.

 

Bungartz, F. & T. H. Nash III.  2004c.  Buellia turgescens is synonymous with Buellia badia and must not be included in Amandinea.  The Bryologist 107: 21-27.

 

Bungartz, F., T. H. Nash III & B. Ryan.  2004b.  Morphology and anatomy of chasmolithic versus epilithic growth: a taxonomic revision of inconspicuous saxicolous Buellia species from the Sonoran Desert Region generally ascribed to the "Buellia punctata" group.  Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 540-562.

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Clerc, P.  1997.  Notes on the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adanson.  Lichenologist 29: 209-215.

 

Clerc, P.  2004.  Notes on the genus Usnea Adanson. II, pp. 79-90.  In P. Döbbeler & G. Rambold (eds.), Contributions to Lichenology. Festschrift in Honour of Hannes Hertel.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88.  J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart.

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Clerc, P. & P. F. May.  2007.  Usnea flammea (Lecanorales) new for North America.  The Bryologist 110: 126-128.

 

Cole, M. S. & D. L. Hawksworth.  2001.  Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov.  Mycotaxon 77: 305-338.

 

Cole, M. S. & D. L. Hawksworth.  2002.  Lichenopeltella heterodermiicola, a new lichenicolous ascomycete on Heterodermia speciosa in Arkansas.  Mycotaxon 83: 391-396.

 

Cole, M. S. & D. L. Hawksworth.  2004.  Lichenoconium christiansenii sp. nov. from Nodobryoria abbreviata (Parmeliaceae) in the Pacific Northwest, with a key to the known lichenicolous species.  Lichenologist 36: 1-6.


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Coppins, B. J. & A. M. Fryday.  2006a.  New or previously misunderstood species of Lithographa and Rimularia (Agyriaceae) from the southern subpolar region and western Canada.  Lichenologist 38: 93-107.

 

Coppins, B. J. & A. M. Fryday.  2006b.  Reassessment of some lichen species described by Josiah Lowe, and notes on some other North American lecideoid lichens.  The Bryologist 109: 9-17.

 

Coppins, B. J. & S. Y. Kondratyuk.  1998.  Opegrapha trassii sp. nov., a new lichenicolous fungus on Heterodermia [Opegrapha trassii sp. nov., uus lihheniseerunud seene liik sambliku Heterodermia tallustelt].  Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32: 9-14.

 

Coppins, B. J. & P. F. May.  2001.  Micarea neostipitata, a new species with pale stipitate pycnidia from eastern North America.  Lichenologist 33: 487-490.

 

Coppins, B. J. & L.-E. Muhr.  1997.  Micarea lapillicola (Vain.) Coppins & Muhr, a previously misunderstood species from NW Europe.  Graphis Scripta 8: 45-49.

 

Coppins, B. J. & T. Spribille.  2004.  Micarea subalpina Coppins & Spribille, a new subalpine species from the Rocky Mountains, USA.  Lichenologist 36: 97-102.

 

Coppins, B. J. & T. Tønsberg.  2001.  A new xanthone-containing Micarea from northwest Europe and the Pacific Northwest of North America.  Lichenologist 33: 93-96.

 

DePriest, P. T. & B. W. Hale.  1998.  A validated species and a new combination in Parmotrema (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae).  Mycotaxon 67: 207-209.

 

DePriest, P. T., M. Sikaroodi, J. D. Lawrey & P. Diederich.  2005.  Marchandiomyces lignicola sp. nov. shows recent and repeated transition between a lignicolous and a lichenicolous habit.  Mycological Research 109: 57-70.

 

Diederich, P.  1996.  The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 61.  J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart.  198 pages.

 

Diederich, P.  2002.  Kalchbrenneriella, a new genus to accommodate the lichenicolous Hyphomycete Torula cyanescens.  The Bryologist 105: 411-414.

 

Diederich, P.  2003.  New species and new records of American lichenicolous fungi [Neue Arten und neue Funde von amerkanischen lichenicolen Pilzen].  Herzogia 16: 41-90.

 

Diederich, P.  2004a.  Sclerococcum, p. 691.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.   Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Diederich, P.  2004b.  Tremella, pp. 710-714.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.   Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Diederich, P.  2007a.  New or interesting lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes.  Opuscula Philolichenum 4: 11-22.


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Diederich, P. & J. Etayo.  2000.  A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales).  Lichenologist 32: 423-485.

 

Diederich, P. & J. Etayo.  2004a.  Rhymbocarpus, pp. 686-687.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Diederich, P. & J. Etayo.  2004b.  Skyttea, pp. 693-695.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Diederich, P., J. Kocourková, J. Etayo & M. Zhurbenko.  2007.  The lichenicolous Phoma species (coelomycetes) on Cladonia.  Lichenologist 39: 153-163.

 

Diederich, P. & M. Zhurbenko.  2001.  Nomenclatural notes on Taeniolella rolfii (lichenicolous hyphomycetes).  Graphis Scripta 12: 37-40.

 

Diederich, P., M. Zhurbenko & J. Etayo.  2002.  The lichenicolous species of Odontotrema (syn. Lethariicola) (Ascomycota, Ostropales).  Lichenologist 34: 479-501.

 

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Egan, R., R. Harms & T. Widhelm.  2005.  Studies on the lichen Parmotrema rigidum s. lat. from North and South America.  The Bryologist 108: 402-405.

 

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Egea, J. M., P. Torrente & B. D. Ryan.  2004a.  Bactrospora, pp. 32-37.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

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Ekman, S.  2004a.  Bacidia, pp. 18-28.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Ekman, S.  2004b.  Bacidina, pp. 28-32.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Ekman, S.  2004c.  Mycobilimbia, pp. 365-367.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Ekman, S. & T. Tønsberg.  1996.  A new species of Megalaria from the North American west coast, and notes on the generic circumscription.  The Bryologist 99: 34-40.

 

Elix, J. A.   2001.  A Revision of the Lichen Genus Paraparmelia Elix & J. Johnst.  Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 80.  J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart.  224 pages.

 

Elix, J. A. & T. H. Nash III.  1997.  A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae).  The Bryologist 100: 482-498.

 

Elix, J. A. & T. H. Nash III.  1999.  Two new species of Xanthoparmelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae) from North America.  Mycotaxon 71: 417-422.

 

Elix, J. A. & D. O. Øvstedal.  2004.  A new Lecanora species from the Arctic with a remarkable chemistry.  Graphis Scripta 15: 57-59.

 

Ertz, D., C. Christnach, M. Wedin & P. Diederich.  2005.  A World Monograph of the Genus Plectocarpon (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales).  Bibliotheca Lichenologica 91: 1-155.

 

Ertz, D., P. Diederich & J. Miadlikowska.  2004.  The lichenicolous Opegrapha species (Roccellaceae, Acomycota) with 3-septate ascospores on Pertusaria and Ochrolechia.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 235-241.

Ertz, D. & J. M. Egea.  2007.  Opegrapha, pp. 255-266. In T. H. Nash, III, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Volume 3. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe.

Ertz, D., M. Zhurbenko, P. Diederich & J. Miadlikowska.  2003.  A new species of Plectocarpon (lichenicolous Roccellaceae, Ascomycota) on Peltigera.  The Bryologist 106: 465-467.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  1978.  Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae.  II.  The genus Phaeophyscia in North America.  Mycotaxon : 283-320

 

Esslinger, T. L.  1994.  New species and new combinations in the lichen genus Physconia in North America.  Mycotaxon 51: 91-100.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  2000a.  Culbersonia americana, a rare new lichen (Ascomycota) from western America.  The Bryologist 103: 771-773.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  2000b.  A key for the lichen genus Physconia in California, with descriptions for three new species occurring within the state.  Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7: 1-6.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  2002a.  Anaptychia, pp. 95-97.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  2002b.  Culbersonia, pp. 164-165.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  2002c.  Melanelia, pp. 274-286.  In T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I.  Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

 

Esslinger, T. L.  2003.  Tuckermanella, a new cetrarioid genus in western North America.  Mycotaxon 85: 135-141.

 

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Etayo, J. & P. Diederich.  2001.  Gyalideopsis floridae, sp. nov. a new lichenicolous lichen from Florida (Gomphillaceae, Ascomycetes).  The Bryologist 104: 130-133.


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Fryday, A. M.  2006.  New and interesting North American lichen records from the alpine and sub-alpine zones of Mt. Katahdin, Maine.  The Bryologist 109: 570-578.

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