A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and

Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada

This list consists of cumulative updates to the most recently published North American checklist by Esslinger and Egan (1995). The style and conventions for listings used there are also generally followed here. As in the published checklist, under each genus the accepted names are given first and in boldface. The list of synonyms for each genus follows the accepted names, but here they are underlined instead of being in italics. Essentially all changes, additions or corrections made since the 1995 publication, even if only minor changes in spelling, are presented in blue in order to draw attention to them. As before, the following symbols are used for the lichenicolous fungi and allied fungi:

* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)

+ = saprophytic fungi related to lichens or lichenicolous fungi

# = various related fungi of uncertain status: i.e., those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature.

My intent is to update this list at regular intervals, at least once or twice each year, corresponding to my completion of the most current Recent Literature on Lichens for The Bryologist. The purpose of putting this checklist on-line is twofold. First to provide users of the checklist with the most current updates and changes, and second to provide the opportunity for (indeed, to invite) comments and suggested corrections from all users and readers. I would especially appreciate being informed of any oversights or omissions, and although not all differences of opinion regarding the taxonomy or nomenclature will be easily or immediately settled, any matters regarding such opinions that users would like to share will be welcomed and taken under consideration. Additions or changes appearing in this on-line version of the checklist represent what has been reported in the literature, and their presence here does not necessarily imply acceptance, tacit or otherwise, by the author. Some of these changes will likely be changed again before another hard copy of the checklist is published. Please send comments to:

Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger
Department of Biological Sciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota 58105-5517
E-mail: Ted.Esslinger@ndsu.nodak.edu

Suggested Citation: Esslinger, T. L. 1997. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming,
lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota
State University: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm (First
Posted 1 December 1997, Most Recent Update 27 August 2001), Fargo, North Dakota.

Suggestions For Use: Presently this web site consists of one large file, and, depending upon your type of connection to the internet, it will take anywhere from a few seconds to a minute or two to load onto your computer. Once loaded, use of the below letter menu and the internal "Return To Menu" hyperlinks allows movement within the document very efficiently with most web browser software. Use of the "Back" function provided by most browsers usually works fine, but sometimes causes problems, at least until the internal hyperlinks have been used the first time.

Click on the following letters to advance to the genera beginning with that letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

* bertianus De Not.
* bryoriarum Hafellner
* cetrariae Kotte (Goward et al. 1996)
* cladoniae R. Sant. & D. Hawksw.
* microspermus Tul. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold
* peyritschii (Stein) Kotte
* prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner
* tulasnei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* usneae Rabenh. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* welwitschii Tul.
* oxysporus Tul. = Phacopsis oxyspora
* usneae auct. non Rabenh. = Lichenostigma maureri

lignicola Vezda & Pisut (Nash et al. 1998)
sphagnorum Vezda & Poelt
trivialis (Willey ex Tuck.) Vezda

abaphoides (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb Syn.: Graphina abaphoides (Staiger & Kalb 1999)
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb Syns.: Graphina intertexta, Graphis intertexta (Staiger & Kalb 1999)

aeruginosa Hasse
albomarginata (Herre) Salisb. Syn.: Thelocarpon albomarginatum
americana H. Magn.
amphibola Wedd. (possibly a synonym of A. smaragdula)
applanata H. Magn.
arenacea H. Magn.
arenosa Herre
asahinae H. Magn.
asperata H. Magn.
badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
bullata Anzi
caesiofusca (Müll. Arg.) H. Magn.
californica Zahlbr.
canadensis H. Magn.
carnegiei Zahlbr.
cervina A. Massal.
cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn.
citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr.
clauzadeana (Llimona) Casares & Hafellner
coloradiana H. Magn.
complanata H. Magn.
desolata H. Magn.
dispersa H. Magn.
elevata H. Magn.
fuscata (Schrader) Arnold
fuscescens H. Magn.
gallica H. Magn.
geogena H. Magn.
glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körber
hassei Herre
heppii (Nägeli ex Hepp) Nägeli ex Körber
heufleriana Körber
hilaris (Dufour) Hue
immersa Fink
impressula Th. Fr.
instrata H. Magn.
interjecta H. Magn.
interposita H. Magn.
interspersa H. Magn.
macrospora (Hepp) Bagl.
molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevisan
nevadensis H. Magn.
nigromarginata de Lesd.
nitida H. Magn.
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. nodulosa
obnubila H. Magn.
obpallens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold
particularis H. Magn.
peliscypha Th. Fr.
peltastica Zahlbr.
pyrenopsoides H. Magn.
radicata H. Magn.
reagens Zahlbr.
rugulosa Körber
saepincola H. Magn.
scabrida Hedl. ex H. Magn.
schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.
scotica Hue
sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körber
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal.
socialis H. Magn.
sparsa H. Magn.
stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
succedens H. Magn.
superfusa H. Magn.
tenebrica H. Magn.
terricola H. Magn.
thamnina (Tuck.) Herre
thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
thermophila Herre
tongleti Hue
tucsonensis H. Magn.
utahensis H. Magn.
veronensis A. Massal.
washingtonensis H. Magn.
albida H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
amabilis H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
amphibola Wedd. = A. smaragdula
bella (Nyl.) Jatta = A. schleicheri
boulderensis H. Magn. = A. badiofusca
cartilaginea H. Magn. = A. fuscata
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
chrysops (Tuck.) H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
cineracea (Nyl.) Wedd. = misidentifications for North America
contigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
dissipata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
epilutescens Zahlbr. = A. schleicheri
erythrophora H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
evoluta H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
flava (Bellardi) Ach. = Pleopsidium flavum
geophila H. Magn. = A. geogena
glebosa (Flotow) Körber = A. oligospora
incertula H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
intercedens H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Polysporina lapponica
montana H. Magn. = A. rugulosa
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens Zahlbr. = A. reagens
novomexicana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
obscura H. Magn. = A. complanata
ocellata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium flavum
rhabarbarina Hue = A. schleicheri
rimulosa H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
rubicunda H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
rufescens (Ach.) Bausch = A. smaragdula
saxicola Fink = Glypholecia scabra
scabra (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra
squamulosa (Schrader) Trevisan = A. fuscata
squamulosa sensu Th. Fr. = A. macrospora
stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue = Lecanora stenospora
subalbida H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
subcontigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
subfuscescens (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Polysporina lapponica
texana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
variegata H. Magn. = A. tongleti f. variegata
weldensis H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta = A. schleicheri

cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia cavata
conoidea (Fr.) Körber Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. Syns.: Arthopyrenia gemmata, A. alba, A. sphaeroides
megalospora (Fink) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia macrospora, A. finkii, Pyrenula megalospora

sphaerophoroides Léveillé

muehlenbergii (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
polyrrhiza (L.) Schol. = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza

ADELOCOCCUS Theissen & Sydow
* alpestris (Zopf) Theissen & Sydow

ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
kolaensis (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea conferenda
pilati (Hepp) Hertel & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea pilati, L. lyngeana, L. subauriculata Lynge non de Lesd.

gelatinosa (Ach.) Brand & Diederich Syn.: Polyblastia gelatinosa (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Polyblastia tristicula

AGRESTIA J. W. Thomson
hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & Culb.
cyphellata J. W. Thomson = A. hispida

+ rufum (Pers.) Fr.

leiocarpa (DC.) Gyelnik = Umbilicaria leiocarpa
lyngei (Schol.) Llano = Umbilicaria lyngei
rigida (Du Rietz) Llano = Umbilicaria rigida
scholanderi Llano = Umbilicaria scholanderi

sphaerospora (H. Magn.) Salisb. = Thelocarpon sphaerosporum

aurescens (Tuck.) Thell & Randlane Syn.: Cetraria aurescens (Thell et al. 1995)
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & Thell Syn.: Cetraria pallidula (Thell et al. 1995)
sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward Syn.: Parmelia sphaerosporella

fallacina Mot.
imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw.
lata (Taylor) Lindsay
nigricans (Ach.) Nyl.
ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. subsp. sarmentosa
sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw.
vancouverensis (Gyelnik) Gyelnik ex Brodo & D. Hawksw.
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) R. Howe = Nodobryoria abbreviata
achariana Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
altaica (Gyelnik) Räsänen = Bryoria nadvornikiana
ambigua Mot. = Bryoria trichodes subsp. americana
americana Mot. = Bryoria trichodes subsp. americana
bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Bryoria bicolor
boryana Delise = A. nigricans
californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis Mot. = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
capillaris (Ach.) Crombie = Bryoria capillaris
cervinula Mot. = Bryoria cervinula
cetrariza Nyl. = Kaernefeltia californica
chalybeiformis (L.) Gray = Bryoria chalybeiformis
corneliae Gyelnik = Bryoria fremontii
delicata Mot. = a nomen nudum = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
divergens (Ach.) Nyl. = Bryocaulon divergens
fremontii Tuck. = Bryoria fremontii
fuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
glabra Mot. = Bryoria glabra
haynaldii Gyelnik = misidentifications for North America
implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Bryoria implexa
irvingii Llano = Bryoria nitidula
lanea auct. non (Hoffm.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
lanestris (Ach.) Gyelnik = Bryoria lanestris
luteola Mont. = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. = Pseudephebe minuscula
nadvornikiana Gyelnik = Bryoria nadvornikiana
nana Mot. = a nomen nudum = Bryoria simplicior
nidulifera Norrlin = Bryoria furcellata
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
norstictica Mot. = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
oregana Tuck. = Nodobryoria oregana
positiva (Gyelnik) Mot. = Bryoria fuscescens
pseudofuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
pubescens (L.) R. Howe = Pseudephebe pubescens
setacea (Ach.) Mot. = Bryoria capillaris for North American records
simplicior (Vainio) Lynge = Bryoria simplicior
stigmata Bystrek = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Gyelnik = Bryoria subcana
subdivergens E. Dahl = Nodobryoria subdivergens
subsarmentosa Stirton = A. sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa
subtilis Mot. = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
tenerrima Mot. = Bryoria fremontii
tenuis E. Dahl = Bryoria tenuis
thrausta Ach. = Ramalina thrausta
tortuosa G. Merr. = Bryoria tortuosa
vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb. = A. sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera
virens auct. = Bryoria tortuosa for North American records

almquistii (Vainio) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia almquistii
alpicola (Th. Fr.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia alpicola
sibirica (Zahlbr.) Essl. = misidentification for North America (personal communication, Linda Geiser)

ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
caesia Flotow = Arthonia caesia

madreporiformis (Ach.) Kärnef. & Thell Syns.: Dactylina madreporiformis, Dufourea madreporiformis (Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
oakesiana (Tuck.) Randlane & Thell Syn.: Cetraria oakesiana

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrh.
coniops (Wahlenb.) M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrh. Syn.: Buellia coniops
dakotensis (H. Magn.) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina dakotensis, R. finkii, R. inaequalis, R. pennsylvanica, R. subplumbea, R. subpyriniformis. (Sheard & May 1997)
efflorescens (Müll. Arg.) Marbach (Marbach 2000)

langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)
leucomela (Imshaug) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Buellia leucoemela (Sheard & May 1997)
milliaria (Tuck.) P. May & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina milliaria (Sheard & May 1997)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Marbach Syn: Buellia placodiomorpha (Marbach 2000)
polyspora (Willey) E. Lay & P. May Syn.: Buellia polyspora (Sheard & May 1997)
punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. Syn.: Buellia punctata
subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
submontana Marbach (Marbach 2000)

lanuginosum (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Leproloma membranaceum

consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Brodo & Mas. Inoue
continua Brodo & Hertel
elegantior (H. Magn.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Huilia elegantior, Lecidea elegantior
haidensis Brodo & Hertel
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Lecidea panaeola, Huilia panaeola
pelobotryon (Wahlenb.) Norman Syns.: Lecanora pelobotrya, Aspicilia pelobotrya, Lecidea pelobotrya, L. "pelobotrion"
subdissentiens (Nyl.) Mas. Inoue & Brodo

pulcherrima (Vainio) Timdal Syns.: Lecidea pulcherrima, Psora pulcherrima

bryorum Poelt
isidiza Kurok. (Yoshimura & Sharp 1973)
palmulata (Michaux) Vainio
setifera Räsänen
ulotrichoides (Vainio) Vainio
appalachensis Kurok. = Heterodermia appalachensis
aquila (Ach.) A. Massal. North American records = A. palmulata
casarettiana A. Massal. = Heterodermia casarettiana
chondroidea (W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi) Kurok. = Heterodermia chondroidea
ciliaris (L.) Körber = misidentifications for North America
comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. North American records = Heterodermia galactophylla
corallophora (Taylor) Lynge = Heterodermia corallophora
dendritica (Pers.) Vainio = Heterodermia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia diademata
domingensis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia albicans
echinata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) Trevisan = Heterodermia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevisan = Heterodermia galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia granulifera
heterochroa Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia obscurata
kaspica Gyelnik = A. setifera
"leucomelaena" auct. = Heterodermia leucomela
major (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentifications for North America
neoleucomelaena Kurok. = Heterodermia boryi
obscurata (Nyl.) Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
"palmatula" auct. = A. palmulata
pseudospeciosa Kurok. = Heterodermia pseudospeciosa
pseudospeciosa Kurok. var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok. = Heterodermia speciosa
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia albicans
sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge = Heterodermia obscurata
speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa
squamulosa Degel. = Heterodermia squamulosa
stippaea (Ach.) Nádv. = A. bryorum
tropica Kurok. = Heterodermia tropica

ANEMA Nyl. ex Forss.
dodgei Herre
jenisejensis H. Magn. = misidentification for North America

ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
albisedum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis albiseda
ambiguum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia ambigua, Ditremis ambigua
anisolobum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot Syns.: Arthopyrenia anisoloba, Ditremis anisoloba
aureopunctatum R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris non Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia biformis, A. parvula, A. conformis auct. N. Am., Ditremis biformis
biformoides R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
carinthiacum (Steiner) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia carinthiaca, A. dimidiata, Ditremis carinthiaca
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia distans, Ditremis distans
excaecariae (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: A. sanfordense, Ditremis sanfordensis (Harris 1995a)
finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis finkii (Harris 1995a)
griffinii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
leucochlorum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia leucochlora, Ditremis leucochlora
[Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris]
phaeospermum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr Syns.: Ditremis nyssigena, Arthopyrenia willeyana (Barr et al. 1996)
quadricoccum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a, Aptroot et al. 1997)
quaternarium (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis quaternaria (Harris 1995a)
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia subprostans, Ditremis subprostans.
tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tamarindi.
terminatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis terminata (Harris 1995a)
tuckerae R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tuckerae.
feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = A. anisolobum.
juistense (Erichsen) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
sanfordense (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae

canellae-albae (Fée) Müll. Arg.
nanum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Pleurotheliopsis nana, (?) P. australiensis, Parmentaria nana
prasinum (Eschw.) R. C. Harris
staurosporum (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr.
subglobosum Riddle
varians R. C. Harris
corticatum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula corticata
falsarium Zahlbr. = Pyrenula falsaria
leucostomum (Ach.) Malme = Pyrenula leucostoma
libricola (Fée) Müll. Arg. North American records are probably misidentifications.
maculare Zahlbr. = Pyrenula macularis
mucosum (Vainio) Zahlbr. North American reports are probably misidentifications.
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula ochraceoflavens
ochraceoflavum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ochraceoflava
pauciloculare Herre = identity uncertain
pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides
thelomorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula thelomorpha

ANZIA Stizenb.
americana Yoshim. & Sharp
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb.
ornata (Zahlbr.) Asah.

ANZINA Scheid.
carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. (Goward et al. 1996)

oblongula (H. Magn.) Poelt & Hafellner = Caloplaca oblongula

ARCTOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & Thell
andrejevii (Oksner) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria andrejevii, C. simmonsii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria nigricascens, C. elenkinii, C. sibirica

delicatula Th. Fr.
interfixa (Nyl.) Vainio

centrifuga (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia centrifuga, P. aleuritica, Xanthoparmelia centrifuga
incurva (Pers.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia incurva, Xanthoparmelia incurva
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia separata, P. birulae var. grumosa, Xanthoparmelia separata
subcentrifuga (Oksner) Hale Syns.: Parmelia subcentrifuga, Xanthoparmelia subcentrifuga
aleuritica (Nyl.) Hale = A. centrifuga

thuleana Poelt

albofuscescens Tuck.
albovirescens Nyl.
aleuromela Nyl.
* anjutii S. Kondr. & Alstrup (Kondratyuk 1996)
apatetica (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.
arthonioides (Ach.) A. L. Sm.
asteriscus Müll. Arg.
atomaria (Lynge) R. Kilias
atrata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
bisepta Degel.
byssacea (Weigel) Almq.
caesia (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Allarthonia caesia
caribea (Ach.) A. Massal.
caudata Willey
* ceracea Etayo & Breuss (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
chiodectella Nyl.
cinereopruinosa Schaerer
cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.
* clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr.
complanata Fée
conferta (Fée) Nyl.
cupressina Tuck.
cytisi A. Massal.
didyma Körber
diffusa Nyl.
diffusella Fink
dispersa (Schrader) Nyl.
dispersula Nyl.
eckfeldtii Müll. Arg.
* epimela (Almq.) Lamb (Goward et al. 1996)
epipastoides Nyl.
* epiphyscia Nyl.
erubescens Willey
erupta Nyl.
excedens Nyl.
exilis (Flörke) Anzi
fissurina Nyl.
floridana Willey
fuliginosa (Schaerer) Flotow
* fuscopurpurea (Tul.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
galactitella Nyl.
* glaucomaria Nyl. Syn.: Celidium varians
glebosa Tuck.
granosa de Lesd.
gyalectoides Müll. Arg.
hamamelidis Nyl.
hypobela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
ilicina Taylor
impallens Nyl.
incarnata Th. Fr. ex Almq.
infectans Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
* intexta Almq.
lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup
lecanactidea Zahlbr.
lecideella Nyl.
* lethariicola Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
leucastraea Tuck.
leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq.
* linitae R. Sant.
luridoalba Nyl.
madreana Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
mediella Nyl.
melaspora Tuck.
microspermella Willey
* molendoi (Frauenf.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
muscigena Th. Fr. Syn.: Bryostigma leucodontis
neoni de Lesd.
* nephromiaria (Nyl.) Nyl. ex H. Olivier
ochrocincta Willey
ochrodiscodes Nyl.
ochrolutea Nyl.
palmulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
patellulata Nyl.
* peltigerina (Almq.) H. Olivier
perminuta Willey
phaeobaea (Norman) Norman
pinastri Anzi
platygraphidea Nyl.
platyspilea Nyl.
polygramma Nyl.
polymorpha Ach.
pruinata (Pers.) A. L. Sm.
pruinosella Nyl.
pruinosula Nyl.
punctiformis Ach.
pyrrhula Nyl.
pyrrhuliza Nyl.
quintaria Nyl.
radiata (Pers.) Ach.
ravenelii Tuck.
reniformis (Pers.) Ach.
rhoidis Zahlbr.
rubella (Fée) Nyl.
rupicola Fink
sexlocularis Zahlbr.
siderea Degel.
spadicea Leighton
stellaris Kremp.
stictella Stizenb.
subastroidella Nyl.
subdiffusa Willey
subdispuncta Nyl.
* subfuscicola (Lindsay) Triebel
subminutissima Nyl.
subminutula Nyl.
subrubella Nyl.
taedescens Nyl.
terrigena Nyl.
tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse
torulosa Fée
tuckermaniana Willey
varia (Ach.) Nyl.
vernans Willey
vinosa Leighton
viridicans Willey
willeyi Tuck.
xylographica Nyl.
alba Müll. Arg. = a Stirtonia sp.
aspersa Leighton = A. arthonioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = erroneous listing for Arthopyrenia atractospora
Willey = Catillaria erysiboides
convexella Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus (Mycoporum sp.?)
fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp = A. lapidicola
glaucescens Nyl. = Schismatomma glaucescens
gregaria (Weigel) Körber = A. cinnabarina
impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer = A. pruinata
leucodontis (Poelt & Döbb.) Coppins = A. muscigena
lurida Ach. nom. rej. = A. spadicea
tumidula (Ach.) Ach. = A. cinnabarina

analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallax (Harris 1995a)
antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold
cerasi (Schrader) A. Massal.
cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
cinereopruinosa (Schaerer) A. Massal.
confluens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
degelii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
esenbeckiana (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
exasperata R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
lapponina Anzi Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallax
lyrata R. C. Harris
majuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
malaccitula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
minor R. C. Harris
oblongens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
planorbis (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
plumbaria (Stizenb.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Porina plumbaria, Pyrenula herrei
rappii Zahlbr.
taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
* texensis (Cooke) D. Hawksw.
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = Strigula affinis North American records are S. jamesii
alba (Schrader) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
ambigua Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anacardii Vainio = Anisomeridium terminatum
analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. = misidentifications for North America
analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold = misidentifications for North America
atomarioides Müll. Arg. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
bifera Zahlbr. = A. malaccitula
biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca J. Steiner = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Acrocordia cavata
conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America, mostly Anisomeridium biforme
conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia conoidea
dimidiata Fink = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium distans
epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. = A. punctiformis
faginea (Schaerer) Swinscow = Strigula stigmatella
fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta
finkii Zahlbr. = Acrocordia megalospora
floridana Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
fraxini A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe fraxini, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. = Acrocordia gemmata
halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold = Pyrenocollema halodytes
hyalospora (Nyl.) Fink = Lithothelium hyalosporum
lapponina Anzi = A. analepta
leucochlora Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrocarpa (Körber) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
macrospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
megalospora Lonnr. = Naetrocymbe megalospora, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
padi Rabenh. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
parvula Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium biforme
pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal. = A. cinereopruinosa
prospersella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenocollema prospersella
punctiformis (Pers.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis. to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
quinqueseptata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Polymeridium quinqueseptatum
rhyponta (Ach.) A. Massal. = misidentifications for North America
salicis A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe ?, to be excluded as non-lichen-forming (Harris 1995a)
sanfordensis Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium sanfordense
sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
sublitoralis (Leighton) Arnold = Pyrenocollema sublitorale
submuriformis R. C. Harris = Strigula submuriformis
subprostans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium subprostans
subpunctiformis Nyl. = A. atomarioides
tenuis R. C. Harris = Strigula americana
tichothecioides Arnold = Pyrenocollema tichothecioides
willeyana R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori

abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
adveniens Nyl.
albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink
anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold
distendens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
gregarinum (Willey) Zahlbr.
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
macounii (G. Merr.) W. Noble
macrothecum (Fée) A. Massal.
orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse
pruinascens Zahlbr.
ruanum (A. Massal.) Körber
sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr.
spectabile A. Massal.
subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse
taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
violascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
ilicinum (Taylor) P. James = Arthonia ilicina
ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold = A. ruanum

* aeruginosa R. Sant. & Tønsberg
alpina (Schaerer) R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia alpina
citrinella (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Bacidia citrinella, B. flavovirescens
# grisea Th. Fr. Syn.: Lahmia fueistingii

populorum A. Massal. Syns.: Bacidia populorum, B. acclinis
accline (Flotow) A. Massal. = A. populorum

ASAHINEA Culb. & C. Culb.
chrysantha (Tuck.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chrysantha
scholanderi (Llano) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria scholanderi

albomarginata de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora albomarginata
[Lecanora albopruinosa Looman]
alboradiata (H. Magn.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora alboradiata
aliena (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora aliena
americana de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora americana
annulata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora annulata
anseris (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Synonym: Lecanora anseris
aquatica Körber Syn.: Lecanora aquatica
arctica (Lynge) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora arctica
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora caesiopruinosa
calcarea (L.) Mudd Syn.: Lecanora calcarea
californica Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
candida (Anzi) Hue Syn.: Lecanora candida
cinerea (L.) Körber Syn.: Lecanora cinerea
cingulata (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora cingulata
composita (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora composita
concinna (J. W. Thomson) J. W. Thomson (Thomson 1997)
contigua (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. Syn.: Lecanora contorta
desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk. Syn.: Lecanora desertorum
disserpens (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora disserpens
elevata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora elevata
filiformis Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
fimbriata (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon Syn.: Lecanora fimbriata
fruticulosa (Eversm.) Flagey
gibbosa (Ach.) Körber Syns.: Lecanora gibbosa, L. gibbosula
heteroplaca (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora heteroplaca
humboldtii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
karelica (H. Magn.) Oksner
laevata (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora laevata
laxula (H. Magn.) Brodo
leprosescens (Sandst.) Hav.
lesleyana Darbish. Syn.: Lecanora lesleyana
limitata (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora limitata
mashiginensis (Zahlbr.) Oksner
mastoidea (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora mastoidea
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (Wetmore 1967, as Lecanora mastrucata)
mazarina (Wahlenb.) R. Sant.
moenium (Vainio) Thor & Timdal
myrinii (Fr.) Stein Syn.: Lecanora myrinii
narssaquensis (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Lecanora basaltica, L. narssaquensis
nathorstii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
nikrapensis Darbish. Syn.: Lecanora nikrapensis
nordlandica (H. Magn.) Degel.
novae-semliae (Zahlbr.) Oksner
pergibbosa (H. Magn.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora pergibbosa
perradiata (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Lecanora perradiata
pertusa (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora pertusa
plicigera (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora plicigera
polychroma Anzi Syn.: Lecanora polychroma
quartzitica W. A. Weber
reptans (Looman) Wetmore Syn.: Lecanora reptans
rolleana Hue Syn.: Lecanora rolleana
rosulata Körber Syn.: Lecanora rosulata
ryrkaipiae (H. Magn.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora ryrkaipiae
sorediza (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
sublapponica (Zahlbr.) Oksner Syn.: Lecanora sublapponica
submersa (Lamy) Hue
subplicigera (H. Magn.) Oksner
subradians (Nyl.) Hue Syns.: Lecanora stygioplaca, L. subradiascens, L. subradians
supertegens Arnold Syn.: Lecanora supertegens
[Lecanora tenuis H. Magn.]
verrucigera Hue Syn.: Lecanora verrucigera
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina (Sommerf.) Arnold = Bellemerea alpina
bennettii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. mashiginensis
cinereorufescens (Ach.) A. Massal. = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Boistel = Bellemerea diamarta
excavata Thor & Timdal = A. moenium
flavida (Hepp) Rehm = Eiglera flavida
lacustris (With.) Th. Fr. = Ionaspis lacustris
melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia melanaspis
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia radiosa
sanguinea Kremp. = Bellemerea sanguinea
stygioplaca (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subradiascens (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. = Bellemerea subsorediza

fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.

* mazaediicola D. Hawksw.

decipiens (Rehm) R. Sant.
leucophthalmum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
rotuliforme (Mull. Arg.) Sérus. Syns.: Gyalectidium rotuliforme, Lopadiopsis floridana

cinnamomeum (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
confusum Müll. Arg.
diplocarpum Nyl. (Harris 1995a)
galbineum Kremp.
variolosum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Trypethelium catervarium
versicolor Müll. Arg.
conicum auct. = A. cinnamomeum
conicum Eschw. = (?) type not found
ochrothelizum Müll. Arg. = A. galbineum

epiphylla Pers.
poeltii Jülich

microphana (Vainio) R. Sant.
quadrangula (Stirton) R. Sant.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

* uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw.

absistens (Nyl.) Arnold
aggregatula Malme
arceutina (Ach.) Arnold
[Bilimbia artyta (Ach.) Fink]
auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig.
augustinii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta
beckhausii Körber = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
biatorina (Körber) Vainio
brouardii (de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb
circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vainio) Malme
diffracta S. Ekman
flavens (Willey) Zahlbr. = a species of Lecania (Ekman 1996)
friesiana (Hepp) Körber
granosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here(Ekman 1996)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio
helicospora S. Ekman
herbarum (Stizenb.) Arnold
heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
hostheleoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
igniarii (Nyl.) Oksner
illudens (Nyl.) Lynge
insularis Zahlbr.
ioessa Herre = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
kingmanii Hasse = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. subsp. laurocerasi (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis (H. Magn.) S. Ekman
medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) de Lesd. (Ekman 1996)
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Lettau Syn.: Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Ekman 1996)
mutabilis Malme
nivalis Follmann = possibly a species of Porpidia (Ekman 1996)
pammellii (Fink) Zahlbr.
polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körber
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
reagens Malme
rosella (Pers.) De Not.
rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
rubidofusca (Willey) Zahlbr. = possibly a species of Gyalidea (Ekman 1996)
russeola (Kremp.) Zahlbr.
sabuletorum (Schreber) Lettau Syn.: Mycobilimbia sabuletorum; uncertain for North America (Ekman 1996)
salmonea S. Ekman
saxicola Looman = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
schweinitzii (Fr. ex E. Michener) A. Schneider
scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
siberiensis (Willey) Zahlbr.
subgranulosa (Tuck.) Riddle Erroneously listed as a synonym of Phyllopsora canoumbrina in the checklist; possibly belongs to Psorella (Ekman 1996)
subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold
suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider
trachona (Ach.) Lettau
vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Ekman 1996)
viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1998)
abbrevians (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = B. igniarii
abductans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = B. schweinitzii
accedens (Arnold) Lettau = Bacidia sabuletorum, but misidentifications for North America (Ekman 1996)
accedens sensu Harris = unnamed species (Ekman 1996)
acclinis (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Arthrosporum populorum
affinis (Stizenb.) Vainio = B. subincompta
akompsa (Tuck.) Fink = a Lecanactis sp.
alaskensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Herteliana alaskensis
albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh = Bacidina phacodes
alpina (Schaerer) Vainio = Arthrorhaphis alpina
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica
arnoldiana Körber = Bacidina arnoldiana
arthoniza (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
assulata (Körber) Vezda = Bacidina assulata
atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körber = B. laurocerasi
aurantiaca Vezda = Fellhanera aurantiaca
bacillifera (Nyl.) Arnold = B. circumspecta
caloosensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. hostheleoides
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins = a species of Mycobilimbia (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)
chlorantha (Tuck.) Fink = Ropalospora chlorantha
chlorococca (Stenh.) Lettau = Scoliciosporum chlorococcum
chlorosticta (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Micarea chlorosticta
citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
clementis Hasse = Bactrospora patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
coprodes (Körber) Lettau = B. trachona
cuprea (A. Massal.) Lettau = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
cupreorosella (Nyl.) A. Schneider = Lecania cuprea
declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Catillaria nigroclavata
dryina (Ach.) Fink = Bactrospora dryina
effusa auct. = B. assulata
egenula (Nyl.) Arnold = Bacidina egenula
egenuloidea Fink = Bacidina egenuloidea
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea endocyanea
endoleuca auct. = B. laurocerasi
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Lettau = a species of Mycobilimbia (Ekman 1996)
flavovirescens (Dickson) Anzi = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera floridana
fusca (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Mycobilimbia tetramera
fuscorubella (Ach.) Bausch = B. polychroa
globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V. Wirth = Catillaria globulosa
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Ramonia ablephora
gyalizella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pachphiale gyalizella
hegetschweileri auct. = B. vermifera (Ekman 1996)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio = B. subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold (Ekman 1996)
herrei Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Bacidia sabuletorum, but not present in N. America
idahoensis H. Magn. = B. laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis
incompta (Borrer ex Hook.) Anzi = misidentifications for North America
inundata (Fr.) Körber = Bacidina inundata
leucophyllina (Nyl.) Fink = misidentifications for North America
lignaria (Ach.) Lettau = Micarea lignaria
lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris
luteola "(Ach.) Mudd" = B. rubella
meadii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Byssoloma meadii)
melaena (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Micarea melaena
microphyllina auct. = Phyllopsora corallina var. santensis
microphyllina (Tuck.) Riddle = misidentifications for North America
minuscula Anzi = B. beckhausii
molybditis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. medialis
muscorum (Sw.) Mudd = B. bagliettoana
naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. = Lecania naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & v.d. Boom
obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia tetramera
pallens (Kullhem) Zahlbr. = Cliostomum pallens (Ekman 1997)
phacodes auct. N. Am. = Bacidina californica
populorum (A. Massal.) Trevisan = Arthrosporum populorum
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
sphaeroides (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Biatora sphaeroides
sphaeroides auct. non (Dickson) Zahlbr. = B. carneoalbida
stigmatella (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecania stigmatella
subfuscula (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Lecania subfuscula
tetramera (De Not.) Coppins = Mycobilimbia tetramera
trisepta (Hellbom) Zahlbr. = Micarea peliocarpa
umbrina (Ach.) Bausch = Scoliciosporum umbrinum
verecundula (Th. Fr.) = misidentification for North America (Ekman 1996)

aenea S. Ekman
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vezda Syn.: Bacidia apiahica
arnoldiana (Körber) Wirth & Vezda Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana
assulata (Körber) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia assulata
californica S. Ekman
chloroticula (Nyl.) Vezda & Poelt (Ekman 1996)
crystallifera S. Ekman
egenula (Nyl.) Vezda Syn.: Bacidia egenula
egenuloidea (Fink) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia egenuloidea
inundata (Fr.) Vezda Syn.: Bacidia inundata
phacodes (Körber) Vezda Syns: Bacidia phacodes, B. albescens
ramea S. Ekman
squamellosa S. Ekman
varia S. Ekman

brevispora R.C. Harris
brodoi Egea & Torrente)
denticulata (Vainio) Egea & Torrente
dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Bacidia dryina
macrospora R.C. Harris
mesospora R.C. Harris
myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio Syns.: Lecanactis patellarioides, Bacidia clementis
spiralis Egea & Torrente
integrispora Seaver = B. denticulata (Harris 1995a)
nematospora R.C. Harris = B. myriadea

BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb
curtisii (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia curtisii (Marbach 2000)
imshaugiana (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia imshaugiana (Marbach 2000)

carneus Flörke
placophyllus Ach.
rufus (Hudson) Rebent.
absolutus Tuck. = Dibaeis absoluta
fungoides (Sw.) Ach. North American reports are Dibaeis baeomyces
roseus Pers. = Dibaeis baeomyces

BATHELIUM Ach. (Harris 1995a)
carolinianum (Tuck.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Trypethelium carolinianum
madreporiforme (Eschw.) Trevisan (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Laurera madreporiformis

BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Roux
alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Roux Syns.: Lecanora alpina, Aspicilia alpina
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Clauzade & Roux Syns.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens, Lecanora cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Hafellner & Roux Syn.: Aspicilia diamarta
sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Roux Syns.: Aspicilia sanguinea, Lecanora sanguinea
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. Syns.: Lecidea subsorediza, Aspicilia subsorediza

BELONIA Körber ex Nyl.
russula Körber ex Nyl.
americana Fink ex Hedr. = Robergea pupula, but excluded as a non-lichen
fennica Vainio = B. russula

alaskana Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)

anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner Syns.: Hypocenomyce anthracophila, Psora anthracophila, Lecidea anthracophila
botryosa Fr. (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea botryosa
chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen in V. Wirth (Printzen 1995)
cuprea (Sommerf.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea cuprea
efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea efflorescens, L. epixanthoidiza
fallax Hepp (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavopunctata (Tønsberg) Hinteregger & Printzen Syn.: Lecanora flavopunctata
helvola Körber ex Hellbom (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea helvola
hypophaea Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa, L. minuta
nobilis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
porphyrospoda Anzi Syn.: Lecidea porphyrospoda
rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
subduplex (Nyl.) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea subduplex, L.apochroeiza, L. internectens
toensbergii Holien & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. Syn.: L. turgidula
vacciniicola (Tønsberg) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea vacciniicola
vernalis (L.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea vernalis
albohyalina (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia = Lecidea albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins = a species of Mycobilimbia (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)
cladoniscum Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich = a species of Mycobilimbia (Printzen 1995)
papillariae Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
pullata Norman = Lecidea amaurospoda
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber = a species of Mycobilimiba (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)

cyphalea (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
floridensis H. Magn.
hemisphaerica Anzi
plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr.
rappii Zahlbr.
albidula (Willey) Zahlbr. = Myrionora albidula
campestris (Fr.) Almq. = Sarcosagium campestre
clavus (DC.) Th. Fr. = Sarcogyne clavus
clauzadeana Llimona & Vezda = Acarospora clauzadeana
conspersa (Fèe) Vainio = Piccolia conspersa
fossarum (Dufour ex Fr.) Th. Fr. = B. hemisphaerica for North American records
hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss. = Sarcogyne privigna
kulshanensis Herre = a Sarcogyne sp.
microhaema Norman = Strangospora microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Strangospora moriformis
ochrophora (Nyl.) Arnold = Strangospora ochrophora
pruinosa "(Körber) Mudd" = Sarcogyne regularis
+ resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Sarea resinae
simplex (Davies) Branth & Rostrup = Polysporina simplex
terrena Hasse Identity uncertain
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. = Sporastatia testudinea

* usnearum Räsänen

delitescens (Arnold) Hafellner (Ekman 1996)

caudata (Nyl.) Fink = Ropalospora lugubris
gyalectiformis Zahlbr. = Ramonia ablephora
pammellii Fink = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 1996)
tricholoma (Mont.) Fink = Byssoloma tricholomum

* christiansenii D. Hawksw. (Cole & D. Hawksw. 2001)
* lichenum Diederich (Cole & D. Hawksw. 2001)

diphasia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = a Caloplaca diphasia
novomexicana Fink = a Caloplaca sp.
rubrofusca de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.

domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis
pachycheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Megalospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) De Not. = Megalospora tuberculosa
vulpina (Nyl.) J. M. Burgess = nom. inval. = Letrouitia vulpina

botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina hudsoniana
vulgaris Bréb. sens. str. = Omphalina umbellifera

BOTTARIA A. Massal. = MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
cruentata Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruentata

fuscolutea (Dickson) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium fuscoluteum
leucoxantha (Sprengel) R. Sant. & Hafellner Syn.: Lopadium leucoxanthum
praetermissa Hafellner & St. Clair (Hafellner 1997)
purpurata (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Bellem. (Goward et al. 1996) = B. praetermissa (Hafellner 1997)

oroarctica (Krog) Goward Syn.: Hypogymnia oroarctica.
atrofusca (Schaerer) Goward Syns.: Hypogymnia atrofusca, Parmelia atrofusca. North American reports are probably misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica (Krog) Goward.
intestiniformis (Vill.) Goward Syns.: Hypogymnia intestiniformis, H. encausta, Parmelia intestiniformis, P. encausta. North American reports are misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica (Krog) Goward.

divergens (Ach.) Kärnefelt Syns.: Cornicularia divergens, Coelocaulon divergens
pseudosatoanum (Asah.) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cornicularia pseudosatoana

castanea (Hepp) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora castanea
curvescens (Mudd) Poelt Syn.: Lecania curvescens
pruinosa (Th. Fr.) Holtan-Hartwig
septentrionalis Holtan-Hartwig

BRYOPHAGUS Nitschke ex Arnold
gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold (fide J. Hafellner, see Appendix)

negativus Gyelnik = Bryoria lanestris
pacificus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens

BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
ambigua (Mot.) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria bicolor
capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria capillaris, A. setacea for North American records
carlottae Brodo & D. Hawksw.
cervinula Mot. ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria cervinula
chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria chalybeiformis
fabiszewskiana Bystr. (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fremontii, A. corneliae, A. tenerrima
friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Holien, 1989, considers this taxon to be a synonym of and conspecific with B. implexa)
furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nidulifera, Cornicularia fibrillosa
furcellata subsp. hawksworthiana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fuscescens, A. positiva, Bryopogon pacificus
glabra (Mot.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria glabra
implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria implexa (See notes under B. friabilis and B. pseudofuscescens)
lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria lanestris, Bryopogon negativus
nadvornikiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nadvornikiana, A. altaica
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nitidula, A. irvingii, A. lanea auct.
pikei Brodo & D. Hawksw.
pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw.
pseudofuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria achariana, A. norstictica nom. nudum, A. subtilis nom. nudum (Holien, 1989, considers this taxon to be a synonym and conspecific with B. implexa)
salazinica Brodo & D. Hawksw.
simplicior (Vainio) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria simplicior, A. nana nom. nudum
spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw.
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria subcana
tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria tenuis
tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria tortuosa, A. virens for North American records
trichodes (Michaux) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. trichodes Syns.: Alectoria canadensis, A. delicata nom. nudum
trichodes subsp. americana (Mot.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria ambigua, A. americana
trichodes subsp. brodoana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
trichodes subsp. canadensis (Mot.) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck. ex Willey) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria oregana
setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Not in North America.
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria subdivergens
vrangiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. sens. str. is known only from Europe and is considered a synonym of B. implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. by Holien (1989).

* lichenicola Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

* adjuncta Th. Fr. (see Appendix)
aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.
arnoldii Servít & Nádv.
# badia (Fr.) A. Massal.
bolacina Tuck.
calcariaecola de Lesd.
capitis-regum W. A. Weber
cedricola Werner (Nordin 1999)
coccinea (Fée) Aptroot
crystallifera (Vainio) Hav. (Goward et al. 1996)
curatellae Malme
dispersa A. Massal.
elegans Poelt (Weber 1990)
epigaea (Pers.) Tuck.
erubescens Arnold
fimbriata (Tuck.) Imshaug
geophila (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Lynge
griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb.
halonia (Ach.) Tuck.
immersa Lynge
imshaugiana R. C. Harris
* imshaugii Hafellner
insignis "(Naeg. ex Hepp) Th. Fr."
jugorum (Arnold) Arnold
lacteoidea de Lesd.
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)
lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg.
lecanoroides H. Magn.
lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck.
leptocline (Flotow) A. Massal.
leucomela Imshaug
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber
maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl.
melanochlora (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.
mexicana J. Steiner (Nordin 2000)
microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina microbola
modesta (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.
muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg (Nordin 1999)
nantiana de Lesd.
nigra (Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina nigra
notabilis Lynge
novomexicana de Lesd.
occidentalis Lynge (Lepage 1972)
ocellata (Flotow) Körber
oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Rhizocarpon oidaleum
papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. Syn.: Buelliopsis papillata
pinastri Erichsen (Erichsen 1940)
polyspora (Willey) Vainio
pulverulenta (Anzi) Jatta
retrovertens Tuck.
saurina W. A. Weber
saxicola de Lesd.
schaereri De Not.
semitensis Tuck.
silicicola de Lesd.
smaragdula de Lesd.
spuria (Schaerer) Anzi
stellulata (Taylor) Mudd
stigmaea Tuck.
stigmatea Körber
stillingiana J. Steiner
subdispersa Mig. (Nordin 1999)
terrricola A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
tolucae de Lesd. (Nordin 1999)
triphragmioides Anzi
triseptata A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
uberior Anzi
vilis Th. Fr.
aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier = B. aethalea
alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum
ambigua (Ach.) Malme = Diplotomma ambiguum
amphidexia Imshaug ex R. C. Harris = Endohyalina circumpallida
atrata (Sm.) Anzi = Orphniospora moriopsis
badioatra (Flörke ex Sprengel) Körber = Rhizocarpon badioatrum
bahiana Malme = Hafellia bahiana
blasteniospora Zahlbr. = Hafellia parastata
blumeri Zahlbr. = B. retrovertens
callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner = Hafellia callispora
caloosensis Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
canescens (Dickson) De Not. = Diploicia canescens
catasema (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
chlorophaea (Hepp ex Leighton) Lettau = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
colludens (Nyl.) Arnold = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amandinea coniops
conspirans (Nyl.) Vainio = B. curatellae
contermina Arnold = B. uberior
coracina (Nyl.) Körber = Orphniospora moriopsis
curtisii (Tuck.) Imshaug = Baculifera curtisii
dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chrismofulvea dialyta
disciformis (Fr.) Mudd = Hafellia disciformis
elizae (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia elizae
epipolia (Ach.) Mong. = Diplotomma epipolium
glaucomarioidea Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora glaucomarioides
glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = B. mamillana
hassei Imshaug = B. griseovirens
imshaugiana R. C. Harris = Baculifera imshaugiana
* inquilina Tuck. = Dactylospora inquilina
isidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = excluded as doubtful
leucomela Imshaug = Amandinea leucomela
malmei Lynge = B. aethalea
moriopsis (A. Massal.) Th. Fr. = Orphniospora moriopsis
myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. = Amandinea punctata
nivalis (Bagl. & Car.) Hertel ex Hafellner = Diplotomma nivalis
pachnidisca R. C. Harris = Gassicurtia subpulchella
parasema (Ach.) De Not. = Hafellia disciformis
penichra (Tuck.) Hasse = Diplotomma penichrum
pertusariicola Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora pertusariicola
placodiomorpha Vainio = Amandinea placodiomorpha
polyspora (Willey) Vainio = Amandinea polyspora
pruinella Imshaug = B. fimbriata
pueblae de Lesd. = B. retrovertens
pulchella (Schrader) Tuck. = Catolechia wahlenbergii
pullata Tuck. = Amandinea punctata
punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Amandinea punctata
punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink = B. polyspora
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
rappii Imshaug ex R.C. Harris = Endohyalina rappii
rinodinoides Anzi = misidentifications for North America
rinodinospora Riddle = Hafellia parastata
rubifaciens R.C. Harris = Chrismofulvea rubifaciens
scabrosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Epilichen scabrosus
tergestina J. Steiner & Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. mamillana
tucsonensis Zahlbr. = B. retrovertens
turgescens Tuck. = Amandinea turgescens
turgescentoides Fink = Amandinea turgescens
venusta (Körber) Lettau = Diplotomma ventusum
vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia vernicoma
verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea
verruculosa auct. = B. ocellata
wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard = Catolechia wahlenbergii
wheeleri R. C. Harris = Ciposia wheeleri
zahlbruckneri J. Steiner = B. erubescens

* minimula (Tuck.) Fink
* physciicola Poelt & Hafellner (see Appendix)
* trypethelii (Tuck.) Fink
* inquilina (Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora inquilina
* nuttallii (Calk. & Nyl.) Fink = Dactylospora lobariella
* parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink = Abrothallus parmeliarum
* saxatilis (Schaerer) Fink = Dactylospora saxatilis var. saxatilis
* usneae (Rabenh.) Fink = misidentification for North America

papillata (Sommerf.) Fink = Buellia papillata
vernicoma (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Buellia vernicoma

confoederata (Culb.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia confoederata
coronata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia coronata
goebelii (Zenker) Hale Syn.: Parmelia goebelii, P. scortella, P. njalensis
isidiza (Nyl.) Hale
laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigatula

BULLATINA Vezda & Poelt
aspidota (Vainio) Vezda & Poelt Syn.: Calenia aspidotum

melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin Syn.: Sphaerophorus melanocarpus

leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vainio
marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.
meadii (Tuck.) S. S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia meadii
pubescens Vezda ex R.C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James
tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Bilimbia tricholoma
rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. = B. subdiscordans

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

CALENIA Müll. Arg.
aspidotum (Vainio) Vezda = Bullatina aspidota

CALICIELLA Vainio = non-lichenized fungi

abietinum Pers.
adaequatum Nyl.
adspersum Pers.
chlorosporum F. Wilson
corynellum (Ach.) Ach.
glaucellum Ach.
hyperelloides Nyl.
lenticulare Ach.
leucochlorum Tuck.
parvum Tibell
quercinum Pers.
salicinum Pers.
trabinellum (Ach.) Ach
viride Pers.
albonigrum Nyl. = Mycocalicium albonigrum
# asikkalense Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
curtisii Tuck. = Phaeocalicium curtisii
* disseminatum Ach. = Microcalicium disseminatum
# floerkei Zahlbr. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
fuscipes Tuck. = Mycocalicium fuscipes
hemisphaericum Howard = C. adaequatum
hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. = C. viride
lentigerellum Tuck. = C. lenticulare
lichenoides (L.) Schumacher = C. salicinum
microcephalum (Sm.) Ach. = Sphinctrina anglica
minutissimum G. Merr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+ populneum Brond. ex Duby = Phaeocalicium populneum
# pusillum auct. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
pusiolum Ach. = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
queenslandiae (F. Wilson) Tibell = C. chlorosporum
ravenelii Tuck. = Mycocalicium ravenelii
roscidum (Ach.) Ach. nom. superfl. = C. adspersum
roscidum var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaerer = C. trabinellum for North American records
sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach. = (?) C. lichenoides
# subpusillum Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
subquercinum Asah. = C. lenticulare
+ subtile Pers. = Mycocalicium subtile
trachelinum Ach. = C. salicinum

fusca (Müll Arg.) Vezda Syn.: Lopadium fuscum
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Vezda Syn.: Lopadium puiggarii

adnexa Vezda
ahtii Søchting
albovariegata (de Lesd.) Wetmore
alcarum Poelt
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier
approximata (Lynge) H. Magn.
arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg.
arizonica H. Magn.
atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
atroflava (Turner) Mong.
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) Lamb
aurantia (Pers.) Hellbom
bolacina (Tuck.) Herre
borealis (Vainio) Poelt
brattiae W. A. Weber
brouardii (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. (Nash et al. 1998)
brunneola Wetmore
californica Zahlbr.
camptidia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
carolinae H. Magn.
cascadensis H. Magn.
catalinae H. Magn.
celata Th. Fr.
cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedwig) Th. Fr.
chlorina (Flotow) H. Olivier
chrysodeta (Vainio ex Räsänen) Dombr. Syn.: Leproplaca chrysodeta
chrysophthalma Degel.
cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.
cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr.
citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
conversa (Kremp.) Jatta
coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting Syn.: Polycauliona coralloides
dakotensis Wetmore
decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forss.
demissa (Körber) Arup & Grube Syn.: Lecanora demissa (Arup & Grube 1999)
diphasia (Tuck.) Wetmore Syns.: Lecanora diphasia, Blastenia diphasia]
discolor (Willey) Fink
dispersa de Lesd.
durietzii H. Magn.
* epithallina Lynge
[Candelariella epixantha (Ach.) Sandst.]
eugyra (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
feracissima H. Magn.
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr.
ferrugineofusca (Vainio) H. Magn.
flavogranulosa Arup (Arup 1993a)
flavorubescens (Hudson) J. R. Laundon
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
floridana (Tuck.) S. Tucker Syn.: Lecanora floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier
fraxinea Lamb
galactophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Jatta
* grimmiae (Nyl.) H. Olivier
groenlandica Lynge
herbidella (Hue) H. Magn.
holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) M. Wade
ignea Arup
impolita Arup
inconspecta Arup
insularis Poelt
invadens Lynge (Thomson 1997)
irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr.
jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr.
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
lithophila H. Magn.
litoricola Brodo
livida (Hepp) Jatta
lobulata (Flörke) de Lesd.
ludificans Arup (Arup 1995)
luteoalba (Turner) Th. Fr. Syn.: Candelariella luteoalba
luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. luteominia
luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup
marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup
microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse
microthallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr.
modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink
[Pyrenodesmia montana de Lesd.]
neonii de Lesd.
neotropica Wetmore
nivalis (Körber) Th. Fr.
[Blastenia novomexicana Fink]
obliterans (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss.
oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore Syns.: Apatoplaca oblongula, Lecidea oblongula
obscurella (Körber) Th. Fr.
oleicola (Steiner) v.d. Boom & Breuss (Goward et al. 1996)
oregona H. Magn.
oxfordensis Fink
parvula Wetmore
peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse Syn.: Pyrenodesmia elaeodes
phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
pinicola H. Magn.
pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta
quercicola H. Magn.
rosei Hasse
rubelliana (Ach.) Lojka
[Blastenia rubrofusca de Lesd.]
saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin
saxifragarum Poelt
schaereri (Flörke) Zahlbr.
scopularis (Nyl.) Lettau
sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Maheu & A. Gillet
sipeana H. Magn.
sonorae Wetmore (Wetmore 1996)
sorocarpa (Vainio) Zahlbr.
spaldingii Zahlbr.
spitsbergensis H. Magn.
squamosa (de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
stanfordensis H. Magn.
stantonii W. A. Weber ex Arup
stellata Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
stipitata Wetmore (Wetmore 1999)
subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr.
subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tetraspora (Nyl.) H. Olivier
texana Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
tiroliensis Zahlbr.
tominii (Savicz) Ahlner (Wetmore 2001)
tornoënsis H. Magn.
trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
ulmorum (Fink) Fink
urceolata de Lesd.
variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg.
velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz
verrucosa Hasse
verruculifera (Vainio) Zahlbr.
vicaria H. Magn.
vitellinula (Nyl.) H. Olivier
wetmorei Nimis, Poelt & Tretiach
wrightii (Willey) Fink
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr.
amabilis Zahlbr. = C. pellodella
arizonica E. Rudolph non H. Magn. = C. pellodella
atrocyanescens (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = misidentifications for North America
aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = C. flavorubescens
bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. = C. luteominea var. bolanderi
bracteata (Hoffm.) Jatta = Fulgensia bracteata
bryochrysion Poelt = C. epiphyta
caesiorufa (Wibel) Flagey = removed as a nomen confusum (Wetmore 1996)
caesiorufella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. phaeocarpella
callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. = C. aurantia
castellana (Räsänen) Poelt If treated as separate from C. invadens as done by e.g. Alstrup (1991), this species has not yet been reported for North America
cinnamomea (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = C. ammiospila
constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Edrudia constipans
crenularia (With.) J. R. Laundon = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta = misidentifications for North America (Wetmore 1994)
diplacia (Ach.) Riddle = doesn't occur N of Mexico (Wetmore 1994)
discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. saxicola
discoidalis (Vainio) Lynge = C. ammiospila
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. = Xanthoria elegans
epiphyta Lynge = C. xanthostigmoidea (Søchting & Tønsberg 1997)
erythrella (Ach.) Kieffer = C. flavovirescens
festiva (Ach.) Zwackh = C. crenularia
fulgens (Sw.) Körber = Fulgensia fulgens
gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = C. cerina
gloriae sensu Aptroot (1996) non Werner & Llimona = C. verruculifera (Arup 1998)
herrei Hasse = C. atrosanguinea
intermedia (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1999)
laeta H. Magn. = C. luteominia var. luteominia
lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey = C. arenaria
leucoraea (Ach. ex Flörke) Branth = C. sinapisperma
murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola
paulsenii (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
pyracea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = C. holocarpa
sarcopisioides (Körber) Zahlbr. = C. obscurella
scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn. = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
sorediata (Vainio) Du Rietz = Xanthoria sorediata
splendens (Darbish.) Zahlbr. = Xanthoria elegans var. splendens
stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge = C. cerina
submexicana (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Candelina submexicana
subnigricans H. Magn. = C. atrosanguinea
subolivacea (Th. Fr.) Lynge = C. tiroliensis
teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
thallincola (Wedd.) Du Rietz Not in North America

submexicana (de Lesd.) de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana

amylosporum (Vainio) R. C. Harris = Polymeridium proponens
nitidum Zahlbr. = Laurera megasperma

concolor (Dickson) Stein
concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham
fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.

antennaria Räsänen
arctica (Körber) R. Sant.
athallina (Wedd.) Du Rietz
aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
canadensis H. Magn.
citrina de Lesd.
coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.
deflexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul.
efflorescens R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck
kuusamoensis Räsänen var. areolata Hakul
lutella (Vainio) Räsänen
placodizans (Nyl.) H. Magn.
plumbea Poelt & Vezda
reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
stenospora de Lesd.
subdeflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
terrigena Räsänen
vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.
xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau
cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. = C. aurella
crenulata (Wahlenb.) Zahlbr. = C. arctica
epixantha auct. = C. aurella
epixantha (Ach.) Sandst. = a Caloplaca sp.
holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Solenopsora holophaea
hudsonica Hakul. = C. canadensis
luteoalba (Turner) Lettau = Caloplaca luteoalba
medians (Nyl.) Sm. North American reports probably refer to Candelina submexicana
submexicana de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana

mexicana (de Lesd.) Poelt
submexicana (de Lesd.) Poelt Syns.: Caloplacopsis submexicana, Candelariella submexicana, Caloplaca submexicana. North American reports of Candelariella medians (Nyl.) Sm. probably belong here.

CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale (Elix 1997)
conferenda (Hale) Elix Syns.: Rimeliella conferenda, Parmotrema conferendum
neotropica (Kurok.) Elix Syns.: Rimeliella neotropica, Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Elix Syns.: Rimeliella subsumpta, Parmotrema subsumptum, Parmelia subsumpta
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Elix Syns.: Rimeliella subtinctoria, Parmotrema subtinctorium, P. haitiense

amabilis Heiman & Elix (Heiman & Elix 1999)
amazonica (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia amazonica, Pseudoparmelia amazonica
caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia caroliniana, Pseudoparmelia caroliniana
crozalsiana (de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia crozalsiana, Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia cryptochlorophaea, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia martinicana, Pseudoparmelia martinicana
salacinifera (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia salacinifera, Pseudoparmelia salacinifera
texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia texana, Pseudoparmelia texana

CARBONEA (Hertel) H ertel
* aggregantula (Müll. Arg.) Diederich & Triebel (Goward et al. 1996)
assimilis (Körber) Hafellner & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea assimilis
atronivea (Arnold) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea atronivea
* vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vorticosa

CATAPYRENIUM Flotow (Breuss 1996)
caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thomson
cinereum (Pers.) Körber Syn.: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum
compactum (A. Massal.) R. Sant. Syns.: Dermatocarpon compactum, D. rupicola, Endopyrenium americanum, E. rupicola (Application of this name uncertain, Breuss & McCune 1994)
daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein
globosum J. W. Thomson
granulosum (de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Endopyrenium crustaceum, E. granulosum, Dermatocarpon granulosum
heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Dermatocarpon heppioides
psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant.
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant.
squamellum (Nyl.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Dermatocarpon squamellum
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Dermatocarpon zahlbruckneri (Placement incorrect, Breuss & McCune 1994)
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides
andicolum Breuss = Placidium andicola
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss = Placidium chilense
congestum Breuss & McCune = Heteroplacidium congestum
lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. = Placidium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium lacinulatum
michelii (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Placidium michelii
norvegicum Breuss = Placidium norvegicum
plumbeum (de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson (p.p.) = Verrucaria inficiens Breuss (Breuss 1998)
podolepis Breuss = Heteroplacidium podolepis
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium rufescens
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium squamulosum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium tuckermanii
umbrinum Breuss = Clavascidium umbrinum
waltheri (Kremp.) Körber = Involucropyrenium waltheri

chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.
cupressi Zahlbr.
endochroma (Fée) Zahlbr.
erysiboides (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Arthonia carneorufa (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavens (Willey) Fink
franciscana (Tuck.) Herre
glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse
globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. Syn.: Bacidia globulosa, Lecidea sylvana
heeri (Hepp) H. Olivier
jemtlandica Th. Fr. & Almq.
lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
leptocheila (Tuck.) Riddle
muscicola Lynge
nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler Syn.: Bacidia declinis
subnegans (Nyl.) Boistel
subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
terrena (Willey) Zahlbr.
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Arnold
arctica Lynge = Toninia philippea
athallina (Hepp) Hellbom = Toninia athallina
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Catinaria atropurpurea
bahusiensis (Blomb.) Th. Fr. = Tylothallia biformigera
biformigera (Leighton) H. Magn. = Tylothallia biformigera
bouteillei (Desmaz.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei
columbiana (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Megalaria columbiana
crystallifera R. Kilias = Toninia lutosa
graniformis (K. Hagen) Vainio = Cliostomum corrugatum
griffithii (Sm.) Malme = Cliostomum griffithii
groenlandica Lynge = a Lecania sp.
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Körber = Megalaria grossa
kansuensis H. Magn. = Toninia philippea
laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Megalaria laureri
micrococca (Körber) Th. Fr. = Micarea prasina
philippea (Mont.) A. Massal. = Toninia philippea (Thomson 1997)
prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Micarea prasina
pulverea (Borrer) Lettau = Megalaria pulverea
sculpturata H. Magn. = Toninia sculpturata
sphaeroides (A. Massal.) Schuler = a species of Mycobilimbia (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)
subnitida Hellbom = C. tristis
subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = a European species
superflua (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = ?Megalaria grossa (Printzen 1995)
tricolor auct. = Cliostomum griffithii

atropurpurea (Schaerer) Vezda & Poelt Syn.: Catillaria atropurpurea
subcorallina (Zahlbr.) Brako Syn.: Phyllopsora subcorallina
albocincta Degel. = Megalaria albocincta
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Vainio = Megalaria grossa
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Degel. = Megalaria laureri
leucoplaca auct. = Megalaria grossa
versicolor (Fée) Sipman = Lopezaria versicolor

wahlenbergii (Ach.) Körber Syns.: Buellia wahlenbergii, B. pulchella

hultenii Degel.
lophyrea (Ach.) Degel.

CECIDONIA Triebel & Rambold
* umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold

* varians Arnold (Weber 1990) = Arthonia glaucomaria

CELOTHELIUM A. Massal. (Harris 1995a)
aciculiferum (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)

CEPHALOPHYSIS (Hertel) H. Kilias
leucospila (Anzi) H. Kilias & Scheid. Syn.: Lecidea ultima

# decolorella (Nyl.) O. E. Erikss. & J. Z. Yue
* epicarphinea (Nyl.) Grube & Hafellner
* epipolytropa (Mudd) Arnold
* stereocaulorum (Arnold) Hafellner (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* ulothii Körber

aculeata (Schreber) Fr. Syn.: Coelocaulon aculeatum
arenaria Kärnefelt
ericetorum Opiz subsp. ericetorum
ericetorum subsp. reticulata (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica (L.) Ach. subsp. islandica
islandica subsp. crispiformis (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica subsp. orientalis (Asah.) Kärnefelt
kamczatica Savicz
laevigata Rass.
muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt Syn.: Coelocaulon muricatum
nigricans Nyl.
odontella (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Cornicularia odontella, Coelocaulon odontellum
aculeata (Schreber) Fr. = Coelocaulon aculeatum
agnata (Nyl.) Kristinsson = Melanelia agnata
alaskana C. Culb. & Culb. = Cetrelia alaskana
andrejevii Oksner = Arctocetraria andrejevii
arborialis (Zahlbr. ) Howard = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
atlantica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Platismatia tuckermanii
aurescens Tuck. = Ahtiana aurescens
californica Tuck. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen = Vulpicida canadensis
chicitae Culb. = Cetrelia chicitae
chlorophylla (Willd.) Vainio = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
chrysantha Tuck. = Asahinea chrysantha
ciliaris Ach. = Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
ciliaris Ach. var. halei (Culb. & C. Culb.) Ahti = Tuckermannopsis americana
commixta (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Melanelia commixta
coralligera (W. A. Weber) Hale = Tuckermannopsis coralligera
crispa (Ach.) Nyl. = C. ericetorum subsp. ericetorum
cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. = Flavocetraria cucullata
culbersonii Hale = Melanelia culbersonii
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Nyl. = Cetrariella delisei
elenkinii Krog = Arctocetraria nigricascens
fahlunensis (L.) Schreber = Melanelia commixta
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Cetrariella fastigiata
fendleri (Nyl.) Tuck. = Tuckermannopsis fendleri
glauca (L.) Ach. = Platismatia glauca
halei Culb. & C. Culb. = Tuckermannopsis americana
hepatizon (Ach.) Vainio = Melanelia hepatizon
herrei Imshaug = Platismatia herrei
hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella delisei
idahoensis Essl. = Esslingeriana idahoensis
inermis (Nyl.) Krog = Tuckermannopsis inermis
juniperina (L.) Ach. = North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
lacunosa Ach. = Platismatia lacunosa
lacunosa Ach. var. atlantica Tuck. = Platismatia tuckermanii
merrillii Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia merrillii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin = Arctocetraria nigricascens
nivalis (L.) Ach. = Flavocetraria nivalis
norvegica (Lynge) Du Rietz = Platismatia norvegica
oakesiana Tuck. = Allocetraria oakesiana
orbata (Nyl.) Fink = Tuckermannopsis orbata
pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Gray = Vulpicida pinastri
platyphylla Tuck. = Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
polyschiza (Nyl.) Jatta = Melanelia hepatizon
richardsonii Hook. = Masonhalea richardsonii
scholanderi Llano = Asahinea scholanderi
scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
scutata auct. = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
sibirica H. Magn. = Arctocetraria nigricascens
simmonsii Krog = Arctocetraria andrejevii
stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Platismatia stenophylla
subalpina Imshaug = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
tilesii Ach. = Vulpicida tilesii
tuckermanii Oakes non Herre = Platismatia tuckermanii
tuckermanii Herre non Oakes = Platismatia herrei
viridis Schwein. = Vulpicida viridis
weberi Essl. = see Tuckermannopsis

catawbiense (Degel.) Culb. & C. Culb. = Everniastrum catawbiense

CETRARIELLA Kärnefelt & Thell
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria delisei
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syn.: Cetraria fastigiata

CETRELIA Culb. & C. Culb.
alaskana (C. Culb. & Culb.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria alaskana
cetrarioides (Duby) Culb. & C. Culb.
chicitae (Culb.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chicitae
monachorum (Zahlbr.) Culb. & C. Culb.
olivetorum (Nyl.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syns.: Parmelia olivetorum, P. olivaria

brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe sulphurea
brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.
cinerea (Pers.) Tibell
ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
floridana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
furfuracea (L.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe furfuracea
gracillima (Vainio) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe gracillima
hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hygrophila Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
laevigata Nádv.
olivaceorufa Vainio (Rikkinen 1998)
phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
servitii Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
sphaerocephala Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
stemonea (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr.
trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
xyloxena Nádv.
carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau = C. chlorella
gracilenta (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & Middelborg = Cybebe gracilenta
melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh = C. ferruginea
savonica (Räsänen) Tibell = Chaenothecopsis savonica
schaereri (De Not.) Zahlbr. = C. cinerea
sulphurea (Retz.) Middleborg & J.-E. Mattsson = C. brachypoda
trichialis var. cinerea (Pers.) Blomb. & Forss. = C. cinerea

+ asperopoda Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
* brevipes Tibell
* consociata (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt
+ debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell
+ edbergii Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
* epithallina Tibell
+ exilis Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ haematopus Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ irregularis Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ nana Tibell
+ norstictica R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
* ochroleuca (Körber) Tibell & K. Ryman (Selva & Tibell 1999)
* pilosa Tibell & Kalb (Harris 1995a)
# pusilla (Ach.) A. F. W. Schmidt Syns.: Calicium pusillum, C. floerkei, C. subpusillum, C. asikkalense
# pusiola (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Calicium pusiolum, Mycocalicium pusiolum
+ rappii (Nádv.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+ rubescens Vainio
*rubina Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+ savonica (Räsänen) Tibell Syns.: Mycocalicium savonicum, Chaenotheca savonica
+ sitchensis Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
* subparoica (Nyl.) Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+ tasmanica Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ thujae Rikkinen (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ tsugae Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
+ ussuriensis Titov (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
* viridialba (Kremp.) A. F. W. Schmidt
# viridireagens (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt
# lignicola (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt = C. pusiola
# subpusilla (Vainio) Tibell = C. pusilla

malmei Thor
ochroleucum Zahlbr.
subochroleucum Fink
inscriptum (Nyl.) Fink = Sclerophyton inscriptum
montagnaei Tuck. = Cryptothecia striata
perplexum Nyl. = Syncesia graphica (Tehler 1996)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Nyl. = Cryptothecia rubrocincta
sanguineum (Sw.) Vainio = Cryptothecia rubrocincta
sphaerale Ach. Misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)

* apobasidialis Cox (According to Diederich [1996, and pers. comm.], only non-lichenicolous specimens are known for North America, and the lichenicolous specimens from Europe may represent a distinct species.)

dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia dialyta (Marbach 2000)
pinastri (Erichsen) Marbach Syn.: Buellia pinastri (Marbach 2000)
rubifaciens (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia rubifaciens (Marbach 2000)

muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt var. muscorum Syn.: Microglaena muscorum
muscorum var. octospora (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syn.: Pyrenidium octosporum

testacea (Hoffm.) M. Choisy = Protoblastenia testacea , but not in North American flora.

candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lepraria candelaris, L. flava, L. citrina sens. lat.
chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: Lepraria chlorina

wheeleri (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia wheeleri (Marbach 2000)

bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan Syns: Lecanora thamnitis, L. bolanderi
thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner = C. bolanderi

arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & Culb. Syns.: Cladonia arbuscula, C. sylvatica auct.
arbuscula subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk.
ciliata (Stirton) Trass var. ciliata Syn.: Cladonia leucophaea
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cladonia tenuis
conspicua Ahti Syn.: Cladonia conspicua
evansii (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Cladonia evansii
mitis (Sandst.) Hustich Syns.: Cladonia mitis, Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis
portentosa (Dufour) Follmann Syn.: Cladonia impexa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladonia pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans (Ahti) Ahti
pseudoëvansii (Asah.) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Cladonia pseudoevansii
rangiferina (L.) Nyl. Syn.: Cladonia rangiferina
sandstedei (Abbayes) Ahti Syn.: Cladonia sandstedei
stellaris (Opiz) Brodo Syn.: Cladonia alpestris
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) Ahti Syns.: Cladonia aberrans, C. alpestris f. aberrans
stygia (Fr.) Ahti Syn.: Cladonia stygia
submitis (A. Evans) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Cladonia submitis
subtenuis (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Cladonia subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea (Ahti) Ahti
terrae-novae (Ahti) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Cladonia terrae-novae
aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. = C. stellaris var. aberrans
alpestris (L.) Nyl. = Cladina stellaris
beringiana (Ahti) Trass = C. arbuscula subsp. beringiana
ciliata (Stirton) Trass var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M. J. Lai = C. ciliata f. tenuis
impexa de Lesd. = C. portentosa
leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & Culb. = C. ciliata var. ciliata
pacifica (Ahti) Hale & Culb. = Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica
tenuis (Flörke) Hale & Culb. = C. ciliata var. tenuis

abbreviatula G. Merr.
acuminata (Ach.) Norrlin
alaskana A. Evans
albonigra Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
amaurocraea (Flörke) Schaerer
andereggii S. Hammer
anitae Culb. & C. Culb.
apodocarpa Robbins
artuata S. Hammer
asahinae J. W. Thomson
atlantica A. Evans
bacilliformis (Nyl.) Glück
beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio
bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaerer
borealis S. Stenroos
boryi Tuck.
botryocarpa G. Merr.
botrytes (K. Hagen) Willd.
brevis (Sandst.) Sandst.
buckii R. C. Harris
caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke
cariosa (Ach.) Sprengel
carneola (Fr.) Fr.
caroliniana Tuck.
cenotea (Ach.) Schaerer
cervicornis (Ach.) Flotow subsp. cervicornis
cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti
chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel
coccifera (L.) Willd.
coniocraea (Flörke) Sprengel
cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. cornuta
cornuta subsp. groenlandica (E. Dahl) Ahti
crispata (Ach.) Flotow var. crispata
crispata var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vainio
cristatella Tuck.
cryptochlorophaea Asah.
cyanipes (Sommerf.) Nyl.
cylindrica (A. Evans) A. Evans
dactylota Tuck.
dahliana Kristinsson
decorticata (Flörke) Sprengel
deformis (L.) Hoffm.
didyma (Fée) Vainio
didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vainio
digitata (L.) Hoffm.
dimorpha S. Hammer
dimorphoclada Robbins
ecmocyna Leighton subsp. ecmocyna
ecmocyna subsp. intermedia (Robbins) Ahti
ecmocyna subsp. occidentalis Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
extracorticata S. Hammer
farinacea (Vainio) A. Evans
fimbriata (L.) Fr.
firma (Nyl.) Nyl.
floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
floridana Vainio
furcata (Hudson) Schrader
furcata subsp. subrangiformis (Scriba ex Sandst.) Pisút
glauca Flörke
graciliformis Zahlbr.
gracilis (L.) Willd. subsp. gracilis
gracilis subsp. elongata (Jacq.) Vainio
gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti
gracilis subsp. vulnerata Ahti
granulans Vainio
grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst.
homosekikaica Nuno
humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon
hypoxantha Tuck.
imbricarica Kristinsson
incrassata Flörke
kanewskii Oksner
labradorica Ahti & Brodo
leporina Fr.
luteoalba Wheldon & A. Wilson
macilenta Hoffm.
macilenta var. bacillaris (Genth) Schaerer
macroceras (Delise) Hav.
macrophylla (Schaerer) Stenh.
macrophyllodes Nyl.
magyarica Vainio
mateocyatha Robbins
maxima (Asah.) Ahti
merochlorophaea Asah.
merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea Sipman
metacorallifera Asah.
multiformis G. Merr.
nana Vainio
nipponica Asah.
norvegica Tønsberg & Holien
novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
ochrochlora Flörke
pachycladodes Vainio
parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.
perforata A. Evans
perlomera Kristinsson
petrophila R. C. Harris
peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon
phyllophora Hoffm.
piedmontensis G. Merr.
pleurota (Flörke) Schaerer
pocillum (Ach.) Grognot
polycarpoides Nyl.
poroscypha S. Hammer
prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer
prostrata A. Evans
psoromica J. P. Dey
pulvinella S. Hammer
pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laundon
rappii A. Evans
ravenelii Tuck.
rei Schaerer
robbinsii A. Evans
santensis Tuck.
scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
schofieldii Ahti & Brodo (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
simulata Robbins
singularis S. Hammer
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio
squamosa Hoffm.
squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Vainio
strepsilis (Ach.) Grognot
stricta (Nyl.) Nyl.
subcariosa Nyl. (Ahti 2000)
subfurcata (Nyl.) Arnold
subradiata (Vainio) Sandst.
subsetacea Robbins ex A. Evans
subsquamosa Kremp.
subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg.
sulphurina (Michaux) Fr.
symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr. (Ahti 2000)
thiersii S. Hammer
thomsonii Ahti
transcendens (Vainio) Vainio
trassii Ahti (Ahti 1998)
turgida Hoffm.
uliginosa (Ahti) Ahti (Ahti 1998)
umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti
uncialis (L.) F. H. Wigg.
verruculosa (Vainio) Ahti
wainioi Savicz
aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb. = Cladina stellaris var. aberrans
acuminata var. norrlinii (Vainio) Lynge = C. acuminata var. acuminata
alpestris (L.) Rabenh. = Cladina stellaris
alpestris f. aberrans Abbayes = Cladina stellaris var. aberrans
alpicola (Flotow) Vainio = C. macrophylla
anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James = C. ramulosa
arbuscula (Wallr.) Flotow = Cladina arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Ruoss = Cladina mitis
bacillaris Nyl. = C. macilenta var. bacillaris
balfourii auct. = C. subradiata
balfourii Crombie = C. macilenta
blakei Robbins = C. coccifera
calycantha Delise ex Nyl. = C. rappii for North American records.
capitata (Michaux) Sprengel = C. peziziformis
carassensis Vainio = misidentifications for North America
clavulifera Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
conista A. Evans = C. humilis
conistea auct. = C. humilis
conoidea Ahti = C. humilis
cornutoradiata (Navás) Sandst. = C. subulata
degenerans (Flörke) Sprengel = C. phyllophora
delessertii Vainio = C. subfurcata
delicata auct. = C. parasitica
elongata auct. non (Jacq.) Hoffm. = largely misidentifications for North America, such as C. macroceras or C. maxima,
elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. = C. gracilis var. elongata
evansii Abbayes = Cladina evansii
flabelliformis Vainio = C. polydactyla
flavescens Vainio = misidentifications for North America
foliacea (Hudson) Willd. = misidentifications for North America
furcata subsp. subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata (fide T. Ahti)
gonecha (Ach.) Asah. = C. sulphurina
gracilescens auct. = C. stricta
gracilis subsp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti = C. gracilis subsp. elongata
herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick = C. furcata
hookeri Tuck. = C. bellidiflora
hookeri sensu J. W. Thomson = C. graciliformis
humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer = C. conista
impexa Harm. = Cladina portentosa
invisa Robbins = C. ochrochlora
japonica Vainio = C. crispata
lepidota auct. = C. stricta
leptothallina G. Merr. = C. peziziformis
leucophaea Abbayes = Cladina ciliata var. ciliata
linearis A. Evans = Gymnoderma lineare
macroptera Räsänen = C. scabriuscula (fide T. Ahti)
major (K. Hagen) Sandst. = C. fimbriata
mitis Sandst. = Cladina mitis
mitrula Tuck. = C. peziziformis
nanodes Robbins ex Sandst. = nom. invalid., identity uncertain
nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold = C. rei
norrlinii Vainio = C. acuminata var. acuminata
pacifica Ahti = Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica
papillaria (Ehrh.) Hoffm. = Pycnothelia papillaria
pityrea (Flörke) Fr. = C. ramulosa
polycarpia G. Merr. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polycarpoides Nyl. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polydactyla (Flörke) Sprengel = misidentifications for North America, mostly refers to C. umbricola (fide T. Ahti)
pseudodigitata Gyelnik = C. coccifera
pseudoevansii Asah. = Cladina pseudoevansii
pseudohondoensis Asah. = misidentifications for North America
pseudomacilenta Asah. = misidentifications for North America
pseudorangiformis Asah. = C. wainioi
pseudostellata Asah. = C. uncialis
psoromica J. P. Dey = C. dimorphoclada Robbins (Ahti 2000)
rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. = Cladina rangiferina
rangiformis Hoffm. = not in North America
rappii var. exilior (Abbayes) Ahti = C. rappii var. rappii
sandstedei Abbayes = Cladina sandstedei
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vezda = Cladina stellaris
stricta var. uliginosa Ahti = Cladonia uliginosa
stygia (Fr.) Ruoss = Cladina stygia
subcariosa auct. = C. polycarpoides
subcervicornis (Vainio) Kernst. = misidentifications for North America, known in Greenland
subclavulifera Asahina = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
submitis A. Evans = Cladina submitis
subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata
subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Crombie nom. illeg. = C. squamosa var. subsquamosa
subsubulata Nyl. = misidentifications for North America
subtenuis (Abbayes) Mattick = Cladina subtenuis
sylvatica auct. (nom. rej. prop.) = Cladina arbuscula
tenuis (Flörke) Harm. = Cladina ciliata
terrae-novae Ahti = Cladina terrae-novae
theiophila Asah. = C. vulcani, but not present in North America
verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
vulcani Savicz = misidentifications for North America
vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi = C. didyma var. vulcanica
yunnana (Vainio) Abbayes ex J. C. Wei & Y. M. Jiang (nom. inval.) = misidentifications for North America

isidiifera R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
subpungens (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
tetracerae (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
amygdalina sensu Fink = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a).
confinis Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)
diphloea Zahlbr. = Laurera megasperma
exiguella Zahlbr. = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a)
nuculastrum Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)

CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellem.
immersa (Hoffm.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syn.: Lecidea calcivora
monticola (Ach. ex Schaerer) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lecidea monticola, Protoblastenia monticola

macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold (Hertel 1991) Syn.: Lecanora morioides

CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
umbrinum (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium umbrinum

corrugatum (Ach.: Fr.) Fr.
flavidulum Hafellner & K. Kalb (Tønsberg 1998)
griffithii (Sm.) Coppins Syns.: Catillaria griffithii, C. tricolor auct.
leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg
pallens (Kullhem) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia pallens (Ekman 1997)
vitellinum Gowan
graniforme (K. Hagen) Coppins = C. corrugatum
luteolum Gowan (Gowan 1990) = C. leprosum

* grossum (Körber) D. Hawksw.
* hypocenomycis D. Hawksw.

domingensis Vainio
erythroxyli (Sprengel) Swinscow & Krog
palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D. J. Galloway
stellata Tuck. Syn.: Parmeliella stellata
asterella (Nyl.) Vainio = C. stellata
cronia (Tuck.) Vainio = C. palmicola
incisa Pers. = C. erythroxyli
parmelioides (Hook.) Tuck. ex M. A. Curtis = C. erythroxyli
pellita (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America, but known from Cuba & Mexico

maritimum Brodo
pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo Syns.: Ochrolechia pacifica, Perforaria minuta

aculeatum (Schreber) Link = Cetraria aculeata
divergens (Ach.) R. Howe = Bryocaulon divergens
muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon = Cetraria muricata
odontellum (Ach.) R. Howe = Cetraria odontella

disjunctum Nyl.
implexum Nyl.
interplexum Nyl.
interpositum Nyl.
linkii Ehrenb.
missouriense J. Davis
moniliforme Tuck.

auriforme (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon
bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. Syn.: Collemodes bachmanianum
callibotrys Tuck.
callopismum A. Massal.
callopismum var. rhyparodes (Nyl.) Degel.
ceraniscum Nyl.
coccophorum Tuck.
conglomeratum Hoffm.
conglomeratum var. corynesporum (Malme) Degel.
conglomeratum var. crassiusculum (Malme) Degel. Syn.: Synechoblastus pycnocarpus
crispum (Hudson) F. H. Wigg.
cristatum (L.) F. H. Wigg.
cristatum var. marginale (Hudson) Degel.
curtisporum Degel.
dichotomum (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon
fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Synechoblastus aggregatus
fecundum Degel.
flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Synechoblastus rupestris
fragrans (Sm.) Ach.
furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz
furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel.
fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laundon
glebulentum (Nyl. ex Crombie) Degel.
kauaiense H. Magn.
leptaleum Tuck.
limosum (Ach.) Ach.
multipartitum Sm.
nigrescens (Hudson) DC.
occultatum Bagl.
polycarpon Hoffm. Syns.: Synechoblastus polycarpus, S. wyomingensis
pulcellum Ach.
pulcellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel.
pulcellum var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel.
pustulatum Ach.
ryssoleum (Tuck.) A. Schneider
subflaccidum Degel.
subnigrescens Degel.
subparvum Degel.
tenax (Sw.) Ach.
tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel.
tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel.
tenax var. crustaceum (Kremp.) Degel.
tenax var. substellatum (H. Magn.) Degel.
texanum Tuck. Syn.: Synechoblastus texanus
thamnodes Riddle
undulatum Laurer ex Flotow
undulatum var. granulosum Degel.
arcticum Lynge = C. ceraniscum
auriculatum Hoffm. = C. auriforme
cheileum (Ach.) Ach. = C. crispum
cristatellum Tuck. = C. tenax
cyrtaspis Tuck. = C. conglomeratum var. crassiusculum
dubium de Lesd. = C. coccophorum
fayettense Fink = C. pustulatum
fluviatile (Hudson) Steudel = C. dichotomum
furvum (Ach.) Ach. = C. fuscovirens
glaucescens Hoffm. = C. limosum
granosum auct. = C. auriforme
laciniatum Nyl. = C. texanum
leucocarpum Hook. & Taylor = misidentifications for North America
leucopeplum (Tuck.) A. Schneider = C. pulcellum var. leucopeplum
microphyllum Ach. = C. fragrans
microptychium Tuck. = C. leptaleum
novomexicanum de Lesd. = C. coccophorum
nylanderianum Zahlbr. = C. texanum
ohioense (Fink) Zahlbr. = Collema conglomeratum Hoffm.
plicatile (Ach.) Ach. = Leptogium plicatile
pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. = C. tenax
pycnocarpum Nyl. = C. conglomeratum var. crassiusculum
rugosum Kremp. Syn.: C. subfurvum Not known from North America.
stenophyllum Nyl. = C. dichotomum
subfurfuraceum Degel. = C. furfuraceum var. luzonense
subfurvum sensu Degelius = C. subflaccidum Degel.
subfurvum (Müll. Arg.) Degel. = C. rugosum, but this taxon is not known from North America
tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. = C. fuscovirens
verruciforme auct. = excluded as doubtful

bachmanianum Fink = Collema bachmanianum

californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer = Schizopelte californica

gracilescens Willey
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Chaenotheca furfuracea
gracillima Vainio = Chaenotheca gracillima
nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold non Tuck. & Mont. = Sclerophora nivea
pallida (Pers.) Fr. = Sclerophora nivea
sulphurea (Retz.) Nyl. = Chaenotheca brachypoda

arenaria (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Vainio = Microcalicium arenarium

urceolatum (Ach.) Tuck.
albonigrum Zahlbr. = Ocellularia stictidea

pavonia (Sw.) Fr. = Dictyonema glabratum

viride (Ach.) Vainio = Omphalina hudsoniana

CORNICULARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
normoerica (Gunn.) Du Rietz
aculeata (Schreber) Ach. = Cetraria aculeata
californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia californica
divergens Ach. = Bryocaulon divergens
fibrillosa (Ach.) Halsey = Bryoria furcellata
muricata (Ach.) Ach. = Cetraria muricata
odontella (Ach.) Westend. = Cetraria odontella
pseudosatoana Asah. = Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum

* ciliata Kalb (Cole & Hawksw. 2001)
* intermedia Punith & D. Hawksw.
* lichenicola D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (Kalb et al. 1995)

CORTICIFRAGA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
* fuckelii (Rehm) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. Syn.: Phragmonaevia fuckelii
* peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

CRESPONEA Egea & Torrente
chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis chloroconia
flava (Vainio) Egea & Torrente (Harris 1995a)
leprieurii (Mont.) Egea & Torrente
premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis premnea
premnea var. saxicola (Leighton) Egea & Torrente
proximata (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente

CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
gossypina (Sw.) A. Massal.
pyxinoides Nyl.
aliciae Hue = Lepraria lobificans
americana de Lesd. = Lepraria lobificans
moxleyi Plitt = non-lichenized Septobasidium sp.
neglecta (Nyl.) Hue = Lepraria neglecta

carneolutea (Turner) A. Massal. Syns.: Gyalectina carneolutea, Gyalecta carneolutea

rubrocincta (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Thor Syns: Chiodecton rubrocinctum, C. sanguineum, Herpothallon sanguineum
striata Thor Syn.: Chiodecton montagnei

granuliformis (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Pyrenopsidium granuliforme
permiscens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Pyrenopsis phylliscina

americana Essl. (Esslinger 2000)

gracilenta (Ach.) Tibell Syn.: Chaenotheca gracilenta

bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Thelomma mammosum

brachysporum Nádv.
brunneum W. A. Weber
chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
inquinans (Sm.) Trevisan
karelicum (Vainio) Räsänen
lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forss.
pinicola Tibell
* sessile (Pers.) Trevisan
tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostrup) Erichsen
andersonii Herre = Thelomma californicum
caliciforme (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Thelomma occidentale for most North American records
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma californicum
carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma carolinianum
farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre = Thelomma californicum
occidentale Herre = Thelomma occidentale
ocellatum (Körber) Trevisan = Thelomma ocellatum
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Texosporium sancti-jacobi
tigillare subsp. notarisii (Tul.) W. A. Weber = C. notarisii
ventricosulum (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = C. inquinans

CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff (Diederich 1996)
* hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti (Diederich 1996)
* usneicola Diederich & Alstrup (Diederich 1996)

ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

* engeleana (Sauter) A. Massal. (Henssen 1995 and pers. comm.)
hookeri (Borrer) A. Massal.

arctica (Richardson) Nyl.
beringica C. D. Bird & J. W. Thomson (Treated as subsp. of D. arctica by Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
ramulosa (Hook.) Tuck.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck = Allocetraria madreporiformis

* amygdalariae Triebel
* athallina (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner Syn.: Karschia athallina
* attendenda (Nyl.) Arnold
* deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel
* glaucomarioides (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia glaucomarioidea
* inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia inquilina
* lobariella (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Buelliella nuttallii
* parasitica (Flörke ex Sprengel) Zopf (See note under Leciographa inspersa)
* parellaria (Nyl.) Arnold
* pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia pertusariicola
* porphyrea Hafellner & Kalb (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
* purpurascens Triebel
* saxatilis (Schaerer) Hafellner var. saxatilis Syn.: Buelliella saxatilis
* urceolata (Th. Fr.) Arnold Syn.: Leciographa urceolata

DEGELIA Arv. & D. J. Galloway
plumbea (Lightf.) P. M. Jørg. & P. James Syn.: Parmeliella plumbea

intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen Syns.: Leptogidium intricatulum, Polychidium intricatulum
umhausense (Auersw.) Degel. Syn.: Polychidium umhausense

* subeffusum Ellis & Everh.

alectoroides Sundin & Tehler (Sundin & Tehler 1996)
leucophaea (Tuck.) Darbish. Syn.: Roccella leucophaea
minor Darbish. = D. leucophaea (Tuck.) Darbish. (Sundin & Tehler 1996)

"pyrenocarpa" (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mycoporum compositum

catawbense (Willey) Nyl. = Dermiscellum catawbense

arnoldianum Degel.
intestiniforme (Körber) Hasse
linkolae Räsänen (Goward et al. 1996)
lorenzianum Anders
luridum (With.) J. R. Laundon
miniatum (L.) W. Mann
moulinsii (Mont.) Zahlbr.
reticulatum H. Magn.
rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
[Entosthelia saxicola de Lesd.]
vellereum Zschacke
acarosporoides Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. = D. luridum
arboreum (Schwein.) Fink = Placidium tuckermanii
cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
compactum (A. Massal.) Lettau = Catapyrenium compactum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium daedaleum
fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. = D. luridum
granulosum (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium granulosum
hepaticum auct. = Catapyrenium squamulosum
hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
heppioides Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. = Placidium lachneum
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse = Verrucaria lecideoides
lyngei Servít Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not U. S. or Canada
michelii (A. Massal.) Zwackh = Placidium michelii
novomexicanum ( de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr. = a sterile psoroid lichen; a misidentifcation for North America
plumbeum (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Verrucaria inficiens
polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. intestiniforme
rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Placidium rufescens
rupicola (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium compactum
squamellum (Nyl.) Herre = Catapyrenium squamellum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) Zahlbr. = Placidium tuckermanii
vagans Imshaug = D. reticulatum H. Magn.
waltheri (Kremp.) Blomb. & Forss. = Involucropyrenidium waltheri
weberi (Ach.) W. Mann = D. luridum
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Catapyrenium zahlbruckneri

DERMISCELLUM Hafellner, H. Mayrh. & Poelt
catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt Syn.: Dermatiscum catawbense

evernioides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina lacera
cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.) Trevisan = Vermilacinia ceruchis , but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
combeoides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia combeoides
homalea (Ach.) Mont. = Niebla homalea
peruviana (Ach.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina peruviana
testudinaria (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla homalea

absoluta (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl Syn.: Baeomyces absolutus
baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel Syn.: Baeomyces roseus
fungoides (Sw.) Kalb & Gierl = A tropical species, not in North America
rosea (Pers.) Clem. = D. baeomyces

glabratum (Sprengel) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Cora pavonia
moorei (Nyl.) Henssen
sericeum (Sw.) Berk.
guadalupense (Rabenh.) Zahlbr. = D. sericeum
irpicinum Mont. = misidentifications for North America
pavonium (Sw.) Parmasto = D. glabratum

* epicrassa (H. Olivier) Vouaux = Polycoccum epicrassum, but see note there

californica (H. Magn.) Sheard
oreina (Ach.) Norman Syns.: Rinodina oreina, R. hueana, R. novomexicana, R. suboreina
radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. (Matzer et al. 1996) Syns.: Buellia radiata, Rinodina radiata
thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Rinodina thysanota
weberi Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) Hale & Culb. = Mobergia angelica
chrysomelaena (de Lesd.) Hale & Culb. = Rinodina chrysomelaena
novomexicana (de Lesd.) Hale & Culb. = D. oreina
suboreina (de Lesd.) Hale & Culb. = D. oreina

lutea (Dickson) Trevisan
pineti (Ach.) Vezda
diluta (Pers.) Trevisan = D. pineti

canescens (Dickson) A. Massal. Syn.: Buellia canescens

actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Urceolaria actinostoma
aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch
arabiensis Lumbsch
badius Lumbsch & Elix
bisporus (Bagl.) J. Steiner
candidissimus (Kremp.) Zahlbr.
diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch Syn.: Urceolaria albissima
gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hypoleucus Zahlbr.
muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman Syn.: Urceolaria scruposa
albissimus (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. diacapsis
bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
canadensis Räsänen = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
straminescens Zahlbr. = D. hypoleucus

alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flotow Syns.: Buellia alboatra, Rhizocarpon alboatrum
ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey Syn.: Buellia ambigua
chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leighton) Szatala Syns.: Rhizocarpon chlorophaeum, Buellia chlorophaea
epipolium (Ach.) Arnold Syns.: Buellia epipolia, Rhizocarpon cumulatum
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 1995) Syn.: Buellia nivalis
penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala Syns.: Buellia penichra, Rhizocarpon penichrum
venustum (Körber) Körber Syn.: Buellia venusta

catalinariae Hasse
paradoxa (Fée) Tehler
approximata Zahlbr. subsp. hioramii (de Lesd.) Tehler = D. paradoxa
californica Tuck. = Sigridea californica
franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre = Roccellina franciscana
hassei Zahlbr. = Sigridea californica
rediunta Hasse = Schismatomma rediunta

DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
aegialita (Afz.) B. Moore Syn.: Physcia aspera
applanata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi
confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi
confusa D. D. Awasthi
confusa var. saxicola (Räsänen) D. D. Awasthi
frostii (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. Syns.: Physcia frostii, Pyxine frostii
leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi
papillulifera (Nyl.) D. D. Awasthi
picta (Sw.) Clem. & Shear Syns.: Physcia picta, Pyxine picta
purpurascens (Vainio) B. Moore
aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi = D. aegialita

* gemmiferum Vouaux = an uncertain species of Endococcus

americana Aptroot (Aptroot 1991)
pachyospora Aptroot (Harris 1995a)
quercicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

albiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium albisedum
ambigua (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium anisolobum
biformis (Borrer) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca (Steiner) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium distans
finkii R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium finkii
leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium aureopunctatum
nyssigena (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori
quaternaria R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium quaternarium
sanfordensis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium sanfordense
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium subprostans
tamarindii (Fée) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tamarindii
terminata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium terminatum
tuckerae (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tuckerae

madreporiformis (Ach.) Ach. = Allocetraria madreporiformis

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

intercedens Vezda
pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.

* aerophilum Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* reticulatum Zopf

EDRUDIA W. P. Jordan
constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jordan Syn.: Caloplaca constipans

EIGLERA Hafellner
flavida (Hepp) Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora flavida, Aspicilia flavida

adscendens (Anzi) Müll. Arg.
adsurgens Vainio
lepidallum Nyl.
pallidum Ach.
petrolepideum (Nyl.) Hasse
pulvinatum Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenothamnia brandegei, P. spraguei
pusillum Hedwig
subnitescens Nyl.
tortuosum Herre
drummondii (Tuck.) M. Choisy = Staurothele drummondii
monicae Zahlbr. = Staurothele monicae
* ochroleucum Tuck. = Heterocarpon ochroleucum
wilmsoides Zahlbr. = Staurothele drummondii

* buelliae (Dodge) Matzer (Matzer et al. 1996)
* perpusillus Nyl.
* propinquus (Körber) D. Hawksw.
* rugulosus Nyl.
* zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Ticothecium zahlbrucknerella

americanum de Lesd. = Catapyrenium compactum
bajadanae de Lesd. = Heteroplacidium acarosporoides
crustaceum de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
granulosum de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
novomexicanum de Lesd. = Heteroplacidium acarosporoides
plumbeum de Lesd. = Verrucaria inficiens
rupicola de Lesd. = Catapyrenium compactum

lecanoroides R. C. Harris Syn.: Schismatomma pallidellum auct.
quassiicola Fée
zonata (Körber) Källsten Syn.: Opegrapha zonata
carnea (Eckf.) R. C. Harris = Mazosia ocellata

intermedia Coppins Syn.: Pyrenula leucoplaca var. pluriloculata
parvispora R. C. Harris & Aptroot
leucoplaca (Wallr.) R. C. Harris = misidentifications for North America

americana Henssen
hispidula (Ach.) Horwood Syn.: Ephebeia hispidula
lanata (L.) Vainio
ocellata Henssen
perspinulosa Nyl.
solida Bornet

hispidula (Ach.) Nyl. = Ephebe hispidula

* sandstedei (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (Scholz 1998)
* simplex D. Hawksw.

* scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. ex Hafellner Syn.: Buellia scabrosa
* stellatus Triebel

mollissimum (Samp.) Du Rietz
pedicellatum (Hue) P. M. Jørg.
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.
boreale Ahlner = E. pedicellatum

idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria idahoensis

granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syns.: Pyrenopsis granatina, Lecanora granatina, Pannaria granatina
pulvinata (Schaerer) Nyl. Syn.: Pyrenopsis pulvinata

divaricata (L.) Ach.
mesomorpha Nyl.
perfragilis Llano
prunastri (L.) Ach.
esorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz Misidentifications for North America (Bird 1974)
furfuracea (L.) W. Mann = Pseudevernia consocians and P. intensa for North American records
thamnodes (Flotow) Arnold = E. mesomorpha
vulpina (L.) Ach. = Letharia vulpina

catawbiense (Degel.) Hale ex Sipman Syns.: Cetrariastrum catawbiense, Parmelia catawbiensis
sorocheilum (Vainio) Hale ex Sipman Syn.: Parmelia sorocheila. Reports may be E. catawbiense.

* flexispora D. Hawksw.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

hypocrita (A. Massal.) Frøberg Syns.: Lecidea hypocrita, L. lithospersa, L. ypocrita
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea jurana, L. albosuffusa, Tremolecia jurana, Melanolecia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea rhaetica, Melanolecia micropsis, Tremolecia nivalis, T. micropsis

* leucophylla (A. Gillet) M. T. Lange
* striatula (Kühner) Singer

aurantiaca (Vezda) Vezda Syn.: Bacidia aurantiaca
bouteillei (Desmaz.) Vezda Syn.: Catillaria bouteillei
floridana (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia floridana
subtilis (Vezda) Diederich & Sérusiaux (Goward et al. 1996)

vezdae (Coppins & P. James) Sérus. & Coppins (Tønsberg 1998)

almquistii (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina almquistii
geniculata (Hook. f & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina geniculata
inflata (Hook. f & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina inflata
minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina roesleri
scoparia (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina scoparia

FLAVOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & Thell
cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Cetraria cucullata, Allocetraria cucullata
nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & Thell Syns.: Cetraria nivalis, Allocetraria nivalis

baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale Syns.: Parmelia baltimorensis, Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia caperata, Pseudoparmelia caperata, P. cylisphora, P. flavicans, P. herreana, P. negativa
[Parmelia concreta Stizenb.]
rutidota (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rutidota, Pseudoparmelia rutidota, and P. conspersa var. subconspersa and Xanthoparmelia subconspersa for North American records.

darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Hale Syns.: Parmelia darrowi, Punctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Hale Syns.: Parmelia flaventior, P. andreana, P. kernstockii, Punctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesignis, P. incorrupta, P. caperata var. incorrupta, Punctelia praesignis
soredica (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia soredica, P. ulophyllodes, P. manshurica, Punctelia soredica


minnesotensis (Fink) Fink = a Lichinella sp.

FRUTIDELLA Kalb (Kalb 1994)
caesioatra (Schaerer) Kalb (Kalb 1994) Syn.: Lecidea caesioatra

FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not.
bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen subsp. bracteata Syn.: Caloplaca bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) Poelt
bracteata subsp. deformis Poelt
desertorum (Tomin) Poelt
fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin Syn.: Caloplaca fulgens

FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vezda
arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg
cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vezda Syns.: Lecidea cyathoides, L. rivulosa
[Lecidea gyrodes H. Magn.]
intercincta (Nyl.) Poelt
kochiana (Hepp) V. Wirth & Vezda Syn.: Lecidea kochiana
lightfootii (Sm.) Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996)
lowensis (H. Magn.) R. Anderson & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea lowensis. Very near or probably identical with F. lowensis is Lecidea aleutica Degel.
mollis (Wahlenb.) V. Wirth & Vezda Syn.: Lecidea mollis
praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vezda Syn.: Lecidea praeruptorum
pusilla Tønsberg
recensa (Stirton) Hertel, V. Wirth & Vezda Syns.: Lecidea recensa, L. arcuatula
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Brako Syn.: Phyllopsora subfilamentosa
subreagens (H. Magn.) Oberholl. & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecidea kochiana var. subreagens
thomsonii Brodo & Wirth (Brodo & Wirth 1998)
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis

ahlneri (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria ahlneri
alaskana P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000b)
aurita P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000b)
californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
cheiroloba (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b) Syn.: Parmeliella cheiroloba
confusa (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
coralloidea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
crustacea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000a)
hookerioides P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
incisa (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria laceratula
leprosa P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000b)
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria leucophaea, Parmeliella microphylla
leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucostictoides
maritima (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Synyonym: Pannaria maritima
mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria mediterranea
pacifica P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria praetermissa, Parmeliella praetermissa, P. lepidiota
pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria pulveracea
ramulina P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000b)
saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria saubinetii, Parmeliella saubinetii
sorediata P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000a)
thiersii P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited


catasema (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia catasema, B. caloosensis (Marbach 2000)
elizae (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia elizae (Marbach 2000)
subpulcella (Vainio) Marbach Syn.: Buellia subpulcella, B. pachnidisca (Marbach 2000)
vernicoma (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia vernicoma (Marbach 2000)

sychnogonioides Nitschke = Strigula sychnogonioides

GELTINGIA Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
* associata (Th. Fr.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Lecidea associata

rupicola (L.) M. Choisy = Lecanora rupicola

cicatricosa Ach.
achariana Tuck. = G. cicatricosa
confluens Zenker = G. cicatricosa
favulosa Ach. = G. cicatricosa

scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg. Syns.: Acarospora scabra, A. saxicola

americanus Essl.
calycioides (Duby) Nyl. (Buck 1998)

muscorum Zschacke
nadvornikii Servít = Sagediopsis barbara

cribellifera (Nyl.) Henssen = Lichinella cribellifera
melamphylla (Tuck.) Henssen = a Lichinella melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Henssen = a Lichinella minnesotensis
nigritella (Lettau) Henssen = Lichinella nigritella

hymnothora (Ach.) Aptroot Syns.: Verrucaria hymnothora, Microthelia hymnothora, Sphaeria bignoniae

acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg. According to Harris, North American reports may be G. xylophaga
anguina (Mont.) Müll. Arg.
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr.
babingtonii (Mont.) Zahlbr. Possibly misidentifications for North America
colliculosa (Mont.) Hale
columbina (Tuck.) M. Wirth & Hale Syn.: Phaeographina columbina
cypressi Müll. Arg.
floridana (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Graphis floridana
incrustans (Fée) Müll. Arg.
leuconephela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
marcescens (Fée) Müll. Arg.
parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.
peplophora M. Wirth & Hale
platyleuca (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris 1995a)
scolecitis (Tuck.) Fink North American records of G. adscribens belong here
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
subnitida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Possibly misidentifications for North America
substriatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
subvirginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
virginea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
xylophaga R. C. Harris
abaphoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis abaphoides
acrophaea Müll. Arg. = G. parilis
adscribens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = G. scolecitis for North American records
dimidiata (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = G. incrustans
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Acanthothecis intertexta
leprocarpa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema leprocarpum
mendax (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America
nitidescens (Nyl.) Riddle = G. incrustans
platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
plittii Zahlbr. = G. marcescens
subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Graphis subnitidula
virginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = G. columbina

afzelii Ach.
anfractuosa Eschw.
aperiens Müll. Arg.
botryosa Tuck.
caesiella Vainio
candidata Nyl.
chromothecia R. C. Harris
desquamescens (Fée) Zahlbr.
dumastioides Fink
elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach.
eulectra Tuck. Syn.: Phaeographis eulectra
glaucescens Fée
grammatis Fée
haleana R. C. Harris
illiterata R. C. Harris
insidiosa (C. Knight & Mitten) Hook. f.
intricata Fée
inversa R. C. Harris
leptocarpa Fée
leucopepla Tuck.
librata C. Knight
lineola Ach.
lucifica R. C. Harris
lumbricina Vainio
mosquitensis Tuck.
pavoniana Fée
platycarpella Müll. Arg.
poitaeoides Nyl.
rimulosa (Mont.) Trevisan
rufula (Trevisan) Mont.
saxorum Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1997)
scripta (L.) Ach.
striatula (Ach.) Sprengel
subamylacea Zahlbr.
subelegans Nyl.
subnitidula Nyl. Syn.: Graphina subnitidula
subparilis Nyl.
tenella Ach.
turbulenta Nyl.
atrorubens Tuck. ex Fink = Opegrapha longissima
beaumontii Tuck. = G. insidiosa
celtidis Müll. Arg. = G. librata
floridana Tuck. = Graphina floridana
intertexta Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis intertexta
nitida (Eschw.) Tuck. = Medusulina nitida

* aphthosae Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (see Appendix)

erythrozona Lettau
flotowii Körber
foveolaris (Ach.) Schaerer
friesii Flotow ex Körber
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Secoliga geoica
herrei Vezda
jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr.
kukriensis (Räsänen) Räsänen
peziza (Mont.) Anzi
truncigena (Ach.) Hepp
carneolutea (Turner) H. Olivier = Cryptolechia carneolutea
radiatilis Tuck. = Skyttea radiatilis

filicinum Müll. Arg.
yahriae Buck & Sérus. (Buck & Sérusiaux 2000)
rotuliforme Müll. Arg. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme
carneolutea (Turner) Vezda = Cryptolechia carneolutea

GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vezda
hyalinescens (Nyl.) Vezda
lecideopsis (A. Massal.) Lettau ex Vezda
lecideopsis var. eucarpa (Servít) Vezda
lecideopsis var. kurdistanica (Steiner) Vezda
roseola (Arnold) Lettau (Brodo 1995)
dodgei Vezda = G. hyalinescens
lecideopsis var. convarians (Nyl.) Vezda = G. lecideopsis var. eucarpa

anastomosans P. James & Vezda
athalloides (Nyl.) Vezda
floridae Etayo & Diederich (Etayo & Diederich 2001)
muscicola P. James & Vezda (Tønsberg 1998)
piceicola (Nyl.) Vezda
vainioi Kalb & Vezda
alnicola W. Noble & Vezda = G. piceicola

lineare (A. Evans) Yoshim. & Sharp Syn.: Cladonia linearis

macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal

angulata (Tuck.) Herre = Umbilicaria angulata
anthracina (Wulfen) Körber = Umbilicaria rigida
arctica Ach. = Umbilicaria arctica
cylindrica (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. = Umbilicaria decussata
deusta (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria deusta
dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Umbilicaria mammulata
erosa (G. Weber) Ach. = Umbilicaria torrefacta
hyperborea Ach. = Umbilicaria hyperborea var. hyperborea
muehlenbergii Ach. = Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. = Umbilicaria phaea
polyphylla (L.) Fink = Umbilicaria polyphylla
polyrrhiza (L.) Körber = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza
vellea (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria vellea

scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

accolens (Stirton) Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
americanum Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
fenzlianum Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
flexuosum Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
ochroleucum (Necker) J. R. Laundon var. porphyrium (Pers.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: H. porphyrium
persoonii (Fée) Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
rufidulum (Fée) Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
subpuniceum (Müll. Arg.) de Lesd.
californicum Sigal & D. Toren = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman 1995)
caesium Coppins & P. James = Mycoblastus caesius
cismonicum Beltr. = Loxospora cismonica
coccineum (Dickson) Körber = misidentifications for North America
elatinum (Ach.) A. Massal. = Loxospora elatina
lapponicum Räsänen = Ophioparma lapponica
ochrophaeum (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Loxospora ochrophaea
pacificum Hasse = Ophioparma rubricosa (Staiger & Kalb 1995, Ekman 1996)
porphyrium (Pers.) Zopf = H. ochroleucum var. porphyrium
puniceum auct. North America = H. persoonii
pustulatum Brodo & Culb. = Loxospora pustulata
rappii Zahlbr. = Schismatomma rappii
subpuniceum (Fée) de Lesd. = H. fenzlianum
ventosum (L.) A. Massal. = Ophioparma lapponica for North American records

HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrh. & Scheid.
bahiana (Malme) Sheard Syn.: Buellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotropa (Malme) Sheard
callispora (C. Knight) H. Mayrh. & Sheard Syn.: Buellia callispora
disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer Syns.: Buellia disciformis, B. parasema (Marbach 2000)
fosteri Imshaug & Sheard
parastata (Nyl.) Kalb Syns.: Buellia blasteniospora, B. rinodinospora

HAFELLNERA Houmeau & Roux
parasemella (Nyl.) Houmeau & Roux Syn.: Lecidea parasemella

alpivaga (Th. Fr.) M. Mayrh. Syns.: Lecania alpivaga, L. thallophila
viridescens Coppins & P. James

nashii Scheidegger (Schultz et al. 2000)
glaucophanum (Hasse) Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana

HASSEA Zahlbr.
bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

* peltigericola (D. Hawks.) U. Braun

leprevostii Fée

crassipes Th. Fr. Syns.: Lecidea crassipes, Micarea crassipes

adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.
conchiloba Zahlbr.
lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Solorinaria despreauxii
alumenensis Herre Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Peltula bolanderi
deserticola Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. deserticola
despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. = H. lutosa
euploca (Ach.) Vainio = Peltula euploca
guepinii (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca
hassei Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. hassei
leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
macrospora de Lesd. = H. conchiloba
placodizans Zahlbr. = Peltula placodizans.
planescens Nyl. Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
polyphylla de Lesd. = Peltula euploca
polyspora Tuck. = Peltula patellata
psammophila Nyl. = misidentifications for North America
richardsii Herre = Peltula richardsii
terrena Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
tortuosa (Nees) Vainio = Peltula tortuosa
virescens (Despr.) Nyl. = H. lutosa
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Peltula zahlbruckneri

sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler = Cryptothecia rubrocincta

alaskensis (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia alaskensis, Lecidea alaskensis (Ekman 1996)

* ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Endocarpon ochroleucum

leucampyx (Tuck.) Vainio

albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog Syns.: Anaptychia domingensis, A. ravenelii
appalachensis (Kurok.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia appalachensis
barbifera (Nyl.) K. P. Singh
boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh Syns.: Anaptychia boryi, A. neoleucomelaena
casarettiana (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia casarettiana
chondroidea W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia chondroidea
comosa (Eschw.) Follm. & Redón (Harris 1995b)
crocea R. C. Harris North American reports of H. corallophora belong here
dendritica (Pers.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia diademata
echinata (Taylor) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Anaptychia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Culb. Syns.: Anaptychia comosa (for North American records), A. galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia granulifera
hypoleuca (Muhl.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia hypoleuca
japonica (Sato) Swinscow & Krog
leucomela (L.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia "leucomelaena"
microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa
namaquana Brusse (Esslinger & Bratt 1998)
obscurata (Nyl.) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia heterochroa, A. hypoleuca var. colorata, A. obscurata, A. sorediifera
podocarpa (Bél.) Awasthi (Moberg & Nash 1999)
propagulifera (Vainio) J. P. Dey
pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa
rugulosa (Kurok.) Wetmore
sitchensis Goward & W. Noble
speciosa (Wulfen) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans, A. speciosa
squamulosa (Degel.) Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia squamulosa
tropica (Kurok.) Kurok. Syn.: Anaptychia tropica (Kurokawa 1998)
corallophora (Taylor) Skorepa = H. crocea for North American reports
domingensis (Ach.) Trevisan = H. albicans
leucomelaena (L.) Poelt = H. leucomela
neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón = H. boryi
tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Culb. = H. speciosa

HETEROPLACIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
congestum (Breuss & McCune) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium congestum
podolepis (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium podolepis
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides

* christiansenii B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw.

* dermatocarpae Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* parmeliana (Jacz.) Vouaux (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* piggotii (Berk. & Broome) P. Karst.

HUBBSIA W. A. Weber (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber Syn.: Reinkella californica
parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Lohtander, Myllys & Sundin
lumbricoides W. A. Weber = H. californica

albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel = Porpidia albocaerulescens
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia cinereoatra
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia crustulata
elegantior ( H. Magn.) Hertel = Amygdalaria elegantior
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel = Porpidia flavocaerulescens
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia glaucophaea
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
melinodes (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia melinodes
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel = Amygdalaria panaeola
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel = Porpidia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Hertel = Porpidia soredizodes
superba (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia superba
tuberculosa (Sm.) P. James = Porpidia tuberculosa

venosa J. L. Russell

arctica (Lynge) Lutzoni Syn.: Ionaspis arctica
ceracea (Arnold ) Poelt & Vezda (Status uncertain)
epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis epulotica, Lecanora epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis heteromorpha, I. annularis, I. ochracella, I. reducta, I. schismatopis
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold Syn.: Ionaspis melanocarpa
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis ochromicra, I. rhodopis
lacustris (With.) M. Choisy = Ionaspis lacustris
ochrolemma (Vainio) Gowan & Ahti (Gowan & Ahti 1993) = Porpidia ochrolemma
prevostii (Duby) Kremp. = H. epulotica

adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syns.: Physcia adglutinata, P. elaeina, Physciopsis adglutinata, P. elaeina
minor (Fée) D. D. Awasthi Syns.: Physcia minor, Physciopsis minor
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb Syns.: Physcia syncolla, Physciopsis syncolla

castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal
friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea friesii, Psora friesii
leucococca R. Sant.
oligospora Timdal (Timdal 2001)
praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal
scalaris (Ach.) M. Choisy Syns.: Lecidea scalaris, L. ostreata, Psora scalaris, P. ostreata
sierrae Timdal (2001)
sorophora (Vainio) P. James & Poelt
xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea xanthococca
anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Biatora anthracophila

apinnata Goward & McCune
austerodes (Nyl.) Räsänen Syn.: Parmelia austerodes
bitteri (Lynge) Ahti Syn.: Parmelia bitteri
duplicata (Ach.) Rass.
enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl.
farinacea Zopf
heterophylla L. Pike
imshaugii Krog
inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson
krogiae Ohlsson
lugubris (Pers.) Krog
metaphysodes (Asah.) Rass.
mollis L. Pike & Hale
occidentalis L. Pike
oceanica Goward
physodes (L.) Nyl. Syns.: Parmelia duplicata var. douglasicola, P. physodes, P. oregana
pulverata (Nyl. ex Crombie) Elix
rugosa (G. Merr.) L. Pike
subcapitata (Nyl.) Rass.
subobscura (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Parmelia subobscura
subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson (McCune & Rosentreter 1997)
tubulosa (Schaerer) Hav. Syn.: Parmelia tubulosa
vittata (Ach.) Parrique Syn.: Parmelia vittata
atrofusca (Schaerer) Räsänen = Brodoa atrofusca, but North American reports are misidentifications
bitteriana Räsänen = H. farinacea
elongata (Hillm.) Rass. = H. duplicata
encausta (Sm.) Walter Watson = Brodoa intestiniformis (but see below)
intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen = Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American records are misidentifications of, e.g., Brodoa oroarctica
oroarctica Krog = Brodoa oroarctica
pseudophysodes (Asah.) Rass. North American reports are H. oceanica

costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale (Harris 1993a)
croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia croceopustulata
dactylifera (Vainio) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia densirhizinata
dentella (Hale & Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dentella
ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ensifolia, P. lobulifera var. insensitiva
gondylophora (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia gondylophora
imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia imbricatula, P. lobulifera, P. lobulifera var. luteoreagens
laevigata (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigata
livida (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia livida
oostingii (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia oostingii
osseoalba (Vainio) Park & Hale Syns.: Parmelia formosana
polydactyla (Krog & Swinscow) T. Nash
producta Hale Syn.: Parmelia producta
prolongata (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia prolongata, P. lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens, P. rachista
pseudosinuosa (Asah.) Hale
pulvinata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia pulvinata
pustulifera (Hale) Skorepa Syn.: Parmelia pustulifera
revoluta (Flörke) Hale Syn.: Parmelia revoluta
riparia McCune (McCune 1998a)
rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia rockii
showmanii Hale
sinuosa (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sinuosa
subsaxatilis (de Lesd.) Hale
thysanota (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia thysanota
taylorensis (M. E. Mitch.) Hale (Groner & Dietrich 1996)
virginica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia virginica
formosana (Zahlbr.) Hale = H. osseoalba
rachista (Hale) Hale = H. prolongata

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr.

* carneum Fr.
* corallinum Roberge = Marchandiomyces corallinus

IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschmann
athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.
carbonoidea (J. W. Thomson) Esnault & Roux Syn.: Lecidea carbonoidea

aleurites (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis aleurites
placorodia (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis placorodia

INVOLUCROPYRENIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
waltheri (Kremp.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium waltheri

alba Lutzoni
annularis H. Magn. (Thomson 1997)
lacustris (With.) Lutzoni Syn.: Hymenelia lacustris
lavata H. Magn. Syn.: Lecanora lavata
odora (Ach.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
suaveolens (Fr.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
arctica Lynge = Hymenelia arctica
chrysophana (Körber) Stein = I. suaveolens
epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia heteromorpha
epulotica var. arctica (Lynge) H. Magn. = Hymenelia arctica
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia melanocarpa
ochracella (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
ochromicra (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia rhodopis
reducta H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia rhodopis
schismatopis (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia heteromorpha
spitsbergensis H. Magn. = nom. invalidum

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

JAPEWIA Tønsberg
subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg
tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg Syns.: Lecidea tornoënsis, Mycoblastus tornoënsis
carrollii (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Printzen & Tønsberg 2000)

JARXIA D. Hawksw. (Harris 1995a)
ilicicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
thelenula R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

+ asema R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
dispora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis dispora
fallaciosa (Arnold) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
geminella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis rappii
+ lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)
sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Clathroporina exiguella, C. amygdalina
+ taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
variiformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+ vitrispora (Cooke & Harkness) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)
sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins Not in North America (Harris 1995a)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

KAERNEFELTIA Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996)
californica (Tuck.) Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.: Alectoria californica, A. cetrariza, Cetraria californica, Cornicularia californica
merrillii (Du Rietz) Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.:Cetraria merrillii, Tuckermannopsis merrillii

* inops Triebel & Rambold
* athallina (Müll. Arg.) Vouaux = Dactylospora athallina

athallina (Hepp) Hafellner = Toninia athallina
philippea (Mont.) Hafellner = Toninia philippea

KIRSCHSTEINIOTHELIA D. Hawksw. Omitted as a totally saprophytic genus

biformis A. Massal.
sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen Syn.: Pannaria sonomensis

wimmeriana (Körber) Stein

complicatula (Nyl.) Schatz Syns.: Mastodia tesselata, Turgidosculum complicatulum

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

*lecanoricola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) D. Hawksw.

fueistingii Körber = Arthrorhaphis grisea

papulosa (Ach.) Llano Syns.: Umbilicaria pustulata var. papulosa, U. papulosa
pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano Syn.: Umbilicaria pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Mérat Syn.: Umbilicaria pustulata
pustulata subsp. papulosa (Ach.) W. A. Weber = L. papulosa

LAUDERLINDSAYA J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997)
Lauderlindsaya borreri (Leighton) R. Sant. (McCune 1997)

megasperma (Mont.) Riddle Syns.: Campylothelium nitidum, Clathroporina diphloea
subdisjuncta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle = Bathelium madreporiforme (Harris 1995a)
varia (Fée) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America

abietina (Ach.) Körber
[Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Fink]
dubia G. Merr.
epileuca (Nyl.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha subattingens, Schismatomma subattingens
salicina Zahlbr.
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Arnold = Lecanographa amylacea
californica Tuck. = Sigridea californica
chloroconia Tuck. = Cresponea chloroconia
* grumulosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa grumulosa
illicebrosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa amylacea
megaspora (G. Merr.) Brodo = L. abietina
nashii Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa hypothallina
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio = Bactrospora patellarioides
premnea (Ach.) Arnold = Cresponea premnea
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = L. epileuca
subdryophila Follmann & Vezda = Lecanographa subdryophila
zahlbruckneri Herre = Sigridea californica

LECANIA A. Massal.
brunonis (Tuck.) Herre
californica (Zahlbr.) Fink
constricta W. A. Weber
cuprea (A. Massal.) v. d. Boom & Coppins Syn.: Bacidia cuprea, B. cupreorosella,
cyathiformis Szatala (Tavares et al. 1997)
cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr.
disceptans (Nyl.) Lynge
dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
dudleyi Herre
erysibe (Ach.) Mudd
flavescens Lynge (Thomson 1996)
fructigena Zahlbr.
fuscella (Schaerer) Körber
[Catillaria groenlandica Lynge]
hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble Syn.: Solenopsora hassei
naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & v. d. Boom Syn.: Bacidia naegelii (Ekman 1996)
nylanderiana A. Massal.
pepegospora H. Magn.
perproxima (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
shastensis Herre
stigmatella (Tuck.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syn.: Bacidia stigmatella
subcaesia (Nyl.) de Lesd.
subdispersa (Nyl.) Hasse
subfuscula (Nyl.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syn.: Bacidia subfuscula
toninioides Zahlbr.
turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg.
albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = L. turicensis
alpivaga Th. Fr. = Halecania alpivaga
arctica Lynge = Caloplaca diphyodes
cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. = L. cyrtella (Santesson 1993)
curvescens (Mudd) A. L. Sm. = Bryonora curvescens
dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = L. dubitans
syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. fuscella
tenera (Nyl.) Clauzade & Roux = Lecanora tenera
thallophila H. Magn. = Halecania alpivaga

LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Lecanactis amylacea, L. illecebrosa, Opegrapha illecebrosa
dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis dimelaenoides
* grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Opegrapha diaphoroides, Lecanactis grumulosa, but questionable for North America
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum, Opegrapha hypothallina, O. hassei, Lecanactis nashii
subdryophila (Follmann & Vezda) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis subdryophila

achroides Vainio
actophila Wedd.
alaskensis H. Magn.
albella (Pers.) Ach. var. albella
albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch
albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostrup
albula (Nyl.) Hue
aleutica H. Magn.
allophana Nyl.
anoptiza Nyl.
apochraeoides Vainio
applegatei Herre
argentata (Ach.) Malme
argentea Oksner & Volkova
argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
atrosulphurea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
beringii Nyl. ("behringii")
bicincta Ramond
bipruinosa Fink
boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl.
brodoana Lumbsch & T. Nash
[Parmularia brouardii de Lesd.]
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. Syns.: Lecidea cadubriae, L. ramulicola
caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
caesiorubella subsp. glaucomodes (Nyl.) Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (Fink) R. C. Harris
caesiorubella subsp. saximontana Imshaug & Brodo
caesiosulphurea Vainio
californica Brodo
campestris (Schaerer) Hue
canadensis Lynge & H. Magn.
carpinea (L.) Vainio
cateilea (Ach.) A. Massal.
[Lecidea caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
cavicola Creveld (Nash et al. 1998)
cenisia Ach.
chlarotera Nyl.
chlorophaeodes Nyl.
cinereofusca H. Magn. var. cinereofusca
cinereofusca var. appalachensis Brodo
circumborealis Brodo & Vitik.
cladonioides Lynge
collatolica J. W. Thomson & T. Nash
comonduensis T. Nash & Hertel (Nash & Hertel 1997)
confusa Almb.
congesta Lynge
conizaeoides Nyl. ex Crombie
contractula Nyl.
crenulata Hook.
crustacea (Savicz) Zahlbr. (Ryan & Nash 1997b)
cupressi Tuck.
deplanans Nyl.
discoënsis Lynge
dispersa (Pers. ) Sommerf.
dispersoareolata (Schaerer) Lamy
elmorei E. D. Rudolph
epanora (Ach.) Ach.
epibryon (Ach.) Ach.
expallens Ach.
farinaria Borrer
floridula Lumbsch
flowersiana H. Magn.
fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecidea fuscescens
fuscidula Degel.
gangaleoides Nyl.
garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr.
geophila (Th. Fr.) Poelt
glabrata (Ach.) Malme
glaucopsina Nyl.
granulifera (Ach.) Nyl.
groenlandica Lynge
gyalectodes Nyl.
gypsicola St. Clair & Newberry (Rajvanshi et al. 1998)
hagenii (Ach.) Ach.
helicopis (Wahlenb.) Ach. (identification uncertain)
horiza (Ach.) Lindsay
hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo
hypopta (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Lecidea hypopta
hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
impudens Degel.
imshaugii Brodo
insignis Degel.
intricata (Ach.) Ach.
intumescens (Rebent.) Rabenh.
iowensis Fink
jamesii Laundon (Tønsberg 1998)
kariana Räsänen
kofae B. D. Ryan & T. Nash
laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt
leprosa Fée
leptacina Sommerf.
leptacinella Nyl.
lividolutea Räsänen
louisianae de Lesd.
luteovernalis Brodo
marginata (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea marginata, L. elata, L. purissima. See note under "Lecidea amylacea."
maxima Lynge
mazatzalensis B. D. Ryan & T. Nash
melaena (Hedl.) Fink
mellea W. A. Weber
meridionalis H. Magn.
microbola Lamb
microfusca Lynge
miculata Ach.
minutella Nyl.
monticola H. Magn.
mughicola Nyl.
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. Syn.: Protoparmeliopsis muralis
muralis var. brunneola (Mereschk.) Ryan & Nash (Nash et al. 1998)
muralis var. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck.
neoalbomarginata Gyelnik
nigromarginata H. Magn.
nordenskioeldii Vainio
novae-semliae Zahlbr.
novomexicana H. Magn. Syn.: Parmularia novomexicana
olivaceopallida H. Magn.
opiniconensis Brodo
orae-frigidae R. Sant.
oreinoides (Körber) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea oreinodes, L. tennessensis, L. tesselina
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea orosthea
pacifica Tuck. Syn.: L. tetraspora
permutata Zahlbr.
perplexa Brodo
persimilis (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
phaedrophthalma Poelt
phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. Syn.: Lecidea phaeophora
phryganitis Tuck.
pinguis Tuck.
piniperda Körber
placidensis (Magnusson) Knoph, Leuckert & Rambold (Knoph & Leuckert 1994) Syns.: Lecidea placidensis, Lecidella placidensis, Fuscidea placidensis
plumosa Müll. Arg. (Nash et al. 1998)
poliophaea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
poluninii Lynge
polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh.
populicola (DC.) Duby
praecrenata Nyl.
pringlei (Tuck.) Lamb Syns.: Lecidea pringlei
pseudistera Nyl.
pseudomellea B. D. Ryan
pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.
reagens Norman
rubicunda Bagl.
rugosella Zahlbr.
rupicola (L.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Glaucomaria rupicola, G. sordida
salicicola H. Magn.
saligna (Schrader) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecanoropsis saligna
salina H. Magn.
sambuci (Pers.) Nyl.
scotopholis (Tuck.) Timdal Syns.: Lecidea scotopholis, Psorula scotopholis
semitensis Tuck.
sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. Nash
sipeana H. Magn.
sophodopsella Nyl.
stenospora Stizenb. Syn.: Acarospora stenospora
straminea Ach.
strobilina (Sprengel) Kieffer
subaurea Zahlbr.
subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach.
subimmergens Vainio
subintricata (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
subrugosa Nyl.
sulphurea (Hoffm.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea sulphurea
swartzii (Ach.) Ach. (Nash et al. 1998)
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea symmicta
tenera (Nyl.) Crombie
texana W. A. Weber
thallophila H. Magn.
thomsonii H. Magn.
thysanophora Harris (Harris 2000)
torrida Vainio
tristiuscula H. Magn.
umbrina (Ach.) A. Massal.
umbrosa Degel.
utahensis H. Magn.
valesiaca (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.
varia (Hoffm.) Ach.
varia subsp. densa Sliwa & Wetmore (Sliwa & Wetmore 2000)
varia subsp. laxa Sliwa & Wetmore (Sliwa & Wetmore 2000)
vegae Malme
victoriae (F. Wilson) Tibell (Nash et al. 1998)
viriduloflava de Lesd.
weberi B. D. Ryan
willeyi Tuck.
wisconsinensis H. Magn.
xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt
xylophila Hue
zosterae (Ach.) Nyl.
albomarginata (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia albomarginata
albopruinosa Looman = an Aspicilia sp.
alboradiata H. Magn. = Aspicilia alboradiata
aliena Zahlbr. = Aspicilia aliena
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Ach. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina Sommerf. = Bellemerea alpina
americana (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia americana
annulata Lynge = Aspicilia annulata
anseris Lynge = Aspicilia anseris
aquatica (Körber) Hepp = Aspicilia aquatica
arctica Lynge = Aspicilia arctica
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) W. A. Weber = Omphalora arizonica
atra (Hudson) Ach. = Tephromela atra
atriseda (Fr.) Nyl. = Protoparmelia atriseda
atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. = Lecanora cenisia
badia (Hoffm.) Ach. = Protoparmelia badia
basaltica Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. = Rimularia gibbosa
bolanderi Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr. = Aspicilia caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia caesiopruinosa
caesiorubella Ach. subsp. lathamii Imshaug & Brodo = L. caesiorubella subsp. prolifera
calcarea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia calcarea
cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vainio = L. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
candida (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia candida
cascadensis H. Magn. = L. garovaglii
castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. = Bryonora castanea
chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
chloropolia (Erichsen) Almb. = L. impudens for most North American records
christoi W. A. Weber = L. phaedrophthalma
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
cingulata Zahlbr. = Aspicilia cingulata
circinata (Pers.) Ach. = Lobothallia radiosa
coilocarpa auct. = L. circumborealis
coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
composita Lynge = Aspicilia composita
concinna J. W. Thomson = an Aspicilia sp.
conizaea auct. = L. strobilina
conizaea (Ach.) Nyl. ex Crombie = L. expallens
contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner = Aspicilia contorta
degelii Schauer & Brodo = L. cinereofusca var. cinereofusca
demissa (Körber) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca demissa
desertorum Kremp. = Aspicilia desertorum
diffracta Ach. = L. muralis
diphasia Tuck. = Caloplaca diphasia
disserpens (Zahlbr.) H. Magn. = Aspicilia disserpens
distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. = L. populicola
effusa (Hoffm.) Ach. = L. saligna
elevata Lynge = Aspicilia elevata
epulotica (Ach.) Nyl. = Hymenelia epulotica
eyerdamii Herre = L. xylophila
fimbriata H. Magn. = Aspicilia fimbriata
flavida Hepp = Eiglera flavida
flavopunctata Tønsberg = Biatora flavopunctata
floridana Tuck. = Caloplaca floridana
frustulosa (Dickson) Ach. = L. argopholis for North American records excluding Greenland
fuliginosa Brodo = L. argentea
galactinula Vainio = L. pseudistera
gelida (L.) Ach. = Placopsis gelida
gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Aspicilia gibbosa
gibbosula H. Magn. = Aspicilia gibbosa
glaucomela Tuck. = Pertusaria glaucomela
glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana
granatina Sommerf. = Euopsis granatina
grandis H. Magn. = Protoparmelia badia
grantii H. Magn. = L. xylophila
haydenii Tuck. = Rhizoplaca haydenii
heteroplaca Zahlbr. = Aspicilia heteroplaca
holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. = Solenopsora holophaea
hypospilota Vainio = L. oreinoides
incusa (Fr.) Vainio = L. demissa
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
lacustris (With.) Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris
laevata (Ach.) Nyl. = Aspicilia laevata
laevis Poelt = L. horiza, but N. American records are L. xylophila
lavata (H. Magn.) Fink = Ionaspis lavata
lentigera (Weber) Ach. = Squamarina lentigera
lesleyana (Darbish.) Paulson = Aspicilia lesleyana
limitata H. Magn. = Aspicilia limitata
marginalis Hasse = Rhizoplaca marginalis
mastoidea Lynge = Aspicilia mastoidea
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Ach. (Wetmore 1967) = Aspicilia mastrucata
melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. = Lobothallia melanaspis
melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond = Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
mniaroeiza Nyl. = Rinodina mniaroeiza
morioides (Blomb. ex Arnold) Blomb. = Clauzadeana macula
mutabilis Sommerf. = L. intricata
mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. = Megaspora verrucosa
myrinii (Fr.) Tuck. = Aspicilia myrinii
narssaquensis Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
nephaea Sommerf. = Protoparmelia nephaea
nikrapensis (Darbish.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia nikrapensis
nevadensis H. Magn. = L. garovaglii
novomexicana de Lesd. = identity uncertain
occidentalis (Lynge) Lynge = L. argopholis
ochrococca (Nyl.) Clauzade & Roux = Protoparmelia ochrococca
oregana Tuck. = L. argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
pachythallina Lynge = L. geophila
palanderi Vainio = L. zosterae
pallida (Schreber) Rabenh. var. pallida = L. albella var. albella
pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo = L. albella var. rubescens
parisiensis Nyl. = L. horiza
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Sommerf. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
peltata (Ramond) Steudel = Rhizoplaca peltata
pergibbosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia pergibbosa
perradiata Nyl. = Aspicilia perradiata
pertusa Lynge = Aspicilia pertusa
phaeobola Tuck. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
pinastri (Schaerer) H. Magn. = L. pulicaris
plicigera Zahlbr. = Aspicilia plicigera
polychroma (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia polychroma
praeradiosa Nyl. = Lobothallia praeradiosa
pruinosa Chaub. Not in North America
pseudochlarotera Brodo = L. hybocarpa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Lobothallia radiosa
reptans Looman = Aspicilia reptans
riparia G. Merr. non (Flotow) M. Steiner = L. xylophila
rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia rolleana
rosulata (Körber) Stizenb. = Aspicilia rosulata
rubina (Vill.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
ryrkaipiae H. Magn. = Aspicilia ryrkaipiae
sanguinea (Kremp.) Mig. = Bellemerea sanguinea
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = L. rupicola
stygioplaca Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subfusca (L.) Ach. = nom. rej. prop. = L. allophana
subfuscata H. Magn. = L. argentata
sublapponica Zahlbr. = Aspicilia sublapponica
subolivascens Nyl. = L. demissa
subpallida G. Merr. non C. Knight = L. caesiorubella subsp. prolifera
subradians Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subradiascens Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
superfluens H. Magn. = L. geophila
supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia supertegens
sylvestris (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = L. rubicunda
symmictera Nyl. = L. symmicta
tenuis H. Magn. = an Aspicilia sp.
tesselina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = L. oreinoides
tetraspora H. Magn. = L. pacifica
thamnitis Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
thamnoplaca Tuck. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
thomsonii H. Magn. = L. novomexicana
urceolata (Fr.) Wetmore = Megaspora verrucosa
variolascens auct. = L. impudens for North American records
verrucigera (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia verrucigera
verrucosa (Ach.) Laurer = Megaspora verrucosa
versicolor (Pers.) Ach. = L. muralis var. versicolor

saligna (Schrader) M. Choisy = Lecanora saligna

admiscens Nyl.
ahlesii (Körber) Nyl. (Harris 1995b)
aitema Ach.
albofuscescens Nyl.
albohyalina (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Biatora albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 2000)
alpestris Sommerf.
amabilis de Lesd.
amaurospoda (Anzi) Vainio Syns.: Biatora pullata, Lecidea pullata (Printzen 1995)
amniculensis Lowe
atomaria Th. Fr.
atrobrunnea (Ramond ex Lam. & DC.) Schaerer
atromarginata H. Magn.
atroviridis (Arnold) Th. Fr.
auriculata Th. Fr.
baffiniana H. Magn.
betulicola (Kullh.) H. Magn. f. endamylea (Hedl.) Hinteregger (Printzen & Tønsberger 2000)
brachyspora (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
brunneofusca H. Magn.
californica Zahlbr.
carneoalbens Nyl.
carnulenta (Tuck.) Fink
cascadensis H. Magn.
cellularis Lowe
cinerata Zahlbr.
columnata Lowe
confluens (Weber) Ach.
congesta Fink
crassilabra Müll. Arg.
crisima Nyl.
cruciaria Tuck.
cyrtidia Tuck. (Harris 1997)
degelii H. Magn.
delincta Nyl.
deminutula H. Magn.
despecta Th. Fr.
diapensiae Th. Fr.
diducens Nyl.
dolodes Nyl.
eckfeldtii Zahlbr.
ecrustacea (Anzi ex Arnold) Arnold
ementiens Nyl.
enterophaea Vainio
erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf.
extenuata Vainio
flavidolivens (Tuck.) Fink
floridensis Nyl.
fuliginosa Taylor
furfurosa Tuck. ex Nyl.
furva Lowe
furvonigrans (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
fuscatoatra Nyl.
fuscoatra (L.) Ach.
glaucopholis Nyl.
goniophiloides de Lesd.
hassei Zahlbr.
hebescens Nyl.
holopolia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
homosema Nyl.
humilis Lowe
hypomela Nyl.
intropallida Fink
katahdinensis Degel.
laboriosa Müll. Arg. (Hertel 1995)
labradorica Arnold
lapicida (Ach.) Ach.
lepidastra (Tuck.) Hasse
leprarioides Tønsberg
leucothallina Arnold
limosa Ach.
lithophila (Ach.) Ach.
louisianae de Lesd.
lurida (Ach.) DC.
lyngei Degel.
mamillana Tuck.
mannii Tuck.
marciensis Lowe
marylandensis H. Magn.
meiocarpa Nyl. var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2000)
melaphanoides Nyl.
merrillii H. Magn.
micytho Tuck.
moreliiensis de Lesd.
mutabilis Fée
myriocarpella (G. Merr.) Zahlbr.
nearingii H. Magn.
nemoralis Lowe
nylanderi (Anzi) Th. Fr.
occidentalis Lynge
olivascens Th. Fr.
pacifica Herre
paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
peliaspis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
phaeopelidna Vainio
phaeops Nyl.
picea Lynge
plana (J. Lahm) Nyl.
planetica Tuck.
plebeja Nyl.
polaris Lynge
polycocca Sommerf.
populina Müll. Arg. ex Nyl. Syn.: Micarea populina
praenubila Nyl.
praetermissa Tønsberg
promiscens Nyl.
protabacina Nyl.
pulla Lowe
pumicicola H. Magn.
pycnocarpa (Körber) Ohlert
ramulosa Th. Fr.
rivulorum H. Magn.
roseotincta Coppins & Tønsberg
rufofusca (Anzi) Nyl.
rugosa Lowe
santae-monicae H. Magn.
scrobiculata Th. Fr.
scrupulosa (Eckf.) H. Magn.
silacea Ach.
somphoterella Vainio
soredifera Lowe
sphaerella Hedl. = a species of Lecania? (Printzen 1995)
steineri Hertel
subaglaea de Lesd.
subcandida H. Magn.
sublimosa Nyl.
subplebeja Vainio
subramosa Lowe
subrhagadiella Lynge
subtilis Degel.
swartzioidea Nyl.
syncarpa Zahlbr. (McCune 1998b)
tenayucae de Lesd.
tenuissima Lynge
tessellata Flörke
tessellata var. caesia (Anzi) Arnold
theodori Lynge
torquens Müll. Arg. = a species of Lecanora? (Printzen 1995)
truckeei Herre
umbonata (Hepp) Mudd
violascens H. Magn.
virginiensis Calk. & Nyl.
xanthococcoides Zahlbr.
ablephora Nyl. = Ramonia ablephora
acrocyanea (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. = Lecidella patavina
adirondackii H. Magn. = Psilolechia clavulifera
aenea (Fr.) Nyl. = Miriquidica garovaglii
aeruginosa Borrer = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
aglaea Sommerf. = Tephromela aglaea
aglaeida Nyl. = a Tephromela sp.
alaiensis Vainio = Lecidella patavina
alaskensis Nyl. = Herteliana alaskensis
albidocinerella (Vainio) Vainio = Lecidella effugiens
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Ach. = Porpidia albocaerulescens
albosuffusa Th. Fr. = Farnoldia jurana
aleutica Degel. (See note under Fuscidea lowensis)
"amylacea Ach. 1810" nom. illeg. Probably refers to Lecanora marginata
aniptiza Stirton = Micarea denigrata
anthracophila Nyl. = Biatora anthracophila
antoniensis H. Magn. = L. hassei
apochroeiza Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
arctica Sommerf. = L. caesioatra
arctogena (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Tephromela testaceoatra
arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl. = Fuscidea recensa
armeniaca (DC.) Fr. = Tephromela armeniaca
assimilata Nyl. = Micarea assimilata
assimilis (Körber) Th. Fr. = Carbonea assimilis
associata Th. Fr. = Geltingia associata
atrata (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Tremolecia atrata
atrofulva Sommerf. = Miriquidica atrofulva
atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
atrolutescens Nyl. = L. mannii
atronivea Arnold = Carbonea atronivea
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Mycobilimbia berengeriana
botryosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Biatora botryosa
brandegei Tuck. = Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Weber & Wittmann 1992), however Ryan & Nash (1997a) indicate otherwise, but leave the identity clouded
brouardii (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Psorula rufonigra
brujeriana (D. Dietr.) Leighton = Trapelia mooreana
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Lecanora cadubriae
caeca Lowe = Rimularia caeca
caesioatra Schaerer = Frutidella caesioatra
caesiocoronata Lowe = L. olivascens
calcivora (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Clauzadea immersa
carbonoidea J. W. Thomson = Immersaria carbonoidea
carpathica (Körber) Szatala = Lecidella carpathica
catalinaria Stizenb. = Lecidella asema
caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = a Lecanora sp.
chalybeiza Nyl.= Micarea erratica (Harris 1997; Coppins & Muhr 1997)
cinereoatra Ach. = Porpidia cinereoatra
cinereorufa Schaerer = Schaereria cinereorufa
cinnabarina Sommerf. = Pyrrhospora cinnabarina
circumnigrata H. Magn. = Miriquidica pulvinata
circumnigrata var. reagens H. Magn. = Miriquidica lulensis
coarctata (Sm.) Nyl. = Trapelia coarctata
columbiana H. Magn. = L. tessellata
conferenda Nyl. = Adelolecia kolaensis
contigua Fr. = Porpidia macrocarpa
coroniformis Kremp. = Psora crenata
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Helocarpon crassipes
crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata
crustulata (Ach.) Sprengel = Porpidia crustulata
cuprea Sommerf. = Biatora cuprea
cyanea (Ach.) Rohl. = L. tessellata
cyanescens Lynge = L. lapicida
cyathoides (Ach.) Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides
decipiens (Hedwig) Ach. = Psora decipiens
demissa (Rutstr.) Ach. = Lecidoma demissum
deustata Zahlbr. = Miriquidica deusta
dicksonii auct. = Tremolecia atrata
dicksonii (Gmelin) Ach. = nomen dubium
dilutiuscula Nyl. = Micarea bauschiana
diversa Lowe = Porpidia diversa
efflorescens (Hedl.) Erichsen = Biatora efflorescens
elabens Fr. = Pyrrhospora elabens
elaeochroma (Ach.) Ach. = Lecidella elaeochroma
elata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
elegantior H. Magn. = Amygdalaria elegantior
endolithea Lynge = Lecidella patavina
enteroleuca auct. = Lecidella spp.
epiiodiza Nyl. = Schaereria endocyanea
epixanthoidiza Nyl. nom. rej. prop. = Biatora efflorescens
erratica Körber = Micarea erratica
euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. = Lecidella euphorea
evansii H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica
fissuriseda Poelt = Mycobilimbia fissuriseda
flavocaerulescens Hornem. = Porpidia flavocaerulescens
flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
friesii Ach. = Hypocenomyce friesii
furfuracea Pers. = Phyllopsora furfuracea
furvella Nyl. ex Mudd = Rimularia furvella
fusca (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
fuscescens Sommerf. = Lecanora fuscescens
fuscocinerea Nyl. = Schaereria fuscocinerea
garovaglii Schaerer = Miriquidica garovaglii
gelatinosa Flörke = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
geophana Nyl. = Steinia geophana
glaucophaea Körber = Porpidia glaucophaea
glebulosa (Fr.) Clem. = Trapeliopsis wallrothii
globifera Ach. = Psora globifera
glomerulosa (DC.) Steudel = Lecidella euphorea
goniophila auct. = Lecidella anomaloides
granulata H. Magn. = Lecidella granulata
granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa
gregaria G. Merr. = Trapelia involuta
grisella Flörke ex Schaerer = L. fuscoatra
gyrodes H. Magn. = a Fuscidea sp.
helvola (Körber) Th. Fr. = Biatora helvola
heppii R. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Lecidella wulfenii
homalodes Nyl. = L. tessellata Flörke (Hertel 1991)
humosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Placynthiella uliginosa
hypnorum Lib. = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
hypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
hypopta Ach. = Lecanora hypopta
icterica (Mont.) Taylor = Psora icterica
impavida Th. Fr. = Rimularia impavida
instrata Nyl. = Miriquidica instrata
insularis Nyl. = Rimularia insularis
internectens Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
intumescens (Flotow) Nyl. = Rimularia insularis
jurana Schaerer = Farnoldia jurana
kochiana Hepp = Fuscidea kochiana
kochiana var. subreagens H. Magn. = Fuscidea subreagens
lactea Flörke ex Schaerer = L. lapicida
lacus-crateris H. Magn. = Lecidella stigmatea
latypea auct. non Ach. = Lecidella carpathica
latypea Ach. = L. plana
latypiza Nyl. = Lecidella carpathica
leptoboloides Nyl. = L. laboriosa
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaea
leucophaeoides Nyl. = (?) Miriquidica lulensis
limborina (Nyl.) Lamy = Rimularia limborina
limitata auct. = Lecidella elaeochroma
lithospersa Zahlbr. = Farnoldia hypocrita
lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann = Trapelia mooreana
lowensis H. Magn. = Fuscidea lowensis
lucida (Ach.) Ach. = Psilolechia lucida
lugubris Sommerf. = Ropalospora lugubris
lulensis (Hellbom) Stizenb. = Miriquidica lulensis
luridella Tuck. = Psora luridella
lynceola Th. Fr. = Micarea bauschiana
lyngeana Zahlbr. = Adelolecia pilati
macrocarpa (DC.) Steudel = Porpidia macrocarpa
macrocarpa var. trullisata (Arnold) Mig. = Porpidia zeoroides
marginata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
meiocarpa Nyl. = Biatora meiocarpa
melancheima Tuck. = Pyrrhospora elabens
melinodes (Körber) H. Magn. ex Lynge = Porpidia melinodes
micacea Körber = Lecidella stigmatea
minuta (Nyl.) Nyl. = L. meiocarpa
misella (Nyl.) Nyl. = Micarea misella
mollis (Wahlenb.) Nyl. = Fuscidea mollis
monticola Ach. = Clauzadea monticola
myriocarpoides Nyl. = L. plebeja
novomexicana (de Lesd.) W. A. Weber ex R. Anderson = Psora nipponica
oblongula H. Magn. = Caloplaca oblongula
obtegens Th. Fr. = Trapelia obtegens
occidentalis Lynge = L. tessellata (Hertel 1991)
ochrococca Nyl. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
oligotropha J. R. Laundon = Placynthiella oligotropha
olivacea (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Lecidella elaeochroma
oreinodes (Körber) W. A. Weber & Hertel = Lecanora oreinoides
ornata (Sommerf.) Hue = Trapelia involuta
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora orosthea
ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Hypocenomyce scalaris
* oxyspora (Tul.) Nyl. = Phacopsis oxyspora
pallida Th. Fr. = Pilophorus dovrensis
panaeola (Ach.) Ach. = Amygdalaria panaeola
pantherina (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. lapicida
parasemella Nyl. = Hafellnera parasemella
parvifolia Pers. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
paupercula Th. Fr. = L. praenubila
"pelobotrion" = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leighton = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
petri (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = L. lurida
phaeophora Stizenb. = Lecanora phaeophora
phylliscina Nyl. = Porpidia macrocarpa
pilati (Hepp) Körber = Adelolecia pilati
placidensis H. Magn. = Lecanora placidensis
platycarpa Ach. = Porpidia macrocarpa
plumbeoatra Vainio = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Th. Fr. = Biatora porphyrospoda
praeruptorum Du Rietz & H. Magn. = Fuscidea praeruptorum
prasinula (Wedd.) de Lesd. = Lecidella scabra
pringlei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei
pruinosa Ach. = L. lithophila
pullata (Norman) Th. Fr. = Lecidea amaurospoda
punctella (Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea rhabdogena
purissima Darbish. = Lecanora marginata
quadricolor (Dickson) Borrer = Trapeliopsis granulosa
quernea (Dickson) Ach. = Pyrrhospora quernea
ramulicola H. Magn. = Lecanora cadubriae
recedens Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus
recensa Stirton = Fuscidea recensa
rhaetica Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Farnoldia micropsis
rivulosa Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides
rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Psora rubiformis
rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl. = Psorula rufonigra
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
russula Ach. = Pyrrhospora russula
sanguineoatra sens. Nyl. = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
scabra Taylor = Lecidella scabra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
scholanderi Lynge = Toninia tristis subsp. scholanderi
scotopholis (Tuck.) Herre = Lecanora scotopholis
shushanii J. W. Thomson = a Tephromela sp.?
sorediza Nyl. = Porpidia tuberculosa
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Vainio = Porpidia soredizodes
speirea (Ach.) Ach. = Porpidia speirea
sphacelata Th. Fr. = Rimularia sphacelata
stenotera (Nyl.) Nyl. = L. alpestris
steriza (Ach.) Vainio = Porpidia macrocarpa
stigmatea Ach. = Lecidella stigmatea
suballinita Nyl. = Micarea ternaria (Nyl.) Vezda (Printzen 1995)
subauriculata de Lesd. non Lynge = Lecidella spp.
subauriculata Lynge non de Lesd. = Adelolecia pilati
subcinnabarina Tønsberg = Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina
subcontinuior de Lesd. = Lecidella carpathica
subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
suberratica Lowe = Micarea erratica
subplumbea Anzi = (?) Miriquidica griseoatra
subsimplex H. Magn. = a Porpidia sp.
subsorediza Lynge = Bellemerea subsorediza
sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb. = Lecanora sulphurea
sylvana (Körber) Th. Fr. = Catillaria globulosa
sylvicola Flotow = Micarea sylvicola
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora symmicta
templetonii Taylor = Mycobilimbia hypnorum
tenebrosa Flotow = Schaereria fuscocinerea
tennessensis Nyl. = Lecanora oreinoides
tesselina Tuck. = Lecanora oreinoides
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. = Psora testacea Not included in the North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana
tornoënsis Nyl. = Japewia tornoënsis
trochodes (Taylor ex Leighton) Crombie = Rimularia limborina
tumida A. Massal. = Porpidia tuberculosa
turgidula Fr. = Biatora turgidula
uliginosa (Schrader) Ach. = Placynthiella uliginosa
ultima Th. Fr. = Cephalophysis leucospila
umbonella Nyl. = Cecidonia umbonella
vacciniicola Tønsberg = Biatora vacciniicola
varians Ach. = Pyrrhospora varians
vernalis (L.) Ach. = Biatora vernalis
viridans (Flotow) Lamy = Lecidella viridans
viridescens (Schrader) Ach. = Trapeliopsis viridescens
* vitellinaria Nyl. = Carbonea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Körber = Carbonea vorticosa
vulgata Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
wallrothii Flörke ex Sprengel = Trapeliopsis wallrothii
washingtonensis H. Magn. = L. cascadensis
wulfenii (Hepp) Arnold = Lecidella wulfenii
xanthococca Sommerf. = Hypocenomyce xanthococca
ypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
zahlbruckneri Fink = Lecidella latypiza (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)

anomaloides (A. Massal.) Hertel & R. Kilias Syn.: Lecidea goniophila auct.
asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel
bullata Körber
carpathica Körber Syns.: Lecidea latypiza, L. carpathica, L. latypea auct., L. subcontinuior, L. evansi
chodatii (Samp.) Knoph & Leuckert
dimelaenophila Hertel
effugiens (Nilson) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea albidocinerella
elaeochroma (Ach.) Hazsl. Syns.: Lecidea elaeochroma, L. olivacea, L. limitata auct.
enteroleucella (Nyl.) Hertel
euphorea (Flörke) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea euphorea, L. glomerulosa
flavosorediata (Vezda) Hertel & Leuckert
granulata (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea granulata
latypiza (Nyl.) M. Choisy
laureri (Hepp) Körber (Goward et al. 1996)
meiococca (Nyl.) Leuckert & Hertel
patavina (A. Massal.) Knoph & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea acrocyanea, L. alaiensis, L. endolithea
pulveracea (Schaerer) Sydow
scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea scabra, L. prasinula
stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea micacea, L. stigmatea, L. vulgata, L. lacus-crateris
[Lecidea subauriculata de Lesd. non Lynge]
viridans (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Lecidea viridans
wulfenii (Hepp) Körber Syns.: Lecidea heppii, L. wulfenii
alaiensis (Vainio) Hertel = L. patavina
elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel = L. asema
enteroleuca auct. = various Lecidella spp.
glomerulosa (DC.) M. Choisy = L. euphorea
goniophila auct. = L. anomaloides
inamoena (Müll. Arg.) Hertel = L. patavina
incongruella (Vainio) Hertel & Leuckert = L. effugiens
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel = L. scabra
spitsbergensis (Lynge) Hertel & Leuckert = L. patavina
subincongrua (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert = L. asema

LECIDOMA Gotth. Schneider & Hertel
demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea demissa, Lepidoma demissum, Psora demissa

* glaucomaria (Nyl.) H. Oliv. = Opegrapha glaucomaria
* inspersa (Tul.) Rehm = possibly Dactylospora parasitica
* lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc. = Opegrapha lamyi
* parasitica A. Massal. = Opegrapha rupestris
* pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora pertusariicola
* urceolata (Fr.) Körber = Dactylospora urceolata

finmarkicum Th. Fr.
furfurascens (Nyl.) Gyelnik

sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.

chalazanum (Ach.) de Lesd.
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
isidiodes (Nyl. ex Arnold) H. Magn.
oblique-peltatum (Eschw.) C. W. Dodge
polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme
radiatum (Sommerf.) Henssen
umbella (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
vesiculiferum Henssen
myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. polyanthes

LEPIDOMA (Ach.) Gray
demissum (Rutstr.) M. Choisy = Lecidoma demissum

borealis Lohtander & Tønsberg
cacuminum (A. Massal.) Lohtander
caesioalba (de Lesd.) J. R. Laundon
crassissima (Hue) Lettau
crassissima var. isidiata Llimona
eburnea J. R. Laundon
frigida J. R. Laundon
incana (L.) Ach.
jackii Tønsberg (Kümmerling et al. 1995)
lesdainii (Hue) R. C. Harris
lobificans Nyl. Syns.: Crocynia aliciae, C. americana
neglecta (Nyl.) Erichsen
nivalis J. R. Laundon
rigidula (de Lesd.) Tønsberg
aeruginosa auct. = L. incana
aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm. = not a lichen-forming fungus
arctica (Lynge) Wetmore = Leproloma vouauxii
candelaris (L.) Fr. = Chrysothrix candelaris
chlorina (Ach.) Ach. = Chrysothrix chlorina
citrina (Schaerer) Rabenh. = Chrysothrix candelaris
finkii (de Lesd.) R. C. Harris = L. lobificans
flava (Schreber) Sm. = Chrysothrix candelaris
membranacea (Dickson) Vainio = Leproloma membranaceum
vouauxii (Hue) R. C. Harris = Leproloma vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon
zonata Brodo = L. caesioalba or L. neglecta

albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl. ex Hue Syn.: Stereocaulon albicans
arbuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. Syn.: Stereocaulon arbuscula
gracilescens (Nyl.) Lamb & Ward
microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. Syns.: Stereocaulon microscopicum, S. quisquiliare
subalbicans (Lamb) Lamb & Ward Syn.: Stereocaulon subalbicans North American records of S. pseudoarbuscula belong here.

LEPROLOMA Nyl. ex Crombie
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. diffusum
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. chrysodetoides J. R. Laundon (Lohtander 1995, Goward et al. 1996)
membranaceum (Dickson) Vainio Syns.: Lepraria membranacea auct., Amphiloma lanuginosum
vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lepraria arctica, L. vouauxii
angardianum (Øvstedal) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria cacuminum
cacuminum (A. Massal.) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria cacuminum
"membranaceum var. chrysodetoides" Removed as a typographical error

chrysodeta (Vainio ex Räsänen) J. R. Laundon = Caloplaca chrysodeta

albociliatum (Desmaz.) M. Choisy Syns.: Polychidium albociliatum, Leptogium albociliatum, L. pilosellum

dendriscum (Nyl.) Nyl. = Polychidium dendriscum
intricatulum Nyl. = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum

adpressum Nyl.
apalachense Nyl.
aquale (Arn.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
arcticum P. M. Jørg.
arsenei Sierk
austroamericanum (Malme) C. W. Dodge
azureum (Sw.) Mont.
biatorinum (Nyl.) Leighton (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
brebissonii Mont.
burgessii (L.) Mont.
burnetiae C. W. Dodge
byssinum (Hoffm.) Zwackh ex Nyl.
californicum Tuck.
cellulosum P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
chloromelum (Sw. ex Ach.) Nyl.
contortum Sierk
corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks
corticola (Taylor) Tuck.
crenatulum (Nyl.) Vainio
cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körber
dactylinum Tuck.
denticulatum Tuck.
digitatum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
erectum Sierk
floridanum Sierk
fusisporum (Tuck.) C. W. Dodge
gelatinosum (With.) J. R. Laundon
hirsutum Sierk
hypotrachynum Müll. Arg.
imbricatum P. M. Jørg.
intermedium (Arnold) Arnold
isidiosellum (Riddle) Sierk
juniperinum Tuck.
laceroides (de Lesd.) P. M. Jørg.
lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr.
marginellum (Sw.) Gray
microstictum Vainio
milligranum Sierk
papillosum (de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge
parculum Nyl.
phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.
platynum (Tuck.) Herre
plicatile (Ach.) Leighton Syn.: Collema plicatile
polycarpum P. M. Jørg. & Goward
pseudofurfuraceum P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 1997)
rivale Tuck. Syn.: Polychidium rivale
rivulare (Ach.) Mont.
rugosum Sierk
saturninum (Dickson) Nyl.
schraderi (Ach.) Nyl.
sessile Vainio
stipitatum Vainio
subaridum Jørgensen & Goward
subtile (Schrader) Torss.
tacomae P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999)
tenuissimum (Dickson) Körber
teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold
albociliatum Desmaz. = Leptochidium albociliatum
americanum Degel. = L. laceroides
amphineum Ach. ex Nyl. = L. byssinum
arizonicum Zahlbr. = L. juniperinum
burnetiae C. W. Dodge var. hirsutum (Sierk) P. M. Jørg. = L. hirsutum
caesiellum Tuck. = L. byssinum
caesium (Ach.) Vainio = L. cyanescens
crenatellum (Nyl.) Tuck. = L. rivulare
furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk = L. pseudofurfuraceum (for North American reports; Jørgensen 1997)
inflexum Nyl. = L. burgessii (fide Jørgensen)
lividofuscum (Florke ex Schlecht.) Flotow = L. tenuissimum
minutissimum (Flörke) Fr. = L. subtile
nanum Herre = L. biatorinum
palmatum (Hudson) Mont. = L. corniculatum
papillosum (de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge Reports refer to L. furfuraceum
perminutum Hedr. = L. subtile
pilosellum G. Merr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
plectenchymum Fink = L. juniperinum
sinuatum (Hudson) A. Massal. = L. gelatinosum
tremelloides auct. = L. cyanescens

atomaria (Ach.) Szatala
# contorta Degel.
# epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
lucida Körber
+ parameca (A. Massal.) Körber
quercus (Beltr.) Körber = identity uncertain

* peltigerae (Fuckel) Riedel

auberianum (Mont.) Fink = Ocellularia auberiana
glaucescens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema glaucescens
heterosporum (C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema santense
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema laeviusculum
lepadodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema monosporum
monosporum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Thelotrema monosporum
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale = Myriotrema bahiana
polycarpum Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema subcompunctum
ravenelii (Tuck.) Fink = Thelotrema wightii
reclusum (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema reclusum
santense (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema santense
wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema wightii

LETHARIA (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr.
columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson
vulpina (L.) Hue Syn.: Evernia vulpina
californica (Lév.) Hue = L. columbiana
vulpina (L.) Hue f. californica (Lév.) W. A. Weber = L. columbiana

* cucularis (Norman) Lumbsch & D. Hawksw.
* sipei Grummann = L. cucularis

LETROUITIA Hafellner & Bellem.
domingensis (Pers.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium domingense, Bombyliospora domingensis
parabola (Nyl.) R. Sant. & Hafellner
vulpina (Tuck.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium vulpinum, Bombyliospora vulpina

LETTAUIA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
* cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
santessonii Ihlen & Tønsberg (Ihlen & Tønsberg 1996)

* lichenicola Thorn, Malloch & Ginns (Thorn et al. 1998)

* thallina (Cooke) Hafellner
* verrucicola (Wedd.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
* weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant.
* xanthoriae Triebel & Rambold

* edgewoodensis Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* erodens M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.
* follmannii Kondratyuk & Galloway (Kondratyuk & Galloway 1995)
* laevisporum Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb et al. 1995)
* lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw.
* pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petrak & H. Sydow
* usneae (Anzi) D. Hawksw.
* xanthoriae M. S. Christ.

* lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw.
* lichenicola Dyko & D. Hawksw.

* peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* santessonii (P. M. Kirk & Spooner) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

* alcicorniaria (Lindsay) D. Hawksw.

*cosmopolites Hafellner & Calatayud (Hafellner & Calatayud 1999)
* elongata Nav.-Ros. & Hafellner (Navarro-Rosines & Hafellner 1996)
* maureri Hafellner
* rugosa Thor
* semiimmersa Hafellner (Hafellner 1999)

# calcarea Henssen
# convexa Henssen
# intermixta Henssen
# metzleri (J. Lahm) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia metzleri
# scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Microthelia aterrima, Rinodina aterrima
# tenuissima Henssen

riddlei Henssen = Pyrenothrix nigra

confinis (O. F. Müller) C. Agardh
willeyi (Tuck.) Henssen

americana Henssen
cribellifera (Nyl.) Moreno & Egea Syn.: Gonohymenia cribellifera
melamphylla (Tuck.) Essl. Syn.: Gonohymenia melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Essl. Syns.: Forsellia minnesotensis, Gonohymenia minnesotensis
nigritella (Lettau) Moreno & Egea Syn.: Gonohymenia nigritella
stipatula Nyl.

canadense Henssen
saxicola Henssen
sirosiphoideum Nyl.

tesserata (DC.) Nyl.

hyalosporum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Arthopyrenia hyalospora, Plagiocarpa hyalospora
illotum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa illota, P. langloisii
macrosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa macrospora
microsporum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
phaeosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa phaeosporum
septemseptatum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa septemseptata

LLIMONIELLA Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.
* pertusariae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* pyrenulae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* neglecta (Vainio) Triebel & Rambold = Rhymbocarpus neglectus

LOBARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
amplissima (Scop.) Forss. (Tønsberg & Goward 2001)
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Sticta hallii
kurokawae Yoshim.
linita (Ach.) Rabenh. Syn.: Sticta linita
oregana (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Sticta oregana
pseudopulmonaria Gyelnik
pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Syn.: Sticta pulmonaria
quercizans Michaux
ravenelii (Tuck.) Yoshim. Syn.: Sticta erosa
retigera (Bory) Trevisan
scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. Syn.: Sticta verrucosa
silvae-veteris (Goward & Goffinet) Goward & Goffinet Syn.: Nephroma silvae-veteris (Goffinet & Goward 1998)
tenuis Vainio
erosa (Eschw.) Nyl. = L. ravenelii
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vainio Not in North America.
laetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr. = L. virens but not known from North America
lobulifera B. Moore = L. tenuis
verrucosa (Hudson) Hoffm. = L. scrobiculata

LOBOTHALLIA (Clauzade & Roux) Hafellner
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia alphoplaca, Lecanora alphoplaca, Lecanora thamnoplaca
melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia melanaspis, Lecanora melanaspis
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia praeradiosa, Lecanora praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia radiosa, Lecanora radiosa, L. circinata

floridana Zahlbr. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

augustini (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
coralloideum (Nyl.) Lynge
disciforme (Flotow) Kullhem
dodgei Herre
pezizoideum (Ach.) Körber
alpinum (Körber) R. Sant. = Schadonia alpina
domingense (Pers.) Fink = Letrouitia domingensis
fecundum Th. Fr. = Schadonia fecunda
fuscum Müll. Arg. = Calopadia fusca
fuscoluteum (Dickson) Mudd = Brigantiaea fuscolutea
gemellum (Anzi) Stizenb. = Schadonia alpina
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) Zahlbr. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Calopadia puiggarii
phyllocharis (Mont.) Fink = Tapellaria epiphylla
vulpinum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia vulpina

LOPEZARIA Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990)
versicolor (Fée) Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) Syn.: Catinaria versicolor

cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner Syn.: Haematomma cismonicum
elatina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Haematomma elatinum
ochrophaea (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma ochrophaeum
pustulata (Brodo & Culb.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma pustulatum

corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

dictyospora Orange (Will-Wolf 1998)

MARCHANDIOMYCES Diederich & D. Hawksw.
* corallinus (Roberge) Diederich & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Illosporium corallinum

MARONEA A. Massal.
carolinae H. Magn.
constans (Nyl.) Hepp
polyphaea H. Magn.
porinoidea Zahlbr. = Ramonia valenzueliana

richardsonii (Hook.) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cetraria richardsonii

carnosa (Dickson) Körber
microphylliza (Nyl. ex Hasse) Henssen Syns.: Placynthium dubium, P. microphyllizum

MASTODIA Hook. f. & Harvey
tessellata Hook. f. & Harvey = Kohlmeyera complicatula

MAZOSIA A. Massal.
ocellata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Platygrapha ocellata, Schismatomma ocellatum, Thelotrema carneum, Enterographa carnea

nitida (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Graphis nitida
texana Müll. Arg.

albocincta (Degel.) Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Syn.: Catinaria albocincta
brodoana S. Ekman & Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
columbiana (G. Merr.) S. Ekman (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Catillaria columbiana
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Hafellner Syns.: Catillaria grossa, Catinaria grossa, C. leucoplaca auct.
laureri (Th. Fr.) Hafellner (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Syns.: Catillaria laureri, Catinaria laureri
pulverea (Borrer) Hafellner & Schreiner Syn.: Catillaria pulverea

pachycheila (Tuck.) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bombyliospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora tuberculosa
versicolor (Fée) Zahlbr. = Lopezaria versicolor

MEGASPORA (Clauz. & Roux) Hafellner & V. Wirth
verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth Syns.: Pachyospora verrucosa, P. mutabilis, Lecanora verrucosa, L. mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. non Sommerf., L. urceolata, Pertusaria freyi

macounii Lamb = Pertusaria macounii

agnata (Nyl.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria agnata
albertana (Ahti) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia albertana
commixta (Nyl.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria commixta
culbersonii (Hale) Thell Syn.: Cetraria culbersonii
disjuncta (Erichsen) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia granulosa, P. disjuncta, P. denalii
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia exasperata, P. aspera, P. aspidota
exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia exasperatula
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia glabratula
glabra (Schaerer) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia glabra
glabroides (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia glabroides
halei (Ahti) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia halei
hepatizon (Ach.) Thell Syn.: Cetraria hepatizon
infumata (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia infumata
multispora (A. Schneider) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia multispora
olivacea (L.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia olivacea
olivaceoides (Krog) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia olivaceoides
panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia panniformis
septentrionalis (Lynge) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia septentrionalis
sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti Syns.: Parmelia sorediosa, P. sorediata
stygia (L.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia stygia
subargentifera (Nyl.) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia subargentifera, P. conspurcata
subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia subaurifera
subelegantula (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia subelegantula
subolivacea (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia subolivacea
tominii (Oksner) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia substygia, P. saximontana
trabeculata (Ahti) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia trabeculata
glabratula (Lamy) Essl. = M. fuliginosa
granulosa (Lynge) Essl. = M. disjuncta
incolorata (Parrique) Essl. = M. elegantula
sorediosa (Almb.) Essl. = Melanelia sorediata
substygia (Räsänen) Essl. = Melanelia tominii

transitoria (Arnold) Hertel ex Poelt
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel = Farnoldia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis

MELANOMMA Nitschke ex Fuckel
+ oxysporum (Zahlbr.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia oxyspora

achariana Fée = Pyrenula anomala
aggregata (Fée) Müll. Arg. = not in North America
anomala (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pyrenula anomala
cinerata Zahlbr. = (?) Pyrenula concatervans
concatervans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula concatervans
cruenta (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruenta
esenbeckiana Fée Syn.: Tomasellia esenbeckiana = misidentifications for North America
subincruenta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula cruenta
wrightii Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North American records

amota Nyl.
arthonioides (Fée) Nyl.
cinerascens (Willey) Fink
constrictella (Stirton) A. L. Sm.
* cupularis Müll. Arg.
deformis (Schaerer) Nyl.
demissa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
* epigena Müll. Arg.
* lentiginosula (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
maculosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
mesophlebia Müll. Arg.
octomera Müll. Arg.
proximella (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Norrlin
stellans Zahlbr.
* tribuloides (Tuck.) Müll. Arg.

terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia pertusa, P. sipeana
pertusa (Schrank) Stein

* coccisporum (Norman) Vouaux
* decolorans (Rehm ex Arnold) Triebel

melambola (Tuck.) Henssen Syns.: Synalissa melambola, Pyrenopsis melambola

* tartarina (Nyl.) Keissler (Talbot et al. 2000)

alabastrites (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
assimilata (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea assimilata
bauschiana (Körber) V. Wirth & Vezda Syns.: Lecidea lynceola, L. dilutiuscula
botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins (McCune 1996)
chlorosticta (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia chlorosticta
cinerea (Schaerer) Hedl.
denigrata (Fr.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea aniptiza
elachista (Körber) Coppins & R. Sant.
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia endocyanea
erratica (Körber) Hertel, Rambold & Pietschmann Syns.: Lecidea erratica, L. suberratica, L. chalybeiza
globulosella (Nyl.) Coppins
hedlundii Coppins
incrassata Hedl.
leprosula (Th. Fr.) Coppins & A. Fletcher
lignaria (Ach.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia lignaria
lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl.
lutulata (Nyl.) Coppins
melaena (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia melaena
melanobola (Nyl.) Coppins
misella (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea misella
myriocarpa Coppins (Tønsberg 1999a)
nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm.
peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia trisepta
perparvula (Nyl.) Coppins & Printzen (Printzen 1995)
prasina Fr. Syns.: Catillaria micrococca, C. prasina
pycnidiophora Coppins & P. James
rhabdogena (Norm.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea punctella (Printzen 1995)
subviolascens (H. Magn.) Coppins
sylvicola (Flotow) Vezda & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecidea sylvicola
synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
ternaria (Nyl.) Vezda Syn.: Lecidea suballinita
tuberculata (Sommerf.) R. Anderson
turfosa (A. Massal.) Du Rietz
vulpinaris (Nyl.) Muhr
xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (Coppins & Tønsberg 2001)
clavopycnidiata Brodo & Tønsberg = Szczawinskia tsugae Funk (Aptroot et al. 1997)
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Coppins = Helocarpon crassipes
gelatinosa (Flörke) Brodo = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
globularis "(Ach. ex Nyl.) Hedl." = M. misella
populina (Müll. Arg. ex Nyl.) R. Anderson & M. P. Carmer = Lecidea populina
trisepta (Hellbom) Wetmore = M. peliocarpa
violacea (Crouan ex Nyl.) Hedl. = M. peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant.
viridescens (Schrader) Brodo = Trapeliopsis viridescens (Schrader) Coppins & P. James

+ ahlneri Tibell
# arenarium (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybopsis arenaria
* disseminatum (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Mycocalicium disseminatum, Calicium disseminatum
* subpedicellatum (Schaerer) Tibell = M. disseminatum

MICROGLAENA Körber nom. illegit. = THELENELLA
corrosa (Körber) Arnold = Protothelenella corrosa
hassei Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei
inductula (Nyl.) Servít = Thelenella inductula
muscorum (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Chromatochlamys muscorum
sordidula Th. Fr. = Thelenella modesta
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Lönnr. = Protothelenella sphinctrinoides
subcorallina Hasse = Thelenella modesta
sychnogonoides Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei

epicorticis A. Funk


# aterrima (Kremp. ex Anzi) Zahlbr. = Lichenothelia scopularia
#inops Degel. = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops
#metzleri J. Lahm = Lichenothelia metzleri
#micula auct. non Flotow ex Körber = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops for most North American records
+ oblongata Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
+ oxyspora Zahlbr. = Melanomma oxysporum
+ thelena (Ach.) Trevisan = Mycomicrothelia thelena, but not found in North America
verruculosa Anastasiou = identity uncertain
+ wallrothii (Hepp) Rehm = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
# willeyana Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia willeyana

MINUTOEXCIPULA Atienza & D. Hawksw.
* tuckerae Atienza & D. Hawksw.

MIRIQUIDICA Hertel & Rambold (Hertel & Rambold 1987)
atrofulva (Sommerf.) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea atrofulva
deusta (Stenham.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea deustata
garovaglii (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea garovaglii, L. aenea
griseoatra (Flotow) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: (?) Lecidea subplumbea
instrata (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea instrata
intrudens (H. Magn.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecanora intrudens, Lecidea intrudens
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea leucophaea
lulensis (Hellbom) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea lulensis, (?) L. circumnigrata var. reagens
plumbeoatra (Vainio) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: L. plumbeoatra
pulvinata (Arnold) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea circumnigrata

MOBERGIA H. Mayrh. & Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) H. Mayrh. & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina angelica, R. bolodes, R. dirinoides, Dimelaena angelica
calculiformis (W. A. Weber) H. Mayrh. & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina calculiformis, R. platyloba

nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln. ssp. frullaniae Maass (Jørgensen 2000, Maass 1986)

borinquensis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris
cypressi R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rappii Zahlbr.

gibbosa (Ach.) Fr. ex A. Massal. = Rimularia gibbosa

MUELLERELLA Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
* lichenicola (Sommerf. ex Fr.) D. Hawksw.
* pygmaea (Körber) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Tichothecium pygmaeum
* pygmaea var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel
* pygmaea var. ventosicola (Mudd) Triebel

coronilla (G. W. Martin) R. Petersen
corynoides (Peck) R. Petersen
mucida (Fr.) R. Petersen
sharpii R. Petersen
vernalis (Schwein.) R. Petersen

berengeriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecidea berengeriana
[Biatora epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich] (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)
[Biatora carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins] (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995)
fissuriseda (Poelt) Poelt & Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea fissuriseda
hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea hypnorum, L. fusca, L. templetonii, L. atrofusca, L. sanguineoatra sens. Nyl.
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner Syn.: Toninia lobulata
[Biatora sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber] (Ekman 1996, Printzen 1995]
tetramera (De Not.) W. Brunnbauer Syn.: Bacidia fusca
accedens (Arnold) V. Wirth ex Hafellner = Bacidia sabuletorum
fusca (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth = M. tetramera
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) W. Brunnbauer = Bacidia microcarpa (Ekman 1996)
obscurata (Sommerf.) Rehm = M. tetramera
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner = Bacidia sabuletorum

affinis (Schaerer) Schauer
alpinus (Fr.) Kernst.
caesius (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg
fucatus (Stirton) Zahlbr.
marginatus Degel.
sanguinarius (L.) Norman
melinus (Kremp. ex Nyl.) Hellbom = M. affinis
tornoënsis (Nyl.) R. Anderson = Japewia tornoënsis

albonigrum (Nyl.) Fink Syn.: Calicium albonigrum
americanun (R. Sant.) Tibell
calicioides (Nádv.) Tibell Syn.: Sphinctrinella calicioides
fuscipes (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Calicium fuscipes
ravenelii (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Calicium ravenelii
reticulatum Nádv.
+ sequoiae Bonar
+ subtile (Pers.) Szatala Syns.: M. parietinum, Calicium subtile
+ compressulum Nyl. ex Szatala = Phaeocalicium compressulum
* disseminatum (Ach.) Fink = Microcalicium disseminatum
microcephalum (Sm.) Fink = Sphinctrina anglica
+ parietinum (Ach. ex Schaerer) D. Hawksw. = M. subtile
pusiolum (Ach.) Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
+ rappii Nádv. = Chaenothecopsis rappii (Harris 1995a)
savonicum Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis savonica

+ acuminans (Nyl.) Vainio
+ alni (Dearness & House) Barr
+ canadensis (Ellis & Everh.) Barr
+ elegans (Berk. & Curtis) Höhnel
+ meridionalis (Zahlbr.) Szatala
+ myricae (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
+ quercicola R. C. Harris
+ subcoerulescens (Nyl.) Höhnel

# captiosa (Kremp.) D. Hawksw.
+ dothideaspora (Cook & Harkn.) D. Hawksw.
# hemispherica (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+ inaequalis (Fabre) D. Hawksw.
# subfallens (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+ wallrothii (Hepp) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia wallrothii
# willeyana (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia willeyana
thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia thelena, but not found in North America

californicum Zahlbr. = Mycoporum californicum (Harris 1995a)
difforme (Minks) Fink = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
hassei Zahlbr. = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum sparsellum (Harris 1995a)

MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
acervatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
antecellens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia antecellens (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
californicum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia californica, Mycoporellum californicum
compositum (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Dermatina "pyrenocarpa"
eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Tomasellia eschweileri
lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Tomasellia lactaea
mycoporoides (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Arthopyrenia mycoporoides
pycnocarpoides Müll. Arg.
sparsellum Nyl. (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia sparsella, Mycoporellum sparsellum
uniloculatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
ohiense Nyl. ex Fink = M. compositum
pycnocarpum Nyl. = M. compositum

MYELOCHROA (Asah.) Elix & Hale
aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina aurulenta, Parmelia aurulenta, P. silvestris
galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina galbina, Parmelia galbina, P. subquercifolia
metarevoluta (Asah.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina metarevoluta, Parmelia metarevoluta
obsessa (Ach.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina obsessa, Parmelia obsessa, P. finkii

albidula (Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Biatorella albidula

bahianum (Ach.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia obturascens, Leptotrema obturascens
compunctum (Ach.) Hale
erodens R. C. Harris
glaucescens (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema glaucescens
glaucophaenum (Kremp.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia glaucophaena Presence in North America is doubtful
glauculum (Nyl.) Hale
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema laeviusculum
microporum (Mont.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia microporum
peninsulae R. C. Harris
reclusum (Kremp.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema reclusum
rugiferum (Harm.) Hale
subcompunctum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema polycarpum
terebratulum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Ocellularia terebratula
wightii (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema wightii
clandestinum (Fée) Hale Not present in North America
granulosum (Leighton) Hale Erroneously reported for North America
halei (Tuck.) Hale = Thelotrema halei

MYXOPHORA Döbbeler & Poelt
+ leptogiophila (Minks ex G. Winter) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)

bicolor (Ehrenb. ex Pers.) Fr.
poluninii Apinis = M. bicolor

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

hawaiensis (Tuck.) Tibell
sorediata R. C. Harris

* christiansenii Etayo (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* pseudocyphellariae Sherwood

* parmeliae (Berk. & Curt.) D. Hawksw.
+ zonata Seaver
* lecanodes Cesati = Nectriopsis lecanodes
* rubefaciens Ellis & Everh. = Nectriopsis rubefaciens

NECTRIELLA Nitschke ex Fuckel
* anisospora Lowen = Pronectria anisospora

* cladoniicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* lecanodes (Cesati) Diederich & Etayo Syn. Nectria lecanodes [Sérusiaux et al. 1999]
* parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* rubifaciens (Ellis & Everh.) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksw. 2001)

ahtii (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia ahtii
atticoides (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia atticoides
brunella (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia brunella
chiricahuensis (R. Anderson & W. A. Weber) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia chiricahuensis
infrapallida (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia infrapallida
loxodes (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia loxodes, P. isidiotyla
occidentalis (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia occidentalis
pustulosa (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia pustulosa
subhosseana (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia subhosseana
verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia verruculifera
pulla (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia pulla, P. prolixa but not in North America

NEOLAMYA Theiss. & Syd.
* peltigerae (Mont.) Theiss. & Syd. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

arcticum (L.) Torss.
bellum (Sprengel) Tuck.
expallidum (Nyl.) Nyl.
helveticum Ach. subsp. helveticum
helveticum subsp. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Goward & Ahti
isidiosum (Nyl.) Gyelnik
laevigatum Ach.
occultum Wetmore
parile (Ach.) Ach.
resupinatum (L.) Ach.
helveticum Ach. var. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Wetmore = N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
laevigatum auct. non Ach. = N. bellum
lusitanicum Schaerer = N. laevigatum Ach. non auct.
silvae-veteris Goward & Goffinet = Lobaria silvae-veteris
subtomentellum (Nyl.) Gyelnik = N. bellum

cladoniscum (Willey) Fink = apothecia of Pycnothelia papillaria
* oxyspora (Tul.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis oxyspora
* thallicola (A. Massal.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis thallicola

lambii Imshaug = Usnea sphacelata
sulphureus (J. König) Hellbom = Usnea sphacelata

NIEBLA Rundel & Bowler
caespitosa Spjut (Spjut 1996)
cornea Spjut (Spjut 1996)
dactylifera Spjut (Spjut 1996)
disrupta (Nyl.) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
dissecta Spjut (Spjut 1996)
eburnea Spjut (Spjut 1996)
fimbriata Spjut (Spjut 1996)
flagelliforma Spjut (Spjut 1996)
halei Spjut (Spjut 1996)
homalea (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler Syns.: Desmazieria testudinaria, D. homalea, Ramalina homalea, R. testudinaria
infundibula Spjut (Spjut 1996)
isidiascens Bowler, Marsh, T. Nash & Riefner
laminaria Spjut (Spjut 1996)
palmeri Spjut (Spjut 1996)
ramosissima Spjut (Spjut 1996)
siphonoloba Spjut (Spjut 1996)
sorediata Spjut (Spjut 1996)
sorocarpia Spjut (Spjut 1996)
testudinaria (Nyl.) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
undulata Spjut (Spjut 1996)
cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler = Vermilacinia cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler = Vermilacinia ceruchis, but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
ceruchoides Rundel & Bowler = Vermilacinia ceruchoides
combeoides (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler = Vermilacinia combeoides
flaccescens (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler = a South American species, not in North America
laevigata Bowler & Rundel = Vermilacinia laevigata
polymorpha Bowler, Marsh, T. Nash & Riefner = Vermilacinia polymorpha
procera Rundel & Bowler = Vermilacinia procera
robusta (R. H. Howe) Rundel & Bowler = Vermilacinia robusta
tuberculata Riefner, Bowler, Marsh & T. Nash = Vermilacinia tuberculata

* rugulosa D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

NODOBRYORIA Common & Brodo
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria abbreviata, Alectoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria oregana, Alectoria oregana
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria subdivergens, Alectoria subdivergens

pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

americana Hale
auberiana (Mont.) Hale Syn.: Leptotrema auberianum
cavata (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
concolor Meyen & Flotow (Harris 1995a)
emersa (Krempelh.) Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a)
fissa (Nyl.) Hale
granulosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
leiostoma (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Thelotrema leiostomum, Myriotrema leiostomum
praestans (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema praestans
retispora R. C. Harris
sanfordiana (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema sanfordianum
stictidea (Nyl.) Vezda Syns.: Conotrema albonigrum, Thelotrema texanum
alborosella (Nyl.) R. Sant. = Thelotrema alborosellum
carnea (Eckf.) Zahlbr. = Enterographa carnea
domingensis (Fée) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America
floridensis Fink = Thelotrema porinoides
glaucophaea (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Myriotrema glaucophaeum
interposita (Nyl.) Hale = misidentifications for North America
lathraea (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema lathraeum
meiosperma (Nyl.) Hale = O. leiostoma
micropora (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema microporum
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale = Myriotrema bahianum
subtilis (Tuck.) Riddle = Thelotrema subtile
terebratula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema terebratulum

africana Vainio
androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold
antillarum Brodo
arborea (Kreyer) Almb.
bryophaga (Erichsen) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch Syn.: Pertusaria bryophaga
farinacea Howard
frigida (Sw.) Lynge
gowardii Brodo
grimmiae Lynge
groenlandica Vers.
gyalectina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
inaequatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
juvenalis Brodo
laevigata (Räsänen) Vers. ex Brodo
mexicana Vainio
montana Brodo
oregonensis H. Magn.
pseudopallescens Brodo
rhodoleuca (Th. Fr.) Brodo Syn.: Pertusaria rhodoleuca
subathallina H. Magn.
subisidiata Brodo
subpallescens Vers.
subplicans (Nyl.) Brodo subsp. subplicans Syn.: Pertusaria subplicans
subplicans subsp. hultenii (Erichsen) Brodo Syn.: Pertusaria hultenii
szatalaensis Vers.
tartarea (L.) A. Massal.
[Pertusaria trachydactyla Vainio]
trochophora (Vainio) Oshio var. trochophora
trochophora var. pruinirosella Brodo
turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot
upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal.
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch Syn.: Pertusaria xanthostoma
yasudae Vainio
alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr. = a European taxon, not in North America
apiculata Vers. Mistakenly reported for North America
californica Vers. = O. oregonensis
elisabethae-kolae Vers. = O. frigida
geminipara (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Pertusaria geminipara
gonatodes (Ach.) Räsänen = O. frigida
pacifica H. Magn. = Coccotrema pocillarium
pallescens (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
parella (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
pennsylvanica Vers. = O. yasudae
pseudotartarea (Vainio) Vers. = O. pallescens
pterulina (Nyl.) Howard = O. frigida
rhamni-purshianae E. Senft Identity uncertain
rosella (Müll. Arg.) Vers. = O. trochophora
sorediosa Howard = O. szatalaensis
subviridis (Høeg) Erichsen Not in North America
tuckermanii Vers. = O. yasudae
turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot North American report questionable

OMPHALARIA Girard & Dunal ex Nyl. = THYREA
kansana Tuck. = Peccania kansana

alpina (Britzelm.) Bresinsky & Stangl Syn.: Phytoconis luteovitellina, Botrydina luteovitellina
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) H. E. Bigelow Syns.: Phytoconis viridis, Coriscium viride, Botrydina viridis
* peltigerina (Peck) P. Collin
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Quélet Syn.: Phytoconis ericetorum, Botrydina botryoides, B. vulgaris
velutina (Quélet) Quélet Syn.: Phytoconis velutina, Botrydina velutina
ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) M. T. Lange = O. umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) M. T. Lange = O. alpina

crustulosus (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria crustulosa
decussatus (Vill.) Schol. = Umbilicaria decussata
krascheninnikovii (Savicz) Schol. = Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii
virginis (Schaerer) Schol. = Umbilicaria virginis

OMPHALODIUM Meyen & Flotow
arizonicum (Tuck. ex Willey) Tuck. = Omphalora arizonica

OMPHALORA T. Nash & Hafellner
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) T. Nash & Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora arizonica, Omphalodium arizonicum (Nash et al. 1990)

agelaea Fée
astraea Tuck.
atra Pers.
aurantiaca de Lesd. (Harris 1995a)
bonplandii Fée
calcarea Turner ex Sm. & Sowerby
candida Müll. Arg.
cypressi R. C. Harris
filicina Mont.
fumosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1998)
* glaucomaria (Nyl.) Källsten Syn.: Leciographa glaucomaria
gyrocarpa Flotow
hassei Zahlbr.
herbarum Mont.
* lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Triebel Syn.: Leciographa lamyi
leucoplaca Müll. Arg.
lithyrga Ach.
longissima Müll. Arg. Syn.: Graphis atrorubens
microcycla Tuck.
niveoatra (Borrer) J. R. Laundon
* physciara (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & Coppins (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
ochrocheila Nyl.
prosodea Ach.
protuberans Zahlbr.
* pulvinata Rehm Syn.: Opegraphoidea pulvinata
* quaternella Nyl. Syn.: Opegraphoidea quaternella
ravenelii (Tuck.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha ravenelii, Schismatomma ravenelii
rufescens Pers.
* rupestris Pers. Syn.: Leciographa parasitica
sorediifera P. James
* sphaerophoricola Isbrand & Alstrup
* [Opegraphoidea staurothelicola Fink]
* thelotrematis Coppins (Tønsberg 1998)
* trassii S. Kondratyuk & Coppins (Coppins & Kondratyuk 1998)
umbellulariae Zahlbr.
varia Pers.
viridis (Pers. ex Ach.) Behlen & Desberger
vulgata Ach.
* wetmorei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
betulina Sm. = O. herbarum
cinerea Chevall. = O. vulgata
diaphora (Ach.) Ach. = O. varia
diaphoroides Nyl. = Lecanographa grumulosa
herpetica (Ach.) Ach. = O. rufescens
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Tehler = Lecanographa hypothallina
lichenoides Pers. = O. varia
prosiliens Stirton = O. protuberans
pulicaris auct. = O. varia
rimalis Pers. ex Ach. = O. varia
* saxicola Ach. = O. rupestris
zonata Körber = Enterographa zonata

* pulvinata (Rehm) Fink = Opegrapha pulvinata
* quaternella (Nyl.) Fink = Opegrapha quaternella
* staurothelicola Fink = a species of Opegrapha

lapponica (Räsänen) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia rubricosa, B. herrei, Haematomma californicum
ventosa (L.) Norman (May 1997)
herrei (Zahlbr.) Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995) = O. rubricosa (Ekman 1996)

moriopsis (A. Massal.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Buellia atrata, B. moriopsis, B. coracina
atrata (Sm.) Poelt = O. moriopsis

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

mutabilis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa
verrucosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa

carneola (Ach.) Arnold
fagicola (Hepp) Zwackh
gyalizella (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia gyalizella

elatior Stirton (Jørgensen 2000)
conoplea (Ach.) Bory
hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl.
lurida (Mont.) Nyl. ssp. lurida
lurida ssp. quercicola P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
lurida ssp. russellii (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
malmei Dodge (Jørgensen 2000)
mariana (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory
subfusca P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
tavaresii P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria ahlneri
cyanolepra Tuck. = Fuscopannaria cyanolepra
granatina (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Euopsis granatina
halei Tuck. = Phyllopsora halei
hypnorum (Vahl) Körber = Psoroma hypnorum
isidiata Degel. = Vestergrenopsis isidiata
laceratula Hue = Fuscopannaria laceratula
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria leucophaea
leucosticta (Tuck.) Tuck. ex Nyl. = Fuscopannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides Ohlsson = Fuscopannaria leucostictoides
maritima P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria maritima
mediterranea Tav. = Fuscopannaria mediterranea
melamphylla Tuck. = Lichinella melamphylla
microphylla "(Sw.)" Müll. Arg.. = Fuscopannaria leucophaea
pezizoides (Weber) Trevisan = Protopannaria pezizoides
pityrea auct. = P. conoplea
praetermissa Nyl. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
pulveracea P. M. Jørg. & Henssen = Fuscopannaria pulveracea
rubiginosa var. lanuginosa (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = P. conoplea
saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl. = Fuscopannaria saubinetii
sonomensis Tuck. = Koerberia sonomensis
waghornei Eckfeldt = identity uncertain, possibly Santessoniella arctophila

*oropensis (Cesati in Rabenh.) D. Hawks. & Piroz. ssp. parviseptata M. S. Cole & D. Hawks. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)

PARAPARMELIA Elix & J. Johnston
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix & J. Johnston Syns.: Parmelia alabamensis, Pseudoparmelia alabamensis

cuyabense Malme = Pyrenula cuyabensis
emergens Nyl. ex Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula erumpens
martinicanum Vainio = Pyrenula martinicana
microcarpum Riddle = Pyrenula microtheca
subferrugineum Malme = Pyrenula subferruginea

fertilis Müll. Arg.
fraudans (Nyl.) Nyl.
hygrophila Goward & Ahti
neodiscordans Hale
omphalodes (L.) Ach. subsp. omphalodes
omphalodes subsp. pinnatifida (Kurok.) Skult
pseudosulcata Gyelnik
saxatilis (L.) Ach.
skultii Hale
squarrosa Hale
sulcata Taylor
acanthifolia Pers. = Rimelia cetrata
abstrusa Vainio = Relicina abstrusa
ahtii Essl. = Neofuscelia ahtii
ajoensis T. Nash = Xanthoparmelia ajoensis
alabamensis Hale & McCull. = Paraparmelia alabamensis
albertana Ahti = Melanelia albertana
aleuritica Nyl. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
almquistii Vainio = Allantoparmelia almquistii
alpicola Th. Fr. = Allantoparmelia alpicola
amazonica Nyl. = Canoparmelia amazonica
andreana Müll. Arg. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
antillensis Nyl. = Parmotremopsis antillensis
appalachensis Culb. = Punctelia appalachensis
arnoldii Du Rietz = Parmotrema arnoldii
arseneana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
aspera A. Massal. = Melanelia exasperata
aspidota (Ach.) Poetsch = Melanelia exasperata
atrofusca (Schaerer) Crombie = Brodoa atrofusca
atticoides Essl. = Neofuscelia atticoides
aurulenta Tuck. = Myelochroa aurulenta
austerodes Nyl. = Hypogymnia austerodes
austrosinensis Zahlbr. = Parmotrema austrosinense
baltimorensis Gyelnik & Fóriss = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
birulae Elenkin var. grumosa Llano = Arctoparmelia separata
bitteri Lynge = Hypogymnia bitteri
bolliana Müll. Arg. = Punctelia bolliana
borreri (Sm.) Turner = Punctelia borreri
brunella Essl. = Neofuscelia brunella
caperata (L.) Ach. = Flavoparmelia caperata
caperata var. incorrupta (J. Moore) E. C. Berry = Flavopunctelia praesignis
caroliniana Nyl. = Canoparmelia caroliniana
catawbiensis (Degel.) Hale & M. Wirth = Everniastrum catawbiense
centrifuga (L.) Ach. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl. = Cetrelia cetrarioides
cetrata Ach. = Rimelia cetrata
cetrata var. hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema hypotropum
chiricahuensis R. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Neofuscelia chiricahuensis
chlorochroa Tuck. = Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa
chrysantha Tuck. = Parmotrema madagascariaceum
cirrhata Fr. = Everniastrum cirrhatum, but reports are misidentifications for North America.
cladonia (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Pseudevernia cladonia
claudelii (Harm.) Vainio = Parmotrema stuppeum
commensurata Hale = Rimelia commensurata
concreta Stizenb. = a Flavoparmelia sp.
confoederata Culb. = Bulbothrix confoederata
congensis Stein = Xanthoparmelia congensis, but not found in North America north of Mexico.
congruens Ach. = Pseudoparmelia sphaerospora
conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Ach. = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
conspersa var. subconspersa (Nyl.) Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia rutidota
conspurcata (Schaerer) Vainio = Melanelia subargentifera
coronata Fée = Bulbothrix coronata
crinita Ach. = Parmotrema crinitum
cristifera Taylor = Parmotrema cristiferum
croceopustulata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna croceopustulata
crozalsiana de Lesd. ex Harm. = Canoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
cubensis Nyl. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
cumberlandia (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
cylisphora (Ach.) Vainio = Flavoparmelia caperata
darrowi J. W. Thomson = Flavopunctelia darrowi
delavayi Hue = Hypogymnia delavayi (Hue) Rass., but misidentifications for North America
denalii Krog = Melanelia disjuncta
densirhizinata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna densirhizinata
dentella Hale & Kurok. = Hypotrachyna dentella
dierythra Hale = Xanthoparmelia dierythra
diffractaica Essl. = Rimelia diffractaica
digitata Lynge = Hypotrachyna physcioides (Nyl.) Hale, but misidentifications for North America (?)
dilatata Vainio = Parmotrema dilatatum
disjuncta Erichsen = Melanelia disjuncta
dissecta Nyl. = Parmelinopsis minarum
dissensa T. Nash = Xanthoparmelia dissensa
dominicana Vainio = Parmotrema dominicanum
dubia (Wulfen) Schaerer = Punctelia subrudecta
duplicata var. douglasicola Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Szatala = Melanelia elegantula
encausta (Sm.) Nyl. = Brodoa intestiniformis, but this species is not found in North America
endosulphurea (Hillm.) Hale = Parmotrema endosulphureum
endoxantha G. Merr. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ensifolia Kurok. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
epiclada Hale = Parmotrema submarginale
erecta E. C. Berry = Parmotrema perforatum
eurysaca Hue = Parmotrema eurysacum
exasperata De Not. = Melanelia exasperata
exasperatula Nyl. = Melanelia exasperatula
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale & Kurok. = Relicina eximbricata
finkii Zahlbr. = Myelochroa obsessa
flaventior Stirton = Flavopunctelia flaventior
flavicans (Tuck.) Tuck. = Flavoparmelia caperata
formosana Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna osseoalba
frondifera G. Merr. = Punctelia bolliana
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Pseudevernia intensa and P. consocians for North American records
galbina Ach. = Myelochroa galbina
glabra (Schaerer) Nyl. = Melanelia glabra
glabratula (Lamy) Nyl. = Melanelia fuliginosa
glabroides Essl. = Melanelia glabroides
goebelii Zenker = Bulbothrix goebelii
gondylophora Hale = Hypotrachyna gondylophora
graminicola de Lesd. = Punctelia subrudecta
granulosa Lynge = Melanelia disjuncta
hababiana Gyelnik = Parmotrema hababianum
haitiensis Hale = Canomaculina subtinctoria
halei Ahti = Melanelia halei
herreana Zahlbr. = Flavoparmelia caperata
herrei Zahlbr. = Rimelia cetrata
horrescens Taylor = Parmelinopsis horrescens
huachucensis T. Nash = Xanthoparmelia huachucensis
hubrichtii E. C. Berry = Parmelinopsis minarum
hypoleucina J. Steiner = Parmotrema hypoleucinum
hypoleucites Nyl. = Punctelia hypoleucites
hypomelaena Hale = Xanthoparmelia hypomelaena
hypopsila Müll. Arg. = Xanthoparmelia hypopsila, but North American records are X. angustiphylla
hypotropa Nyl. = Parmotrema hypotropum
hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema perforatum
imbricatula Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
incorrupta J. Moore = Flavopunctelia praesignis
incurva (Pers.) Fr. = Arctoparmelia incurva
infrapallida Essl. = Neofuscelia infrapallida
infumata Nyl. = Melanelia infumata
internexa Nyl. = Parmotrema internexum
intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach. = Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American reports are B. oroarctica
ioanis-simae Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but western North American records are probably Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis
isidiata (Anzi) Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale = misidentifications for North America
isidiotyla Nyl. = Neofuscelia loxodes
joranadia T. Nash = Xanthoparmelia joranadia
kernstockii (Lynge) Zahlbr. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
kerguelensis A. Wilson = chemotype of Parmelia saxatilis
kerguelensis auct. N. Am. = Parmelia pseudosulcata
kurokawae Hale = Xanthoparmelia lavicola
laevigata (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna laevigata
laevigatula Nyl. = Bulbothrix laevigatula
lanata (L.) Wallr. = Pseudephebe pubescens
latissima Fée = Parmotrema latissimum, but reports are misidentifications for North America.
lecanorica Hale = Xanthoparmelia lecanorica, but reports are misidentifications for North America
leucochlora Tuck. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
lineola E. C. Berry = Xanthoparmelia lineola
livida Taylor = Hypotrachyna livida
lobulifera Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. insensitiva Degel. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
lobulifera var. luteoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
louisianae Hale = Parmotrema louisianae
loxodes Nyl. = Neofuscelia loxodes
madagascariacea (Hue) Abbayes = Parmotrema madagascariaceum
mandshurica Asah. = Flavopunctelia soredica
margaritata Hue = Parmotrema margaritatum
martinicana Nyl. = Canoparmelia martinicana
maxima Hue = Parmotrema stuppeum
mellissii C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema mellissii
metarevoluta Asah. = Myelochroa metarevoluta
mexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia mexicana
michauxiana Zahlbr. = Parmotrema submarginale
molliuscula Ach. = misidentifications for North America
monticola J. P. Dey = Xanthoparmelia monticola
mordenii Hale = Parmotrema mordenii
mougeotii Schaerer = Xanthoparmelia mougeotii
multispora A. Schneider = Melanelia multispora
negativa Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia caperata
neoconspersa Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia neoconspersa
nigropsoromifera T. Nash = Xanthoparmelia nigropsoromifera
njalensis C. W. Dodge = Bulbothrix goebelii
novomexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
obsessa Ach. = Myelochroa obsessa
occidentalis Essl. = Neofuscelia occidentalis
olivacea (L.) Ach. = Melanelia olivacea
olivaceoides Krog = Melanelia olivaceoides
olivaria (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Cetrelia olivetorum
olivetorum Nyl. = Cetrelia olivetorum
omphalodes subsp. glacialis Skult = P. skultii
oostingii J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna oostingii
oregana Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
panniformis (Nyl.) Vainio = Melanelia panniformis
perforata (Jacq.) Ach. = Parmotrema perforatum
perlata (Hudson) Ach. = Parmotrema chinense
permaculata Hale = Parmotrema eurysacum
perreticulata (Räsänen) Hale = Punctelia perreticulata
pertusa (Schrank) Schaerer = Menegazzia terebrata
physodes (L.) Ach. = Hypogymnia physodes
piedmontensis Hale = Xanthoparmelia piedmontensis
plittii Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia plittii
praesignis Nyl. = Flavopunctelia praesignis
praesorediosa Nyl. = Parmotrema praesorediosum
preperforata Culb. = Parmotrema preperforatum
producta (Hale) J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna producta
prolixa (Ach.) Carroll = Neofuscelia pulla, but misidentifications for North America.
prolongata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
pseudoborreri Asah. = Punctelia borreri
psoromifera Kurok. = Xanthoparmelia psoromifera
pulla Ach. = Neofuscelia pulla (Ach.) Essl., but misidentifications for North America
pulvinata Fée = Hypotrachyna pulvinata
pustulifera Hale = Hypotrachyna pustulifera
quercina (Willd.) Vainio = Parmelina quercina
rachista Hale = Hypotrachyna prolongata
rampoddensis Nyl. = Parmotrema rampoddense
recipienda Nyl. = Canomaculina subcaperata (Kremp.) Elix., but misidentifications for North America
reddenda Stirton = Punctelia reddenda
relicina Fr. = Relicina relicinula (Müll. Arg.) Hale, but misidentifications for North America
reparata Stirton = Rimelia cetrata
reticulata Taylor = Rimelia reticulata
revoluta Flörke = Hypotrachyna revoluta
rigida Lynge = Parmotrema rigidum
robusta Degel. = Parmotrema robustum
rockii Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna rockii
rudecta Ach. = Punctelia rudecta
rutidota Hook. f. & Taylor = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
santae-crucis Vainio = Parmotrema praesorediosum
saximontana R. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Melanelia tominii
scortella Nyl. = Bulbothrix goebelii
semansiana Culb. & C. Culb. = Punctelia semansiana
separata Th. Fr. = Arctoparmelia separata
septentionalis (Lynge) Ahti = Melanelia septentrionalis
sibirica Zahlbr. = Allantoparmelia sibirica
silvestris Degel. = Myelochroa aurulenta
simulans Hale = Rimelia simulans
sinuosa (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna sinuosa
sipeana Gyelnik = Menegazzia terebrata
sorediata (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Melanelia sorediata
soredica Nyl. = Flavopunctelia soredica
sorediosa Almb. = Melanelia sorediata
sorocheila Vainio = Everniastrum sorocheilum, but North American records refer to E. catawbiense
sphaerospora Nyl. (North American records) = Canomaculina uleana
sphaerosporella Müll. Arg. = Ahtiana sphaerosporella
spumosa Asah. = Parmelinopsis spumosa
stenophylla (Ach.) Du Rietz = Xanthoparmelia somloënsis
stictica (Duby) Nyl. = Punctelia stictica
stuppea Taylor = Parmotrema stuppeum
stygia (L.) Ach. = Melanelia stygia
subargentifera Nyl. = Melanelia subargentifera
subarnoldii Abbayes = Parmotrema subarnoldii, but are misidentifications for North America north of Mexico
subaurifera Nyl. = Melanelia subaurifera
subcapitata Nyl. = (?)
subcentrifuga Oksner = Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga
subcrinita auct. = Parmotrema ultralucens
subcrinita Nyl. = Canomaculina subtinctoria
subdecipiens Vainio = Xanthoparmelia subdecipiens
subelegantula Essl. = Melanelia subelegantula
subhosseana Essl. = Neofuscelia subhosseana
subinvoluta Hale = Parmotrema rampoddense
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) C. W. Dodge = Rimelia subisidiosa
subobscura Vainio = Hypogymnia subobscura
subolivacea Nyl. = Melanelia subolivacea
subpraesignis Nyl. = Punctelia subpraesignis
subquercifolia Hue = Myelochroa galbina
subramigera Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia subramigera
subrudecta Nyl. = Punctelia subrudecta
subrugata Kremp. = misidentifications for North America
substygia Räsänen = Melanelia tominii
subsumpta Nyl. = Canomaculina subsumpta
subtinctoria Zahlbr. = Canomaculina subtinctoria
sulphurata Nees & Flotow = Parmotrema sulphuratum
swinscowii Hale = Parmelinopsis swinscowii
taractica Kremp. = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but see note there
tasmanica Hook. f. & Taylor = Xanthoparmelia tasmanica
texana Tuck. = Canoparmelia texana
thysanota Kurok. = Hypotrachyna thysanota
tinctina Maheu & A. Gillet = Xanthoparmelia tinctina, but not found in North America
tinctorum Delise ex Nyl. = Parmotrema tinctorum
trabeculata Ahti = Melanelia trabeculata
trichotera Hue = Parmotrema chinense
tuberculata Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
tubulosa (Schaerer) Bitter = Hypogymnia tubulosa
tucsonensis T. Nash = Xanthoparmelia tucsonensis
uleana Müll. Arg. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ulophylla (Ach.) G. Merr. = Punctelia subrudecta
ulophyllodes (Vainio) Savicz = Flavopunctelia soredica
ultralucens Krog = Parmotrema ultralucens
verruculifera Nyl. = Neofuscelia verruculifera
virginica Hale = Hypotrachyna virginica
vittata (Ach.) Nyl. = Hypogymnia vittata
weberi Hale = Xanthoparmelia weberi
wyomingica (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia wyomingica
xanthina (Müll. Arg.) Vainio = Parmotrema xanthinum
zollingeri Hepp = Parmotrema zollingeri

appalachensis P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
corallinoides (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
crossophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham
cyanolepra (Tuck.) Herre
pannosa (Sw.) Nyl.
parvula P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
ruderatula (Nyl.) Hasse
stylophora (Vainio) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Malme = Santessoniella arctophila (Henssen 1997)
cheiroloba Müll. Arg. = Fuscopannaria cheiroloba
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Vainio = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
microphylla "(Sw.)" Müll. Arg. = Fuscopannaria leucophaea
plumbea (Lightf.) Vainio = Degelia plumbea
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. James = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
saubinetii (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Fuscopannaria saubinetii
stellata (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Coccocarpia stellata

quercina (Willd.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia quercina
antillensis (Nyl.) Hale = Parmotremopsis antillensis
aurulenta (Tuck.) Hale = Myelochroa aurulenta
dissecta (Nyl.) Hale = Parmelinopsis minarum
galbina (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa galbina
horrescens (Taylor) Hale = Parmelinopsis horrescens
metarevoluta (Asah.) Hale = Myelochroa metarevoluta
minarum (Vainio) Skorepa = Parmelinopsis minarum
obsessa (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa obsessa
spumosa (Asah.) Hale = Parmelinopsis spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Hale = Parmelinopsis swinscowii

cryptochlora (Vainio) Elix & Hale
horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina horrescens, Parmelia horrescens
minarum (Vainio) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina minarum, P. dissecta, Parmelia dissecta, P. hubrichtii
spumosa (Asah.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina spumosa, Parmelia spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Elix & Hale

ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl. Syn.: Foraminella ambigua
capitata R. C. Harris (Hinds & Hinds 1998)
hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Foraminella hyperopta
subambigua Gyelnik Syns.: Foraminella subambigua
aleurites (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia aleurites
diffusa (Weber) Riddle = P. hyperopta
halei (Tuck.) Hale = P. subambigua
placorodia (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia placorodia

astroidea Fée = Pyrenula astroidea
[Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.] = ?
nana (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anthracothecium nanum
rappii Zahlbr. = Pyrenula leucostoma Ach.
ravenelii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ravenelii

arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale Syn.: Parmelia arnoldii
austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia austrosinensis
chinense (Osbeck) Hale & Ahti Syns.: Parmelia perlata, P. trichotera
crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy Syn.: Parmelia crinita
cristiferum (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia cristifera
dilatatum (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dilatata
dominicanum (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dominicana
endosulphureum (Hillm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia endosulphurea
eurysacum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia eurysaca, P. permaculata
gardneri (C. W. Dodge) Sérus.
hababianum (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hababiana
hypoleucinum (Steiner) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hypoleucina
hypotropum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia hypotropa, P. cetrata var. hypotropoides
internexum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia internexa
louisianae (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia louisianae
madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia madagascariacea, P. chrysantha
margaritatum (Hue) Hale Syn.: Parmelia margaritata
mellissii (C. W. Dodge) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mellissii
mordenii (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mordenii
perforatum (Jacq.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia perforata, P. erecta, P. hypotropoides
praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesorediosa, P. santae-crucis
preperforatum (Culb.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia preperforata
rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rampoddensis, P. subinvoluta
rigidum (Lynge) Hale Syn.: Parmelia rigida
rubifaciens (Hale) Hale
stuppeum (Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia stuppea, P. claudelii, P. maxima
submarginale (Michx.) DePriest & B. Hale Syns.: Parmelia michauxiana, P. epiclada (DePriest & Hale 1998)
sulphuratum (Nees & Flotow) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sulphurata
tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tinctorum
ultralucens (Krog) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ultralucens, P. subcrinita auct. non Nyl.
xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia xanthina
zollingeri (Hepp) Hale Syn.: Parmelia zollingeri
cetratum (Ach.) Hale = Rimelia cetrata
commensuratum (Hale) Hale = Rimelia commensurata
conferendum Hale = Canomaculina conferenda
diffractaicum (Essl.) Hale = Rimelia diffractaica
haitiense (Hale) Hale = Canomaculina subtinctoria
michauxianum (Zahlbr.) Hale = P. submarginale
neotropicum Kurok. ex Hale = Canomaculina neotropica
perlatum (Hudson) M. Choisy = P. chinense
reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy = Rimelia reticulata
robustum (Degel.) Hale North American records are P. gardneri
simulans (Hale) Hale = Rimelia simulans
subisidiosum (Müll. Arg.) Hale = Rimelia subisidiosa
subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale = Canomaculina subsumpta
subtinctorium (Zahlbr.) Hale = Canomaculina subtinctoria

antillensis (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina antillensis, Parmelia antillensis

brouardii de Lesd. = a Lecanora sp.
novomexicana de Lesd. = Lecanora novomexicana

valentinianus D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)

pyrenoides (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Thyrea pyrenoides

PECCANIA A. Massal. ex Arnold
arizonica (Tuck.) Herre
kansana (Tuck.) Forss. Syn.: Omphalaria kansana
subnigra (de Lesd.) Wetmore Syns.: Placynthium subnigrum, Synalissa subnigra
texana (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Synalissa texana

aphthosa (L.) Willd.
britannica (Gyelnik) Holt.-Hartw. & Tønsberg
canina (L.) Willd.
chionophila Goward & Goffinet (Goward & Goffinet 2000)
cinnamomea Goward
collina (Ach.) Schrader
degenii Gyelnik
didactyla (With.) J. R. Laundon
didactyla var. extenuata (Nyl. ex Vainio) Goffinet & Hastings (Goffinet & Hastings 1995)
elisabethae Gyelnik
evansiana Gyelnik
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg.
hymenina (Ach.) Delise
kristinssonii Vitik.
lepidophora (Vainio) Bitter
leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyelnik
malacea (Ach.) Funck
membranacea (Ach.) Nyl.
neckeri Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
neopolydactyla (Gyelnik) Gyelnik
pacifica Vitik.
phyllidiosa Goffinet & Midlikowska (Goffinet & Midlikowska 1999)
polydactylon (Necker) Hoffm.
ponojensis Gyelnik
praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
retifoveata Vitik.
rufescens (Weiss) Humb.
scabrosa Th. Fr.
scabrosella Holt.-Hartw.
venosa (L.) Hoffm.
aphthosa f. complicata (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. = P. leucophlebia
aphthosa var. variolosa A. Massal. = P. leucophlebia
canina var. rufescens (Weiss) Mudd = P. rufescens
canina var. rufescens f. innovans (Körber) J. W. Thomson = P. praetextata
canina var. spuria (Ach.) Schaerer = P. didactyla
erumpens (Taylor) Elenkin = P. didactyla
hazslinszkyi Gyelnik = P. didactyla var. extenuata
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg. f. zopfii (Gyelnik) J. W. Thomson This name has often been used for P. elisabethae
lactucifolia (With.) J. R. Laundon = P. hymenina
occidentalis sensu Kristinsson = P. kristinssonii
occidentalis (E. Dahl) Kristinsson = P. neopolydactyla
polydactyla var. hymenina (Ach.) Flotow = P. hymenina
polydactyla var. neopolydactyla Gyelnik = P. neopolydactyla
pulverulenta (Taylor) Kremp. = P. scabrosa Th. Fr. for North American records
scutata (Dickson) Duby = P. collina
spuria (Ach.) DC. = P. didactyla
variolosa (A. Massal.) Gyelnik = P. leucophlebia

bolanderi (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia bolanderi
clavata (Kremp.) Wetmore
cylindrica Wetmore
euploca (Ach.) Poelt Syns.: Heppia euploca, H. geupinii, H. polyphylla
michoacanensis (de Lesd.) Wetmore
obscurans (Nyl.) Gyelnik var. obscurans
obscurans var. deserticola (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia deserticola
obscurans var. hassei (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia hassei
omphaliza (Nyl.) Wetmore
patellata (Bagl.) Swinscow & Krog Syn.: Heppia polyspora
placodizans (Zahlbr.) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia placodizans
radicata (Ach.) Nyl.
richardsii (Herre) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia richardsii
sonorensis Büdel & T. Nash
tortuosa (Nees) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia tortuosa
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) Wetmore Syn.: Heppia zahlbruckneri
polyspora (Tuck.) Wetmore = P. patellata

minuta Degel. = Coccotrema pocillarium

+ grandiuscula (Anzi) D. Hawksw.

alaskensis Erichsen
albescens (Hudson) M. Choisy & Werner
alpina Hepp ex Ahles
amara (Ach.) Nyl.
atra Lynge
azulensis de Lesd. (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
borealis Erichsen
brattii Lumbsch & Nash (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
bryontha (Ach.) Nyl.
californica Dibben
carneopallida (Nyl.) Anzi
chiodectonoides Bagl. ex A. Massal.
coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. (Tønsberg 1999a)
consocians Dibben
copiosa Erichsen
coriacea (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
dactylina (Ach.) Nyl.
disticha Erichsen
epixantha R. C. Harris
excludens Nyl.
expolita R. C. Harris
flavicunda Tuck.
flavocorallina Coppins & Muhr
floridana Dibben
geminipara (Th. Fr.) C. Knight ex Brodo Syn.: Ochrolechia geminipara
glaucomela (Tuck.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecanora glaucomela
globularis (Ach.) Tuck.
glomerata (Ach.) Schaerer
hakkodensis Yasuda ex Räsänen
hymenea (Ach.) Schaerer
hypothamnolica Dibben
iners R. C. Harris
lecanina Tuck.
leioplaca DC.
macounii (Lamb) Dibben Syn.: Melanaria macounii
mariae de Lesd. (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
moreliensis de Lesd. (Nash et al. 1998)
multipunctoides Dibben
neoscotica Lamb
obruta R. C. Harris
octomela (Norman) Erichsen
oculata (Dickson) Th. Fr.
ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Nyl.
ostiolata Dibben
panyrga (Ach.) A. Massal.
papillata (Ach.) Tuck.
paratuberculifera Dibben
plittiana Erichsen
propinqua Müll. Arg.
pruinifera Erichsen
pseudocorallina (Lilj.) Arnold
pupillaris (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
pustulata (Ach.) Duby
rhexostoma Nyl.
rubefacta Erichsen
saximontana Wetmore
shenandoensis Hale & Dibben
sinusmexicani Dibben
sommerfeltii (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Fr.
stenhammarii Hellb.
subambigens Dibben
subamplicata Nyl.
subdactylina Nyl.
subobducens Nyl.
suboculata Brodo & Dibben
subpertusa Brodo
sulcata Dibben
tejocotensis de Lesd. (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
tetrathalamia (Fée) Nyl.
texana Müll. Arg.
trachythallina Erichsen
trochiscea Norman
valliculata Dibben
velata (Turner) Nyl.
ventosa Malme
virensica R. C. Harris
waghornei Hulting
wulfenioides de Lesd.
xanthodes Müll. Arg.
zeorina Erichsen
aleutensis Erichsen = P. alaskensis
amara var. flotowiana (Flörke) Vainio = P. amara var. amara, at least in Europe
ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. = P. subambigens, for North American records
arizonica Dibben = P. tejocotensis
bryophaga Erichsen = Ochrolechia bryophaga
canadensis Stirton = P. pustulata
ceuthocarpa (Sm.) Turner & Borrer = P. excludens
ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. = P. excludens
concentrica Erichsen Type not found. May be P. multipunctoides
coriacea var. obducens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. coriacea
diffusilis Erichsen = P. glomerata
discoidea (Pers.) Malme = P. albescens
finkii Zahlbr. ex Fink = P. rhexostoma
flavida (DC.) J. R. Laundon = a European taxon, not in North America
freyi Erichsen = Megaspora verrucosa
granulata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = P. wulfenioides for North American records
hemisphaerica (Flörke) Erichsen = a European taxon, not in North America
hultenii Erichsen = Ochrolechia subplicans subsp. hultenii
laevigata (Nyl.) Arnold non (Th. Fr.) Anzi = P. trachythallina
leioterella Erichsen = P. macounii for North American reports
leucostoma A. Massal. = P. leioplaca
lutescens (Hoffm.) Lamy = P. flavida, but not in North America
marginata Nyl. = P. propinqua
microsticta (Sm. & Sow.) Erichsen = P. excludens
monogona Nyl. = P. excludens for North American records
multipuncta (Turner) Nyl. = misidentifications for North America
nolens Nyl. = P. chiodectonoides
ocellata (Wallr.) Körber = misidentifications for North America
pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. = misidentifications for North America
protuberans (Sommerf. ex Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. = P. carneopallida
pulchella Malme = P. velata (Turner) Nyl. (Archer & Messuti 1997)
raesaenenii Erichsen = misidentifications for North America
rhodoleuca Th. Fr. = Ochrolechia rhodoleuca
rubescens Erichsen = P. propinqua
santamonicae Dibben = P. velata (Turner) Nyl. (Archer & Messuti 1997)
subplicans Nyl. = Ochrolechia subplicans
subpupillaris Vezda = P. glaucomela
tabuliformis Erichsen = P. leioplaca
taeniata Erichsen = P. zeorina
torquata Müll. Arg. = P. propinqua
trachydactyla Vainio = identity uncertain, possibly an Ochrolechia sp.
tuberculifera Nyl. = misidentifications for North America; most specimens are P. paratuberculifera
tuckermanii Erichsen = P. subobducens
wulfenii DC. = P. hymenea
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) Fr. = Ochrolechia xanthostoma

farlowii (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Vezda

* doerfeltii Alstrup & Scholz (Scholz 1998)
* huuskonenii Räsänen
* oxyspora (Tul.) Triebel & Rambold var. oxyspora Syn.: Nesolechia oxyspora
* oxyspora var. defecta Triebel & Rambold
* oxsypora var. fusca Triebel & Rambold
* thallicola (A. Massal.) Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Nesolechia thallicola
* vulpina Tul.

+ betulinum (Nyl.) Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
* compressulum (Nyl. ex Szatala) A. F. W. Schmidt Syn.: Mycocalicium compressulum
+ curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell Syn.: Calicium curtisii
+ flabelliforme Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ matthewsianum Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ minutissimum (Merrill) Selva Syns.: Calicium minutissimum, Stenocybe minutissima (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+ polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell
+ populneum (Brond. ex Duby) A. F. W. Schmidt Syn.: Calicium populneum
+ praecedens (Nyl.) A. F. W. Schmidt
+ tremulicola (Norrl. ex Nyl.) Tibell Syn. Stenocybe tremulicola (Tibell 1996; Selva & Tibell 1999)

asteroides Fink
caesiopruinosa (Fée) Müll. Arg.
explicans Fink
quassiicola (Fée) Müll. Arg.
columbina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Graphina columbina
plurifera (Nyl.) Fink = P. caesioipruinosa
scalpturata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = P. caesiopruinosa for North American records

arthonioides (Vainio) Zahlbr.
dendritica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
dendriticella Müll. Arg.
erumpens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
exaltata (Mont. & Bosch) Müll. Arg.
haematites (Fée) Müll. Arg.
inusta (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
lobata (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
multicolor R. C. Harris
punctiformis (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
sericea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
smithii (Leighton) de Lesd. (Tønsberg 1999a)
subfulgurata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
subtigrina (Vainio) Zahlbr.
tortuosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
eulectra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Graphis eulectra
intricans (Nyl.) "Vainio" = Sarcographa intricans
lyellii (Sm.) Zahlbr. = misidentifications for North America
sexloculata Fink = P. arthonioides

adiastola (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia adiastola
cernohorskyi (Nádv.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia cernohorskyi
ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg Syns.: Physcia ciliata, P. obscura auct.
constipata (Norrlin & Nyl.) Moberg Syn.: Physcia constipata
decolor (Kashiw.) Essl.
endococcina (Körber) Moberg Syns.: Physcia endococcina, P. lithotodes, (?) P. columbiana
endococcinodes (Poelt) Essl. Syn.: Physcia endococcinodes
erythrocardia (Tuck.) Essl.
hirsuta (Mereschk.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia hirsuta
hirtella Essl.
hispidula (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia hispidula, P. setosa
insignis (Mereschk.) Moberg
kairamoi (Vainio) Moberg Syn.: Physcia kairamoi
leana (Tuck.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia leana
nigricans (Flörke) Moberg Syn.: Physcia nigricans
orbicularis (Necker) Moberg Syn.: Physcia orbicularis
pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia orbicularis f. rubropulchra, P. endochrysea, P. rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.) Moberg Syns.: Physcia sciastra, P. lithotea
squarrosa Kashiwadani (Moberg 1995) Syn: Physcia lacinulata, for North American records
chloantha (Ach.) Moberg = Physciella chloantha
imbricata sensu Esslinger (1978) = P. squarrosa
imbricata (Vainio) Essl. = P. hispidula
melanchra (Hue) Hale = Physciella melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) D. D. Awasthi = Physciella nepalensis

PHAEOPYXIS Rambold & Triebel (Rambold & Triebel 1990)
punctum (A. Massal.) Rambold, Triebel & Coppins (Rambold & Triebel 1990)

PHAEORRHIZA H. Mayrh. & Poelt
nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syns.: Rinodina nimbosa, R. phaeocarpa
sareptana (Tomin) H. Mayrh. & Poelt

PHAEOSPORA Hepp ex Stein
* arctica Horáková & Alstrup
* parasitica (Lönnr.) Arnold
* rimosicola (Leighton ex Mudd) Hepp ex Stein Syn.: Pyrenulella endococcoidea
PHAEOSPOROBOLUS D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
* alpinus R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
* usneae D. Hawksw. & Hafellner

californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema californicum
meiospermum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Ocellularia leiostoma

* ephebes Henssen = Stigmidium ephebes
* epicymatia (Wallr.) Winter = a Stigmidium spp.
* dispersa (J. Lahm ex Körber) Winter ex Rabenh. = Zwackhiomyces dispersus
* parva Henssen (see Stigmidium)

andensis Nyl.

ludoviciensis Müll. Arg.

agelaea (Ach.) Flotow
argena (Sprengel) Flotow
speirea G. Merr.
willeyi Tuck.

* cytospora (Vouaux) D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksw. 2001)
* physciicola Keissl. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

* fuckelii Rehm = Corticifraga fuckelii

demangeonii (Moug. & Mont.) Nyl. Syn.: Thyrea demangeonii
tenue Henssen

buettneri (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. var. glauca (de Lesd.) Brako (Harris 1995a)
buettneri var. munda (Malme) Brako (Brako 1991)
confusa Swinscow & Krog
corallina (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. var. corallina
corallina var. glaucella (Vainio) Brako (Brako 1991)
corallina var. ochroxantha (Nyl.) Brako (Brako 1991)
corallina var. rappiana Brako (Brako 1991)
corallina var. santensis (Tuck.) Brako Syns.: Bacidia microphyllina auct.
furfuracea (Pers.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecidea furfuracea
glabella (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider
halei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Pannaria halei
isidiotyla (Vainio) Riddle (Brako 1991)
kalbii Brako (Brako 1991)
parvifolia (Pers.) Müll Arg. var. parvifolia Syn.: Lecidea parvifolia
parvifolia var. breviuscula (Nyl.) Brako (Brako 1991)
parvifoliella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
canoumbrina (Vainio) Brako Not known from North America; see note under Bacidia subgranulosa
santensis (Tuck.) Swinscow & Krog = P. corallina var. santensis
subcorallina Zahlbr. = Catinaria subcorallina
subfilamentosa Zahlbr. = Fuscidea subfilamentosa

* xanthoriae (Wedd.) Sacc. = misidentification for North America

PHYSCIA (Schreber) Michaux
adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier
aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr. var. aipolia
aipolia var. alnophila (Vainio) Lynge
albinea (Ach.) Nyl.
americana G. Merr.
atrostriata Moberg
biziana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
caesia (Hoffm.) Fürnr.
callosa Nyl.
cascadensis H. Magn.
clementei (Turner) Maas Geest.
convexa Müll. Arg.
convexella Moberg (Moberg 1997; present in U.S. according to map although text states otherwise)
crispa Nyl. Many old records using this name are actually P. atrostriata
dimidiata (Arnold) Nyl.
dubia (Hoffm.) Lettau
duplicorticata W. A. Weber & J. W. Thomson
erumpens Moberg (Moberg 1997)
halei J. W. Thomson
leptalea (Ach.) DC.
magnussonii Frey
mexicana de Lesd.
millegrana Degel.
montana de Lesd.
nashii Moberg (Moberg 1997)
neogaea R. C. Harris
phaea (Tuck.) J. W. Thomson
poncinsii Hue (Harris 1995a)
pseudospeciosa J. W. Thomson
pumilior R. C. Harris
solistella Essl. & Egan (Esslinger & Egan 1996)
sorediosa (Vainio) Lynge
stellaris (L.) Nyl.
subtilis Degel.
tenella (Scop.) DC.
tenella subsp. marina (A. Nyl.) D. Hawksw.
tenellula Moberg (Moberg 1997)
tribacia (Ach.) Nyl.
undulata Moberg (Harris 1995a)
wainioi Räsänen
adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl. = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
adiastola Essl. = Phaeophyscia adiastola
alba (Fée) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America
alba var. obsessa (Mont.) J. W. Thomson = P. integrata Nyl., but misidentifications for North America
"albicans (Pers.) J. W. Thomson" = P. atrostriata for North American reports
aspera H. Magn. = Dirinaria aegialita
astroidea (Clem.) Nyl. = P. clementei
cainii Räsänen = P. aipolia
cernohorskyi Nádv. = Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi
chloantha (Ach.) Vainio = Physciella chloantha
ciliata (Hoffm.) Du Rietz = Phaeophyscia ciliata
columbiana de Lesd. = (?) Phaeophyscia endococcina, but the type not seen
constipata Norrlin & Nyl. = Phaeophyscia constipata
detersa (Nyl.) Nyl. = Physconia detersa
elaeina (Sm.) A. L. Sm. = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
endochrysea (Hampe) Nyl. = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
endococcina (Körber) Th. Fr. = Phaeophyscia endococcina
endococcinodes Poelt = Phaeophyscia endococcinodes
fragilescens Zahlbr. = P. sorediosa
frostii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Dirinaria frostii
grisea (Lam.) Zahlbr. = Physconia grisea, but misidentifications for North America
hirsuta Mereschk. = Phaeophyscia hirsuta
hispida auct. = P. tenella
hispidula (Ach.) Frey = Phaeophyscia hispidula
intermedia Vainio = P. dubia
imbricata Vainio = Phaeophyscia hispidula
isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Fink = Physconia isidiigera
kairamoi Vainio = Phaeophyscia kairamoi
lacinulata Müll. Arg. = Phaeophyscia squarrosa, for North American records
leana (Tuck.) Tuck. = Phaeophyscia leana
lithotea "(Ach.) Nyl." = Phaeophyscia sciastra
lithotodes Nyl. = Phaeophyscia endococcina
luganensis Mereschk. = Physciella chloantha
melanchra Hue = Physciella melanchra
melops Dufour = P. phaea
minor (Fée) Vainio = Hyperphyscia minor
muscigena (Ach.) Nyl. = Physconia muscigena
nepalensis Poelt = Physciella nepalensis
nigricans (Flörke) Stizenb. = Phaeophyscia nigricans
obscura auct. = Phaeophyscia ciliata
obsessa (Mont.) Nyl. = P. integrata, but misidentifications for North America
orbicularis (Necker) Poetsch = Phaeophyscia orbicularis
orbicularis f. rubropulchra Degel. = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
picta (Sw.) Nyl. = Dirinaria picta
pulverulenta auct. non (Schreber) Fürnr. = Physconia distorta, but misidentifications for North America
pusilloides Zahlbr. = Phaeophyscia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Moberg = Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.) Du Rietz = Phaeophyscia sciastra
semipinnata (J. F. Gmelin) Moberg = P. leptalea
setosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Phaeophyscia hispidula
subobscura Nyl. = P. tenella subsp. marina
syncolla Tuck. ex Nyl. = Hyperphyscia syncolla
teretiuscula (Ach.) Lynge = P. dubia
tribacoides auct. non Nyl. = P. americana
venusta (Ach.) Nyl. = Physconia venusta, but misidentifications for North America

chloantha (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia chloantha, P. luganensis, Phaeophyscia chloantha
melanchra (Hue) Essl. Syns.: Physcia melanchra, Phaeophyscia melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) Essl. Syns.: Physcia nepalensis, Phaeophyscia nepalensis

adglutinata (Flörke) M. Choisy = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
elaeina (Sm.) Poelt = Hyperphyscia adglutinata
minor (Fée) B. Moore = Hyperphyscia minor
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Poelt = Hyperphyscia syncolla

americana Essl. (Esslinger 1994) Typographic omission.
californica Essl. (Esslinger 2000)
detersa (Nyl.) Poelt Syn.: Physcia detersa
elegantula Essl.
enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt
fallax Essl. (Esslinger 2000)
isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Essl.
isidiomuscigena Essl. (Esslinger 2000)
kurokawae Kashiw.
leucoleiptes (Tuck.) Essl.
muscigena (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Physcia muscigena
perisidiosa (Erichsen) Moberg
subpalllida Essl.
thomsonii Essl.
distorta (With.) J. R. Laundon = misidentifications for North America
farrea sensu Poelt = P. perisidiosa [Parmelia farrea Ach. = Physconia grisea]
grisea (Lam.) Poelt = misidentifications for North America
pulverulacea Moberg = P. distorta, but misidentifications for North America
pulverulenta auct. non (Schreber) Poelt = P. distorta, but misidentifications for North America

PHYSMA A. Massal.
byrsaeum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ("byrsinum")
cataractaecola de Lesd.

ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Omphalina hudsoniana

PICCOLIA A. Massal. (Hafellner 1995)
conspersa (Fée) Vainio Syn.: Biatorella conspersa (Hafellner 1995)

acicularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
cereolus (Ach.) Th. Fr. in Hellb.
clavatus Th. Fr. Syn.: P. hallii
dovrensis (Nyl.) Timdal, Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea pallida
fibula (Tuck.) Th. Fr.
nigricaulis Satô
robustus Th. Fr.
vegae Krog
hallii (Tuck.) Vainio = P. clavatus
pallidus (Th. Fr.) Timdal = P. dovrensis

cinerascens (Nyl.) Breuss
minor R. C. Harris
pseudocinerea Breuss
cervinula (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentifications for North America

PLACIDIUM A. Massal. (Breuss 1996)
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss & Bratt 2000) Syns.: Catapyrenium acarosporoides, Dermatocarpon acarosporoides, D. novomexicanum, Endopyrenium bajadanae, E. novomexicanum, Heteroplacidium acarosporoides
andicola (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium andicolum
californicum Breuss (Breuss & Bratt 2000)
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium chilense
lachneum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium lacinulatum
lacinulatum var. erythrostratum Breuss (Breuss 2000)
michelii (A. Massal.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium michelii, Dermatocarpon michelii
norvegicum (Breuss) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium norvegicum
pilosellum (Breuss) Breuss (Nash et al. 1998)
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium rufescens, Dermatocarpon rufescens
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium squamulosum, Dermatocarpon hepaticum auct. non (Ach.) Th. Fr.
tuckermanii (Ravenel ex Mont.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium tuckermanii, Dermatocarpon tuckermanii, Dermatocarpon arboreum

PLACOPSIS (Nyl.) Lindsay
cribellans (Nyl.) Räsänen
gelida (L.) Lindsay Syn.: Lecanora gelida
roseonigra Brodo
effusa Lamb = misidentifications for North America

noxium Breuss (Breuss 1998)

dasaea (Stirton) Tønsberg (Tønsberg 1998)
hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Coppins & P. James Syn.: Saccomorpha hyporhoda
icmalea (Ach.) Coppins & P. James Syn.: Saccomorpha icmalea
oligotropha (J. R. Laundon) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Saccomorpha oligotropha, Lecidea oligotropha
uliginosa (Schrader) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Saccomorpha uliginosa, Lecidea uliginosa, L. humosa

asperellum (Ach.) Trevisan
flabellosum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
nigrum (Hudson) Gray
petersii (Nyl.) Burnham
stenophyllum (Tuck.) Fink
stenophyllum var. isidiatum Henssen
subradiatum (Nyl.) Arnold
tantaleum (Hepp) Hue
aspratile (Ach.) Henssen = P. asperellum
dubium Herre = Massalongia microphylliza
microphyllizum (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Massalongia microphylliza
pannariellum (Nyl.) H. Magn. Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not the U. S. or Canada as yet
rosulans (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. Reported from Greenland but not the U. S. or Canada as yet
subnigrum B. de Lesd = Peccania subnigra

hyalospora (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Lithothelium hyalosporum
illota (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Lithothelium macrosporum
phaeospora R. C. Harris = Lithothelium phaeosporum
septemseptata R. C. Harris = Lithothelium septemseptatum
langloisii R. C. Harris = Lithothelium illotum

PLATISMATIA Culb. & C. Culb.
glauca (L.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria glauca
herrei (Imshaug) Culb. & C. Culb. Syns.: Cetraria herrei, C. tuckermanii Herre non Oakes
lacunosa (Ach.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria lacunosa
norvegica (Lynge) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria norvegica
stenophylla (Tuck.) Culb. & C. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria stenophylla
tuckermanii (Oakes) Culb. & C. Culb. Syns.: Cetraria atlantica, C. lacunosa var. atlantica, C. tuckermanii Oakes non Herre

californica (Tuck.) Nyl. = Sigridea californica
hypothallina Zahlbr. = Lecanographa hypothallina
ravenelii Tuck. = Opegrapha ravenelii

interrupta (Fée) Müll. Arg.

* lichenum (Sommerf.) D. Hawksw.
* nephromeum (Norman) Sant. (Goward et al. 1996)

chlorophanum (Wahlenb.) Zopf Syns.: Acarospora chlorophana, A. erythrophora, A. incertula, A. novomexicana, A. texana, A. weldensis
flavum (Bellardi) Körber Syns.: Acarospora flava, A. oxytona

oxytonum (Ach.) Rabenh. = P. flavum

australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (American record) = (?) Anthracothecium nanum
nana Zahlbr. = Anthracothecium nanum

anacardii (Vainio) R. C. Harris nom. inval. = Ditremis terminata
inspersa Müll. Arg. = Ditremis limitans
solivagum Degel. = Plagiocarpa hyalospora

cerebrina (DC.) Hafellner

bryophila Lönnr.
cruenta (Körber) P. James & Swinscow
cucurbitula J. W. Thomson & B. M. Murray
cupularis A. Massal.
epigaea A. Massal.
gothica Th. Fr.
hyperborea Th. Fr.
hyperborea var. macrospora Lynge
melaspora (Taylor) Zahlbr.
obsoleta Arnold
sendtneri Kremp.
septentrionalis Lynge
terrestris Th. Fr.
theleodes (Sommerf.) Th. Fr.
integrascens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. hyperborea
intercedens (Nyl.) Lönnr. = P. cupularis
gelatinosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Agonimia gelatinosa
sommerfeltii Lynge = P. terrestris
tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold = Agonimia tristicula

dealbens Fink = Polymeridium proponens
dispora (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Julella dispora
fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Zahlbr. = Julella fallaciosa
fallax (Nyl.) Fink = Arthopyrenia analepta
floridana Fink = Porina nuculastrum
inductula (Nyl.) Fink = Thelenella inductula
intrusa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = a Laurera sp., not in North America
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = Julella lactea
quercicola Brodo = Julella fallaciosa
rappii Zahlbr. = Julella geminella
sublactea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Julella vitrispora

coralloides (Tuck.) Hue = Caloplaca coralloides

contortum Henssen
dendriscum (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Leptogidium dendriscum
muscicola (Sw.) Gray
albociliatum (Desmaz.) Zahlbr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum
rivale (Tuck.) Fink = Leptogium rivale
umhausense (Auersw.) Henssen = Dendriscocaulon umhausense

POLYCOCCUM Sauter ex Körber
* microstictum (Leighton ex Mudd) Arnold
* pulvinatum (Eitner) R. Sant.
* sporastatiae (Anzi) Arnold
* squamarioides (Mudd) Arnold
* vermicularium (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. (see Appendix)
* epicrassum (H. Olivier) R. Sant. Syn.: Didymosphaeria epicrassa , but Canadian records are most likely based on Polycoccum squamarioides
* galligenum Vezda = P. pulvinatum
* gelidarium (Mudd) D. Hawksw. = Roselliniopsis gelidaria

POLYMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
albidum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris
albocinereum (Kremp.) R. C. Harris
catapastum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
contendens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
proponens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Campylothelium amylosporum, Polyblastiopsis dealbens
quinqueseptatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia quinqueseptata
subcinereum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina subcinerea
pleiomerellum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = P. albocinereum

sexlocularis (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Polythelis sexlocularis. The implied occurrence of this species in Florida is questionable. No material seen from North America

* lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Degel. Syn.: Acarospora lapponica
simplex (Davies) Vezda Syns.: Biatorella simplex, Sarcogyne simplex
urceolata (Anzi) Brodo

sexlocularis (Müll. Arg.) Clem. = Polypyrenula sexlocularis (q.v.)

PORINA Müll. Arg.
amygdalina Müll. Arg.
cestrensis (Tuck. ex Michener) Müll. Arg. (fide R. Harris)
heterospora (Fink) R. C. Harris
lectissima (Fr.) Zahlbr.
nucula Ach.
nuculastrum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Clathroporina nuculastrum, C. confinis, Polyblastiopsis floridana (Harris 1995a)
radicicola P. M. McCarthy & Tønsberg (McCarthy & Tønsberg 1998)
rhaphidosperma Müll. Arg.
salicina Müll. Arg.
scabrida R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
aenea (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Trichothelium aeneum
carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Trichothelium aeneum
chlorotica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Trichothelium chloroticum
cinerea "(Pers.) Zahlbr." = nom. illeg. = Strigula stigmatella
guentheri (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Trichothelium guentheri
hibernica P. James & Swinscow = misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)
leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) A. L. Sm. = Segestria leptalea
linearis (Leighton) Zahlbr. = Trichothelium linearis
mammillosa (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Segestria mammillosa
mastoidea (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)
nitidula Müll. Arg. = Trichothelium nitidulum
olivacea (Pers.) A. L. Sm. = misidentifications for North America
plumbaria (Stizenb.) Hasse = Arthopyrenia plumbaria
pulla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = an Arthopyrenia sp., not in North America
subcinerea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Polymeridium subcinereum
thaxteri R. Sant. = Trichothelium thaxteri
viridiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Strigula viridiseda

coccodes (Flotow) Körber Syn.: P. furfurellus
kenmorensis (Holl ex Nyl.) Henssen
dispersus E. Dahl = Thelignya lignyota
furfurellus (Nyl.) Forss. = P. coccodes

albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia albocaerulescens, Lecidea albocaerulescens
calcarea Gowan
carlottiana Gowan
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia cinereoatra, Lecidea cinereoatra
contraponenda (Arnold) Knoph & Hertel
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia crustulata, Lecidea crustulata
diversa (Lowe) Gowan Syn.: Lecidea diversa
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab Syns.: Huilia flavocaerulescens, Lecidea flavocaerulescens
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia glaucophaea, Lecidea glaucophaea
grisea Gowan
herteliana Gowan
lowiana Gowan
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab Syns.: Huilia macrocarpa, H. nigrocruenta, Lecidea steriza, L. macrocarpa, L. platycarpa, L. phylliscina, L. contigua
melinodes (Körber) Gowan & Ahti Syn.: Aspicilia melinodes
ochrolemma (Vainio) Brodo & R. Sant. Syn.: Hymenelia ochrolemma
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel Syn.: Huilia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: Lecidea soredizodes Doubtful for N.America
speirea (Ach.) Kremp. Syn.: Lecidea speirea
[Lecidea subsimplex H. Magn.]
superba (Körber) Hertel & Knoph Syn.: Huilia superba
tahawasiana Gowan
thomsonii Gowan
tuberculosa (Sm.) Hertel & Knoph Syns.: Huilia tuberculosa, Lecidea sorediza, L. tumida
zeoroides (Anzi) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea macrocarpa var. trullisata
flavicunda (Ach.) Gowan = P. flavocaerulescens
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Diederich & Sérus. = P. macrocarpa
pseudomelinodes A. J. Schwab = Porpidia ochrolemma

* anisospora (Lowen) Lowen Syn.: Nectriella anisospora
* erythrinella (Nyl.) Lowen Syn.: Nectriella erythrinella
* oligospora Lowen & Rogerson
* robergei (Mont. & Desm.) Lowen (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

PROTOBLASTENIA (Zahlbr.) J. Steiner
calva (Dickson) Zahlbr.
incrustans (DC.) J. Steiner
rupestris (Scop.) J. Steiner
terricola (Anzi) Lynge
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Räsänen = Pyrrhospora cinnabarina
monticola (Ach.) J. Steiner = Clauzadea monticola
quernea (Dickson) Clauzade = Pyrrhospora quernea
rupestris var. calva (Dickson) J. Steiner = P. calva

PROTOPANNARIA (Gyeln.) P. M. Jørg. & S. Ekman
pezizoides (Weber) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000) Syn: Pannaria pezizoides

atriseda (Fr.) R. Sant. & V. Wirth Syn.: Lecanora atriseda
badia (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecanora badia
cupreobadia (Nyl.) Poelt
nephaea (Sommerf.) R. Sant.
ochrococca (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg., Rambold & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea ochrococca, Lecanora ochrococca, L. phaeobola

muralis (Schreber) M. Choisy = Lecanora muralis (Schreber) Rabenh.

corrosa (Körber) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syn.: Microglaena corrosa
leucothelia (Nyl.) Mayrhofer & Poelt (Goward et al. 1996)
santessonii H. Mayrh.
sphinctrinoidella (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt (Mayrhofer 1987)
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Syn.: Microglaena sphinctrinoides

minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria minuscula
pubescens (L.) M. Choisy Syns.: Alectoria pubescens, Parmelia lanata

cladonia (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. Syn.: Parmelia cladonia
consocians (Vainio) Hale & Culb.
intensa (Nyl.) Hale & Culb.
furfuracea (L.) Zopf = misidentifications for North America; records are either P. consocians or P. intensa

anomala Brodo & Ahti
anthraspis (Ach.) H. Magn. Syn.: Sticta anthraspis
aurata (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Sticta aurata
crocata (L.) Vainio Syn.: Sticta crocata
mallota (Tuck.) H. Magn. (Tønsberg 1999b)
rainierensis Imshaug
mougeotiana (Delise) Vainio = P. crocata

PSEUDOPARMELIA Lynge (Elix & Nash 1998)
cubensis (Nyl.) Elix & Nash (Elix & Nash 1998) Syn.: Parmelia leucochlora Tuck. non (Mont.) Mont.
floridense Elix & Nash (Elix & Nash 1998)
uleana (Müll. Arg.) Elix & Nash (Elix & Nash 1998) Syn.: Parmelia endoxantha

alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Hale = Paraparmelia alabamensis
amazonica (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia amazonica
baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale = Flavoparmelia caperata
caroliniana (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia caroliniana
crozalsiana (de Lesd.) Hale = Canoparmelia crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Hale = Canoparmelia martinicana
rutidota (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera (Hale) Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale (North American records) = Pseudoparmelia uleana
texana (Tuck.) Hale = Canoparmelia texana

diluta (Fée) Müll Arg. var. degenerans Vainio (Harris 1998)
pupula (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Trypethelium floridanum for North American records
subgregaria Müll. Arg. = P. diluta
subnudata Müll. Arg. = P. diluta

PSEUDOSAGEDIA (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy = TRICHOTHELIUM (Harris 1995a)
aenea (Wallr.) Hafellner & Kalb = Trichothelium aeneum
chlorotica (Ach.) Hafellner & Kalb = Trichothelium chloroticum
guentheri (Flotow) Hafellner & Kalb = Trichothelium guentheri
linearis (Leighton) Hafellner & Kalb = Trichothelium linearis
nitidula (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Kalb = Trichothelium nitidulum
thaxteri (R. Sant.) Hafellner & Kalb = Trichothelium thaxteri

clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea adirondackii
lucida (Ach.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea lucida

PSORA Hoffm.
californica Timdal
cerebriformis W. A. Weber
crenata (Taylor) Reinke Syns.: Lecidea crenata, L. coroniformis
decipiens (Hedwig) Hoffm. Syn.: Lecidea decipiens
globifera (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Lecidea globifera
himalayana (Church. Bab.) Timdal
icterica (Mont.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Lecidea icterica
luridella (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Lecidea luridella
montana Timdal
nipponica (Zahlbr.) Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea novomexicana
pacifica Timdal
pseudorussellii Timdal
rubiformis (Ach.) Hook. Syn.: Lecidea rubiformis
russellii (Tuck.) A. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea russellii, Biatora russellii
tenuifolia Timdal
tuckermanii R. Anderson ex Timdal
vallesiaca (Schaerer) Timdal
anthracophila (Nyl.) Arnold = Biatora anthracophila
demissa (Rutstr.) Hepp = Lecidoma demissum
friesii (Ach.) Hellbom = Hypocenomyce friesii
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Lecidea lurida
novomexicana de Lesd. = P. nipponica
ostreata Hoffm. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
petri (Tuck.) Fink = Lecidea lurida
rufonigra (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Psorula rufonigra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Hook. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
scholanderi (Lynge) R. Anderson = Toninia tristis
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea testacea, Chrysopsora testacea, but not present in North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana

PSORINIA Gotth. Schneider
conglomerata (Ach.) Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Toninia conglomerata

cubensis Müll. Arg. var. cubensis
cubensis var. teretiloba O. Eriksson

cinnamomeum Malme (Jørgensen 2000)
hypnorum (Vahl) Gray Syn.: Pannaria hypnorum
tenue Henssen var. boreale Henssen

hassei Fink
minuta H. Magn.
nigra H. Magn.
schaereri (A. Massal.) Arnold Syn.: Pyrenopsis schaereri
segregata (Nyl.) Hasse
squamulosa Zahlbr.

PSORULA Gotth. Schneider
rufonigra (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea rufonigra, L. brouardii, Psora rufonigra
scotopholis (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider = Lecanora scotopholis

atra Vainio

PTYCHOGRAPHA Nyl. (McCune 1997)
xylographoides Nyl. (McCune 1997)

appalachensis (Culb.) Krog Syn.: Parmelia appalachensis
bolliana (Müll. Arg.) Krog Syns.: Parmelia bolliana, P. frondifera
borreri (Sm.) Krog Syns.: Parmelia borreri, P. pseudoborreri
hypoleucites (Nyl.) Krog Syn.: Parmelia hypoleucites
perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd Syn.: Parmelia perreticulata
punctilla (Hale) Krog
reddenda (Stirton) Krog Syn.: Parmelia reddenda
rudecta (Ach.) Krog Syn.: Parmelia rudecta
semansiana (Culb. & C. Culb.) Krog Syn.: Parmelia semansiana
stictica (Duby) Krog Syn.: Parmelia stictica
subpraesignis (Nyl.) Krog Syn.: Parmelia subpraesignis
subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog Syns.: Parmelia subrudecta, P. dubia, P. graminicola, P. ulophylla
darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Krog = Flavopunctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Krog = Flavopunctelia flaventior
missouriensis G. Wilh. & Ladd = P. punctilla (Hale) Krog (Adler 1997), but accepted by van Herk & Aptroot (2000)
praesignis (Nyl.) Krog = Flavopunctelia praesignis
soredica (Nyl.) Krog = Flavopunctelia soredica

papillaria Dufour Syn.: Cladonia papillaria

cubanum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cubana
fuscum Mont. = Pyrenula septicollaris
pyrenastraeum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula septicollaris

* actinellum Nyl.
* hyalosporum Alstrup, D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
* octosporum Looman = Chromatochlamys muscorum var. octospora

atlanticum (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
caesium (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
elegans R. Sant.
halodytes (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia halodytes
prospersellum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia prospersella
strontianense (Swinscow) R. C. Harris
sublitorale (Leighton) R. C. Harris ex Fletcher Syn.: Arthopyrenia sublitoralis
tichothecioides (Arnold) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia tichothecioides

albovariegata de Lesd. = Caloplaca albovariegata
elaeodes E. D. Rudolph = Caloplaca pellodella
montana de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.

granuliforme (Nyl.) Forss. = Cryptothele granuliformis
homoeopsis (Nyl.) Forss. = Pyrenopsis furfurea
iivarensis (Vainio) Forss. (Thomson 1997) = Pyrenopsis furfurea (Henssen & Jørgensen 1990; Santesson 1993)

compacta Willey
furfurea (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenopsidium homoeopsis, P. iivarensis
fuscoatra Fink
grumulifera Nyl.
haemalella (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss.
lecidella Fink
phaeococca Tuck.
polycocca (Nyl.) Tuck.
sanguinea Anzi
subfuliginea Nyl.
tasmanica Nyl.
viridirufa Tuck.
granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. = Euopsis granatina
homoeopsis Nyl. = P. furfurea
melambola (Tuck.) Tuck. = Metamelanea melambola
"multispora E. Dahl" Report probably refers to P. myriospora E. Dahl = P. grumulifera
myriospora E. Dahl = P. grumulifera
phylliscina (Tuck.) Tuck. = Cryptothele permiscens
pulvinata (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Euopsis pulvinata
schaereri A. Massal. = Psorotichia schaereri

brandegei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Endocarpon pulvinatum
spraguei Tuck. = Endocarpon pulvinatum

nigra Riddle Syn.: Lichenothrix riddlei

splitgerberi Mont. = campylidia of lichens

acutalis R. C. Harris
acutispora Kalb & Hafellner (Aptroot 1996)
anomala (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Melanotheca anomala, M. achariana
aquila R. C. Harris
aspistea (Ach.) Ach.
astroidea (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parmentaria astroidea
atrolaminata R. C. Harris (Aptroot 1996)
caryae R. C. Harris (Aptroot 1996)
cerina Eschw.
citriformis R. C. Harris
cocoes Müll. Arg.
concatervans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Melanotheca concatervans, (?) M. cinerata
confoederata R. C. Harris
corticata (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium corticatum
cruenta (Mont.) Vainio Syns.: Melanotheca cruenta, M. subincruenta
cruentata (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bottaria cruentata
cubana (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Pyrenastrum cubanum
cuyabensis (Malme) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium cuyabense
erumpens R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium emergens
falsaria (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium falsarium
laetior Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a)
laevigata (Pers.) Arnold
leucostoma Ach. Syns.: Anthracothecium leucostomum, Parmentaria rappii
lucifera R. C. Harris
macounii R. C. Harris
macularis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium maculare
maculata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris
mamillana (Ach.) Trevisan (fide R. Harris)
martinicana (Vainio) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium martinicanum
micheneri R. C. Harris
microcarpa Müll. Arg.
microtheca R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium microcarpum
mucosa (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
nitidula (Bresadola) R. C. Harris ined. (Harris 1995a)
occidentalis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris
ochraceoflava (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium ochraceoflavum
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium ochraceoflavens
oleosa R. C. Harris
personata (Malme) R. C. Harris
plittii R. C. Harris
pseudobufonia (Rehm) R. C. Harris
punctella (Nyl.) Trevisan
pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Anthracothecium pyrenuloides
quassiaecola Fée
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parmentaria ravenelii
rubrostoma R. C. Harris
santensis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
septicollaris (Eschw.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Pyrenastrum fuscum, P. pyrenastraeum
subelliptica (Tuck.) R. C. Harris
subferruginea (Malme) R. C. Harris Syn.: Parathelium subferrugineum
tenuisepta R. C. Harris
thelomorpha Tuck. Syn.: Anthracothecium thelomorphum
wetmorei R. C. Harris
wheeleri R. C. Harris
bahiana Malme = P. concatervans
brunnea Fée = misidentifications for North America
cinerea Zahlbr. = P. microcarpa
farrea auct. = Eopyrenula leucoplaca
fulvella R. C. Harris = P. personata
glabrata (Ach.) A. Massal. = P. laevigata
herrei Fink = Arthopyrenia plumbaria
imperfecta (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = P. subelliptica
leucoplaca (Wallr.) Körber = Eopyrenula leucoplaca
leucoplaca var. pluriloculata Fink = Eopyrenula intermedia
mamillana (Ach.) Trevisan = misidentifications for North America
marginata Hook. = P. mamillana
megalospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
neglecta R. C. Harris = P. pseudobufonia
nitida (Weigel) Ach. = misidentifications for North America
nitidella (Flörke ex Schaerer) Müll. Arg. var. maculata R. C. Harris = P. maculata
pinguis (Sprengel) Fée = misidentifications for North America
subaggregata Müll. Arg. Not in North America
tropica (Ach.) Trev. = Trypethelium tropicum
texana Tuck. ex R. C. Harris = P. microcarpa
xyloides (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = P. mamillana

* endococcoidea (Nyl.) Fink = Phaeospora rimosicola

javanicus (Mont. & Bosch) Nyl.
americanus Nyl. = P. javanicus

cinnabarina (Sommerf.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea cinnabarina
elabens (Fr.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea elabens, L. melancheima
quernea (Dickson) Körber Syns.: Protoblastenia quernea, Lecidea quernea
russula (Ach.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea russula
subcinnabarina (Tønsberg) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea subcinnabarina
varians (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea varians

albovirens (G. Meyer) Aptroot
berteriana (Fée) Imshaug
caesiopruinosa (Tuck.) Imshaug Possibly a synonym of P. albovirens,
cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.
coralligera Malme
eschweileri (Tuck.) Vainio
meissneriana Nyl. (Nash et al. 1998)
petricola Nyl.
retirugella Nyl.
sorediata (Ach.) Mont.
subcinerea Stirton
chrysanthoides Vainio = P. subcinerea
daedalea Krog & R. Sant. = misidentification for North America
frostii Tuck. = Dirinaria frostii
meissneri Tuck. = P. berteriana
picta (Sw.) Tuck. = Dirinaria picta
pringlei Imshaug = P. petricola

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

RACODIUM Pers. : Fr.
rupestre Pers.

ahtii Kashiw. & T. Nash
almquistii Vainio Syn.: Fistulariella almquistii
americana Hale Earlier North American reports of R. fastigiata belong here.
baltica Lettau
bistorta Nyl.
calicaris (L.) Fr.
canariensis J. Steiner
celastri (Sprengel) Krog & Swinscow
complanata (Sw.) Ach.
culbersoniorum La Greca (La Greca 1999)
dasypoga Tuck.
dendriscoides Nyl.
denticulata Nyl.
dilacerata (Hoffm.) Hoffm. Syn.: Fistulariella minuscula
farinacea (L.) Ach.
fastigiata (Pers.) Ach. Earlier reports of this species from North America refer to R. americana
fraxinea (L.) Ach.
geniculata Hook. f. & Taylor Syn.: Fistulariella geniculata
inflata (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hook. f. & Taylor subsp. inflata Syn.: Fistulariella inflata
intermedia (Delise ex Nyl.) Nyl.
lacera (With.) J. R. Laundon
leptocarpha Tuck.
linearis (Sw.) Ach.
menziesii Taylor
montagnei De Not.
obtusata (Arnold) Bitter
paludosa B. Moore
peruviana Ach. Syn.: Desmazieria peruviana
petrina Bowler & Rundel
pollinaria (Westr.) Ach.
polymorpha (Lilj.) Ach.
puberulenta Riefner & Bowler
rigida Pers. ex Ach.
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Hue Syn.: Fistulariella roesleri
scoparia Vainio Syn.: Fistulariella scoparia
sinensis Jatta
sorediantha Nyl.
stenospora Müll. Arg.
subleptocarpha Rundel & Bowler
subpellucida Müll. Arg.
tenuis (Tuck.) G. Merr.
thrausta (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Alectoria thrausta
unifolia J. W. Thomson
usnea (L.) R. Howe
willeyi R. Howe
cephalota Tuck. = Vermilacinia cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.) De Not. = Vermilacinia ceruchis, but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
cochlearis Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
combeoides Nyl. = Vermilacinia combeoides
crinita Tuck. = Trichoramalina crinita
duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. = R. lacera
ecklonii auct. = R. celastri
ecklonii (Sprengel) G. Meyer & Flotow Not known from North America.
evernioides Nyl. = R. lacera
flaccescens Nyl. = Niebla flaccescens
homalea Ach. = Niebla homalea
hypoprotocetrarica Culb. = R. farinacea
menziesii Tuck. non Taylor = R. leptocarpha
minuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. = R. dilacerata
pollinariella Nyl. = R. roesleri
reagens (de Lesd.) Culb. = R. farinacea
reticulata (Nöhden) Kremp. = R. menziesii
subampliata (Nyl.) Fink = misidentifications for North America
testudinaria Nyl. = Niebla homalea
yemensis (Ach.) Nyl. = R. celastri

RAMONIA Stizenb.
ablephora (Nyl. ex Hasse) R. C. Harris Syns.: Lecidea ablephora, Bacidia gyalectiformis
absconsa (Tuck.) Vezda
malmei Vezda
microspora Vezda
rappii Vezda
valenzueliana (Mont.) Stizenb. Syn.: Maronea porinoidea
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Vezda = R. ablephora

cribellifera (Nyl.) Servít = Lichinella cribellifera

* peltigerae (Keissler) D. Hawksw.

REINKELLA Darbish. (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica Räsänen = Hubbsia californica
parishii Hasse = Hubbsia parishii
subcrustacea Räsänen = Hubbsia parishii

RELICINA (Hale & Kurok.) Hale
abstrusa (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia abstrusa
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia eximbricata

# seminuda (Pers. : Fr.) Boise Syns.: Sphaeria seminuda, Lophiostoma subcollapsum
subcollapsa (Ellis & Everhart) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

RHABDOSPORA (Durieu & Mont.) Mont.
lecanorae de Lesd. = pycnidia of Lecanora thalli (Hawksworth 1981, Kalb et al. 1995)

* lichenicola (De Not.) Keissl. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

alaxense J. W. Thomson
alpicola (Anzi) Rabenh.
anaperum (Vainio) Vainio
anseris Lynge
arctogenum Gelting (Nash et al. 1998)
athalloides (Nyl.) Hasse
atroflavescens Lynge
badioatrum (Flörke ex Sprengel) Th. Fr. Syn.: Buellia badioatra
bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre
chioneum (Norman) Th. Fr.
cinereonigrum Vainio
cinereovirens (Müll. Arg.) Vainio
concentricum (Davies) Beltr.
cookeanum H. Magn.
copelandii (Körber) Th. Fr.
disporum (Nägeli ex Hepp) Müll. Arg.
distinctum Th. Fr.
effiguratum (Anzi) Th. Fr.
eupetraeoides (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss.
eupetraeum (Nyl.) Arnold
expallescens Th. Fr.
ferax H. Magn.
frigidum Räsänen
geminatum Körber
geographicum (L.) DC.
grande (Flörke ex Flotow) Arnold
hensseniae Brodo
hochstetteri (Körber) Vainio Syn.: Buellia colludens
inarense (Vainio) Vainio
intermediellum Räsänen
intersitum Arnold
jemtlandicum (Malme) Malme
lavatum (Fr.) Hazsl.
lecanorinum Anders
lindsayanum Räsänen Possibly a subspecies of R. geographicum
macrosporum Räsänen
microsporum Lynge
norvegicum Räsänen
obscuratum (Ach.) A. Massal.
oederi (Weber) Körber
parvum Runem. May not be distinct from R. norvegicum
petraeum (Wulfen) A. Massal.
polycarpoides Degel.
polycarpum (Hepp) Th. Fr.
postumum (Nyl.) Arnold
praebadium (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
* pusillum Runem.
* renneri Poelt
riparium Räsänen Possibly a subspecies of R. geographicum
rittokense (Hellbom) Th. Fr.
rubescens Th. Fr. (fide Fryday)
saanaënse Räsänen Syn.: R. sublucidum
* santessonii Timdal
simillimum (Anzi) Lettau
subgeminatum Eitner
submodestum (Vainio) Vainio
superficiale (Schaerer) Vainio
superficiale subsp. boreale Runem.
tetramerum (Vainio) Vainio
umbilicatum (Ramond) Flagey
vernicomoideum Fink
viridiatrum (Wulfen) Körber
albineum (Tuck.) Fink = R. obscuratum
alboatrum (Hoffm.) Anzi = Diplotomma alboatrum
ambiguum (Schaerer) Zahlbr. = R. distinctum
atroalbescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = R. eupetraeoides
chionophilum Th. Fr. = R. alpicola
chlorophaeum Hepp ex Leighton = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
concentricum auct. = R. petraeum
concretum (Ach.) Elenkin = R. geminatum
crystalligenum Lynge = R. superficiale subsp. boreale
cumulatum J. W. Thomson = Diplotomma epipolium (as Buellia, Feuerer 1991)
disporum auct. = R. geminatum
intermedium Degel. = R. eupetraeum
interponens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = R. obscuratum
montagnei Körber = R. disporum
occidentale Lynge = R. superficiale
oidaleum (Nyl.) Fink = Buellia oidalea
oreites (Vainio) Zahlbr. = R. alpicola
penichrum (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Diplotomma penichrum
permodestum Arnold = R. obscuratum
plicatile auct. North American = R. rubescens Th. Fr.?
plicatile (Leighton) A. L. Sm. = Stereocaulon plicatile (Leighton) Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 1996) Not known from North America
polare Räsänen = R. superficiale
reductum Th. Fr. = R. obscuratum
sphaerosporum Räsänen = R. macrosporum Räsänen
sublucidum Räsänen = R. saanaënse Räsänen.
subtile Runem. = R. viridiatrum

chrysoleuca (Sm.) Zopf Syns.: Lecanora chrysoleuca, L. rubina
glaucophana (Nyl. ex Hasse) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora glaucophana, Harpidium glaucophanum
haydenii (Tuck.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora haydenii
marginalis (Hasse) W. A. Weber Syn.: Lecanora marginalis
melanophthalma (DC.) Leuckert & Poelt Syn.: Lecanora melanophthalma
peltata (Ramond) Leuckert & Poelt Syn.: Lecanora peltata
subdiscrepans (Nyl.) R. Sant.

*neglectus (Vainio) Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)

RIMELIA Hale & Fletcher
cetrata (Ach.) Hale & Fletcher Syns.: Parmotrema cetratum, Parmelia cetrata, P. acanthifolia, P. herrei, P. reparata
commensurata (Hale) Hale & Fletcher Syns.: Parmotrema commensuratum, Parmelia commensurata
diffractaica (Essl.) Hale & Fletcher Syns.: Parmotrema diffractaicum, Parmelia diffractaica
reticulata (Taylor) Hale & Fletcher Syns.: Parmotrema reticulatum, Parmelia reticulata
simulans (Hale) Hale & Fletcher Syns.: Parmotrema simulans, Parmelia simulans
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale & Fletcher Syns.: Parmotrema subisidiosum, Parmelia subisidiosa

RIMELIELLA Kurok. = CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale (Elix 1997)
conferenda (Hale) Kurok. = Canomaculina conferenda
neotropica (Kurok.) Kurok. = Canomaculina neotropica
subsumpta (Nyl.) Kurok. = Canomaculina subsumpta
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Kurok. = Canomaculina subtinctoria

badioatra (Kremp.) Hertel & Rambold
caeca (Lowe) Rambold & Printzen Syn.: Lecidea caeca
furvella (Nyl. ex Mudd) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea furvella
gibbosa (Ach.) Coppins, Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Mosigia gibbosa, Lecanora bockii
gyrizans (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold
impavida (Th. Fr.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea impavida
* insularis (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea insularis, L. intumescens
limborina Nyl. Syns.: Lecidea limborina, L. trochodes
sphacelata (Th. Fr.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea sphacelata

RINODINA (Ach.) Gray
adirondackii H. Magn.
americana de Lesd.
annulata H. Magn.
applanata H. Magn.
archaea (Ach.) Arnold
arctica H. Magn.
ascociscana Tuck.
aspersa (Borrer) Laundon (Glew 1999)
athallina H. Magn.
bischoffii (Hepp) A. Massal.
bolanderi H. Magn.
brouardii de Lesd.
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) Malme
calcigena (Th. Fr.) Lynge
capensis Hampe
castanomela (Nyl.) Arnold
castanomelodes H. Mayrh. & Poelt
chrysomelaena Tuck.
cinereovirens (Vainio) Vainio
colobina (Ach.) Th. Fr.
colobinoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
coloradiana H. Magn.
confragosa (Ach.) Körber
conradii Körber
constrictula H. Magn.
darrowii E. D. Rudolph ('"darrovii")
degeliana Coppins
destituta (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
disjuncta Sheard & Tønsberg
efflorescens Malme
endophragmia Lamb
excrescens Vainio
exigua (Ach.) Gray
gennarii Bagl.
glauca Ropin
granulans Vainio
granuligera H. Magn.
griseosoralifera Coppins (Tønsberg 1993a)
halei H. Magn.
hallii Tuck.
herrei H. Magn.
hyperborea H. Magn.
interpolata (Stirton) Sheard (Thomson 1997)
iowensis Zahlbr.
laevigata (Ach.) Malme
lecanoides de Lesd.
lecideoides (Nyl.) Kernst.
lepida (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
lignaria H. Magn.
luridata (Körber) H. Mayrh., Scheid. & Sheard
lycopodiicola de Lesd.
marysvillensis H. Magn.
metaboliza Vainio
milvina (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr.
minutissima de Lesd.
mniaraea (Ach.) Körber
mniaroeiza (Nyl.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora mniaroeiza
mucronatula H.Magn.
ochrocea Willey ex Fink
olivaceobrunnea C. W. Dodge & Baker
oregana H. Magn.
oxydata (A. Massal.) A. Massal.
pachysperma H. Magn.
papillata H. Magn.
parasitica H. Mayrh. & Poelt
polyspora Th. Fr.
populicola H. Magn.
pyrina (Ach.) Arnold
riparia Sheard (Sheard 1998)
roscida (Sommerf.) Arnold
santae-monicae H. Magn.
septentrionalis Malme
sheardii Tønsberg
silicicola de Lesd.
stictica Sheard & Tønsberg
subminuta H. Magn.
subsophodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tephraspis (Tuck.) Herre
thomsonii Sheard (Sheard 1995)
turfacea (Wahlenb.) Körber
vegasii de Lesd.
willeyii Sheard & Giralt (Sheard 1995)
zwackhiana (Kremp.) Körber Syn.: R. violascens
angelica Stizenb. = Mobergia angelica
archaeoides H. Magn. = R. olivaceobrunnea
aterrima Kremp. ex Anzi = Lichenothelia scopularia
atrocinerea (Hook.) Körber = misidentifications for North America
biatorina Körber = R. oxydata
bolodes Tuck. ex Fink = Mobergia angelica
calculiformis W. A. Weber = Mobergia calculiformis
californica H. Magn. = Dimelaena californica
corticola Arnold = R. capensis
dakotensis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
dirinoides Zahlbr. = Mobergia angelica
dissa (Stirton) H. Mayrh. = Hafellia dissa, but not in North America
euryspora Zahlbr. = R. luridata
finkii H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
hueana Vainio = Dimelaena oreina
inaequalis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
intermedia Bagl. = R. conradii
kentuckyensis Fink = R. tephraspis
lecanorina (A. Massal.) A. Massal. = doubtful for North America
microbola Tuck. ex Fink = Buellia microbola
milliaria Tuck. = Amandinea milliaria
nigra Fink = Buellia nigra
nimbosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Phaeorrhiza nimbosa
novomexicana de Lesd. = Dimelaena oreina
occidentalis Lynge = R. calcigena
ocellata (Hoffm.) Arnold = R. lecanorina
orbata (Ach.) Vainio = R. turfacea
oreina (Ach.) A. Massal. = Dimelaena oreina
penardiana Müll. Arg. = R. bischoffii
pennsylvanica H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
phaeocarpa (Sommerf.) Vainio = Phaeorrhiza nimbosa
platyloba Willey = nom. nudum = Mobergia calculiformis
pyriniformis H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
roboris (Dufour ex Nyl.) Arnold = misidentifications for North America
sabulosa Tuck. = R. conradii
salina Degel. = R. gennarii
sophodes (Ach.) A. Massal. = misidentifications for North America
suboreina de Lesd. = Dimelaena oreina
subplumbea H. Magn. = Amandinea dakotensis
thujae (H. Magn.) Sheard = R. excrescens
thysanota Tuck. = Dimelaena thysanota
violascens H. Magn. = R. zwackhiana

pupula (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Belonia americana Excluded as a non-lichen

babingtonii Mont.
decipiens Darbish.
difficilis Darbish.
fimbriata Darbish.
fuciformis (L.) DC.
montagnei Bél.
peruensis Kremp.
phycopsis Ach.
tinctoria DC.
leucophaea Tuck. = Dendrographa leucophaea

conformis Tehler
franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Follmann Syns.: Dirina franciscana, Schismatomma cupressum

chlorantha (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia chlorantha
hibernica (P. James & Poelt) Tønsberg
lugubris (Sommerf.) Poelt Syns.: Bacidia lugubris, Bilimbia caudata, Lecidea lugubris
viridis (Tønsberg) Tønsberg

ROSELLINIELLA Vain. (Goward et al. 1996)
* atlantica Matzer & Hafellner (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
* nephromatis (Crouan) Matzer & Hafellner (Goward et al. 1996)

ROSELLINIOPSIS Matzer & Hafellner
* gelidaria (Mudd) Matzer & Hafellner Syn.: Polycoccum gelidarium

ROSELLINULA R. Sant. (Kalb et al. 1995)
* kalbii (Hafellner) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers (Kalb et al. 1995)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Clauzade & Roux = Placynthiella hyporhoda
icmalea (Ach.) Clauzade & Roux = Placynthiella icmalea
oligotropha (J. R. Laundon) Clauzade & Roux = Placynthiella oligotropha
uliginosa (Schrader) Hafellner = Placynthiella uliginosa

SAGEDIOPSIS (Sacc.) Vainio
* barbara (Th. Fr.) R. Sant. & Triebel Syn.: Gongylia nadvornikii
* campsteriana (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.

protuberans (Ach.) A. Massal.
rhexoblephara (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

SANTESSONIELLA Henssen (Henssen 1997)
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Henssen var. arctophila Syn.: Parmeliella arctophila

crossophylla (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000)
grisea (Hue) Henssen (Tønsberg & Henssen 1999)

intricans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Phaeographis intricans
labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
medusulina (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
tricosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.

athroocarpa H. Magn.
bicolor H. Magn.
bolleana H. Magn.
californica H. Magn.
clavus (DC.) Kremp. Syn.: Biatorella clavus
dakotensis H. Magn.
integra (de Lesd.) H. Magn.
[Biatorella kuleshanensis Herre]
magnussonii de Lesd.
novomexicana H. Magn.
oligospora H. Magn.
privigna (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Biatorella hypophaea
regularis Körber Syns.: Biatorella pruinosa
similis H. Magn.
pruinosa auct. = S. regularis
simplex (Davies) Nyl. = Polysporina simplex

SARCOPYRENIA Nyl. (Harris 1995b)
cylindrospora (Crouan & Crouan) Aguirre (Harris 1995b)

campestre (Fr.) Poetsch & Schiedem. Syn.: Biatorella campestris

+ difformis (Fr. ) Fr.
+ resinae (Fr.) Kuntze Syn.: Biatorella resinae

alpina Körber Syns.: Lopadium alpinum, L. gemellum
fecunda (Th. Fr.) Vezda & Poelt Syn.: Lopadium fecundum

cinereorufa (Schaerer) Th. Fr. Syn.: Lecidea cinereorufa
corticola Muhr & Tønsberg
endocyanea (Stirton) Hertel & Gotth. Schneider Syn.: Lecidea epiiodiza
fuscocinerea (Nyl.) Clauzade & Roux Syns.: Lecidea fuscocinerea, L. tenebrosa
tenebrosa (Flotow) Hertel & Poelt = S. fuscocinerea

SCHISMATOMMA Flotow & Körber ex A. Massal.
decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Clauz. & Vezda
glaucescens (Nyl. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthonia glaucescens
pericleum (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup
pluriloculare Zahlbr.
rappii (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma rappii
rediunta (Hasse) Tehler Syn.: Dirina rediunta
vernans (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
abietinum (Humb.) A. Massal. = S. pericleum
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Sigridia californica
cupressum Herre = Roccellina franciscana
hypothallinum (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Lecanographa hypothallina
ocellatum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mazosia ocellata
palidellum auct. = Enterographa lecanoroides
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecanactis subattingens

californica Th. Fr. Syn.: Combea californica

simplex D. Hawksw. (Cole & D. Hawksw. 2001)

amabilis (Tibell) Tibell (Goward et al. 1996)
coniophaea (Norman) J. Mattsson & Middelb. (Goward et al. 1996)
farinacea (Chevall.) Chevall.
nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell Syns.: Coniocybe nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold non Tuck. & Mont., C. pallida
peronella (Ach.) Tibell (Goward et al. 1996)

californicum (Tuck.) Hasse
cerebriforme Egea & Torrente
inscriptum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Chiodecton inscriptum
occidentale Herre Probably misplaced here

chlorococcum (Stenh.) Vezda Syn.: Bacidia chlorococca
pruinosum (P. James) Vezda (Tønsberg 1998)
sarothamni (Vainio) Vezda
umbrinum (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Bacidia umbrina
umbrinum var. compacta (Körber) Vezda

*dedicata Triebel, Wedin & Rambold (Triebel et al. 1997)
*epiblastematica (Wallr.) Rehm (Triebel et al. 1997)
* miliaris (Wallr.) Trevisan
* stereocaulorum (Anzi) Körber
* tuberculosa (Th. Fr.) Rehm = S. miliaris

geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Körber = Gyalecta geoica

SEGESTRIA Fr. (Harris 1995a)
leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina leptalea (Harris 1995a)
mammillosa Th. Fr. Syn.: Porina mammillosa (Harris 1995a)
octomera (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rubentior (Stirton) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

californica (Tuck.) Tehler Syn.: Dirina californica, D. hassei, Schismatomma californicum

ceratites (Wahlenb.) Fr.
dactyliza Nyl.
simplex (Taylor) Nyl. = S. ceratites

SKYTTEA Sherwood, D. Hawksw. & Coppins
* caesii Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* cismonicae Hafellner (Hafellner 2000)
* elachistophora (Nyl.) Sherwood & D. Hawksw.
* gregaria Sherwood, D. Hawks. & Coppins (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* lecanorae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* mayrhoferi Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* nitschkei (Körber) Sherwood, D. Hawks. & Coppins (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* radiatilis (Tuck.) R. Sant., Etayo & Diederich (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
* tavaresae R. Sant., Etayo & Diederich (Diederich & Etayo 2000)

SKYTELLA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
* mulleri (Willey) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.

candicans (Dickson) J. Steiner
crenata (Herre) Zahlbr.
holophaea (Mont.) Samp. Syns.: Lecanora holophaea, Candelariella holophaea
hassei (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. = Lecania hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble

bispora Nyl.
crocea (L.) Ach.
octospora (Arnold) Arnold
saccata (L.) Ach.
spongiosa (Ach.) Anzi

SOLORINARIA (Vainio) Gyelnik
despreauxii (Mont.) Fink = Heppia lutosa

asteriscus Anzi

euploca (Tuck.) Trevisan Syn.: Teloschistes euplocus

* abditum Triebel
* araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf
* contextum Triebel
# gowardii Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* minutum Hafellner
* propinquellum (Nyl.) Roux & Triebel

bignoniae Schwein. = Granulopyrenis hymnothora

fragilis (L.) Pers.
globosus (Hudson) Vainio
globosus var. gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
melanocarpus (Sw.) DC. = Bunodophoron melanocarpus
tuckermanii Räsänen = S. globosus var. gracilis

* dolichotera (Nyl.) Vouax

* anglica Nyl. Syns.: Mycocalicium microcephalum, Calicium microcephalum
* leucopoda Nyl.
* tubiformis A. Massal.
* turbinata (Pers. : Fr.) De Not.
* microcephala (Sm.) Körber = S. anglica
* microcephala Nyl. = S. tubiformis

calicioides Nádv. = Mycocalicium calicioides

dendroides Henssen
paradoxum Bornet
revertens Nyl.

SPILONEMELLA Henssen & Tønsberg (Henssen & Tønsberg 2000)
americana Henssen & Tønsberg

* fusisporella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

polyspora (Nyl.) Grummann Syn.: S. cinerea
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Biatorella testudinea
cinerea (Schaerer) Körber = S. polyspora

phyllocharis (Mont.) A. Massal.

cartilaginea (With.) P. James
degelii Frey & Poelt
lentigera (Weber) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora lentigera
crassa (Hudson) Poelt = S. cartilaginea

arctica Lynge
areolata (Ach.) Lettau
clopimoides (Arnold) J. Stein
diffractella (Nyl.) Tuck.
discedens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
drummondii (Tuck.) Tuck.
effigurata J. W. Thomson
elenkinii Oksner
fissa (Taylor) Zwackh
lecideoides de Lesd.
monicae (Zahlbr.) Wetmore
orispruinosa J. W. Thomson
polygonia de Lesd.
rugosa J. W. Thomson
rupifraga (A. Massal.) Arnold
tenuissima Degel.
verruculosa J. W. Thomson
ambrosiana (A. Massal.) Zschacke = S. drummondii for North American records
circinata Tuck. = S. fissa
catalepta auct. N. Am. = mostly S. monicae
clopima (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. [epithet to be proposed for rejection under I.C.B.N. Art.69 (Thomson 1991)] = S. drummondii
fuscocuprea (Nyl.) Zschacke = S. drummondii
glacialis Herre = S. fissa
hazslinskyi (Körber) Blomb. & Forss. = S. fissa
hymenogonia (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = S. discedens for North American records
perradiata Lynge = S. drummondii
rufa (A. Massal.) Zschacke = S. elenkinii for North American records
sessilis H. Magn. = S. elenkinii
succedens (Rehm) Arnold = S. drummondii for North American record
umbrina (Wahlenb.) Tuck. = S. fissa

geophana (Nyl.) Stein Syn.: Lecidea geophana

STENOCYBE (Nyl.) Körber
+ clavata Tibell
+ fragmenta E. B. Peterson & Rikkinen (Peterson & Rikkinen 1998)
+ major (Nyl.) Körber
+ pullatula (Ach.) Stein
+ byssacea (Fr.) Körber = S. pullatula
+ euspora (Nyl.) Anzi = (?) S. major
+ minutissima (G. Merr.) Zahlbr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+ tremulicola Norrlin ex Nyl. = Phaeocalicium tremulicola

alpinum Laurer ex Funck
apocalypticum Nyl.
arcticum Lynge
arenarium (Savicz) Lamb
botryosum Ach.
capitellatum H. Magn.
condensatum Hoffm.
coniophyllum Lamb
dactylophyllum Flörke
dactylophyllum var. occidentale (H. Magn.) Lamb
depreaultii Delise ex Nyl.
glareosum (Savicz) H. Magn.
glaucescens Tuck.
grande (H. Magn.) H. Magn.
groenlandicum (E. Dahl) Lamb
incrustatum Flörke
intermedium (Savicz) H. Magn.
leprocephalum Vainio
microcarpum Müll. Arg.
myriocarpum Th. Fr.
nanodes Tuck.
octomerum Müll. Arg.
paschale (L.) Hoffm.
pileatum Ach.
rivulorum H. Magn.
sasakii Zahlbr. var. simplex (Riddle) Lamb
sasakii var. tomentosoides Lamb
saviczii Du Rietz
saxatile H. Magn.
spathuliferum Vainio
sterile (Savicz) Lamb ex Krog
subcoralloides (Nyl.) Nyl.
symphycheilum Lamb
tennesseense H. Magn. ex Degel.
tomentosum Fr.
vesuvianum Pers.
albicans Th. Fr. = Leprocaulon albicans
arbuscula Nyl. = Leprocaulon arbuscula
coralloides Fr. = S. dactylophyllum
denudatum Flörke = S. vesuvianum
evolutoides (H. Magn.) Frey = S. saxatile
microscopicum (Vill.) Frey = Leprocaulon microscopicum
pseudoarbuscula Asah. = Leprocaulon subalbicans for North American records
quisquiliare (Leers) Hoffm. = Leprocaulon microscopicum
ramulosum Raeuschel = not in North America north of Mexico
subalbicans Lamb = Leprocaulon subalbicans
uliginosum Lamb Known from Greenland but not from the United States or Canada.
wrightii Tuck. = not in North America

STICTA (Schreber) Ach.
arctica Degel.
beauvoisii Delise
canariensis (Bory) Bory ex Delise
fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach.
limbata (Sm.) Ach.
oroborealis Goward & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Goward 2001)
sylvatica (Hudson) Ach.
wrightii Tuck.
anthraspis Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis
aurata Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria aurata
crocata (L.) Ach. = Pseudocyphellaria crocata
erosa (Eschw.) Tuck. = Lobaria ravenelii
hallii Tuck. = Lobaria hallii
herbacea (Hudson) Ach. = misidentifications for North America
laciniata Ach. = misidentifications for North America
linita Ach. = Lobaria linita
oregana Tuck. = Lobaria oregana
pulmonaria (L.) Biroli = Lobaria pulmonaria
verrucosa (Hudson) Fink = Lobaria scrobiculata
weigelii (Ach.) Vainio = misidentifications for North America

* cerinae Cl. Roux & Triebel (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
* ephebes (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Pharcidia ephebes (Henssen) D. Hawksw.
* frigidum (Sacc.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
* fuscatae (Arnold) R. Sant.
* glebarum (Arn.) Hafellner (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
* marinum (Deakin) Swinscow
* [Pharcidia parva Henssen]
* peltideae (Vainio) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* psorae (Anzi) Hafellner
* pumilum (Lett.) Matzer & Hafellner (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)
* schaereri (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Reinstated for N.Am. by Henssen 1995)
* squamariae (de Lesd.) Roux & Triebel
* tabacinae (Arnold) Triebel
* atryneae (Arnold) Hafellner = Sphaerellothecium atryneae, but North American specimens are Stigmidium squamariae
* congestum (Körber) Triebel = Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, for North American records only
* schaereri (A. Massal.) Trevisan = misidentifications for North America

[Arthonia alba Müll. Arg.]

microhaema (Norman) R. Anderson Syn.: Biatorella microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Stein Syn.: Biatorella moriformis
ochrophora (Nyl.) R. Anderson Syn.: Biatorella ochrophora
pinicola (A. Massal.) Körber

americana R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia tenuis
bermudana (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
complanata (Fée) Mont.
connivens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
griseonitens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
hypothallina R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
jamesii (Swinscow) R. C. Harris
laceribracae R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
nitidula Mont.
phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris
smaragdula Fr. : Fr. (Harris 1995a)
stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia faginea, Porina cinerea
subelegans Vainio (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia submuriformis
sychnogonioides (Nitschke) R. C. Harris Syn.: Geisleria sychnogonioides
viridiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Porina viridiseda
wilsonii (Riddle) R. C. Harris
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = S. jamesii for North American records
elegans (Fée) Müll. Arg. = S. smaragdula (Harris 1995a)

badia Brodo & D. Hawksw.
isidiifera Brodo

canellae-albae (Fée) H. Harada Syn.: Anthracothecium carellae-albae (Harada 1999)
staurospora (Tuck.) H. Harada (Harada 1999)

symphorea (Ach.) Nyl.
melambola Tuck. = Metamelaena melambola
ramulosa (Hoffm.) Fr. = S. symphorea
subnigra (de Lesd.) Henssen = Peccania subnigra
texana Tuck. = Peccania texana

SYNCESIA Taylor (Tehler 1996)
byssina (Vainio) Tehler
psaroleuca (Nyl.) Tehler
graphica (Fries) Tehler
depressa (Fée) Tehler

aggregatus ("Ach.") Th. Fr. = Collema fasciculare
polycarpus (Hoffm.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = Collema polycarpon
pycnocarpus Nyl. = Collema conglomeratum Hoffm. var. crassiusculum
rupestris (Sw.) Trevisan = Collema flaccidum
texanus (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Collema texanum
wyomingensis Fink = Collema polycarpon

SYZYGOSPORA Martin (Diederich 1996)
* bachmannii Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
* physciacearum Diederich (Diederich 1996)

tsugae A. Funk Syn.: Micarea clavopycnidiata

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

* caespitosa M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
* laevistipitata M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)

TALPAPELLIS Alstrup & M. Cole
* peltigerae Alstrup & M. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

bilimbioides R. Sant.
epiphylla (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium phyllocharis
nana (Fée) R. Sant.

arcticus Zahlbr.
californicus Sipman
chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr.
contortuplicatus (Ach.) Clauzade & Rondon ex Vezda
exilis (Michaux) Vainio
flavicans (Sw.) Norman
candelaris (L.) Fink = Xanthoria candelaria
euplocus (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Speerschneidera euploca
parietinus (L.) Norman = Xanthoria parietina
polycarpus (Hoffm.) Tuck. = Xanthoria polycarpa
ramulosus Tuck. = Xanthoria ramulosa
villosus auct. non (Ach.) Norman = T. californicus for North American records

aglaea (Sommerf.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea aglaea
[Lecidea aglaeida Nyl.]
armeniaca (DC.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea armeniaca
atra (Hudson) Hafellner Syn.: Lecanora atra
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea arctogena

TEXOSPORIUM Nádv. ex Tibell & Hofsten
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Nádv. Syn.: Cyphelium sancti-jacobi

* crombiei (Mudd) D. Hawksw.

THAMNOLIA Ach. ex Schaerer
subuliformis (Ehrh.) Culb.
vermicularis (Sw.) Ach. ex Schaerer
subvermicularis Asah. = T. subuliformis

brasiliensis (Müll. Arg.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)
cinerascens (Vainio) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Aspidothelium fugiens
geminipara (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
harrisii H. Mayrh.
hassei (Zahlbr.) H. Mayrh. Syns.: Microglaena hassei, M. sychnogonoides
humilis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
inductula (Nyl.) H. Mayrh. Syns.: Microglaena inductula, Polyblastiopsis inductula
luridella R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
modesta (Nyl.) Nyl. Syn.: Microglaena subcorallina
pertusariella (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)
rappii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
sastreana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
sordidula (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrh. Syn.: Microglaena sordidula
sychnogonioides (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
weberi H. Mayrh.

THELIDIELLA Fink ex J. Hedrick
blastenicola Fink = a non-lichenized fungus

absconditum (Hepp) Rabenh.
aeneovinosum (Anzi) Arnold
areolatum J. W. Thomson
circumspersellum (Nyl.) Zschacke Syn.: Verrucaria circumspersella
decipiens (Nyl.) Kremp.
incavatum Nyl. ex Mudd
microbolum (Tuck.) Hasse
microsporum Lynge
minimum (A. Massal. ex Körber) Arnold
minutulum Körber
olivaceum (Fr.) Körber
papulare (Fr.) Arnold
parvulum Arnold
pyrenophorum (Ach.) Mudd
transsylvanicum Zschacke
velutinum (Bernh.) Körber
acrotellum Arnold = T. minutulum
mesotropum (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. = T. minutulum

lignyota (Wahlenb.) P. M. Jørg. & Henssen Syn.: Porocyphus dispersus

epibolum Nyl.
* epibolum var. epithallinum (Leighton ex Nyl.) Salisb.
hassei de Lesd.
intermediellum Nyl.
laureri (Flotow) Nyl. Syns.: T. epilithellum, T. majusculum, T. prasinellum
sphaerosporum H. Magn. Syn.: Ahlesia sphaerospora
superellum Nyl.
albomarginatum Herre = Acarospora albomarginata
epilithellum Nyl. = T. laureri
fimicola Fink = T. intermediellum
majusculum Nyl. = T. laureri
prasinellum Nyl. = T. laureri

californicum (Tuck.) Tibell Syns.: Cyphelium californicum, C. farlowii, C. andersonii
carolinianum (Tuck.) Tibell Syn.: Cyphelium carolinianum
mammosum (Hepp) A. Massal. Syn.: Cypheliopsis bolanderi
occidentale (Herre) Tibell Syn.: Cyphelium occidentale. North American records of Cyphelium caliciforme probably belong here.
ocellatum (Körber) Tibell
santessonii Tibell

flaveola Arnold
inordinata Nyl.
isiaca Stizenb.
melathelia Nyl.
rubella Nyl.
subporinella Nyl. = T. isiaca

adjectum Nyl.
alborosellum (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Ocellularia alborosella
californicum Tuck. Syn.: Phaeotrema californicum
defectum Hale
dilatatum (Müll. Arg.) Hale
eximium R. C. Harris
floridense R. C. Harris
halei (Tuck. & Mont.) Zahlbr.
lacteum Kremp.
lathraeum Tuck. Syn.: Ocellularia lathraea
lepadinum (Ach.) Ach.
leprocarpum (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Graphina leprocarpa
monospermum R. C. Harris
petractoides P. M. Jørg. & Brodo (Purvis et al. 1995)
platycarpoides Tuck. (Harris 1995a)
platycarpum Tuck.
porinoides Mont. & Bosch Syn.: Ocellularia floridensis
santense Tuck. Syns.: Leptotrema santense
subtile Tuck. Syn.: Ocellularia subtilis
suecicum (H. Magn.) P. James
bahianum Ach. var. obturascens Nyl. = Myriotrema bahiana
carneum Eckfeldt = Mazosia ocellata
clandestinum Fée = Myriotrema clandestinum
heterosporum C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey = T. santense
interpositum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Ocellularia interposita, but misidentifications for North America
monosporum Nyl. = T. monospermum for North American records
postpositum Nyl. Not in North America
praestans Müll. Arg. = Ocellularia praestans
ravenelii Tuck. = Myriotrema wightii
sanfordianum Zahlbr. = Ocellularia sanfordiana
texanum Willey ex Nyl. = Ocellularia stictidea

velutina (Ach.) Flotow

dissimilis (Norman) Norman

discordans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
epigaeum (Pers.) Wallr.
mongolicum H. Magn.

THYREA A. Massal.
confusa Henssen (Henssen & Jørgensen 1990)
girardii (Durieu & Mont.) Bagl. & Carestia
pulvinata (Schaerer) A. Massal.
demangeonii (Moug. & Mont.) Fink = Phylliscum demangeonii
nigritella Lettau = Lichinella nigritella
pulvinata auct. North American = T. confusa
pyrenoides (Nyl.) Fink = Paulia pyrenoides

* pygmaeum Körber = Muellerella pygmaea
* zahlbrucknerella Henssen = Endococcus zahlbrucknerellae

americana (Minks ex Willey) R. C. Harris
[Mycoporellum difforme (Minks) Fink]
macularis (Minks ex willey) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Cyrtidula macularis
californica (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum californicum

eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum eschweileri
esenbeckiana (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Melanotheca esenbeckiana
lactea (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum lactaeum
sparsella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Mycoporum sparsellum

TONINIA A. Massal.
alutacea (Anzi) Jatta
arctica Timdal
aromatica (Sm.) A. Massal.
athallina (Hepp) Timdal Syns.: Catillaria athallina, Kiliasia athallina
bullata (Meyen & Flotow) Zahlbr.
candida (Weber) Th. Fr.
cinereovirens (Schaerer) A. Massal.
lutosa (Ach.) Timdal Syn.: (?)Catillaria crystallifera
massata (Tuck.) Herre
opuntioides (Vill.) Timdal
pennina (Schaerer) Gyelnik
philippea (Mont.) Timdal Syns.: Kiliasia philippea, Catillaria arctica, C. kansuensis, C. philippea
physaroides (Opiz) Zahlbr.
ruginosa (Tuck.) Herre subsp. ruginosa
ruginosa subsp. pacifica Timdal
sculpturata (H. Magn.) Timdal Syn.: Catillaria sculpturata
sedifolia (Scop.) Timdal
squalida (Ach.) A. Massal.
subdiffracta Timdal
submexicana de Lesd.
superioris Timdal
talparum Timdal
tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. subsp. tristis
tristis subsp. arizonica Timdal
tristis subsp. asiae-centralis (H. Magn.) Timdal
tristis subsp. canadensis Timdal
tristis subsp. scholanderi (Lynge) Timdal Syn.: Lecidea scholanderi, Psora scholanderi
verrucarioides (Nyl.) Timdal
weberi Timdal
caeruleonigricans auct. = T. sedifolia
caeruleonigricans (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = Pannaria praetermissa, nom. rej. prop.
caulescens Anzi = T. squalida
conglomerata (Ach.) Boistel = Psorinia conglomerata
cumulata (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. Excluded from Toninia; misidentifications for North America
kolax Poelt = T. verrucarioides
lobulata (Sommerf.) Lynge = Mycobilimbia lobulata
squarrosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = T. squalida
tabacina auct. = T. tristis

TOPELIA P. M. Jørg. & Vezda
aperiens P. M. Jørg. & Vezda
californica P. M. Jørg. & Vezda

TOPELIOPSIS Kantvilas & Vzda
toensbergii Kantvilas & Vzda (Kantvilas & Vzda 2000)

TORNABEA Østh. (Nimis & Tretiach 1997)
Tornabea scutellifera (With.) J. R. Laundon (Nimis & Tretiach 1997)

coarctata (Sm.) M. Choisy Syn.: Lecidea coarctata
corticola Coppins & P. James
involuta (Taylor) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea gregaria, L. ornata
mooreana (Carroll) P. James Syns.: Lecidea lopadioides, L. brujeriana
obtegens (Th. Fr.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea obtegens
placodioides Coppins & P. James
brujeriana (D. Dietr.) M. Choisy = Trapelia mooreana
torellii (Anzi) Hertel = T. mooreana

TRAPELIOPSIS Hertel & Gotth. Schneider
aeneofusca (Flotow) Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996)
flexuosa (Fr.) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Lecidea aeruginosa, L. flexuosa
gelatinosa (Flörke) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Lecidea gelatinosa, Micarea gelatinosa
granulosa (Hoffm.) Lumbsch Syns.: Lecidea granulosa, L. quadricolor
pseudogranulosa Coppins & P. James
viridescens (Schrader) Coppins & P. James Syns.: Lecidea viridescens, Micarea viridescens
wallrothii (Flörke) Hertel & Gotth. Schneider Syns.: Lecidea wallrothii, L. glebosula

* cetrariicola Diederich & Coppins (Diederich 1996)
* cladoniae Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
* dendrographae Diederich & Tehler (Diederich 1996)
* everniae Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* haematommatis Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* harrisii Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* hypogymniae Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 1996)
* lichenicola Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* nephromatis Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* parmeliarum Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* pertusariae Diederich (Diederich 1996)
* phaeographinae Diederich & Aptroot (Diederich 1996)

atrata (Ach.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea atrata, L. dicksonii auct.
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel = Farnoldia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis
nivalis (Anzi) Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis

cretacea Vezda
santessonii D. Hawksw.
vezdae W. R. Buck
melanothrix Fée = T. santessonii and T. vezdae for North American records

* rubefaciens (Ellis & Everh.) Diederich & Schroers (Sèrusiaux et al. 1999) = Nectriopsis rubefaciens

crinita (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler Syn.: Ramalina crinita

aeneum (Wallr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Pseudosagedium aenea
cestrense (Michener) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
chloroticum (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Pseudosagedium chlorotica
crocynioides R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
epiphyllum Müll. Arg.
guentheri (Flotow) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Pseudosagedium guentheri
horridulum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
isidiatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
lineare (Leighton) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Pseudosagedia lineare
nitidulum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Pseudosagedium nitidula
rhaphidospermum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
thaxteri (R. Sant.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Pseudosagedia thaxteri

TRIMMATOTHELE Norman ex Zahlbr.
umbellulariae Herre

aeneum (Eschw.) Zahlbr.
eluteriae Sprengel
floridanum (Zahlbr. ex M. Choisy) R. C. Harris Most North American records of Pseudopyrenula pupula and Trypethelium annulare belong here.
nitidiusculum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris North American records of T. catervarium auct. belong here.
ochroleucum (Eschw.) Nyl.
subeluteriae Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
tropicum (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Pyrenula tropica
variolosum Ach. (Harris 1995a)
virens Tuck. ex Michener
annulare (Fée) Mont. = T. floridanum for North American records
carolinianum Tuck. = Bathelium carolinianum
catervarium auct. = T. nitidiusculum for most North American records
catervarium (Fée) Tuck. = Astrothelium variolosum
exocanthum Tuck. = T. virens
mastoideum (Ach.) Ach. = misidentifications for North America (Harris 1995a)
pallescens Fée = T. ochroleucum
scorites Tuck. = T. virens

americana (Sprengel) Hale Syns.: Cetraria halei, C. ciliaris var. halei
chlorophylla (Willd.) Hale Syns.: Cetraria chlorophylla, C. scutata auct. non (Wulfen) Poetsch
ciliaris (Ach.) Gyelnik Syn.: Cetraria ciliaris
coralligera (W. A. Weber) W. A. Weber Syn.: Cetraria coralligera
fendleri (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Cetraria fendleri
inermis (Nyl.) Kärnefelt
orbata (Nyl.) M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria orbata
platyphylla (Tuck.) Hale Syn.: Cetraria platyphylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Hale Syn.: Cetraria sepincola, C. scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch non auct.
subalpina (Imshaug) Kärnefelt
[Cetraria weberi Essl.]
aurescens (Tuck.) Hale = Ahtiana aurescens
"californica" = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Hale = Vulpicida canadensis
halei (Culb. & C. Culb.) M. J. Lai = T. americana
juniperina (L.) Hale = North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
merrillii (Du Rietz) Hale = Kaernefeltia merrillii
oakesiana (Tuck.) Hale = Allocetraria oakesiana
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Hale = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Hale = Vulpicida pinastri
viridis (Schwein.) Hale = Vulpicida viridis

TURGIDOSCULUM Kohlm. & E. Kohlm.
complicatulum (Nyl.) Kohlm. & E. Kohlm. = Kohlmeyera complicatula

TYLOPHORON Nyl. ex Stizenb.
moderatum Nyl.
protrudens Nyl.

TYLOTHALLIA P. James & R. Kilias
biformigera (Leighton) P. James & R. Kilias Syns.: Catillaria biformigera, C. bahusiensis

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

americana Poelt & T. Nash
angulata Tuck. Syn.: Gyrophora angulata
aprina Nyl.
arctica (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Gyrophora arctica
caroliniana Tuck.
cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Frey
crustulosa (Ach.) Frey Syn.: Omphalodiscus crustulosus
cylindrica (L.) Delise ex Duby Syn.: Gyrophora cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Omphalodiscus decussatus, Gyrophora decussata
deusta (L.) Baumg. Syn.: Gyrophora deusta
havaasii Llano
hirsuta (Sw. ex Westr.) Hoffm.
hyperborea (Ach.) Hoffm. var. hyperborea Syn.: Gyrophora hyperborea
hyperborea var. radicicula (J. E. Zetterst.) Hasselrot
krascheninnikovii (Savicz) Zahlbr. Syn.: Omphalodiscus krascheninnikovii
lambii Imshaug
leiocarpa DC. Syn.: Agyrophora leiocarpa
lyngei Schol. Syn.: Agyrophora lyngei
mammulata (Ach.) Tuck. Syn.: Gyrophora dillenii
muehlenbergii (Ach.) Tuck. Syns.: Actinogyra muehlenbergii, Gyrophora muehlenbergii
nylanderiana (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.
phaea Tuck. Syn.: Gyrophora phaea
polyphylla (L.) Baumg. Syn.: Gyrophora polyphylla
polyrhiza (L.) Fr. Syns.: Actinogyra polyrhiza, Gyrophora polyrhiza
proboscidea (L.) Schrader
rigida (Du Rietz) Frey Syns.: U. coriacea, Agyrophora rigida, Gyrophora anthracina
scholanderi (Llano) Krog Syn.: Agyrophora scholanderi
subglabra (Nyl.) Harm. (Nash et al. 1998)
torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrader Syn.: Gyrophora erosa
vellea (L.) Hoffm. Syn.: Gyrophora vellea
virginis Schaerer Syns.: Omphalodiscus virginis
coriacea Imshaug = U. rigida
papulosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Lasallia papulosa
pensylvanica Hoffm. = Lasallia pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Hoffm. = Lasallia pustulata
pustulata var. papulosa (Ach.) Tuck. = Lasallia papulosa

actinostoma Ach. = Diploschistes actinostomus
albissima (Ach.) Fink = Diploschistes diacapsis
scruposa (Schreber) Ach. = Diploschistes scruposus

USNEA Dill. ex Adans.
aculeata Mot.
affinis Mot.
alpina Mot.
amabilis Mot.
amblyoclada (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
ammannii P. Clerc & Herrera-Campos (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
angulata Ach.
arizonica Mot.
australis Fr.
baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr.
californica Herre
capillaris Mot.
catenulata Mot. (Identification uncertain)
cavernosa Tuck.
ceratina Ach.
chaetophora Stirton (Halonen et al. 1998)
ciliifera Mot.
cirrosa Mot.
condensata Mot.
confusa Asah.
cornuta Körber
dasaea Stirton (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
deformis Mot.
dimorpha (Müll. Arg.) Mot.
diplotypus Vainio (Halonen et al. 1998)
duriuscula Mot.
endochrysea Stirton
erinacea Vainio
esperantiana Clerc (Halonen 1998)
evansii Mot.
fibrillosa Mot.
filipendula Stirton
finkii Zahlbr.
florida (L.) F. H. Wigg.
fragilescens Hav. ex Lynge
fragilescens var. mollis (Vainio) Clerc
freyi Mot.
fulvoreagens (Räsänen) Räsänen
furfurosula (Zahlbr.) Mot.
glabrata (Ach.) Vainio
glabrescens (Nyl. ex Vainio) Vainio
graciosa Mot. (Identification uncertain)
halei P. Clerc (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
hesperina Mot.
hirta (L.) F. H. Wigg.
lapponica Vainio
leucosticta Vainio
longissima Ach.
madeirensis Mot.
merrillii Mot.
michauxii I. Tav.
mirabilis Mot.
monstruosa Vainio
mutabilis Stirton
nashii P. Clerc & Herrera-Campos (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
nidulans Mot. (Halonen et al. 1998)
occidentalis Mot.
pachyclada Mot.
pacificana P. Halonen (Halonen 2000)
pensylvanica Mot.
perplectata Mot.
ramillosa Mot.
retifera Mot.
rigida (Ach.) Mot. (Halonen et al. 1998)
roseola Vainio
rubicunda Stirton
scabiosa Mot.
scabrata Nyl.
scholanderi Llano
silvatica Mot.
sphacelata R. Br. Syns.: Neuropogon sulphureus, N. lambii
spinulifera (Vainio) Mot.
strigosa (Ach.) Eaton subsp. major (Michaux) I. Tav.
strigosa subsp. rubiginea (Michaux) I. Tav. Syn.: U. rubiginea
strigosa subsp. strigosa
stuppea (Räsänen) Mot.
subfloridana Stirton
subfusca Stirton
subhirta Mot.
subscabrosa Mot.
substerilis Mot.
trichodea Ach.
tristis Mot.
vainioi Mot.
variegata Stirton
wasmuthii Räsänen
wirthii Clerc
xanthopoga Nyl.
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = U. baileyi
articulata (L.) Hoffm. = misidentifications for North America
barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg. = misidentifications for North America?
barbata var. xanthopoga Müll. Arg. = U. xanthopoga
betulina Mot. = (?) U. glabrescens
caucasica Vainio = (?) U. filipendula
comosa auct. = U. subfloridana
compacta (Räsänen) Mot. = U. glabrescens
dasypoga auct. non (Ach.) Shirley = U. filipendula
diplotypus Vainio = saxicolous specimens were misidentifications for North America (Clerc & Herrera-Campos 1997)
distincta Mot. = U. glabrescens
esthonica Räsänen = U. filipendula
flagellata Mot. = U. filipendula
globularis Motyka = U. amblyoclada
herrei Hale = nom. nud.
implicita (Stirton) Zahlbr. = U. baileyi
inflata Delise ex Duby nom. nudum = U. cornuta
intermedia (A. Massal.) Jatta = misidentifications for North America
kujalae Räsänen = U. glabrata
laricina Vainio ex Räsänen = (?) U. lapponica
mollis Stirton = U. fragilescens var. mollis
montana Mot. = misidentifications for North America
perplexans Stirton (Clerc 1987) = an Asian taxon, not present in North America
plicata (L.) Weber = misidentifications for North America
prostrata Vainio ex Räsänen = U. barbata, misidentifications for North America?
rubiginea (Michaux) A. Massal. = U. strigosa subsp. rubiginea
rugulosa Vainio = U. scabrata
scabrata subsp. nylanderiana Mot. = chemotype of U. scabrata
similis Mot. ex Räsänen = U. subfloridana
sorediifera (Arnold) Lynge = U. glabrata
sorediifera sens. Mot. = U. lapponica
subcavata Mot. = U. perplectata
sublaxa Vainio = U. filipendula
variolosa Motyka = U. hirta (L.) F. H. Wigg (Clerc 1997)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

rhodocarpa (Körber) Th. Fr.
kemensis Räsänen = V. rhodocarpa

acicularis Spjut (Spjut 1996)
cephalota (Tuck.) Spjut & Hale (Spjut 1996)
cerebra Spjut (Spjut 1996)
ceruchoides (Rundel & Bowler) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
combeoides (Nyl.) Spjut & Hale (Spjut 1996)
corrugata Spjut (Spjut 1996)
howei Spjut (Spjut 1996)
laevigata (Rundel & Bowler) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
leopardina Spjut (Spjut 1996)
nylanderi Spjut (Spjut 1996)
paleoderma Spjut (Spjut 1996)
polymorpha (Bowler, Marsh, Nash & Riefner) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
procera (Bowler & Rundel) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
pumila Spjut (Spjut 1996)
robusta (Howe) Spjut & Hale (Spjut 1996)
tigrina (Follmann) Spjut & Hale (Spjut 1996)
tuberculata (Riefner, Bowler, Marsh & Nash) Spjut (Spjut 1996)
zebrina Spjut (Spjut 1996)

acrotella Ach.
aethiobola Wahlenb.
amphibia Clemente
amylacea Hepp
applanata Hepp ex Zschacke
aquilella Nyl.
arctica Lynge
caerulea DC.
calciseda DC.
calkinsiana Servít
canella Nyl.
cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
cetera Breuss (Breuss 1998)
ceuthocarpa Wahlenb.
dacryodes Nyl.
degelii R. Sant.
devergens Nyl.
devergescens Nyl.
deversa Vainio
ditmarsica Erichsen
dolosa Hepp
elaeomelaena (A. Massal.) Arnold
erichsenii Zschacke
fayettensis Servít
finkiana Servít
funckii (Sprengel) Zahlbr.
fuscella (Turner) Winch
fusconigrescens Nyl.
glaucovirens Grummann
halizoa Leighton
hydrela Ach.
illinoisensis Servít
inficiens Breuss (Syn.: Catapyrenium plumbeum, Dermatocarpon plumbeum, Endopyrenium plumbeum) (Breuss 1998)
integra (Nyl.) Nyl.
internigrescens (Nyl.) Erichsen
iovensis Servít
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Dermatocarpon lecideoides
lobata J. W. Thomson
macrostoma Dufour ex DC.
margacea (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb.
marmorea (Scop.) Arnold
maura Wahlenb.
melas Herre
mucosa Wahlenb.
muralis Ach.
nigrescens Pers.
nigrescentoidea Fink
novomexicana de Lesd.
obductilis (Nyl.) Zschacke (Nash et al. 1998)
obnigrescens Nyl.
obsoleta Lynge
ossiseda Lynge
papillosa Ach.
phaeothelena Th. Fr.
pinguicula A. Massal.
praetermissa (Trevisan) Anzi
prominula Nyl.
pseudonigrescens Servít
riddleana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
rheitrophila Zschacke
* rubrocincta Breuss (Breuss 2000)
ruderella Nyl.
rupestris Schrader
sandstedei de Lesd.
silicicola Fink
sorbicola Servít
sordida Servít
sphaerospora Anzi (Goward et al. 1996)
sphinctrina Ach.
stanfordii Herre
striatula Wahlenb.
subglaucina de Lesd.
submersella Servít
submuralis Nyl.
tavaresiae R. Moe (Moe 1997)
tectorum (A. Massal.) Körber
trabicola Arnold (Nash et al. 1998)
umbrinula Nyl.
viridula (Schrader) Ach.
zamenhofiana Clauzade & Roux
circumspersella Nyl. = Thelidium circumspersellum
fuscella var. glaucina (Ach.) Schaerer = V. caerulea
glaucina Ach. = V. caerulea
hymnothora Ach. = Granulopyrenis hymnothora
iowensis Servít = V. fayettensis
kernstockii Zschacke = V. rheitrophila
laevata Ach. = V. aethiobola
microspora auct. = V. halizoa
microspora Nyl. = V. striatula
mutabilis Borrer ex Leighton = nom. illegit.
submersa Schaerer = V. submersella
subsuperficialis Fink = V. striatula
virens Nyl. = V. glaucovirens

elaeina (Wahlenb.) Gyelnik
isidiata (Degel.) E. Dahl Syn.: Pannaria isidiata

VEZDAEA Tsch.-Woess & Poelt
leprosa (P. James) Vezda (Buck et al. 1999)
stipitata Poelt & Döbbeler

VOUAUXIELLA Petrak & Sydow
* lichenicola (Lindsay) Petrak & Sydow

* truncatus (de Lesd.) Dyko & D. Hawksw.

VULPICIDA J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai
canadensis (Räsänen) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syns.: Cetraria canadensis, Tuckermannopsis canadensis
pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syns.: Cetraria pinastri, Tuckermannopsis pinastri
tilesii (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria tilesii
viridis (Schwein.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria viridis, Tuckermannopsis viridis

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

californica Moberg Erroneously listed as a synonym of W. stoechadiana
stoechadiana (Abbassi Maaf & Roux) Roux & Clerc = Not in North America

* peltigericola D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

ajoensis (T. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia ajoensis
angustiphylla (Gyelnik) Hale
arida Egan & Derstine
australasica D. J. Galloway
barbatica (Elix) Egan
californica Hale
camtschadalis (Ach.) Hale
chlorochroa (Tuck.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia chlorochroa
coloradoensis (Gyelnik) Hale
commonii Elix & Nash (Elix & Nash 1999)
consociata (Elix) Elix & Johnston (Nash et al. 1998)
conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia conspersa, P. isidiata
cumberlandia (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia cumberlandia
dierythra (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dierythra
dissensa (T. Nash) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dissensa
eganii Elix & Nash (Elix & Nash 1999)
huachucensis (T. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia huachucensis
hypomelaena (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hypomelaena
idahoensis Hale
isidiascens Hale
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Elix & Johnston (Nash et al. 1998)
joranadia (T. Nash) Hale Syn.: Parmelia joranadia
lavicola (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia kurokawae
lineola (E. C. Berry) Hale Syn.: Parmelia lineola
lipochlorochroa Hale & Elix
maricopensis T. Nash & Elix
mexicana (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mexicana
moctezumensis T. Nash
montanensis Hale
monticola (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia monticola
mougeotii (Schaerer) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mougeotii
neochlorochroa Hale
neocongensis (Hale) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
neoconspersa (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia neoconspersa
neotaractica Hale
neowyomingica Hale
nigropsoromifera (T. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia nigropsoromifera
norchlorochroa Hale
norhypopsila Hale
novomexicana (Gyelnik) Hale Syns.: Parmelia novomexicana, P. tuberculata, P. arseneana
oleosa (Elix & P. M. Armstrong) Elix & T. Nash
piedmontensis (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia piedmontensis
planilobata (Gyelnik) Hale
plittii (Gyelnk) Hale Syn.: Parmelia plittii
psoromifera (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia psoromifera
schmidtii Hale
somloënsis (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia stenophylla
stenophylloides (Müll. Arg.) Hale
subdecipiens (Vainio) Hale Syn.: Parmelia subdecipiens
subramigera (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia subramigera
substenophylloides Hale
tasmanica (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tasmanica
tegeta Elix & Johnston (Nash et al. 1998)
tucsonensis (T. Nash) Egan Syn.: Parmelia tucsonensis
vagans (Nyl.) Hale
weberi (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia weberi
wyomingica (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia wyomingica
arseneana (Gyelnik) Hale = X. novomexicana
centrifuga (L.) Hale = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
congensis (Stein) Hale Syn.: Parmelia congensis, but only known as far north as Mexico
hypopsila (Müll. Arg.) Hale = misidentifications for North America, most specimens are X. angustiphylla
incurva (Pers.) Hale = Arctoparmelia incurva
ioanis-simae (Gyelnik) Hale = X. taractica, but see note below
kurokawae (Hale) Hale = X. lavicola
lecanorica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia lecanorica Not in North America
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale = Arctoparmelia separata
subcentrifuga (Oksner) Hale = Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga
subconspersa (Nyl.) Hale = Flavoparmelia rutidota
taractica (Kremp.) Hale = known from Mexico, but misidentifications for our area; western N. A. specimens are mostly X. coloradoensis and eastern N. A. specimens are mostly X. somloënsis
tinctina (Maheu & A. Gillet) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tinctina Not in North America

texana (W. A. Weber) Gotth. Schneider & W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana

texana (W. A. Weber) Kalb & Hafellner Syns.: Xanthopsora texana, Psora texana, Lecidea texana

alaskana J. W. Thomson
borealis R. Sant. & Poelt
candelaria (L.) Th. Fr.
candelaria var. finmarkica (Ach.) Hillmann
concinna J. W. Thomson & T. Nash
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. Syn.: Caloplaca elegans
elegans var. splendens (Darbish.) M. S. Christ. ex Poelt Syn.: Caloplaca splendens
fallax (Hepp) Arnold var. fallax
fulva (Hoffm.) Poelt & Petutschnig (see Appendix)
hasseana Räsänen
mendozae Räsänen (Lindblom 1997)
montana L. Lindblom (Lindblom 1997)
oregana Gyeln. (Lindblom 1997)
papillifera (Vainio) Poelt
parietina (L.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Teloschistes parietinus
polycarpa (Hoffm.) Rieber Syn.: Teloschistes polycarpus
ramulosa (Tuck.) Herre Syn.: Teloschistes ramulosus
sorediata (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Caloplaca sorediata
subramulosa Räsänen
tenax L. Lindblom (1997)
ulophyllodes Räsänen
alfredii S. Kondratyuk & Poelt (Kondratyuk & Poelt 1997) = North American report is X. montana (Lindblom 1997)
lobulata (Flörke) de Lesd. = Caloplaca lobulata
oregana Gyelnik = ?X. candelaria

XEROTREMA Sherw. & Coppins
+ megalospora Sherw. & Coppins

disseminata Willey
hians Tuck.
opegraphella Nyl. ex Rothr.
parallela (Ach. : Fr.) Behlen & Desberger
trunciseda (Th. Fr.) Minks
vitiligo (Ach.) J. R. Laundon
abietina (Pers.) Zahlbr. = X. parallela
micrographa G. Merr. = X. hians
spilomatica (Anzi) Th. Fr. = X. vitiligo

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

calcarea (Herre) Herre
californica Henssen
fabispora Henssen

hibernica (P. James & Swinscow) Clauzade & Roux = Porina hibernica

ZWACKHIOMYCES Grube & Hafellner
* arenicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
* berengerianus (Arnold) Grube & Triebel
* cladoniae (Dodge) Diederich (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
* coepulonus (Norman) Grube & R. Sant. (Goward et al. 1996)
* dispersus (J. Lahm ex Körber) Triebel & Grube Syn.: Pharcidia dispersa
* euplocinus Hafellner, Grube & Egan

Appendix: Specimen Citations
Bryophagus gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold - Michigan. Cheboygan Co.: just N of Cheboygan Levering Rd. W of its intersection with Interstate 75, 45 38'N / 84 39' W; on terricolous bryophytes, J. Hafellner 7998 (GZU)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

References Cited:
Adler, M. 1997. Polymorphism of vegetative propagules in Punctelia punctilla (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) and the delimitation of the species. Mycotaxon 63: 57-70.
Ahti, T. 1998. A revision of Cladonia stricta. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32: 5-8.
Aptroot, A. 1996. New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from British Columbia. The Bryologist 99: 196-198.
Aptroot, A. 1997. Corticolous pyrenocarpous ascomycetes (lichenized and non-lichenized) from the Sonoran Desert (Arizona and Mexico). Nova Hedwigia 64: 169-176.
Archer, A. W. & M. I. Messuti. 1997. Pertusaria velata (Turner) Nyl. and its synonyms. Mycotaxon 61: 375-379.
Arup, U. 1998. Correction of reports of two Caloplaca species from North America. The Bryologist 100: 516
Arup, U. & M. Grube. 1999. Where does Lecanora demissa (Ascomycota, Lecanorales) belong? Lichenologist 31: 419-430.
Barr, M. E., S. B. Huhndorf & C. T. Rogerson. 1996. The Pyrenomycetes Described by J. B. Ellis. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 79: 1-137.
Bird, C. D. 1974. Studies on the lichen genus Evernia in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 2427-2434.
Brako, L. 1991. Phyllopsora (Bacidiaceae). Flora Neotropica, 55: 1-66.
Breuss, O. 1996. Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 98 B, Suppl: 35-50.
Breuss, O. 1998. On the taxonomy of "Catapyrenium" plumbeum (lichenized Ascomycetes, Verrucariaceae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 100B: 671-676.
Breuss, O. 2000 [2001]. New taxa of pyrenocarpous lichens from the Sonoran region. The Bryologist 103: 705-709. Breuss, O. & C. C. Bratt. 2000. Catapyrenoid lichens in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7: 36-43.
Breuss, O. & B. McCune. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. The Bryologist 97: 365-370.
Brodo, I. M. 1995. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 1. Introduction and new records for B.C., Canada and North America. Mycotaxon 56: 135-173.
Brodo, I. M. & T. Ahti. 1996. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 2. The Cladoniaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1147-1180. Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 61. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pages.
Brodo, I. M. & V. Wirth. 1998. The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 4. The genus Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae), pp. 149-161, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Buck, W. R. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Gomphillus (Gomphillaceae), pp. 71-76, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Buck, W. R., R. C. Harris, A. J. Shaw, M. D. Piercey-Normore, A. Tabaee, J. Antonovics & E. E. Crone. 1999. Unusual lichens under electricity pylons on zinc-enriched soil. The Bryologist 102: 130-132.
Buck, W. R. & E. Sérusiaux. 2000. Gyalectidium yahriae, sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycetes, Gomphillaceae) from Florida and Papua New Guinea. The Bryologist 103: 134-138.
Bystrek, J. & J. Fabiszewski. 1998. Materials to North American lichen flora. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 67: 87-93.
Clerc, P. 1997. Notes on the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adanson. Lichenologist 29: 209-215.
Cole, M. S. & D. L. Hawksworth. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. Mycotaxon 77: 305-338.
Coppins, B. J. & S. Y. Kondratyuk. 1998. Opegrapha trassii sp. nov., a new lichenicolous fungus on Heterodermia. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32: 9-14.
Coppins, B. J. & L.-E. Muhr. 1997. Micarea lapillicola (Vain.) Coppins & Muhr, a previously misunderstood species from NW Europe. Graphis Scripta 8: 45-49.
DePriest, P. T. & B. W. Hale. 1998. A validated species and a new combination in Parmotrema (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 67: 208-209.
Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 1-198.
Diederich, P. & J. Etayo. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485.
Egea, J. M. & P. Torrente. 1995. Especies saxícolas del género Arthonia (Arthoniaceae) en áreas costeras de California y Baja California (Estados Unidos y México), pp. 193-204. 9 fig. 1 tab. In F. J. A. Daniels, M. Schulz & J. Peine (eds.), Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne.
Egea, J. M. & P. Torrente. 1997. Graphis saxorum (lichenized Ascomycotina, Graphidaceae) a new species from California and Baja California. The Bryologist 100: 207-209.
Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148.
Ekman, S. 1997. The genus Cliostomum revisited, pp. 17-28. 2 fig. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Ekman, S. & T. Tønsberg. 1996. A new species of Megalaria from the North American west coast, and notes on the generic circumscription. The Bryologist 99: 34-40.
Elix, J. A. 1997. The lichen genera Canomaculina and Rimeliella (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 65: 475-479.
Elix, J. A. & T. H. Nash III. 1998. A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). The Bryologist 100: 482-498.
Elix, J. A. & T. H. Nash III. 1999. Two new species of Xanthoparmelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae) from North America. Mycotaxon 71: 417-422.
Erichsen, C. F. E. 1940. Lichenologische Beiträge III. Annales Mycologici 38: 303-331.
Esslinger, T. L. 1994. New species and new combinations in the lichen genus Physconia in North America. Mycotaxon 51: 91-100.
Esslinger, T. L. 2000. Culbersonia americana, a rare new lichen (Ascomycota) from western America. The Bryologist 103: 771-773.
Esslinger, T. L. 2000. A key for the lichen genus Physconia in California, with descriptions for three new species occurring within the state. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7(1): 1-6.
Esslinger, T. L. & C. Bratt. 1998. The Heterodermia erinacea group in North America, and a remarkable new disjunct distribution, pp. 25-36, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Esslinger, T. L. & R. S. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolus, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98: 467-549.
Esslinger, T. L. & R. S. Egan. 1996. A new species of the lichen genus Physcia (lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Texas. The Bryologist 99: 331-334.
Etayo, J. & O. Breuss. 1998. New species and interesting records of lichenicolous fungi. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 7: 203-213. 4 fig.
Etayo, J. & P. Diederich. 2001. Gyalideopsis floridae, sp. nov. a new lichenicolous lichen from Florida (Gomphillaceae, Ascomycetes). The Bryologist 104: 130-133.
Feuerer, T. 1991. Revision der europaischen Arten der Flechtengattung Rhizocarpon mit nichtgelbem Lager und veilzelligen Sporen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica No. 39. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 218 pp.
Glew, K. A. 1999. Rinodina aspersa (Borrer) Laundon new to North America. Evansia 16: 168-169.
Goffinet, B & T. Goward. 1998. Is Nephroma silvae-veteris the cyanomorph of Lobaria oregana? Insights from molecular, chemical and morphological characters, pp. 41-52, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Goffinet, B. & R. I. Hastings. 1995. Two new sorediate taxa of Peltigera. Lichenologist 27: 43-58. 5 fig.
Goffinet, B. & J. Midlikowska. 1999. Peltigera phyllidiosa (Peltigeraceae, Ascomycotina), a new species from the southern Appalachians corroborated by ITS sequences. Lichenologist 31: 247-256.
Goward, T., O. Breuss, B. Ryan, B. McCune, H. Sipman & C. Scheidegger. 1996. Notes on the lichens and allied fungi of British Columbia. III. The Bryologist 99: 439-449.
Goward, T. & B. Goffinet. 2000. Peltigera chionophila, a new lichen (Ascomycetes) from the Western Cordillera of North America. The Bryologist 103: 493-498.
Groner, U. & M. Dietrich. 1996. Hypotrachyna taylorensis (Parmeliaceae) a European species in the New World. The Bryologist 99: 457-459.
Hafellner, J. 1995. Über Piccolia, eine lichenisierte Pilzgattung der Tropen (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales), pp. 107-122. 8 fig. In E. E. Farkas, R. Lücking & V. Wirth (eds.), Scripta Lichenologica - Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 58. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart.
Hafellner, J. 1997. A world monograph of Brigantiaea (lichenized Ascomycotina, Lecanorales), pp. 35-74. 17 fig. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Hafellner, J. 1999. Beiträge zu einem Prodromus der lichenicolen pilze Österreichs und angrenzender Gebiete. IV. Drei neue Arten und weitere bemerkenswerte Funde hauptsächlich in der Steiermark Linzer Biologische Beitrage 31: 507-532.
Hafellner, J. 2000. Zur Biodiversität lichenisierter und lichenicoler Pilze in den Eisenerzer Alpen (Steiermark). Mitteilungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 130: 71-106.
Hafellner, J. & V. Calatayud. 1999. Lichenostigma cosmopolites, a common lichenicolous fungus on Xanthoparmelia species. Mycotaxon 72: 107-114.
Hafellner, J. & R. Türk. 1995. Über Funde lichenicoler Pilze und Flechten im Nationalpark Hohe Tauern (Kärntner Anteil, Österreich). Carinthia II 185/105: 599-635.
Halonen, P. 2000. Usnea pacificana, sp. nov. and U. wasmuthii (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Pacific North America. The Bryologist 103: 38-43.
Halonen, P., P. Clerc, T. Goward, I. M. Brodo & K. Wulff. 1998. Synopsis of the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes) in British Columbia, Canada. The Bryologist 101: 36-60. 21 fig. 2 tab.
Harada, H. 1999. Sulcopyrenula, a new pyrenocarpous lichen genus (Pyrenulaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). Lichenologist 31: 567-573.
Harris, R. C. 1995a. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10c tour of the Pyrenolichens. Publ. by the Author, Bronx, N.Y. 192 pages.
Harris, R. C. 1995b. New or rare lichens/lichenicolous fungi for North America. Evansia 12: 4.
Harris, R. C. 1997. Reinstatement of Lecidea cyrtidia Tuck. in the North American lichen checklist. Evansia 14: 69-73.
Harris, R. C. 1998. A preliminary revision of Pseudopyrenula Müll. Arg. (lichenized ascomycetes, Trypetheliaceae) with a redisposition of the names previously assigned to the genus, pp. 133-148, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9(1): 1-98.
Heiman, K. & J. A. Elix. 1999. A new species of Canoparmelia from North America (lichenized Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 70: 163-166.
Henssen, A. 1995. Studies on the biology and structure of Dacampia (Dothideales), a genus with lichenized and lichenicolous species. Cryptogamic Botany 5: 149-158.
Henssen, A. & P. M. Jørgensen. 1990. New combinations and synonyms in the Lichinaceae. Lichenologist 22: 137-147.
Henssen, A. & T. Tønsberg. 2000. Spilonemella, a new genus of cyanophilic lichens with species from North America and Japan (Coccocarpiaceae). The Bryologist 103: 108-116.
Hertel, H. 1991. Lecidea in der Arktis III (lecideoide Flechten; Lecanorales). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 30: 297-333.
Hertel, H. 1995. Schlüssel für die Arten der Flechtenfamilie Lecideaceae in Europa, pp. 137-180. In E. E. Farkas, R. Lücking & V. Wirth (eds.), Scripta Lichenologica - Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 58. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart.
Hertel, H. & G. Rambold. 1987. Miriquidica genus novum Lecanoracearum (Ascomycetes lichenisati). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung Munchen 23: 377-392.
Hinds, J. W. & P. L. Hinds. 1998. An annotated checklist of Maine macrolichens, pp. 345-376, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Hoffmann, N. & J. Hafellner 2000. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 77. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 190 pages.
Ihlen, P. G. & T. Tønsberg. 1996. The lichenicolous genus Lettauia in North America. The Bryologist 99: 32-33.
Jørgensen, P. M. 1997. Further notes on hairy Leptogium species, pp. 113-130. 12 fig. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Jorgensen, P. M. 2000a. On the sorediate counterparts of the lichen Fuscopannaria leucosticta. The Bryologist 103: 104-107.
Jørgensen,P. M. 2000b. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent, north of Mexico. The Bryologist 103: 670-704.
Jørgensen, P. M. & T. Tønsberg. 1999. Notes on some small species of Leptogium from Pacific North America. The Bryologist 102: 412-417.
Kalb, K. 1990. Lichenes Neotropici ausgegeben von Klaus Kalb. Fascikel XI (No. 451-475). Neumarkt/OPf. 12 pages.
Kalb, K. 1994. Frutidella, eine neue Flechtengattung für Lecidea caesioatra Schaerer. Hoppea 55: 581-586.
Kalb, K., J. Hafellner & B. Staiger. 1995. Haematomma-studien. II. Lichenicole Pilze auf Arten der Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 59. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 199-222 pages.
Kärnefelt, I. & A. Thell. 1996. A new classification for the Dactylina/Dufourea complex. Nova Hedwigia 62: 487-511.
Knoph, J. G. & C. Leuckert. 1994. Chemotaxonomic studies in the saxicolous species of the lichen genus Lecidella (Lecanorales, Lecanoraceae) in America. Nova Hedwigia 59: 455-508.
Kondratyuk, S. Y. 1996. Four new species of lichenicolous fungi, pp. 309-315. 1 fig. In S. P. Wasser (ed.), Botany and Mycology for the Next Millennium: Collection of Scientific Articles Devoted to the 70th Anniversary of Academician K. M. Sytnik. . N. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Kondratyuk, S. Y. & D. J. Galloway. 1995. Two new lichenicolous fungi from Lobaria and Sticta (Stictaceae), pp. 255-261. 3 fig. In F. J. A. Daniels, M. Schulz & J. Peine (eds.), Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. . Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne.
Kondratyuk, S. & J. Poelt. 1997. Two new Asian Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycotina). Lichenologist 29: 173-190.
Kümmerling, H, C. Leuckert, & V. Wirth (1995): Chemische Flechtenanalysen XI. Lepraria jackii Tønsberg. Nova Hedwigia 60 (3-4): 457-465.
Kurokawa, S. 1998. A catalogue of Heterodermia (Physciaceae) Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32: 21-25.
LaGreca, S. 1999. A phylogenetic evaluation of the Ramalina americana chemotype complex (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) based on rDNA ITS sequence data. The Bryologist 102: 602-618.
Lepage, E. 1972. Nouveau catalogue des lichens du Quebec. Naturaliste Canadien 99: 533-550.
Lindblom, L. 1997. The genus Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. in North America. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 83: 75-172.
Lohtander, K. 1995. The lichen genus Leproloma in Finland and some notes on the Lepraria neglecta group. Annales Botanici Fennici 32: 49-54.
Lumbsch, H. T. & T. H. Nash III. 1999. A revision of Pertusaria species with hyaline ascospores in southwestern North America (Pertusariales, Ascomycotina). The Bryologist 102: 215-239.
Maass, W. S. G. 1986. Moelleropsis (Lecanorales) as a component of Erioderma habitats in Canada. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institue of Science 37: 21-36.
Marbach, B. 2000. Corticole und lignicole Arten der Flechtengattung Buellia sensu lato in den Subtropen und Tropen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 74. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 384 pages.
Matzer, M., H. Mayrhofer, A. Wippel & J. A. Elix. 1996. Dimelaena radiata (Physciaceae, Lecanorales) and its lichenicolous fungus Endococcus buelliae (Verrucariales). The Bryologist 99: 450-456.
May, P. F. 1997. Ophioparma lapponica - a misunderstood species. Harvard Papers in Botany 2: 213-228.
Mayrhofer, H. 1987. Ergänzende Studien zur Taxonomie der Gattung Protothelenella. Herzogia 7: 313-342.
McCarthy, P. M. 1995. A reappraisal of Clathroporina Müll. Arg. (Trichotheliaceae). Lichenologist 27: 321-350.
McCarthy, P. M. & T. Tønsberg. 1998. Porina radicicola, a new lichen from western North America. Lichenologist 30: 245-248.
McCune, B. 1996. Micarea botryoides new to North America. Evansia 13: 65-66.
McCune, B. 1997. Lauderlindsaya, a parasitic fungus on Normandina, new to North America. Evansia 14: 13.
McCune, B. 1998a. Hypotrachyna riparia, a new lichen from western North America. The Bryologist 101: 448-450.

McCune, B. 1998b. Lichens of granitic peaks in the Bitterroot Range, Montana and Idaho, USA, pp. 281-294, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
McCune, B. & R. Rosentreter. 1997. Hypogymnia subphysodes new to North America. Evansia 14: 106.
Moberg, R. 1995. The lichen genus Phaeophyscia in China and Russian Far East. Nordic Journal of Botany 15: 319-335.
Moberg, R. 1997. The lichen genus Physcia in the Sonoran Desert and adjacent regions, pp. 163-186. 18 Fig. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Moberg, R. & T. H. Nash III. 1999. The genus Heterodermia in the Sonoran Desert area. The Bryologist 102: 1-14.
Moe, R. 1997. Verrucaria tavaresiae sp. nov., a marine lichen with a brown algal photobiont. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4(1): 7-11.
Nash, T. H., III & H. Hertel. 1997. Lecanora comoduensis (Lecanorales: Lecanoraceae), a new species of lichenized fungi from the Sonoran Desert Region. The Bryologist 100: 377-379.
Nash, T. H., III, B. D. Ryan, W. C. Davis, O. Breuss, J. Hafellner, H. T. Lumbsch, L. Tibell & T. Feuerer. 1998. Additions to the lichen flora of Arizona IV. The Bryologist 101: 93-99.
Navarro-Rosinés, P. & J. Hafellner. 1996. Lichenostigma elongata spec. nov. (Dothideales), a lichenicolous ascomycete on Lobothallia and Aspicilia species. Mycotaxon 57: 211-225.
Nimis, P. L. & M. Tretiach. 1997. A revision of Tornabea, a genus of fruticose lichens new to North America. The Bryologist 100: 217-225.
Nordin, A. 1999. Buellia species with pluriseptate spores: new and unrecorded species in North America. The Bryologist 102: 249-264.
Nordin, A. 2000. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Buellia species with pluriseptate spores (Lecanorales, Ascomycotina). Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 33: 1-117.
Peterson, E. B. & J. Rikkinen. 1998. Stenocybe fragmenta, a new species of Mycocaliciaceae with fragmenting spores. Mycologia 90: 1087-1090.
Peterson, E. B. & J. Rikkinen. 1999. Range extensions of selected pin-lichens and allied fungi in the Pacific Northwest. The Bryologist 102: 370-376.
Printzen, C. 1995. Die Flechtengattung Biatora in Europa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 60. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 275 pages.
Printzen, C. & T. Tønsberg. 1999. The lichen genus Biatora in northwestern North America. The Bryologist 102: 692-713.
Purvis, O. W., P.-M. Jorgensen & P. W. James. 1995. The lichen genus Thelotrema Ach. in Europe, pp. 335-360. 7 fig. In E. E. Farkas, R. Lücking & V. Wirth (eds.), Scripta Lichenologica - Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 58. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart.
Rajvanshi, V., L. L. St. Clair, B. L. Webb & C. C. Newberry. 1998. The terricolous lichen flora of the San Rafael Swell, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A., pp. 399-406, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Rambold, G. & D. Triebel. 1990. Gelatinopsis, Geltingia and Phaeopyxis: three helotialean genera with lichenicolous species. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46: 375-389.
Rikkinen, J. 1998. Chaenotheca olivaceorufa (Caliciales) new to North America. The Bryologist 101: 558-559.
Rikkinen, J. 1999. Two new species of resinicolous Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae) from western North America. The Bryologist 102: 366-369.
Rosentreter, R. 1998. Notes on the Aspicilia reptans complex, with descriptions of two new species, pp. 163-170, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Ryan, B. D. & T. H. Nash III. 1997a. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64: 393-420.
Ryan, B. D. & T. H. Nash III. 1997b. Systematics of Lecanora subgenus Placodium (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: an overview, with keys. Nova Hedwigia 64: 111-127.
Santesson, R. 1993. The Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of Sweden and Norway. SBT-förlaget, Lund. 240 pages.
Scholz, P. 1998. Phacopsis doerfeltii, sp. nov., and two other interesting lichenicolous fungi from Canada. Sauteria 9: 37-42.
Schultz, M., C. Printzen & C. Scheidegger. 2000 [2001]. Harpidium nashii sp. nov., a new species and a genus new to North America. The Bryologist 103: 802-805.
Selva, S. B. & L. Tibell. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. The Bryologist 102: 377-397.
Sérusiaux, E, P. Diederich, A. M. Brand, P. van den Boom. 1999. New or interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Belgium and Luxembourg. VIII. Lejeunia 162: 1-95.
Sheard, J. W.
1995. Disjunct distributions of some North American, corticolous, vegetatively reproducing Rinodina species (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) [Die disjunkte Verbreitung einiger nordamerikanischer corticoler, sich vegetativ verbreitender Arten der Gattung Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenisierte Ascomyceten)]. Herzogia 11: 115-132.
Sheard, J. W. 1998. Rinodina riparia (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae), a new corticolous species from North America, pp. 37-40, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Sheard, J. W. & P. F. May. 1997. A synopsis of the species of Amandinea (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) as presently known in North America. The Bryologist 100: 159-169.
Søchting, U. & T. Tønsberg. 1997. Caloplaca xanthostigmoidea (Räs.) Zahlbr., a common lichen in cool regions of the northern hemisphere, pp. 247-253. 6 fig. 1 tab. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson.
Spjut, R. W. 1996. Niebla and Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae) from California and Baja California. Sida, Botanical Miscellany 14: 1-208.
Staiger, B. & K. Kalb. 1995. Haematomma-studien. I. Die Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 59. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 1-198 pages.
Staiger, B. & K. Kalb. 1999. Acanthothecis and other graphidioid lichens with warty periphysoids or paraphysis-tips. Mycotaxon 73: 69-134. 1999.
Sundin, R. & A. Tehler. 1996. The genus Dendrographa (Roccellaceae). The Bryologist 99: 19-31.
Talbot, S. S., S. L. Talbot, J. W. Thomson & W. B. Schofield. 2000. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula. The Bryologist 103: 379-389.
Tavares, I., S. Tucker, R. Moe, & D. Wright (Eds.) (1997): Bulletin of theCalifornia Lichen Society. Vol. 4. No. 1. Summer 1997.
Tehler, A. 1996. Syncesia (Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Flora Neotropica, 74. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 48 pages.
Tehler, A., K. Lohtander, L. Myllys & R. Sundin. 1997. On the identity of the genera Hubbsia and Reinkella (Roccellaceae), pp. 255-265. 4 fig. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Thell, A. & T. Goward. 1996. The new Cetrarioid genus Kaernefeltia and related groups in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). The Bryologist 99: 125-136.
Thomson, J. W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens. 2. The Microlichens. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
Thomson, J. W. & T. Ahti. 1994. Lichens collected on an Alaska Highway expedition in Alaska and Canada. The Bryologist 97: 138-157.
Thorn, R. G., D. W. Malloch & J. Ginns. 1998. Leucogyrophana lichenicola sp. nov., and a comparison with basidiomes and cultures of the similar Leucogyrophana romellii. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 686-693.
Tibell, L. 1996. Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Ascomycetes) in northern Europe. Annales Botanici Fennici 33: 205-221.
Timdal, E. 2001. Hypocenomyce oligospora and H. sierrae, two new lichen species. Mycotaxon 77: 445-453.
Tønsberg, T. 1998. Additions to the lichen flora of North America VI. The Bryologist 100: 522-524.
Tønsberg, T. 1999a. Additions to the lichen flora of North America VII. Some species found on Waadah Island, Washington. The Bryologist 102: 133-134.
Tønsberg, T. 1999b. Pseudocyphellaria arvidssonii new to Africa and P. mallota new to North America. The Bryologist 102: 128-129.
Tønsberg, T. & T. Goward. 2001. Sticta oroborealis sp. nov. and other Pacific North American lichens forming dendriscocauloid cyanotypes. The Bryologist 104: 12-23.
Tønsberg, T. & A. Henssen. 1999. Additions to the lichen flora of North America VIII. Santessoniella grisea new to North America. Evansia 16: 184.
Triebel, D., M. Wedin & G. Rambold. 1997. The genus Scutula (lichenicolous ascomycetes, Lecanorales): species on the Peltigera canina and P. horizontalis groups, pp. 323-337. 13 fig. 1 tab. In L. Tibell & I. Hedberg (eds.), Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
van Herk, K. & A. Aptroot. 2000. The sorediate Punctelia species with lecanoric acid in Europe. Lichenologist 32: 233-246.
Weber, W. A. & R. C. Wittmann 1992. Catalog of the Colorado Flora: a Biodiversity Baseline. University Press of Colorado, Niwot. i-xi & 1- 215 pages.
Wetmore, C. M. 1967. Lichens of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Publ. Mus., Michigan State Univ., Biol. Ser. 3: 209-464.
Wetmore, C. M. 1994. The lichen genus Caloplaca in North and Central America with brown or black apothecia. Mycologia 86: 813-838.
Wetmore, C. M. 1996. The Caloplaca sideritis group in North and Central America. The Bryologist 99: 292-314.
Wetmore, C. M. 1999. Four new species of Caloplaca from Mexico. The Bryologist 102: 99-103.
Wetmore, C. M. & E. I. Kärnefelt. 1998. The lobate and subfruticose species of Caloplaca in North and Central America. The Bryologist 101: 230-255.
Wetmore, C. M. & E. I. Kärnefelt.
1999. What is Caloplaca cinnabarina? The Bryologist 102: 683-691.
Will-Wolf, S. 1998. Lichens of Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA, pp. 323-336, In Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY.
Wong, P. Y. & I. M. Brodo. 1992. The Lichens of Southern Ontario, Canada. Syllogeus, 69. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. 79 pages.
Yoshimura, I. & A. J. Sharp. 1973. First record of Anaptychia isidiza in North America. Miscellanea Bryologica et Lichenologica 6(5): 85.
Zhurbenko, M., R. Santesson, D. A. Walker, N. A. Auerbach & B. Lewis. 1995. New and interesting lichenicolous fungi and lichens from Alaska. Evansia 12: 92-97.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger
Department of Biological Sciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota 58105-5517
E-mail: Ted.Esslinger@ndsu.nodak.edu