A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and

Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada, Version 22

Theodore L. Esslinger

    This checklist consists of cumulative updates to the most recently published North American checklist (Esslinger 2016). The same style and conventions for listings used there continue to be followed here. Within each genus the accepted names are listed first and are in boldface. Names considered to be synonyms are listed second and are presented in normal font only. Significant changes made since the last version (#21) are given in blue font. As before, the following symbols are used to indicate the lichenicolous fungi and other allied fungi:

* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
# = various fungi of uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens.

    The first North American (north of Mexico) lichen checklist produced by Mason Hale and Bill Culberson in 1956 (Castanea 21: 73-105) listed 2,280 species in 193 genera (their count), and included few or no lichenicolous or allied fungi.  Almost forty years later, the first checklist version with which I was involved (Esslinger & Egan 1995) reported 3,580 lichen species and another 219 species of lichenicolous and allied fungi, all in 477 genera.  The count for this current version (#22) is 5,561 total species in 755 genera, with an additional 41 subspecies, 44 varieties, and 3 forms.  The total species number includes 615 lichenicolous fungi (*), 107 saprophytic fungi related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi (+), and another 53 species of varying and/or uncertain biological status (#).

    This list is updated at semi-regular intervals, usually about once every twelve to eighteen months, as changes accumulate in the literature. I would appreciate being informed of any oversights or omissions, and although not all taxonomic or nomenclatural differences of opinion will be easily or immediately settled, any polite opinions that users would like to share will be welcomed and taken under consideration. Additions or changes appearing in this version of the checklist represent reports in the literature, and their presence here does not necessarily imply endorsement by the author. In addition to inviting comments or corrections, it would be very helpful if authors of publications containing additions to the North American lichen biota, or other taxonomic and nomenclatural changes that impact it, would provide me with copies. I owe thanks to the many colleagues who continue to provide suggested corrections and/or additions.

Please send comments and publications to:

Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger
Department of Biological Sciences
#2715, P.O. Box 6050
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050
E-mail: Ted.Esslinger@ndsu.edu

Citation: This version (Version #22, 29 January 2018) of the checklist is being simultaneously published online here, hosted by North Dakota State University: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm, and in Opuscula Philolichenum 17: 6-268 [http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=480859].  The purpose of dual publication here and in O.P. is to provide a standard formatted journal article that can be cited, to assure permanent archiving of each version, and to facilitate dissemination of the checklist to those outside of the lichenological community via indexing services such as Scopus.  Although there are minor organizational differences in the introductory sections of this webpage edition and the O.P. edition, the bodies of the two editions are identical except for indenting.

Previous versions of this on-line checklist are archived and available by clicking on the following:

Version #1 (First Posted 1 December 1997)
Version #2 (First Posted 17 February 1998)
Version #3 (First Posted 22 June 1998)
Version #4 (First Posted 19 July 1999)
Version #5 (First Posted 15 May 2000)
Version #6 (First Posted 26 February 2001)
Version #7 (First Posted 27 August 2001)
Version #8 (First Posted 17 July 2002)
Version #9 (First Posted 2 March 2004)
Version #10 (First Posted 14 June 2005)
Version #11 (First Posted 10 April 2006)
Version #12 (First Posted 2 April 2007)
Version #13 (First Posted 18 January 2008)
Version #14 (First Posted 8 October 2008)
Version #15 (First Posted 27 August 2009)
Version #16 (First Posted 18 June 2010)
Version #17 (First Posted 16 May 2011)
Version #18 (First Posted 13 December 2012)
Version #19 (First Posted 23 March 2014)
Version #20 (First Posted 19 April 2015)
Version #21 (First Posted 15 November 2016)
Archived in Opuscula Philolichenum: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=479191

Suggestions For Use: This web site consists of one large file (ca. 1.8 MB), and, once loaded, can be efficiently navigated by using either the provided alphabetic navigation bars or the usual scrolling devices. The genera are listed in alphabetical order, as are the species lists within each genus. Click on the following letters to advance to the genera beginning with that letter or to the References Cited:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited


ABROTHALLUS De Not.
*acetabuli Diederich (Kocourkova et al. 2012)
*bertianus De Not.
*bryoriarum Hafellner
*caerulescens Kotte (Diederich 2003)
*cetrariae Kotte (Goward et al. 1996)
*cladoniae R. Sant. & D. Hawksw.
*eriodermae Suija, Etayo & Pérez-Ortega (Suija et al. 2015)
*ertzii Suija, & Pérez-Ortega (Suija et al. 2015)
*halei Pérez-Ortega, Suija, D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Suija et al. 2011)
*hypotrachynae Etayo & Diederich (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
*microspermus Tul.
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*nephromatis Suija, & Pérez-Ortega (Suija et al. 2015)
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold
*peyritschii (Stein) Kotte
*pezizicola Diederich & R. C. Harris (Diederich 2003)
*prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner
*secedens Wedin & R. Sant.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
*suecicus (Kirschst.) Nordin (Diederich 2003)
*tulasnei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*usneae Rabenh. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*welwitschii Mont. ex Tul.
*oxysporus Tul. = Phacopsis oxyspora
*usneae auct. non Rabenh. = Lichenostigma maureri

ABSCONDITELLA Vězda
amabilis T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
celata Döbbeler & Poelt (Spribille et al. 2009)
lignicola Vězda & Pišút (Nash et al. 1998)
sphagnorum Vězda & Poelt
trivialis (Willey ex Tuck.) Vězda

ACANTHOTHECIS Clem.
aurantiaca (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb  Syns.: Graphina intertexta, Graphis intertexta (Staiger 2002)
floridana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
floridensis F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
fontana Muscavitch & Lendemer (Muscavitch & Lendemer 2016)
gracilis Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999)
leucopepla (Tuck.) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syns.:  Graphis leucopepla, Graphina abaphoides (Tripp et al. 2010)
leucoxanthoides Lendemer  (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
mosquitensis
(Tuck.) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syns.:  Graphis mosquitensis, Graphina subvirginalis (Tripp et al. 2010)
paucispora Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
peplophora (M. Wirth & Hale) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn.:  Graphina peplophora (Tripp et al. 2010)
poitaeoides (M. Wirth & Hale) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn.:  Graphis poitaeoides (Tripp et al. 2010)
abaphoides
(Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999) = A. leucopepla
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb = A. aurantiaca

ACAROCONIUM Kocourk. & D. Hawksw.  (Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008)
*punctiforme Kocourk. & D. Hawksw. (Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008)

ACAROSPORA A. Massal.
affinis K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
americana H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
asahinae H. Magn.
badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Sarcogyne athroocarpa (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)

boulderensis H. Magn.  (Knudsen et al. 2014b; McCune et al. 2014b)
brattiae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
brodoana K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & M. Westb. (Knudsen et al. 2016)
brouardii B. de Lesd. (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a)
calcarea K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
cervina A. Massal.
chrysops (Tuck.) H. Magn.  (Knudsen et al. 2008a)
clauzadeana (Llimona) Casares & Hafellner  Syn.: Biatorella clauzadeana
coloradiana H. Magn.
complanata H. Magn.
contigua H. Magn. (Brodo et al. 2001, Knudsen 2007a)
elevata H. Magn.
epilutescens Zahlbr. (Knudsen 2005a)
erythrophora H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
fuscata (Schrader) Arnold
fuscescens H. Magn.
glaucocarpa (Ach.)
Körber
heufleriana Körber
hilaris (Dufour) Hue
impressula Th. Fr.
#interjecta H. Magn.
janae K. Knudsen (Lumbsch et al. 2011)
maccarthyi K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2015) 
macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl.
moenium (Vainio) Räsänen  (Nordin et al. 2009)
molybdina (Wahlenb.)
Trevisan
#nashii K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2011a)
nevadensis H. Magn.
nicolai B. de Lesd. (Knudsen & Morse 2009)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. nodulosa
novomexicana H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
obnubila
H. Magn.
obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Lecanora obpallens
oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold
orcuttii K. Knudsen  (Knudsen 2010 [2011])
oreophila K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
peliscypha Th.
Fr.
piedmontensis K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
robiniae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2010)
rouxii K. Knudsen, Elix & Reeb (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a)
rugulosa
Körber
saepincola H. Magn.
schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.
scotica Hue
sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körber
socialis H. Magn.
sparsa H. Magn.
sphaerosperma R. C. Harris & K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
#stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
succedens H. Magn.
superfusca H. Magn. (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011
thamnina (Tuck.) Herre
thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Lecanora thelococcoides, L. pleiospora, L. pleistospora
toensbergii K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2017) 
tongletii Hue
tuckerae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
veronensis A. Massal.
aeruginosa Hasse = Caeruleum heppii
albida H. Magn. = A. epilutescens
albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. = A. elevata  (Knudsen 2007a)
amabilis H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
amphibola Wedd. = Myriospora smaragdula
amphibola sensu auct. = Myriospora rhagadiza
applanata H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
*arenacea H. Magn. = Polysporina arenacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
arenosa Herre = Sarcogyne arenosa

asperata H. Magn. = A. boulderensis (Kocourková et al. 2014b)
bella (Nyl.) Jatta = A. rhabarbarina (Knudsen et al. 2008a), but a misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
bullata Anzi  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen et al. 2010)

caesiofusca (Müll. Arg.) H. Magn. = A. nicolai
californica Zahlbr. = A. badiofusca (Knudsen 2007a)
carnegiei Zahlbr. = A. obpallens  (Knudsen 2005b)
cartilaginea H. Magn. = A. fuscata
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
cineracea (Nyl.)
Wedd. = misidentification for North America
cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn. = A. americana (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr. =  misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Flakus 2016)
desolata H. Magn. = Sarcogyne desolata
dispersa H. Magn. = Trimmatothelopsis dispersa

dissipata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
evoluta H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
flava (Bellardi) Ach. = Pleopsidium flavum
gallica H. Magn. = A. janae for North American reports (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
geogena H. Magn. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
geophila H. Magn. = A. nodulosa
glebosa (Flotow) Körber = A. oligospora
hassei Herre (Knudsen 2007a) = Myriospora hassei (
Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Hepp) Nägeli ex Körber = Caeruleum heppii
immersa Fink = Caeruleum immersum
incertula H. Magn. = A. novomexicana (Knudsen 2007a)
instrata H. Magn. = A. obpallens (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
intercedens H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
interposita H. Magn. = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
interspersa H. Magn. = A. succedens (Knudsen 2011a)
lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Sarcogyne lapponica (see note there)

*lapponica auct. N.A. = Polysporina subfuscesens
montana H. Magn. = A. rugulosa
nigromarginata B. de Lesd.
= A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
nitida H. Magn. (Weber & Wittman 2000) = A. elevata for North American records (Knudsen 2007a)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens Zahlbr.
= A. nodulosa
obscura H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
ocellata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium flavum
particularis H. Magn. = Myriospora hassei (Knudsen 2007a,
Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
peltastica Zahlbr. = A. strigata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
peltata Hasse = A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
pleiospora (Nyl.) Hasse. = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pyrenopsoides H. Magn.  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a)
radicata H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
reagens Zahlbr. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
rhabarbarina Hue (Knudsen et al. 2008a)  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
rhagadiosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra

rimulosa H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
rubicunda H. Magn.
= A. heufleriana (Knudsen 2007a)
rufescens (Ach.) Bausch = Myriospora smaragdula
saxicola Fink = Glypholecia scabra
scabra (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra
scabrida Hedl. ex H. Magn. = Myriospora scabrida
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Myriospora smaragdula
smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harm. ex A.L. Smith) H. Magn. (Knudsen 2004a) = Myriospora smaragdula
squamulosa (Schrader) Trevisan = A. macrospora (Knudsen 2007a)
squamulosa sensu Th. Fr. = A. macrospora
stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue = Pleopsidium flavum
subalbida H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
subcontigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
*subfuscescens (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Polysporina subfuscescens
subrufula (Nyl.) H. Olivier  (McCune et al. 1997)  Report based on a specimen of Myriospora smaragdula (Knudsen 2007b)
superfusa H. Magn. = A. americana (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011, Knudsen et al. 2011b)
tenebrica H. Magn. = A. veronensis (Knudsen 2007a)
terricola H. Magn. = Trimmatothelopsis terricola (Knudsen & Lendemer 2016)
texana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
thermophila Herre = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
tucsonensis H. Magn. = A. obpallens (Knudsen 2007a)
umbilicata Bagl.  (Harris & Ladd 2005)  North American records are Acarospora nicolai (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
utahensis H. Magn. = A. strigata  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
variegata H. Magn. = A. tongleti
washingtonensis H. Magn. = A. elevata (Knudsen 2007a)
weldensis H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta = misidentification for North America (Knudsen 2008a)

ACOLIUM (Ach.) Gray (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
chloroconium Tuck. Syn.: Cyphelium chloroconium
inquinans (Sm.) A. Massal. Syn.: Cyphelium inquinans
karelicum (Vainio) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium karelicum
*sessile (Pers.) Arnold Syns.: Calicium sessile, Cyphelium sessile
carolinianum Tuck. = Calicium carolinianum
tympanellum (Ach.) Gray =
Acolium inquinans

ACREMONIUM Link
*strictum W. Gams  (Spribille et al. 2010)

ACROCORDIA A. Massal.
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia cavata
conoidea (Fr.) Körber Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. Syns.: Arthopyrenia gemmata, A. alba, A. sphaeroides  (Lendemer & Harris 2014b)
megalospora (Fink) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia macrospora, A. finkii, Pyrenula megalospora

ACROSCYPHUS Lév.
sphaerophoroides Lév.

ACTINOGYRA Schol. = UMBILICARIA
muhlenbergii (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria muhlenbergii
muhlenbergii var. alpina (Tuck.) Llano = Umbilicaria muhlenbergii
polyrrhiza (L.) Schol. = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza

ADELOCOCCUS Theissen & Sydow
*alpestris (Zopf) Theissen & Sydow

ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
kolaensis (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea conferenda
pilati (Hepp) Hertel & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea pilati, L. lyngeana, L. subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd.
sonorae
Hertel  (Hertel 2004)

AGONIMIA Zahlbr.
allobata (Stizenb.) P. James (Fryday 2001)
gelatinosa (Ach.) M. Brand & Diederich Syn.: Polyblastia gelatinosa (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda (Lendemer 2004c)
tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Polyblastia tristicula
vouauxii (B. de Lesd.) M. Brand & Diederich  (Freebury 2014)

AGRESTIA J. W. Thomson = CIRCINARIA
cyphellata J. W. Thomson = Circinaria hispida
hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Circinaria hispida

AGYRIUM Fr.
+rufum (Pers.) Fr.

AGYROPHORA (Nyl.) Nyl. = UMBILICARIA
leiocarpa (DC.) Gyelnik = Umbilicaria leiocarpa
lyngei (Schol.) Llano = Umbilicaria lyngei
rigida (Du Rietz) Llano = Umbilicaria rigida
scholanderi Llano = Umbilicaria scholanderi

AHLESIA Fuckel = THELOCARPON
sphaerospora (H. Magn.) G. Salisb. = Thelocarpon sphaerosporum

AHTIANA Goward
aurescens (Tuck.) A. Thell & Randlane Syns.: Cetraria aurescens, Tuckermannopsis aurescens (Thell et al. 1995)
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria pallidula, Tuckermannopsis pallidula (Thell et al. 1995)
sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward Syn.: Parmelia sphaerosporella

AINOA Lumbsch & I. Schmitt (Lumbsch et al. 2001)
bella Brodo & Lendemer (Brodo & Lendemer 2015)
mooreana (Carroll) Lumbsch & I. Schmitt  Misidentification for North America (Brodo & Lendemer 2015)

ALBEMARLEA Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
pamlicoensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris

ALECTORIA Ach.
fallacina Motyka
imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw.
lata (Taylor) Lindsay
ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach.
sorediosa (Lång ex Räsänen) McMullin & Lendemer (McMullin et al. 2016)
vancouverensis (Gyelnik) Gyelnik ex Brodo & D. Hawksw.
vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb. (McMullin et al. 2016)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) R. Howe = Nodobryoria abbreviata
achariana Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
altaica (Gyelnik) Räsänen = Bryoria nadvornikiana
ambigua Motyka = Bryoria ambigua
americana Motyka = Bryoria americana
bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Bryoria bicolor
boryana Delise = Gowardia nigricans
californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Kaernefeltia californica
cana (Ach.) Leighton = Bryoria pikei
canadensis Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
capillaris (Ach.) Crombie = Bryoria capillaris, but N.A. records are B. pikei (Velmala et al. 2014)
cervinula Motyka = Bryoria cervinula
cetrariza Nyl. = Kaernefeltia californica
chalybeiformis (L.) Gray = Bryoria fuscescens
corneliae Gyelnik = Bryoria fremontii
delicata Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
divergens (Ach.) Nyl. = Bryocaulon divergens
fremontii Tuck. = Bryoria fremontii
fuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
gowardii Lumbsch (Lumbsch & Huhndorf 2010) = Gowardia arctica
glabra Motyka = Bryoria glabra
haynaldii Gyelnik = misidentification for North America
implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Bryoria implexa, a European species; N. A. records are B.kockiana
irvingii Llano = Bryoria nitidula
jubata (L.) Ach.  Commonly confused and misused name applied to various pendent species of Bryoria (Brodo & Hawksworth 1977)
lanea auct. non (Hoffm.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
lanestris (Ach.) Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
luteola Mont. = A. sarmentosa
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. = Pseudephebe minuscula
nadvornikiana Gyelnik = Bryoria nadvornikiana
nana Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria simplicior
nidulifera Norrlin = Bryoria furcellata
nigricans (Ach.) Nyl. = Gowardia nigricans
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
norstictica Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
oregana Tuck. = Nodobryoria oregana
positiva (Gyelnik) Motyka = Bryoria fuscescens
pseudofuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
pubescens (L.) R. Howe = Pseudephebe pubescens
sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. = A. vexillifera (McMullin et al. 2016)
setacea (Ach.) Motyka = Bryoria pikei for North American records
simplicior (Vainio) Lynge = Bryoria simplicior
stigmata Bystrek = A. sarmentosa
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
subdivergens E. Dahl = Nodobryoria subdivergens
subsarmentosa Stirton = A. sarmentosa
subtilis Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
tenerrima Motyka = Bryoria fremontii
tenuis E. Dahl = Bryoria tenuis
thrausta Ach. = Ramalina thrausta
tortuosa G. Merr. = Bryoria fremontii
virens auct. = Bryoria fremontii for North American records

ALLANTOPARMELIA (Vainio) Essl.
almquistii (Vainio) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia almquistii
alpicola (Th. Fr.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia alpicola
sibirica (Zahlbr.) Essl.  (Spribille et al. 2009a)

ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
caesia Flotow = Chrysothrix caesia

ALLOCALICIUM M. Prieto & Wedin (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
adaequatum (Nyl.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Calicium adaequatum, C. hemisphaericum

ALLOCETRARIA Kurokawa & Lai
madreporiformis (Ach.)
Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Dactylina madreporiformis, Dufourea madreporiformis (Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
stracheyi (Bab.)
Kurok. & M. J. Lai (Thell et al. 2009)
cucullata (Bellardi) Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria cucullata
nivalis (L.)
Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria nivalis
oakesiana (Tuck.) Randlane & A. Thell = Usnocetraria oakesiana

ALYXORIA Ach. (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
bicolor (R. C. Harris & Lendemer) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Opegrapha bicolor
mougeotii (A. Massal.) Ertz, Frisch & G. Thor  Syn.: Opegrapha mougeotii  (Frisch et al. 2014)
ochrocheila (Nyl.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Opegrapha ochrocheila
varia (Pers.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Opegrapha diaphora, O. varia

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
*adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia adjuncta (Hafellner 2004b)
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina cacuminum (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2002)
coniops (Wahlenb.) M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer  Syn.: Buellia coniops
dakotensis (H. Magn.) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina dakotensis, R. finkii, R. inaequalis, R. pennsylvanica, R. pyriniformis, R. subplumbea, R. subpyriniformis. (Sheard & May 1997)
efflorescens (Müll. Arg.) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
endachroa (Malme) Marbach (Lücking et al. 2011bb)
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)  Syn.: Buellia langloisii
leucomela (Imshaug) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Buellia leucoemela (Sheard & May 1997)
lignicola Tønsberg & Nordin (Tønsberg et al. 2012)
milliaria (Tuck.) P. May & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina milliaria (Sheard & May 1997)
polyspora (Willey) E. Lay & P. May Syn.: Buellia polyspora, Buellia punctata var. polyspora (Sheard & May 1997)
punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. Syn.: Buellia punctata, B. myriocarpa
subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
submontana Marbach (Marbach 2000)
insperata (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard (Lendemer et al. 2008c) = Orcularia insperata (Kalb & Giralt 2012)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Orcularia placodiomorpha (Kalb & Giralt 2012)
turgescens (Nyl.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Buellia badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)

AMELIELLA Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2008)
andreaeicola Fryday & Coppins

AMEROCONIUM U. Braun & Zhurb.
*cladoniae U. Braun & Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Braun 2013)

AMPHILOMA Nyl.
lanuginosum (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Lepraria membranaceum

AMPHISPHAERIA Ces. & De Not.
+bufonia (Berk. & Broome) Ces. & De Not. (Perlmutter et al. 2017)


AMPLIOTREMA Kalb ex Kalb
auratum (Tuck.) Kalb ex Kalb (Seavey et al. 2014)

AMYGDALARIA Norman
consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Brodo & Mas. Inoue
continua Brodo & Hertel
elegantior (H. Magn.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Huilia elegantior, Lecidea elegantior
haidensis Brodo & Hertel
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Lecidea panaeola, Huilia panaeola
pelobotryon (Wahlenb.) Norman Syns.: Lecanora pelobotrya, Aspicilia pelobotrya, Lecidea pelobotrya, L. "pelobotrion"
subdissentiens (Nyl.) Mas. Inoue & Brodo

ANAMYLOPSORA Timdal
pulcherrima (Vainio) Timdal Syns.: Lecidea pulcherrima, Psora pulcherrima

ANAPTYCHIA Körber
bryorum Poelt
crinalis (Schaerer) Vězda (Esslinger 2007)
elbursiana (Szatala) Poelt (Esslinger 2002a) Syn.: Physconia thomsonii
palmulata (Michaux) Vainio
ulothricoides (Vainio) Vainio
appalachensis Kurok. = Heterodermia appalachensis
aquila (Ach.) A. Massal. North American records = A. palmulata
boryi (Feé) A. Massal. = Heterodermia boryi
casarettiana A. Massal. = Heterodermia casarettiana
chondroidea (W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi) Kurok. = Heterodermia chondroidea
ciliaris (L.) Körber = misidentification for North America
comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. North American records = Heterodermia galactophylla
corallophora (Taylor) Lynge = Heterodermia crocea (for North American records)
dendritica (Pers.) Vainio = Heterodermia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia diademata
domingensis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia albicans
echinata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) Trevisan = Heterodermia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevisan = Heterodermia galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia granulifera
heterochroa Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia obscurata
isidiza Kurok. (Yoshimura & Sharp 1973) = A. isidiata Tomin, but a misidentification for North America (Esslinger 2007)
kaspica Gyelnik = A. setifera, but North American reports are A. crinalis
leucomela (L.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia leucomela
"leucomelaena" auct. = Heterodermia leucomela
major (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentification for North America
neoleucomelaena Kurok. = Heterodermia boryi
obscurata (Nyl.) Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
"palmatula" auct. = A. palmulata
pseudospeciosa Kurok. = Heterodermia pseudospeciosa
pseudospeciosa Kurok. var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok. = Heterodermia speciosa
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia albicans
setifera Räsänen   North American reports are A. crinalis
sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge = Heterodermia obscurata
speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa
squamulosa Degel. = Heterodermia squamulosa
stippaea (Ach.) Nádv. = A. bryorum
tropica Kurok. = Heterodermia tropica
wrightii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  North American report (Tuckerman 1882) is Heterodermia diademata (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)

ANDREIOMYCES Hodkinson & Lendemer (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2013)
morozianus (Lendemer) Hodkinson & Lendemer  Syn.: Lepraria morozianus

ANEMA Nyl. ex Forssell
progidulum (Nyl.) Henssen (Schultz 2002a)
dodgei Herre = Heppia despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
jenisejensis H. Magn. = misidentification for North America

ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
albisedum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis albiseda
ambiguum (Zahlbr.)
R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia ambigua, Ditremis ambigua
anisolobum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot Syns.: Arthopyrenia anisoloba, Ditremis anisoloba
aureopunctatum R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris non Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia biformis, A. parvula, A. conformis auct. N. Am., Ditremis biformis, Trimmatothele umbellulariae
biformoides R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
carinthiacum (J. Steiner) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia carinthiaca, A. dimidiata, Ditremis carinthiaca
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia distans, Ditremis distans
excaecariae (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: A. sanfordense, Arthopyrenia sanfordensis, Ditremis sanfordensis (Harris 1995a)
finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis finkii (Harris 1995a)
griffinii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
leucochlorum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia leucochlora, Ditremis leucochlora
[Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris]
phaeospermum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr Syns.: Ditremis nyssigena, Arthopyrenia willeyana (Barr et al. 1996)
quadricoccum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 1997)
quaternarium (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis quaternaria (Harris 1995a)
subnexum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia subprostans, Ditremis subprostans, Pyrenula subprostans.
tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tamarindi.
terminatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis terminata, Pleurotrema anacardii, Arthopyrenia anacardii (Harris 1995a)
tuckerae R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tuckerae.
feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = A. anisolobum
juistense (Erichsen) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
sanfordense (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae

ANOMALOBARIA B. Moncada & Lücking (Moncada et al. 2013) = LOBARIA (McCune et al. 2014b; Miądlikowska et al. 2014a)
anomala (Brodo & Ahti) B. Moncada & Lücking = Lobaria anomala (McCune et al. 2014b)
anthraspis (Ach.) B. Moncada & Lücking = Lobaria anthraspis (McCune et al. 2014b)

ANOMOMORPHA Nyl.
turbulenta (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Graphis turbulenta (Staiger 2002)

ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal.
australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot (Aptroot 2012)
pachycheilum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Pyrenula pachycheila (Tuckerman 1872)
prasinum (Eschw.) R. C. Harris
staurosporum (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr.
canellae-albae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Sulcopyrenula canellae-albae
corticatum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula confinis
falsarium Zahlbr. = Pyrenula schiffneri
leucostomum (Ach.) Malme = Pyrenula leucostoma
libricola (Fée) Müll. Arg. 
= probable misidentification for North American
maculare Zahlbr. = Pyrenula breutelii
mucosum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = probable misidentification for North American
nanum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = A. australiensis
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula ochraceoflavens
ochraceoflavum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ochraceoflava
pauciloculare Herre = identity uncertain
pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides
subglobosum Riddle = Sulcopyrenula subglobosa
thelomorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula thelomorpha
varians R. C. Harris = Pyrenula novemseptata

ANZIA Stizenb.
americana Yoshim. & Sharp
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb.  Syn.:  Parmelia colpodes
ornata (Zahlbr.) Asahina

ANZINA Scheid.
carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. (Goward et al. 1996)
carneonivea var. tetraspora Scheid.  (Spribille et al. 2010)

APATOPLACA Poelt & Hafellner = CALOPLACA
oblongula (H. Magn.) Poelt & Hafellner = Caloplaca oblongula

ARCTOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & A. Thell
andrejevii (Oxner) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria andrejevii, C. simmonsii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria nigricascens, C. elenkinii, C. sibirica

ARCTOMIA Th. Fr.
delicatula Th. Fr.
interfixa (Nyl.) Vainio

ARCTOPARMELIA Hale
centrifuga (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia centrifuga, P. aleuritica, Parmelia halseyana, Xanthoparmelia centrifuga
incurva (Pers.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia incurva, Xanthoparmelia incurva
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia separata, P. birulae var. grumosa, Xanthoparmelia separata
subcentrifuga (Oxner) Hale Syns.: Parmelia subcentrifuga, Xanthoparmelia subcentrifuga
aleuritica (Nyl.) Hale = A. centrifuga

ARCTOPELTIS Poelt
thuleana Poelt

ARRHENIA Fr.
*peltigerina (Peck) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syn.: Omphalina peltigerina (Redhead et al. 2002)

ARTHONIA Ach.
*agelastica R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
albofuscescens Tuck.
+albopulverea Nyl. 
(Grube 2007)
albovirescens Nyl.  Syn.: Arthothelium albovirescens
aleuromela Nyl.
*almquistii Vainio (Zhurbenko 2013)
anglica Coppins (Hodkinson et al. 2009, Lendemer et al. 2009c)
*anjutii S. Y. Kondr. & Alstrup (Kondratyuk 1996)
antillarum (Fée) Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
apatetica (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.
arthonioides (Ach.) A. L. Sm.
asteriscus Müll. Arg.
atomaria (Lynge) R. Kilias
atra (Pers.) A. Schneider  (Ertz et al. 2009) Syn.: Opegrapha atra
atrata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
+beccariana (Bagl.) Stizenb.  (Grube 2007)
*biatoricola Ihlen & Owe-Larsson  (Ihlen et al. 2004b)
calcarea (Turner ex Sm.) Ertz & Diederich (Ertz et al. 2009) Syn. : Opegrapha calcarea
caribea (Ach.) A. Massal.
+caudata Willey
*ceracea Etayo & Breuss (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
cinereopruinosa Schaerer
cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.
*circinata Th. Fr. (Villella & Sheehy 2015)
*clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr.
*colombiana Etayo (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
compensata Nyl. (Hansen & Dute 2005)
compensatula Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
complanata Fée
conferta (Fée) Nyl.
*coronata Etayo (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
cupressina Tuck.
cyrtodes Nyl. (Lendemer et al. 2009c)
+cytisi A. Massal.
dictyospora (Coppins & P. James) McCune (McCune 2017)
didyma Körber
diffusa Nyl.
diffusella Fink
*digitatae Hafellner (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
*diploiciae Calat.
& Diederich (Grube 2007, Lendemer et al. 2009b)
dispersa (Schrader) Nyl.
dispersula Nyl.
eckfeldtii Müll. Arg.
*epicladonia (Nyl.) Alstrup & Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*epimela (Almq.) I. M. Lamb (Goward et al. 1996)
*epiphyscia Nyl.
erubescens Willey
erupta Nyl.
excedens Nyl.
*excentrica Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
exilis (Flörke) Anzi
*farinacea (H. Olivier) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fissurinea Nyl.
floridana Willey
fuliginosa (Schaerer) Flotow
*fuscopurpurea (Tul.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*gelidae R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)
gerhardii Egea & Torrente (Grube 2007)
+glaucella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
glebosa Tuck.
granosa B. de Lesd.
gutberletiana Lendemer & D. Ray (Lendemer & Ray 2017)
gyalectoides Müll. Arg.
hamamelidis Nyl.
helvola (Nyl.) Nyl. (Harris 1977)
*hodgesii Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
hypochniza Nyl. (Seavey et al. 2017)
hypobela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
ilicina Taylor  Syn.: Arthothelium ilicinum
impallens Nyl.
incarnata Th.
Fr. ex Almq.
infectans Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
interveniens Nyl.  Syn.: Arthothelium interveniens
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
*intexta Almq.
kermesina R. C. Harris, E. Tripp & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup
lecanactidea Zahlbr.
*lecanorina (Almq.) Grube (Grube 2007)
*lethariicola Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
leucastraea Tuck.
ligniariella
Coppins (Spribille & Björk 2008)
*linitae R. Sant. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
luridoalba Nyl.
macounii G. Merr. (Kocourková et al. 2008) Syn.: Arthothelium macounii
macrotheca Fée  (Lücking et al. 2011b) Syn.:  Arthothelium macrothecum
madreana Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
mediella Nyl.
mesoleuca Nyl. 
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
microsperma Nyl. (Seavey et al. 2017)
microspermella Willey
mirabilis Grube  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
*molendoi (Heufl. ex Frauenf.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998; Hafellner et al. 2002)
neoni B. de Lesd.
*nephromaria (Nyl.) Nyl. ex H. Olivier
norvegica (Coppins & Tønsberg) McCune (McCune 2017)
ochrocincta Willey
ochrodiscodes Nyl.
ochrolutea Nyl.
ochrospila Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
oxytera Nyl.
(Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
palmulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
patellulata Nyl.
*peltigerea Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerina (Almq.) H. Olivier
perminuta Willey
phaeobaea (Norman) Norman
*phaeophysciae Grube & Matzer (Hafellner et al. 2002)
phlyctiformis Nyl. subsp. californica Grube (Grube 2007)
+pinastri Anzi
platygraphidea Nyl.
platyspilea Nyl.
polygramma Nyl.
polymorpha Ach.
*protoparmeliopseos Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková & Knudsen 2015)
+pruinascens (Zahlbr.) Grube (Grube 2007) Syn.: Arthothelium pruinascens
+pruinosella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
pruinosula Nyl.
pseudostromatica F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
punctiformis Ach.
pyrrhuliza Nyl.
+quintaria Nyl.
radiata (Pers.) Ach.
ravenelii Tuck.
redingeri Grube (Grube 2007)
reniformis (Pers.) Ach.
+rhoidis Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
rubella (Fée) Nyl.
rubrocincta G. Merr. ex Grube & Lendemer (Grube & Lendemer 2009)
rupicola Fink
samdykeana Lendemer & D. Ray (Lendemer & Ray 2017)
+sanguinea Willey (Grube 2007) Syn.: Arthothelium sanguineum
septiseptella Nyl. (Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
+
sexlocularis
Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
siderea Degel.
simplicascens Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
spadicea Leighton
speciosa (Müll. Arg.) Grube (Grube 2007)
stellaris Kremp.
*stereocaulina (Ohlert) R. Sant. (Zhurbenko 2010)
stevensoniana R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
+subastroidea Anzi (McMullin et al. 2017)

subastroidella
Nyl.
subdiffusa Willey
subdispuncta Nyl.
*subfuscicola (Lindsay) Triebel
subminutissima Nyl.
subminutula Nyl.
subrubella Nyl.
susa R. C. Harris & Lendemer  Syn.: Arthothelium taediosum auct. N.A. (Lendemer et al. 2013)
taedescens Nyl.
*tavaresii Grube & Hafellner (Seavey et al. 2017)
terrigena Nyl.
+tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse (Grube 2007)
torulosa Fée
tuckermaniana Willey
varia (Ach.) Nyl.
*varians (Davies) Nyl. Syn.: Celidium varians (Hawksworth 2003)
vernans Willey
vinosa Leighton
viridicans Willey
*xanthoparmeliarum Etayo (Kocourková 2009)
xylographica Nyl.
alba Müll. Arg.
= a Stirtonia sp.
aspersa Leighton = A. arthonioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora

biseptata Degel. = Mycoporum biseptatum (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
byssacea (Weigel) Almq. = Inoderma byssaceum (Weigel) Gray (Frisch et al. 2015)

caesia (Flotow) Körber = Chrysothrix caesia
carneorufa Willey = Catillaria erysiboides
chiodectella Nyl. =
Pachnolepia pruinata (Grube 2007)
convexella Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus (Mycoporum sp.?)
epipastoides auct. N.A. non Nyl.
= A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp = A. lapidicola
galactitella Nyl. = A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
glaucescens Nyl. = Schismatomma glaucescens
glaucomaria (Nyl.) Nyl. = A. varians (Hawksworth 2003)
gregaria (Weigel) Körber = A. cinnabarina
gregarina Willey = Coniarthonia gregarina
impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer =
Pachnolepia pruinata
lecideella Nyl. ex Willey = Chrysothrix caesia (Lendemer 2008)
leucodontis (Poelt & Döbb.) Coppins = Bryostigma muscigena

leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq. = Felipes leucopellaeus (Frisch et al. 2014)
lurida Ach. nom. rej. = A. spadicea
melaspora Tuck.
= Sporostigma melaspora (Grube 2001)
montagnei (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = uncertain species of Cryptothecia? (Lücking et al. 2011b)

muscigena Th. Fr. = Bryostigma muscigena
pruinata (Pers.) Steud. ex A. L. Sm. (Grube 2007) = Pachnolepia pruinata (Frisch et al. 2014)
pyrrhula Nyl.
= Coniarthonia pyrrhula
ruana A. Massal. = Arthothelium ruanum
spectabilis Flotow = Arthothelium spectabile
+stictella Stizenb. = A. albopulverea (Grube 2007)
taediosa Nyl.  North American reports are Arthonia susa (Lendemer et al. 2013)
tremelloides Etayo  Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Grube 2007)
tumidula (Ach.) Ach. = A. cinnabarina
verrucosa Egea & Torrente  Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Grube 2007)
willeyi Tuck. = A. diffusa (Lendemer 2004a)

ARTHOPHACOPSIS Hafellner
*parmeliarum Hafellner (Diederich 2003, Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)

ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal.
+analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 2002a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallax
betulicola R. C. Harris, E. Tripp & Lendemer (Harris et al. 2014)
cerasi (Schrader) A. Massal.
cinereopruinosa (Schaerer) A. Massal.
degelii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
esenbeckiana (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
exasperata R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
minor R. C. Harris
oblongens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+plumbaria (Stizenb. ex Hasse) R. C. Harris Syns.: Porina plumbaria, Pyrenula herrei
rappii Zahlbr.
+subcerasi (Vainio) Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
*texensis (Cooke) D. Hawksw.
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = Strigula affinis North American records are S. jamesii
alba (Schrader) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
ambigua Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anacardii Vainio = Anisomeridium terminatum
analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold = misidentification for North America
anisoloba Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium anisoloba
antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold = Mycoporum antecellens
atomarioides Müll. Arg. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora
bifera Zahlbr. = A. malaccitula
biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. = Anisomeridium biforme
bryospila (Nyl.) Arnold = Collemopsidium bryospilum
carinthiaca J. Steiner = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Acrocordia cavata
cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Constrictolumina cinchonae
confluens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = Constrictolumina leucostoma
conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America, mostly Anisomeridium biforme
conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia conoidea
dimidiata Fink = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium distans
epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
faginea (Schaerer) Swinscow = Strigula stigmatella
fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta
finkii Zahlbr. = Acrocordia megalospora
floridana Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides
fraxini A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe fraxini
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. = Acrocordia gemmata
halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold = Collemopsidium halodytes
hyalospora (Nyl.) Fink = Lithothelium hyalosporum
lapponina Anzi = A. analepta
leucochlora Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
litoralis (Leighton) Arnold (Fink 1935) = Collemopsidium sublitorale (Santesson et al. 2004)
lyrata R. C. Harris = Constrictolumina lyrata
macrocarpa (Körber) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
macrospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
majuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Constrictolumina majuscula
malaccitula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Constrictolumina malaccitula
megalospora Lonnr. = Naetrocymbe megalospora
mycoporoides Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum mycoporoides
padi Rabenh. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
parvula Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium biforme
pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal. = A. cinereopruinosa
planorbis (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Constrictolumina planorbis
prospersella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenocollema prospersella
punctiformis (Pers.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
quinqueseptata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Polymeridium quinqueseptatum
rhyponta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Aptroot 2002a) = Naetrocymbe rhyponta
salicis A. Massal. = Identity uncertain (Harris 1995a)
sanfordensis Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium excaecariae
sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
sublitoralis (Leighton) Arnold = Collemopsidium sublitoralis
submuriformis R. C. Harris = Strigula submuriformis
subprostans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium subprostans
subpunctiformis Nyl. = A. atomarioides
tenuis R. C. Harris = Strigula americana
tichothecioides Arnold = Pyrenocollema tichothecioides
willeyana R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori

ARTHOTHELIOPSIS Vainio
floridensis Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
planicarpa (Lücking) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)  A tentative report.

ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal.
abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
adveniens Nyl.
anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold
distendens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
norvegicum Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Williams 2006)
orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse
ruanum (A. Massal.) Körber Syn.: Arthonia ruana
spectabile (Flotow) A. Massal. Syn.: Arthonia spectabilis
subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse
violascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink = Arthonia albovirescens
gregarinum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Coniarthonia gregarina
ilicinum (Taylor) P. James = Arthonia ilicina
interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Arthonia interveniens
lichenale (Peck) M. E. Barr (Barr et al. 1986) = Mycoporum compositum (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
macounii (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Arthonia macounii
macrothecum (Fée) A. Massal. = Arthonia macrothecum
+pruinascens Zahlbr. = Arthonia pruinascens (Grube 2007)
ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold = A. ruanum
+sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Arthonia sanguinea (Grube 2007)
taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.   North American reports are Arthonia susa (Lendemer et al. 2013)

ARTHRORHAPHIS Th. Fr.
*aeruginosa R. Sant. & Tønsberg
alpina (Schaerer) R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia alpina
citrinella (Ach.) Poelt Syn.: Bacidia citrinella, B. flavovirescens
#grisea Th. Fr. Syn.: Lahmia fueistingii

ARTHROSPORUM A. Massal.
populorum A. Massal.
Syns.: Bacidia populorum, B. acclinis, Bilimbia acclinis
accline (Flotow) A. Massal. = A. populorum

ASAHINEA W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
chrysantha (Tuck.) W. L. Culb.
& C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chrysantha
scholanderi (Llano) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria scholanderi

ASPICILIA A. Massal.
albomarginata B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora albomarginata
[Lecanora albopruinosa Looman]
alboradiata (H. Magn.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora alboradiata
aliena (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora aliena
americana B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora americana
anglica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
annulata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora annulata
anseris (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Synonym: Lecanora anseris
aquatica Körber Syn.: Lecanora aquatica
arctica (Lynge) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora arctica
arizonica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
aspera (Mereschk.) Tomin  (McCune et al. 2014b)
aurantiaca Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Knudsen et al. 2008b)
berntii A. Nordin, Tibell & Owe-Larsson  Syn.:  Lecanora mastoidea (Nordin et al. 2008)
bicensis F. Anderson & Lendemer (Anderson & Lendemer 2016)
boykinii
Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
brucei
Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
caesiopruinosa
(H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Lecanora caesiopruinosa
californica Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
candida (Anzi) Hue Syn.: Lecanora candida
cinerea (L.) Körber Syn.: Lecanora cinerea
cingulata (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora cingulata
composita (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora composita
concinna (J. W. Thomson) J. W. Thomson (Thomson 1997)
confusa Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
contigua (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
cuprea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
curvabilis (Nyl.) Hue (Hansen 2006)
cyanescens Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
determinata (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk. (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
disserpens (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora disserpens
elevata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora elevata
filiformis Rosentreter (Rosentreter 1998)
fimbriata (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon Syn.: Lecanora fimbriata
fumosa Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
glaucopsina (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  (Knudsen 2005b, Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
grisea Arnold (Fryday 2001)
heteroplaca (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora heteroplaca
humboldtii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
karelica (H. Magn.) Oxner
knudsenii Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
laevata (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Lecanora laevata
laxula (H. Magn.) Brodo
lesleyana Darb. Syn.: Lecanora lesleyana
limitata (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora limitata
mansourii Sohrabi  (McCune et al. 2014b)
mashiginensis (Zahlbr.) Oxner
mazarina (Wahlenb.) R. Sant.
narssaquensis (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Lecanora basaltica, L. narssaquensis
nashii Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
nathorstii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
nikrapensis Darb.  Syn.: Lecanora nikrapensis
nordlandica (H. Magn.) Degel.
novae-semliae (Zahlbr.) Oxner  Syn.: Lecanora novae-semliae
olivaceobrunnea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
olivaceopallida (H. Magn.) Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
pacifica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
peltastictoides (Hasse) K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)  Syn.: Lecanora peltastictoides
pergibbosa
(H. Magn.) Räsänen  Syn.: Lecanora pergibbosa
perradiata (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Lecanora perradiata
pertusa (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora pertusa
phaea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
plicigera (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora plicigera
polychroma Anzi Syn.: Lecanora polychroma
praecrenata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  Syn.: Lecanora praecrenata (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
reptans (Looman) Wetmore Syn.: Lecanora reptans:
rolleana Hue Syn.: Lecanora rolleana
rosulata Körber Syn.: Lecanora rosulata
ryrkaipiae (H. Magn.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora ryrkaipiae
santamonicae Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
sipeana (H. Magn.) Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin  Syn.: Lecanora sipeana (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
sorediza (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
sublapponica (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora sublapponica
submersa (Lamy) Hue
subplicigera (H. Magn.) Oxner
subradians (Nyl.) Hue Syns.: Lecanora stygioplaca, L. subradiascens, L. subradians
substictica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
supertegens Arnold Syn.: Lecanora supertegens
tenuis (H. Magn.) Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin  Syn.: Lecanora tenuis (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
verrucigera Hue  Syn.: Lecanora verrucigera
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina (Sommerf.) Arnold = Bellemerea alpina
bennettii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. mashiginensis
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold = Circinaria caesiocinerea
calcarea (L.) Körber = Circinaria calcarea
cinereorufescens (Ach.) A. Massal. = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. = Circinaria contorta
desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk.  North American reports are Circinaria arida (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)
diamarta (Ach.) Boistel = Bellemerea diamarta
excavata G. Thor & Timdal = Acarospora moenium
flavida (Hepp) Rehm = Eiglera flavida
fruticulosa (Eversm.) Flagey = Circinaria rogeri for N.A. reports
gibbosa (Ach.)
Körber = Circinaria gibbosa
hispida Mereschk. = Circinaria hispida

intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold  (McCune et al. 2014b) = Aspiciliella intermutans

lacustris (With.) Th. Fr. = Ionaspis lacustris
leprosescens (Sandst.) Hav. = Circinaria leprosescens
mastoidea
(Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. berntii (Nordin et al. 2008)
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (Wetmore 1967) = Sagedia mastrucata
melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia melanaspis
melinodes Körber = Porpidia melinodes
moenium (Vainio) G. Thor & Timdal = Acarospora moenium (Nordin et al. 2009)
myrinii (Fr.) Stein = Aspilidea myrinii
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia praeradiosa

quartzitica W. A. Weber = Schaereria fuscocinerea  (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)

radiosa (Hoffm.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia radiosa
rogeri Sohrabi (Sohrabi et al. 2013b) = Circinaria rogeri
sanguinea Kremp. = Bellemerea sanguinea
simoënsis Räsänen (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007) = Sagedia simoënsis
stygioplaca (Nyl.)
Hue = A. subradians
subradiascens (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. = Bellemerea subsorediza
uxoris (Werner) V. J. Rico (Shrestha & St. Clair 2009)  North American report = Teuvoa junipericola (Sohrabi et al. 2013a)

ASPICILIELLA M. Choisy
intermutans (Nyl.) M. Choisy  Syn.: Aspicilia intermutans (Zakeri et al. 2017)


ASPIDOTHELIUM Vainio (Nelsen et al. 2017)
cinerascens Vainio  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.:  Thelenella cinerascens
fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  Syn.:  Thelenella fugiens (Nelsen et al. 2017)
geminiparum (Malme) R. Sant. (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.:  Thelenella geminipara
scutellicarpum Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

ASPILIDEA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
myrinii (Fr.) Hafellner

ASTEROPHOMA D. Hawksw.
*mazaediicola D. Hawksw.

ASTEROTHYRIUM Müll. Arg.
decipiens (Rehm) R. Sant.
leucophthalmum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
rotuliforme (Mull. Arg.) Sérus. Syns.: Gyalectidium rotuliforme, Lopadiopsis floridana

ASTROTHELIUM Eschw.
aeneum (Eschw.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium aeneum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
cinnamomeum (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
crassum (Fée) Aptroot (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
diplocarpoides Müll. Arg. 
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
diplocarpum
Nyl. (Harris 1995a)
feei (C. F. W. Meissn.) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
floridanum Zahlbr.
marcidum (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium marcidum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
megaspermum (Mont.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syns.: Clathroporina diphloea, Laurera megasperma (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
nitidiusculum (Nyl.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethlium nitidiuscula (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
phlyctaena (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking  Syns.: Trypethelium ochroleucum, T. pallescens (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
porosum (Ach.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium porosum(Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
scoria (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium scoria (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
subdisjunctum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Laurera subdisjuncta (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

variolosum (Ach.) Müll. Arg.  Syn.: Trypethlium variolosum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
versicolor Müll. Arg.
confusum Müll. Arg. = A. crassum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
conicum auct. = A. cinnamomeum
conicum Eschw. = (?) type not found
galbineum Kremp. = A. macrocarpum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
ochrothelizum Müll. Arg. = A. galbineum

ATHALLIA
Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
cerinelloides (Erichsen) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca cerinelloides
holocarpa (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca holocarpa
pyracea (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca pyracea
saxifragarum (Poelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca saxifragarum
scopularis (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca scopularis
vitellinula (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca vitellinula

ATHELIA Pers.
*arachnoidea (Berk.) Jülich (Haffelner et al. 2002)
+epiphylla Pers.
poeltii Jülich

ATLA Savić & Tibell
alaskana S. Tibell & Tibell (Tibell & Tibell 2015)

AULAXINA Fée
microphana (Vainio) R. Sant.
quadrangula (Stirton) R. Sant.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

BACHMANNIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw.

BACIDIA De Not.
absistens (Nyl.) Arnold
aggregatula Malme
arceutina (Ach.) Arnold
[Bilimbia artyta (Ach.) Fink]
auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig.
augustinii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta
biatorina (Körber) Vainio
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb
circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vainio) Malme
coprodes (Körber) Lettau (Llop & Ekman 2004) Syn.: Bilimbia trachona auct.
coruscans S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
diffracta S. Ekman
ekmaniana R. C. Harris, Lendemer & Ladd (Lendemer et al. 2016b)
flavens (Willey) Zahlbr. = a species of Lecania (Ekman 1996)
friesiana (Hepp) Körber
granosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syns.: Bilimbia granosa, Bilimbia pammellii (Ekman 2014)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio
helicospora S. Ekman
herbarum (Stizenb.) Arnold
heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
hostheleoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia accclinis
idahoensis
H. Magn. (McCune et al. 2014b)
igniarii (Nyl.) Oxner
illudens (Nyl.) Lynge
insularis Zahlbr.
ioessa Herre = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996, 2004a)
kekesiana R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
kingmanii Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr.
lobarica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2007)
medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) B. de Lesd. (Ekman 1996)  Syns.: Biatora molybditis, Bilimbia molybditis, Lecidea medialis (Ekman 1996)
mutabilis Malme
*peltigericola Vainio (Weber & Wittman 2000)
phyllopsoropsis R. C. Harris & Lendemer  (Harris & Lendemer 2006)
polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körber  Syn.: Biatora fuscorubella
purpurans R. C. Harris, Lendemer & Ladd (Lendemer et al. 2016b)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia ravenelii  Correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
reagens Malme
rosellizans S. Ekman (Ekman 2009)
rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
rubidofusca (Willey) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia rubidofusca   Possibly a species of Gyalidea (Printzen 1995)
russeola (Kremp.) Zahlbr.
salmonea S. Ekman
saxicola Looman = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
schweinitzii (Fr. ex Tuck.) A. Schneider Syn.: Biatora leucampyx (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
sorediata Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2016b)
subgranulosa (Tuck.) Riddle  Erroneously listed as a synonym of Phyllopsora canoumbrina in the checklist; possibly belongs to Psorella (Ekman 1996)
subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold
suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider  Syn.: Biatora suffusa
veneta S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Ekman 1996)
viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997)
abbrevians (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = B. igniarii
abductans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = B. schweinitzii
accedens (Arnold) Lettau = Bilimbia accedens
accedens sensu Harris = unnamed species (Ekman 1996)
acclinis (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Arthrosporum populorum
affinis (Stizenb.) Vainio = B. subincompta
akompsa (Tuck.) Fink = a Lecanactis sp.
alaskensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Herteliana alaskensis
albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh = Bacidina phacodes, but a misidentification for N.A. (Ekman 1996)
alpina (Schaerer) Vainio = Arthrorhaphis alpina
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica
arnoldiana Körber = Bacidina arnoldiana
arthoniza (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
assulata (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina assulata
atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körber = B. laurocerasi
aurantiaca Vězda = Fellhanera aurantiaca
bacillifera (Nyl.) Arnold = B. circumspecta
beckhausii Körber = Biatora beckhausii (Printzen 2014)
caloosensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. hostheleoides
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
chlorantha (Tuck.) Fink = Ropalospora chlorantha
chlorococca (Stenh.) Lettau = Scoliciosporum chlorococcum
chlorosticta (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Micarea chlorosticta
citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
clementis Hasse = Bactrospora patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
cuprea (A. Massal.) Lettau = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
cupreorosella (Nyl.) A. Schneider = Lecania cuprea
declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Catillaria nigroclavata
dryina (Ach.) Fink = Bactrospora dryina
effusa auct. = B. assulata
egenula (Nyl.) Arnold = Bacidina egenula
egenuloidea Fink = Bacidina egenuloidea
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea endocyanea
endoleuca auct. = B. laurocerasi
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Lettau = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
flavovirescens (Dickson) Anzi = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera floridana
fusca (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Mycobilimbia tetramera
fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch = B. polychroa
fuscorubella var. suffusa  (Fr.) Fink  = B. suffusa
globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V. Wirth = Biatora globulosa

gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
hegetschweileri auct. = B. vermifera (Ekman 1996)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio = B. subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold (Ekman 1996)

hemipolia (Nyl.) Malme (Weber & Wittman 2000, Czarnota & Coppins 2007) = Biatora hemipolia (Printzen 2014)

herrei Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Bilimbia sabuletorum
incompta (Borrer ex Hooker) Anzi = misidentification for North America
intermedia (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Arnold = Bacidina assulata (Ekman 1996)
inundata (Fr.) Körber = Bacidina inundata

laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis (H. Magn.) S. Ekman = B. idahoensis  (McCune et al. 2014b)
leucophyllina (Nyl.) Fink = misidentification for North America
lignaria (Ach.) Lettau = Micarea lignaria
lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris
luteola "(Ach.) Mudd" = B. rubella
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Byssoloma meadii
melaena (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Micarea melaena
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Lettau = Bilimbia microcarpa
microphyllina auct. = Phyllopsora santensis
microphyllina (Tuck.) Riddle = misidentification for North America
minuscula Anzi = B. beckhausii
molybditis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. medialis
muscorum (Sw.) Mudd = B. bagliettoana
naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. = Lecania naegelii
nivalis Follmann = Stereocaulon nivale
obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia tetramera
pallens (Kullhem) Zahlbr. = Biatora pallens (Printzen & Otte 2005)
pammellii (Fink) Zahlbr. = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
phacodes auct. N. Am. = Bacidina californica, in part
populorum (A. Massal.) Trevisan = Arthrosporum populorum
rosella (Pers.) De Not. = B. rosellizans for North American reports
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
sabuletorum (Schreber) Lettau = Bilimbia sabuletorum
sibiriensis (Willey ex Rothr.) Zahlbr. = Lecania subfuscula (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia pilularis
sphaeroides auct. non (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
stigmatella (Tuck.)
Zahlbr. = Lecania stigmatella
subfuscula (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Lecania subfuscula
tetramera (De Not.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia tetramera
trachona (Ach.) Lettau  North American reports are B. coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Hellbom) Zahlbr. = Micarea peliocarpa
umbrina (Ach.) Bausch = Scoliciosporum umbrinum
verecundula (Th. Fr.) = misidentification for North America (Ekman 1996)

BACIDINA Vězda
aenea S. Ekman
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia apiahica
arnoldiana (Körber) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana
assulata (Körber) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia assulata, B. effusa, B. intermedia
brittoniana (Riddle) LaGreca & S. Ekman (Berger & LaGreca 2014)
californica S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia phacodes auct. N.A., B. albescens auct. N.A.?
chloroticula (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt (Ekman 1996)
contecta S. Ekman & T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
crystallifera S. Ekman
delicata (Leighton) V. Wirth & Vězda (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
egenula (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia egenula
egenuloidea (Fink) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia egenuloidea
inundata (Fr.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia inundata
neosquamulosa (Aptroot & van Herk) S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004b)5
pallidocarnea (Müll. Arg.) Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
phacodes (Körber) Vězda (Harris & Ladd 2005)
ramea S. Ekman
squamellosa S. Ekman
phacodes (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina californica, in part, for N.A. records
varia S. Ekman = B. brittoniana

BACIDIOPSORA
Kalb
orizabana (Vainio) Kalb (Seavey et al. 2017)
squamulosula (Nyl.) Kalb (Seavey et al. 2014)

BACTROSPORA
A. Massal.
acicularis (C. W. Dodge) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004a)
brevispora R.C. Harris
brodoi Egea & Torrente
carolinensis (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
cascadensis
Ponzetti & McCune  (Ponzetti & McCune 2006)
denticulata (Vainio) Egea & Torrente
dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Bacidia dryina
lamprospora (Nyl.) Lendemer  Syns.: Gyalecta lamprospora, Melampylidium macrosporum (Lendemer 2004a)
myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente
patellarioides (Nyl.) Almq. Syns.: Lecanactis patellarioides, Bacidia clementis
spiralis Egea & Torrente
integrispora Seaver = B. denticulata (Harris 1995a)
macrospora R.C. Harris = B. lamprospora
mesospora
R.C. Harris = B. carolinensis
nematospora R.C. Harris = B. myriadea

BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb
curtisii (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia curtisii (Marbach 2000), Gyrostomum curtisii
imshaugiana
(R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia imshaugiana (Marbach 2000)
micromera (Vainio) Marbach (Seavey et al. 2017)

BAEOMYCES Pers.
carneus Flörke
placophyllus Ach.
rufus (Hudson) Rebent.
absolutus Tuck. = Dibaeis absoluta
aeruginosa (Scop.) DC. = Icmadophila ericetorum
byssoides (L.) Ach. (Claassen 1912) = B. rufus
fungoides (Sw.) Ach. North American reports are Dibaeis baeomyces
roseus Pers. = Dibaeis baeomyces

BAGLIETTOA A. Massal.
baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda (Breuss 2007a) Syn.: Verrucaria baldensis
calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux  Syn.:  Verrucaria calciseda (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
marmorea (Scop.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux Syn.: Verrucaria marmorea (Yuzon et al. 2014)
rubrocincta (Breuss) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Yuzon et al. 2014)  Syn.: Verrucaria rubrocincta

BATHELIUM Ach. (Harris 1995a)
carolinianum (Tuck.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Trypethelium carolinianum
madreporiforme (Eschw.) Trevisan (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Laurera madreporiformis

BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Cl. Roux
alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Lecanora alpina, L. applegatei, Aspicilia alpina
cinereorufescens (Ach.)
Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens, Lecanora cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syn.: Aspicilia diamarta
sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia sanguinea, Lecanora sanguinea
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. Syns.: Lecidea subsorediza, Aspicilia subsorediza

BELLEMERELLA Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux
*ritae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2007)

BELONIA Körber ex Nyl. = GYALECTA (Baloch et al. 2013a)
americana Fink ex Hedr. = Robergea pupula, but excluded as a non-lichen
fennica Vainio = Gyalecta russula
russula Körber ex Nyl. = Gyalecta russula

BIATORA Fr.
aegrefaciens Printzen (Printzen et al. 2002)
alaskana Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
appalachensis Printzen & Tønsberg  (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
aureolepra T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Spribille et al. 2009)
beckhausii (Körber) Tuck.  Syn.: Bacidia beckhausii  (Printzen 2014)
caulophylla Tuck.   Possibly belongs to Lecanora (Ryan & Nash 1997a)
chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen in V. Wirth (Printzen 1995)
chrysanthoides Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
cuprea (Sommerf.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea cuprea
efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea efflorescens, L. epixanthoidiza
ementiens (Nyl.) Printzen  Syn.: Lecidea ementiens (Printzen2014)
fallax Hepp (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavopunctata (Tønsberg) Hinter. & Printzen Syn.: Lecanora flavopunctata
globulosa (Flörke) Fr.  Syns.:  Bacidia globulosa, Catillaria globulosa, Lecidea globulosa, L. sylvana (Printzen 2004)
helvola Körber ex Hellbom  (Spribille et al. 2010) Syn.: Lecidea helvola
hemipolia (Nyl.) S. Ekman & Printzen  Syn.: Bacidia hemipolia (Printzen 2014)
hypophaea Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
kodiakensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille et al. 2009)
longispora (Degel.) Lendemer & Printzen  Syn.: Lecidea helvola var. longispora (Lendemer 2004b)
meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa, L. minuta
meiocarpa var. tacomensis (Printzen & Tønsberg) Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)  Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa var. tacomensis
mendax Anzi (McMullin et al. 2017)
nobilis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
ocelliformis (Nyl.) Arnold (Printzen & Otte 2005)
oligocarpa Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
pallens (Kullhem) Printzen (Printzen & Otte 2005)  Syns.: Cliostomum pallens, Bacidia pallens
pausiaca Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
pontica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
printzenii Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2002)
pycnidiata Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
sphaeroidiza (Vainio) Printzen & Holien (Dillman et al. 2012)
subduplex (Nyl.) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea subduplex, L.apochroeiza, L. internectens
terrae-novae Printzen & J. W. McCarthy (Printzen et al. 2017)
toensbergii Holien & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
vacciniicola (Tønsberg) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syn.: Lecidea vacciniicola
vernalis (L.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea vernalis
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Hepp = Catinaria atropurpurea
albohyalina (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia = Lecidea albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
amaurospoda Anzi = Lecidea pullata
anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner = Carbonicola anthracophila
botryosa Fr. (Printzen 1995) = Hertelidea botryosa
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
cladoniscum Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
cyrtella (Ach.) W. Mann = Lecania cyrtella
decipiens (Ehrh.) Fr. = Psora decipiens
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
floridana Tuck. = Fellhanera floridana
franciscana Tuck. = Lecania franciscana
friesii (Ach.) Tuck. = Xylopsora friesii
furvonigrans Tuck. ex Willey =Lecidea furvonigrans
fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Tuck. = Bacidia polychroa
hypomela “Nyl.” (Mohr 1901) = Lecidea hypomela?
meadii Tuck. ex Willey = Byssoloma meadii
molybditis Tuck. = Bacidia medialis
myriocarpella G. Merr. = Lecidea enalla (Printzen 1995)
paddensis Tuck. = Lecanora paddensis (McCune et al. 2014b)
papillariae Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
parvifolia (Pers.) Tuck. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
petri Tuck. = Romjularia lurida
porphyrospoda Anzi = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
pullata Norman = Frutidella pullata
pullula Tuck. = Lecanora anopta
rufofusca Anzi = Myochroidea rufofusca
rufonigra Tuck. = Psorula rufonigra
russula (Ach.) Mont. = Ramboldia russula
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
scrupulosa Eckfeldt = Fuscidea scrupolosa
sibiriensis Willey ex Rothr. = Lecania subfuscula (Ekman 1996, Dillman et al. 2012)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber = Mycobilimbia pilularis
suffusa Fr. = Bacidia suffusa
turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. = Lecidea turgidula
varians (Ach.) Eschw. = Lecidea varians
viridescens (Schrader) W. Mann = Trapeliopsis viridescens

BIATORELLA De Not.
camptocarpa (Tuck.) Fink (Tuckerman 1888, Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
conspurcans Norman (Dillman et al. 2012)
contigua N. S. Golubk. & Piin (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
cyphalea (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
floridensis H. Magn.
hemisphaerica Anzi
albidula (Willey) Zahlbr. = Myrionora albidula
campestris (Fr.) Almq. = Sarcosagium campestre
clauzadeana Llimona & Vězda = Acarospora clauzadeana
clavus (DC.) Th.
Fr. = Sarcogyne clavus
conspersa (Fèe) Vainio = Piccolia conspersa
fossarum (Dufour ex Fr.) Th. Fr. = B. hemisphaerica for North American records
geophana (Nyl.) Rehm (Fink 1935) = Steinia geophana
hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = Sarcogyne hypophaea
kulshanensis Herre = Sporastatia testudinea (Ketzner 2010)
leucampyx Tuck. = Bacidia schweinitzii (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
microhaema Norman = Strangospora microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Strangospora moriformis
nannaria (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Piccolia nannaria
ochrophora (Nyl.) Arnold = Piccolia ochrophora
plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr. = Sarcogyne plicata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
pruinosa "(Körber) Mudd" = Sarcogyne regularis

rappii Zahlbr. = Ramonia microspora (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)

+
resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Sarea resinae
revertens (Tuck.) Herre (Tuckerman 1882, Fink 1935) = Polysporina simplex (Tucker & Jordan 1979)
simplex (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup = Polysporina simplex
terrena Hasse = Sarcogyne crustacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a)
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. = Sporastatia testudinea

BIATORIDIUM J. Lahm
delitescens (Arnold) Hafellner (Ekman 1996)
monasteriense J. Lahm ex K
örber (McCune & Rosentreter 2014)

BIATOROPSIS Räsänen
*minuta Millanes, Diederich, M. Westb. & Wedin (Millanes et al. 2016)
*usnearum Räsänen

BIAZROVIA Zhurb. & Etayo
*stereocaulicola Zhurb. & Etayo (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)


BILIMBIA De Not.
accedens Arnold  Syns.: Mycobilimbia accedens, Myxobilimbia accedens (Spribille et al. 2010)
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner & Coppins  Syns.: Mycobiolimbia lobulate, Toninia lobulata (Veldkamp 2004)
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.  Syns.: Bacidia microcarpa, Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Veldkamp 2004)
sabuletorum (Schreber) Arnold  Syns.: Bacidia sabuletorum, B. hypnophila, Mycobilimbia sabuletorum, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Veldkamp 2004)
acclinis (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Fink 1935) = Arthrosporum populorum (Ekman 1996)
caloosensis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia hostheleoides (Ekman 1996)
caudata (Nyl.) Fink = Ropalospora lugubris
cupreorosella (Nyl.) Bausch (Fink 1935) = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
declinis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Catillaria nigroclavata (Ekman 1996)
floridana (Tuck.) Riddle (Fink 1935) = Fellhanera floridana (Ekman 1996)
granosa (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
gyalectiformis Zahlbr. = Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
lignaria (Ach.) A. Massal. (Fink 1935) = Micarea lignaria
meadii (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Byssoloma meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996)
melaena (Nyl.) Arnold (Fink 1935) = Micarea melaena
molybditis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia medialis (Ekman 1996)
naegelii (Hepp) Kremp. (Fink 1935) = Lecania naegelii
pammellii Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia ravenelii (Ekman 1996)
rubidofusca (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia rubidofusca (Ekman 1996)
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber (Fink 1935) =  Mycobilimbia pilularis (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides auct. = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida (Ekman 1996)
trachona (Ach.) Trevisan (Fink 1935)   North American reports are Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Nägeli) Arnold = Micarea peliocarpa (Santesson et al. 2004)
tricholoma (Mont.) Fink = Byssoloma tricholomum

BISPORA Fuckel
*christiansenii D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998) = Intralichen christiansenii
*lichenum Diederich (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Intralichen lichenum

BLASTENIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syns. Caloplaca ammiospila, C. cinnamomea, C. discoidalis
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Caloplaca ferruginea, Placodium ferrugineum
furfuracea (H. Magn.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca furfuracea
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Caloplaca atrosanguinea
crenularia (With.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
diphasia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca diphasia
festiva (Ach.) A. Massal. = Caloplaca crenularia, but North American records incorrect according to Wetmore (1996)
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) B. de Lesd. = Caloplaca fraudans
luteominia (Tuck.) Hasse = Polycauliona luteominea
novomexicana Fink = a Caloplaca sp.?
rubrofusca B. de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.?
sinapisperma (DC.) A. Massal. = Bryoplaca sinapisperma

BLENNOTHALLIA Trevisan (Otálora et al. 2014)
crispa (Hudson) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema cheilum, C. crispum
fecunda (Degel.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema fecundum

BOGORIELLA Zahlbr.
socialis (Zahlbr.) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

BOMBYLIOSPORA De Not. ex A. Massal. = MEGALOSPORA
domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis
pachycheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Megalospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) De Not. = Megalospora tuberculosa
vulpina (Nyl.) J. M. Burgess = nom. inval. = Letrouitia vulpina

BOTRYDINA Bréb. = LICHENOMPHALIA
botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
vulgaris Bréb. sens. str. = Lichenomphalia umbellifera

BOTRYOLEPRARIA Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona
lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona Syn.: Lepraria lesdainii (Canals et al. 1997)

BOTTARIA A. Massal. = MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
cruentata Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruentata

BRACKELIA Zhurb.
*lunkei Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)


BRIANARIA S. Ekman & M. Svensson  (Ekman & Svensson 2014)
bauschiana (Körber) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syns.: Lecidea dilutiuscula, L. lynceola auct. N. Am., Micarea bauschiana
lutulata (Nyl.) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syns.: Lecidea lutulata, Micarea lutulata
sylvicola (Flotow ex Körber) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syns.: Lecidea sylvicola, Micarea sylvicola
tuberculata (Sommerf.) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syn.: Micarea tuberculata

BRIANCOPPINSIA Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (Diederich et al. 2012)
*cytospora (Vouaux) Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (Diederich et al. 2012, Kocourková et al. 2012) Syn.: Phoma cytospora

BRIGANTIAEA Trevisan
fuscolutea (Dickson) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium fuscoluteum
leucoxantha (Sprengel) R. Sant. & Hafellner Syn.: Lopadium leucoxanthum, Heterothecium leucoxanthum
praetermissa Hafellner & St. Clair (Hafellner 1997)
purpurata (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Bellem. (Goward et al. 1996) = B. praetermissa (Hafellner 1997)

BRODOA Goward
oroarctica (Krog) Goward Syn.: Hypogymnia oroarctica.
atrofusca (Schaerer) Goward  Syns.: Hypogymnia atrofusca, Parmelia atrofusca. North American reports are probably misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica
intestiniformis (Vill.)
Goward  Syns.: Hypogymnia intestiniformis, H. encausta, Parmelia intestiniformis, P. encausta. North American reports are misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica

BRUCEA Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b) = BRUCEOMYCES Rikkinen (Tuovila et al. 2012)
+castoris Rikkinen = Bruceomyces castoris

BRUCEOMYCES Rikkinen (Tuovila et al. 2012)
+castoris Rikkinen

BRYOBILIMBIA Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman (Fryday et al. 2014)
ahlesii (Körber) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea ahlesii, L. delincta
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea ahlesii var. nemoralis, L. nemoralis
diapensiae (Th. Fr.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syn.: Lecidea diapensiae
hypnorum (Lib.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea hypnorum, L. fusca, L. templetonii, L. atrofusca, L. sanguineoatra sens. Nyl., Mycobilimbia hypnorum

BRYOCAULON
Kärnefelt
divergens (Ach.) Kärnefelt Syns.: Alectoria divergens, Cornicularia divergens, Coelocaulon divergens
pseudosatoanum (Asahina) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cornicularia pseudosatoana

BRYODINA Hafellner
rhypariza
(Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk (Zhurbenko 2013)

BRYONORA Poelt
castanea (Hepp) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora castanea
curvescens (Mudd) Poelt Syn.: Lecania curvescens
pruinosa (Th. Fr.) Holtan-Hartwig
septentrionalis Holtan-Hartwig

BRYOPHAGUS Nitschke ex Arnold
gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold (fide J. Hafellner, see Appendix) = Cryptodiscus gloeocapsa

BRYOPLACA Søchting, Frödén & Arup (Arup et al. 2013)
jungermanniae
(Vahl) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca jungermanniae
sinapisperma
(Lam. & DC.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Blastenia sinapisperma, Caloplaca leucoraea, C. sinapisperma
tetraspora
(Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca tetraspora

BRYOPOGON Link
negativus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
pacificus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens

BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
alaskana Myllys & Goward (Myllys et al. 2016)
ambigua (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski  Syn.: Alectoria ambigua (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
americana (Motyka) Holien  Syn.: Alectoria americana (Holien 1994, Myllys et al. 2011)
bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria bicolor 
carlottae Brodo & D. Hawksw.
cervinula Motyka ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria cervinula
fabiszewskiana Bystr. (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fremontii, A. corneliae, A. tenerrima, A. tortuosa
friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Velmala et al. 2014)
furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nidulifera, Cornicularia fibrillosa
furcellata subsp. hawksworthiana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fuscescens, A. positiva, Bryopogon pacificus
glabra (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria glabra
inactiva Goward, Velmala & Myllys (Velmala et al. 2014)
irwinii Goward & Myllys (Myllys et al. 2016)
kockiana Velmala, Myllys & Goward (Velmala et al. 2014)
nadvornikiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nadvornikiana, A. altaica
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nitidula, A. irvingii, A. lanea auct.
pikei Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria cana, North American reports of A. capillaris & A. setacea
pseudofuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria achariana, A. norstictica nom. inval., A. subtilis nom. inval. (Velmala et al. 2014)
salazinica Brodo & D. Hawksw.
simplicior (Vainio) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria simplicior, A. nana nom. nudum
tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria tenuis
trichodes (Michaux) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. trichodes Syns.: Alectoria canadensis, A. delicata nom. nudum
trichodes subsp. brodoana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
trichodes subsp. canadensis (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
vrangiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Velmala et al. 2014)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria abbreviata
capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. A European species; North American records are B. pikei (Velmala et al. 2014)
chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. A European species; North American records are B.kockiana
lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
oregana (Tuck. ex Willey) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria oregana
pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Sulcaria spiralifera (Myllys et al. 2014)
setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Not in North America.
spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Sulcaria spiralifera (Myllys et al. 2014)
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria subdivergens
tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fremontii (Velmala et al. 2009)
trichodes subsp. americana (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. americana (Myllys et al. 2011)

BRYOSCYPHUS Spooner
*lichenicola Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

BRYOSTIGMA Poelt & Döbbeler
muscigenum (Th. Fr.) Frisch & G. Thor  Syn.: Arthonia muscigena, A. leucodontis (Frisch et al. 2014)
leucodontis Poelt & Döbbeler = Bryostigma muscigenum

BUELLIA
De Not.
abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Giralt et al. 2011, Knudsen & Kocourková 2010c)
aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.
arborea Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & McCune 2001)
arnoldii Serv
ít  Syn.:  Hafellia arnoldii
#badia (Fr.) A. Massal.  Syn.: Amandinea turgescens
bahiana Malme  Syn.: Hafellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotropa Malme
bolacina Tuck.
calcariaecola B. de Lesd.
callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner  Syn.:  Hafellia callispora
capitis-regum W. A. Weber
cedricola Werner (Nordin 1999)
christophii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004a)
circumpallida H. Magn.  Syn.: Endohyalina circumpallida
concinna Th. Fr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
conspirans (Nyl.) Vainio (Bungartz 2004)
crystallifera (Vainio) Hav. (Goward et al. 1996)
curatellae Malme  Syn.:  Hafellia curatellae
disciformis
(Fr.) Mudd  Syn.:  Hafellia disciformis
dispersa
A. Massal.
eganii Bungartz (Bungartz & Nash. 2004a)
elegans Poelt
elizae (Tuck.) Tuck.  Syn.: Gassicurtia elizae (Lendemer et al. 2013)
epigaea (Hoffm.) Tuck.
erubescens Arnold
[Hafellia fosteri Imshaug & Sheard]
georgei Trinkaus, H. Mayrhofer & Elix (Bungartz et al. 2007)
griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb.
halonia (Ach.) Tuck.
immersa Lynge
*imshaugii Hafellner
jugorum (Arnold) Arnold
lacteoidea B. de Lesd.
lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck.  Syn.: Lecidea lepidastra
leptocline (Flotow) A. Massal.
maculata Bungartz (Bungartz 2004a)
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber  Syn.: Rinodina mamillana, R. thomae
maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl. (Bungartz et al. 2007)
mexicana J. Steiner (Nordin 2000)
microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina microbola
#miriquidica Scheid. (Fryday 2006)
muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg (Nordin 1999)
nantiana B. de Lesd.
nashii Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
navajoensis Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
nigra (Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina nigra
occidentalis Lynge (Lepage 1972)
ocellata (Flotow) Körber
oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Rhizocarpon oidaleum
parastata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Hafellia parastata
pleiotera Malme  Syn.: Hafellia pleiotera
prospersa (Nyl.) Riddle (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
pullata Tuck. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
ryanii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
schaereri De Not.
sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)  Many previous reports are B. abstracta (Giralt et al. 2011)
sharpiana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2013a)
silicicola B. de Lesd.
smaragdula B. de Lesd.
spuria (Schaerer) Anzi
stellulata (Taylor) Mudd
stigmatea Körber
subaethalea B. de Lesd. (Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
subdispersa Mig. (Nordin 1999)
tesserata Körber (Rico et al. 2003)
triseptata A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
tyrolensis Körber (Bungartz 2004)
uberior Anzi
vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck. Syn. : Gassicurtia vernicoma
vilis Th. Fr.
*adjuncta Th. Fr. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Amandinea adjuncta
aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier = B. aethalea
alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum
ambigua (Ach.) Malme = Diplotomma ambiguum
amphidexia Imshaug ex R. C. Harris = Buellia circumpallida
atrata (Sm.) Anzi = Orphniospora moriopsis
badioatra (Flörke ex Sprengel) Körber = Rhizocarpon badioatrum
blasteniospora Zahlbr. = B. parastata
blumeri Zahlbr. = B. dispersa  
caloosensis Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
canescens (Dickson) De Not. = Diploicia canescens
catasema (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
chloroleuca Körber (Bungartz et al. 2007, Spribille & Björk 2008) = Tetramelas chloroleucus
chlorophaea (Hepp ex Leighton) Lettau = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
coccinea (Fée) Aptroot = Gassicurtia coccinea
colludens (Nyl.) Arnold = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amandinea coniops
contermina Arnold = B. uberior
coracina (Nyl.) Körber = Orphniospora moriopsis
curtisii (Tuck.) Imshaug = Baculifera curtisii
dakotensis (H. Magn.) Bungartz = Amandinea dakotensis
dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chrismofulvea dialyta
epipolia sensu auct. = Diplotomma venustum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
epipolia (Ach.) Mong. = Diplotomma alboatrum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)

fimbriata (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. tesserata
geographica (L.) Tuck. = Rhizocarpon geographicum
geophila (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Lynge = Tetramelas geophila, but North American reports are T. terricolus
glaucomarioidea Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora glaucomarioides
glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = B. mamillana
hassei Imshaug = B. griseovirens
imshaugiana R. C. Harris = Baculifera imshaugiana
*inquilina Tuck. = Dactylospora inquilina
insignis (Nägeli ex Hepp) Th. Fr. = Tetramelas insignis
isidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = excluded as doubtful
japonica (Tuck.) Tuck. (Sheard et al. 2008) = Sculptolumina japonica
langloisii Imshaug = Amandinea langloisii (Marbach 2000)

lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria lauricassiae
lecanoroides H. Magn. = Diplotomma venusta (Bungartz et al. 2007)
lepidastroidea Imshaug ex Bungartz (Bungartz 2004) = B. sequax (Giralt et al. 2011)
leucomela Imshaug = Amandinea leucomela
malmei Lynge = B. aethalea
melanochlora (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria melanochlora
modesta (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.= Cratiria americana
moriopsis (A. Massal.) Th. Fr. = Orphniospora moriopsis
myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. = Amandinea punctata
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hertel ex Hafellner = Diplotomma nivalis
notabilis Lynge = Rinodina notabilis
novomexicana B. de Lesd.
= B. tyrolensis
pachnidisca R. C. Harris = Gassicurtia subpulcella
papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. = Tetramelas papillatus
parasema (Ach.) De Not. = B. disciformis
penichra (Tuck.) Hasse = Diplotomma penichrum
pertusariicola Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora pertusariicola
pinastri Erichsen (Erichsen 1940) = Chrismofulvea pinastri
placodiomorpha Vainio = Orcularia placodiomorpha
polyspora (Willey) Vainio = Amandinea polyspora
pruinella Imshaug = B. tesserata
pueblae B. de Lesd. = B. dispersa
pulchella (Schrader) Tuck. = Catolechia wahlenbergii
*pulverulenta (Anzi) Jatta = Tetramelas pulverulentus
punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Amandinea punctata
punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink = Amandinea polyspora
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
rappii Imshaug ex R.C. Harris = Endohyalina rappii
retrovertens Tuck. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2002)
rinodinoides Anzi = misidentification for North America
rinodinospora Riddle = B. parastata
rubifaciens R.C. Harris = Chrismofulvea rubifaciens
saurina W. A. Weber = Rhizocarpon saurinum
saxicola B. de Lesd. = B. sequax
scabrosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Epilichen scabrosus
semitensis Tuck. = B. concinna
stigmaea Tuck. = B. maculata
stillingiana J. Steiner = B. erubescens (Bungartz et al. 2007)
subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.  North American reports are B. maritima (Bungartz et al. 2007)
subdisciformis (Leighton) Jatta (Mohr 1901) = B. disciformis
subpostumum Nyl. (Mohr 1901) = Rhizocarpon subpostumum, but a misidentification for North America
subpulcella Vainio = Gassicurtia subpulcella
tergestina J. Steiner & Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
terricola A. Nordin (Nordin 1999) = Tetramelas terricolus
thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. mamillana
tolucae B. de Lesd. (Nordin 1999) = B. mexicana (Bungartz et al. 2007)
triphragmioides Anzi = Tetramelas triphragmioides
tucsonensis Zahlbr. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2007)
turgescens Tuck. = B. badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)
turgescentoides Fink = B. badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c)
venusta (Körber) Lettau = Diplotomma venustum
verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea
verruculosa auct. = B. ocellata
wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard = Catolechia wahlenbergii
wheeleri R. C. Harris = Ciposia wheeleri
zahlbruckneri J. Steiner = B. erubescens
zahlbruckneri sensu Imshaug = mostly Tetramelas chloroleucus (Bungartz et al. 2007)

BUELLIELLA Fink
*inops (Triebel & Rambold) Hafellner  Syn.:  Karschia inops (Hafellner 2004a)
*minimula (Tuck.) Fink
*physciicola Poelt & Hafellner (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*poetschii Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2008)
*trypethelii (Tuck.) Fink
*inquilina (Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora inquilina
*nuttallii (Calk. & Nyl.) Fink = Dactylospora lobariella
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink = Abrothallus parmeliarum
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Fink = Dactylospora saxatilis var. saxatilis
*usneae (Rabenh.)
Fink = misidentification for North America

BUELLIOPSIS A. Schneider = BUELLIA
papillata (Sommerf.) Fink = Tetramelas papillata
vernicoma (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Buellia vernicoma

BULBOTHRIX Hale
confoederata (W. L. Culb.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia confoederata
coronata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia coronata
isidiza (Nyl.) Hale
laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigatula
scortella (Nyl.) Hale (Benatti & Elix 2012) Syn.: Parmelia njalensis, P. scortella
goebelii (Zenker) Hale  North American reports are B. scortella (Benatti & Elix 2012)

BULLATINA Vězda & Poelt
aspidota (Vainio) Vězda & Poelt = Calenia aspidotum

BUNODOPHORON A. Massal.
melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin Syn.: Sphaerophorus melanocarpus

BURGELLA Diederich & Lawrey (Diederich & Lawrey 2007)
*flavoparmeliae Diederich & Lawrey

BYSSOLOMA Trevisan
absconditum Farkas & Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
chlorinum (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vainio
maderense Breuss (Breuss 2016)
marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia meadii, Biatora meadii, Bilimbia meadii
subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James
tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Bilimbia tricholoma
pubescens Vězda ex R.C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = B. meadii (Brodo et al. 2001)
rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. = B. subdiscordans

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

CAERULEUM K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Körber) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia  Syns.: Acarospora aeruginosa, A. heppii, Myriospora heppii
immersum (Fink) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia  Syns.: Acarospora immersa, Myriospora immersa

CALENIA
Müll. Arg.
aspidotum (Vainio) Vězda  Syn.: Bullatina aspidota (Lücking et al. 2007)

CALICIELLA Vainio = non-lichenized fungi

CALICIUM Pers.
abietinum Pers.
adspersum Pers.
carolinianum (Tuck.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syns.: Acolium carolinianum, Cyphelium carolinianum, Thelomma carolinianum (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
chlorosporum F. Wilson
corynellum (Ach.) Ach.
denigratum (Vainio) Tibell (McMullin et al. 2012)
glaucellum Ach.
hyperelloides Nyl.
lenticulare Ach.
leucochlorum Tuck.
lucidum (Th. Fr.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium lucidum (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
montanum Tibell (Kolb & Spribille 2001)
notarisii (Tul.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium notarisii (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
parvum Tibell
pinastri Tibell  (Selva 2013)
pinicola (Tibell) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium pinicola (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
quercinum Pers.
salicinum Pers.
sequoiae C. Williams & Tibell (Williams & Tibell 2008)
tigillare (Ach.) Pers. Syn.: Cyphelium tigillare (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
trabinellum
(Ach.) Ach
viride Pers.
adaequatum Nyl. = Allocalicium adaequatum (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
albonigrum Nyl. = Mycocalicium albonigrum
#asikkalense Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
curtisii Tuck. = Phaeocalicium curtisii
*disseminatum Ach. = Microcalicium disseminatum
#floerkei Zahlbr. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
fuscipes Tuck. = Mycocalicium fuscipes
hemisphaericum Howard =
Allocalicium adaequatum
hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. = C. viride
lentigerellum Tuck. = C. lenticulare
lichenoides (L.) Schumacher = C. salicinum
melanophaeum Sommerf. (Mohr 1901) = Mycocalicium albonigrum
microcephalum (Sm.) Ach. = Sphinctrina anglica
minutissimum G. Merr. = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
+parietinum Ach. (Claassen 1912) = Mycocalicium subtile
+populneum Brond. ex Duby = Phaeocalicium populneum
#pusillum auct. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
pusiolum Ach. = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
queenslandiae (F. Wilson) Tibell = C. chlorosporum
ravenelii Tuck. = Mycocalicium ravenelii
roscidum (Ach.) Ach. nom. superfl. = C. adspersum
roscidum var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaerer = C. trabinellum for North American records
sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach. = (?) C. lichenoides
#subpusillum Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
subquercinum Asahina = C. lenticulare
+subtile Pers. = Mycocalicium subtile
trachelinum Ach. = C. salicinum
turbinatum Pers. = Sphinctrina turbinata

CALLOME Otálora & Wedin (Otálora et al. 2014)
multipartita (Sm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema multipartitum

CALOGAYA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
arnoldii (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca arnoldii, C. arnoldii subsp. obliterata
biatorina (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca biatorina
bryochrysion (Poelt) Vondrák  Syns.: Caloplaca alaskensis, C. bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)
decipiens
(Arnold) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca decipiens
lobulata (Flörke) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca lobulata
pusilla (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca pusilla
alaskensis (Wetmore) Arup, Frödén & Søchting = C. bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)

CALOPADIA Vězda
editae Vězda ex Chaves & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
floridana Hodges & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
fusca
(Müll Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium fuscum
imshaugii Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lecanorella
(Nyl.) Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
perpallida (Nyl.) Vězda (Lücking et al. 2011b)
puiggarii
(Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium puiggarii
schomerae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
subcoerulescens (Zahlbr.) Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

CALOPLACA Th. Fr.
adnexa Vězda
ahtii Søchting
albovariegata (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore  Syn.: Pyrenodesmia albovariegata
alcarum Poelt
approximata (Lynge) H. Magn.
atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Lecania perproxima (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
atrocyanescens (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier  (Spribille et al. 2010)
atroflava (Turner) Mong.
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) I. M. Lamb  Syns.: Blastenia atrosanguinea, Lecanora atrosanguinea
borealis (Vainio) Poelt
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. (Nash et al. 1998)
brunneola Wetmore
californica Zahlbr.
camptidia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
carolinae H. Magn.
cascadensis H. Magn.
catalinae H. Magn.
celata Th. Fr.
cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedwig) Th. Fr. (Laundon 2005)
chlorina (Flotow) Sandst.
cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.
conversa (Kremp.) Jatta
dakotensis Wetmore
demissa (Körber) Arup & Grube Syns.: Lecanora demissa, L. incusa, L. subolivascens (Arup & Grube 1999)
diphasia (Tuck.) Wetmore Syns.: Lecanora diphasia, Blastenia diphasia
diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta Syn.: Lecania arctica
dispersa B. de Lesd.
durietzii H. Magn
epiphora (Taylor) C. W. Dodge (Wetmore 2004a)
*epithallina Lynge
erichansenii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, Kärnefelt & Elix  (Vondrák et al. 2011)
erythrantha (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2007b)
eugyra
(Tuck.) Zahlbr.
exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
ferrugineofusca (Vainio) H. Magn.
floridana (Tuck.) S. Tucker Syns.:  Blastenia floridana, Lecanora floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier  Syn.:  Blastenia fraudans
fraxinea I. M. Lamb
fulvolutea (Arnold) Jatta (Thomson 1997)
granularis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2004b)
*grimmiae (Nyl.) H. Olivier
groenlandica Lynge
insularis Poelt
isidiigera Vězda (Šoun et al. 2011)
kamczatica (Savicz) Savicz  (Søchting 2004)
*lecanorae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
lecanoroides Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2010)
lignicola Wetmore (Wetmore 2009)
lithophila H. Magn.
litoricola Brodo
livida (Hepp) Jatta
microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse  Syn.: Placodium microphyllinum
[Pyrenodesmia montana B. de Lesd.]
neonii B. de Lesd.
neotropica Wetmore
nivalis (Körber) Th. Fr.
[Blastenia novomexicana Fink]
obamae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2009)
obesimarginata Søchting  (Søchting 2004)
oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore Syns.: Apatoplaca oblongula, Lecidea oblongula
obscurella (J. Lahm) Th. Fr.
oleicola (J. Steiner) van den Boom & Breuss (Goward et al. 1996)
oregona H. Magn.
parvula Wetmore
peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse  Syn.: Pyrenodesmia elaeodes
phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
phyllidizans Wetmore (Wetmore 2003)
pinicola H. Magn.
pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta
pratensis Wetmore (Wetmore 2009)
pygmaea Wetmore (Wetmore 2007a)
quercicola H. Magn.
reptans Lendemer & Hodkinson (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2012)
rubelliana (Ach.) Lojka
[Blastenia rubrofusca B. de Lesd.]
saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin
schaereri (Flörke) Zahlbr.
schoeferi Poelt (Wetmore 2007a)
sibirica H. Magn. (Søchting & Olech 1995)
sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sipeana H. Magn.
sonorae Wetmore (Wetmore 1996)
soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek (Wetmore 2009)
sorocarpa (Vainio) Zahlbr.
spaldingii Zahlbr.
spitsbergensis H. Magn.
stanfordensis H. Magn.
stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge  (Šoun et al. 2011, Arup et al. 2013)
subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr.
subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tornoënsis H. Magn.
turkuensis (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Šoun et al. 2011)
ulcerosa Coppins & P. James (Wetmore 2004b)
ulmorum (Fink) Fink  (Šoun et al. 2011)  But see also Wetmore 2007b
urceolata B. de Lesd.
verrucosa Hasse
wetmorei Nimis, Poelt & Tretiach
wrightii (Tuck.) Fink
yuchiorum Lendemer & C. A. Morse  (Lendemer & Morse 2010)
alaskensis Wetmore (Wetmore 2004b) = Calogaya bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)
alboatra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Flowers 1953/1954)  Misspelling of C. atroalba
amabilis (Fink) Zahlbr. = C. pellodella
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier = Blastenia ammiospila
arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg. = Rufoplaca arenaria
arizonica H. Magn. = Gyalolechia epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)
arizonica E. Rudolph non H. Magn. = C. pellodella
arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. obliterata (Pers.) Gaya (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya arnoldii
aurantia (Pers.) Hellbom = Variospora aurantia
aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = Gyalolechia flavorubescens
austrocitrina Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010e) = Flavoplaca austrocitrina
biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya biatorina
bolacina (Tuck.) Herre = Polycauliona bolacina
bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. = Polycauliona luteominea var. bolanderi
bracteata (Hoffm.) Jatta = Gyalolechia bracteata
brattiae W. A. Weber = Polycauliona brattiae
bryochrysion Poelt = Gyalolechia bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)
caesiorufa (Wibel) Flagey = removed as a nomen confusum (Wetmore 1996)
caesiorufella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. phaeocarpella
callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Variospora aurantia
castellana (Räsänen) Poelt  If treated as separate from C. invadens (=Pachypeltis invadens) as done by e.g. Alstrup (1991), this species has not yet been reported for North America
cerinelloides (Erichsen) Poelt (Qian & Klinka 1998) = Athallia cerinelloides
chrysodeta (Vainio) Dombr. = Leproplaca chrysodeta
chrysophthalma Degel. = Solitaria chrysophthalma
cinnamomea (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Blastenia ammiospila
cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Leproplaca cirrochroa
citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Flavoplaca citrina
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pachypeltis cladodes
constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Edrudia constipans
coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting = Polycauliona coralloides
crenularia (With.) J. R. Laundon = Blastenia crenularia, but a misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Knudsen & La Doux 2005) = Xanthocarpia crenulatella
decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forssell = Calogaya decipiens
diplacia (Ach.) Riddle = doesn't occur N of Mexico (Wetmore 1994)
discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. saxicola
discoidalis (Vainio) Lynge = Blastenia ammiospila
discolor (Willey) Fink = Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea (Wetmore 2001, Arup et al. 2013)
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. = Rusavskia elegans
epiphyta Lynge (Søchting & Tønsberg 1997) = Gyalolechia epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)
erythrella (Ach.) Kieffer = Gyalolechia flavovirescens
feracissima H. Magn. = Xanthocarpia feracissima
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr. = Blastenia ferruginea
festiva (Ach.) Zwackh = Caloplaca crenularia, but North American records incorrect according to Wetmore (1996)
flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Arup 2006) = Flavoplaca flavocitrina
flavogranulosa Arup = Polycauliona flavogranulosa
flavorubescens (Hudson) J. R. Laundon = Gyalolechia flavorubescens
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = Gyalolechia flavovirescens
fulgens (Sw.) Körber = Gyalolechia fulgens
furfuracea H. Magn. (Wetmore 2004a) = Blastenia furfuracea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Squamulea galactophylla
gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = C. cerina
gloriae sensu Aptroot (1996) non Werner & Llimona = Polycauliona verruculifera (Arup 1997)
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Jatta = Flavoplaca granulosa
herbidella (Hue) H. Magn. = Blastenia herbidella, but a misidentification for North America (Wetmore 2004a)
herrei Hasse = C. atrosanguinea
holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A. E. Wade = Athallia holocarpa
ignea Arup = Polycauliona ignea
impolita Arup = Polycauliona impolita
inconspecta Arup = Polycauliona inconspecta
intermedia (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1999)
invadens Lynge (Thomson 1997) = Pachypeltis invadens
irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Squamulea subsoluta
jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr. = Bryoplaca jungermanniae
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = Xanthocarpia lactea
laeta H. Magn. = Polycauliona luteominia var. luteominia
lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey = Rufoplaca arenaria
leucoraea (Ach. ex Flörke) Branth = Bryoplaca sinapisperma
lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Calogaya lobulata
ludificans Arup = Polycauliona ludificans
luteoalba (Turner) Th. Fr. = Cerothallia luteoalba
luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. luteominia = Polycauliona luteominia var. luteominia
luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup = Polycauliona luteominia var. bolanderi
marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup = Flavoplaca marina
marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta  (Knudsen & La Doux 2005) = Xanthocarpia marmorata
microthallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. = Flavoplaca microthallina
modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink = Squamulea subsoluta
murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola
nashii Nav.-Ros., Gaya & Hladun (Kudsen & La Doux 2005) = Polycauliona nashii
obliterans (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = Leproplaca obliterans
oxfordensis Fink = Rufoplaca oxfordensis
parviloba Wetmore (Wetmore 2003) = Squamulea parviloba
paulsenii (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
persimilis Wetmore (Wetmore 2004b) = Gyalolechia persimilis
phlogina (Ach.) Flagey (Richardson et al. 2009, Vondrák et al. 2010) = Polycauliona phlogina
pusilla (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya pusilla
pyracea (Ach.) Zwackh (Arup 2009) = Athallia pyracea
rosei Hasse = Polycauliona rosei
sarcopisioides (Körber) Zahlbr. = C. obscurella
saxifragarum Poelt = Athallia saxifragarum
scopularis (Nyl.) Lettau = Athallia scopularis
scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn. = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Maheu & A. Gillet = Bryoplaca sinapisperma
sorediata (Vainio) Du Rietz = Rusavskia sorediata
splendens (Darb.) Zahlbr. = Rusavskia elegans
squamosa (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Squamulea squamosa
stantonii
W. A. Weber ex Arup = Gyalolechia stantonii
stellata Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998) = Polycauliona stellata
stipitata Wetmore (Wetmore 1999) = Gyalolechia stipitata
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Candelina submexicana
subnigricans H. Magn. = C. atrosanguinea
subolivacea (Th. Fr.) Lynge = Parvoplaca tiroliensis
subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2003) = Squamulea subsoluta
teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
tetraspora (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Bryoplaca tetraspora
texana Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998) = Wetmoreana texana
thallincola (Wedd.) Du Rietz  Not in North America
tiroliensis Zahlbr. = Parvoplaca tiroliensis
tominii (Savicz) Ahlner (Wetmore 2001) = Xanthocarpia tominii
trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Xanthomendoza trachyphylla
variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenodesmia variabilis
velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Variospora velana
verruculifera (Vainio) Zahlbr. = Polycauliona verruculifera
vicaria H. Magn. = C. kamczatica
vitellinula
(Nyl.) H. Olivier = Athallia vitellinula
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr. = Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea

CALOPLACOPSIS (Zahlbr.) B. de Lesd. = CANDELARIELLA
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana

CALVITIMELA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
aglaea
(Sommerf.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea aglaea, L. aglaeida (Hertel & Andreev 2003), L. shushanii,Tephromela aglaea, T. aglaeida
armeniaca (DC.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea armeniaca, Tephromela armeniaca
cuprea Haugan & Timdal (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
melaleuca (Sommerf.) R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2011, Dillman et al. 2012)
perlata (Haugan & Timdal) R. Sant. (Bendiksby et al. 2015)
talayana (Haugan & Timdal) Andreev (Hodkinson et al. 2009)
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea testaceoatra, L. arctogena, Tephromela testaceoatra

CAMPYLOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.
amylosporum (Vainio) R. C. Harris =
Dictyomeridium amylosporum
nitidum Zahlbr. =
Astrothelium megaspermum

CANDELARIA A. Massal.
concolor (Dickson) Stein
fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
pacifica M. Westb. & Arup (Westberg & Arup 2011)
concolor
var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham = C. concolor (Lendemer & Westberg 2010)

CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg.
aggregata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
antennaria Räsänen
arctica (Körber) R. Sant.
aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
biatorina M. Westb. (Westberg 2007c)
blastidiata Yakovchenko (Yakovchenko et al. 2017)
borealis M. Westb. (Westberg 2007b)
californica M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
citrina B. de Lesd.
clarkii E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp & Lendemer 2015)
complanata M. Westb.
(Westberg 2007a)
coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.
corviniscalensis C. A. Morse & M. Westb. (Westberg et al. 2011b)
deppeanae M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
efflorescens
R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck
granuliformis M. Westb.  (Westberg et al. 2011b)
immarginata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
kansuensis H. Magn. (Westberg 2007a)
lutella (Vainio) Räsänen
minuta Reichert & Galun (Weber & Wittman 2000)
placodizans (Nyl.) H. Magn.
rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
subdeflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.
xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau
xanthostigmoides (Müll. Arg.) R. W. Rogers (Lendemer & Westberg 2010)
athallina (Wedd.) Du Rietz  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. (2011b)
cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. = C. aurella
corallizoides M. Westb.
 Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Westberg 2007a)
crenulata (Wahlenb.) Zahlbr. = C. arctica
deflexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. aurella, but N. American reports are mostly C. antennaria (Westberg 2007a)
dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
epixantha auct. = C. aurella
epixantha (Ach.) Sandst. = Candelariella aurella
holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Solenopsora holophaea
hudsonica Hakul. = C. canadensis
kuusamoensis Räsänen var. areolata Hakul.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
luteoalba (Turner) Lettau = Cerothallia luteoalba
medians (Nyl.) Sm. North American reports probably refer to Candelina submexicana
plumbea Poelt & Vězda  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau   = misidentification for North America (Westberg et al. 2007)
stenospora B. de Lesd.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
submexicana B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana
terrigena Räsänen = C. citrina (Westberg 2007a, Westberg 2009)

CANDELINA
Poelt
mexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt Syns.: Caloplacopsis submexicana, Candelariella submexicana, Caloplaca submexicana. North American reports of Candelariella medians (Nyl.) Sm. probably belong here.

CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale = PARMOTREMA  (Blanco et al. 2005)
conferenda (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema conferendum

haitiensis (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema haitiensis
neotropica (Kurok.) Elix = Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Elix = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Elix = Parmotrema subtinctorium

CANOPARMELIA Elix & Hale
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001) Syns: Paraparmelia alabamensis, Parmelia alabamensis, Pseudoparmelia alabamensis
amazonica (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia amazonica, Pseudoparmelia amazonica
caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia caroliniana, Pseudoparmelia caroliniana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia cryptochlorophaea, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia martinicana, Pseudoparmelia martinicana
salacinifera (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia salacinifera, Pseudoparmelia salacinifera
texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia texana, Pseudoparmelia texana
amabilis Heiman & Elix (Heiman & Elix 1999) = Canoparmelia caroliniana (Lendemer & Ruiz 2015)
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale  = Crespoa crozalsiana

CAPRONIA
Sacc.
*thamnoliae Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko 2012)
*peltigerae (Fuckel) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003) = Knufia peltigerae (Réblová et al. 2013)

CARBACANTHOGRAPHIS Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)
candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb  Syn.: Graphis candidata (Staiger 2002)
marcescens (Fée) Staiger & Kalb  Syn.: Graphina marcescens, G. plittii, Graphis marcescens (Staiger 2002)
muriformis E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp et al. 2010)

CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel
*aggregantula (Müll. Arg.) Diederich & Triebel (Goward et al. 1996)
assimilis (Körber) Hafellner & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea assimilis
atronivea (Arnold) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea atronivea
*intrudens (H. Magn.) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)  Syn.: Lecidea intrudens
latypizodes (Nyl.) Knoph & Rambold (Knoph et al. 2004) Syns.:  Lecidea austrocalifornica, L. subplebeia (Knudsen et al. 2008b),  L. subcontinuior, L. amabilis, Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica
*supersparsa (Nyl.)
Hertel (Diederich 2003)
*vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vorticosa
intrusa (Th. Fr.) Rambold & Triebel (Hinds et al. 2002) = Scoliciosporum intrusum

CARBONICOLA Bendiksby & Timdal (Bendiksby & Timdal 2013)
anthracophila (Nyl.) Bendiksby & Timdal Syns.: Biatora anthracophila, Hypocenomyce anthracophila, Lecidea anthracophila, Psora anthracophila
myrmecina (Ach.) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea

CATAPYRENIUM Flotow (Breuss 1996)
cinereum (Pers.) Körber Syn.: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein  Syn.: Dermatocarpon daedaleum
globosum J. W. Thomson
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Endopyrenium crustaceum, E. granulosum, Dermatocarpon granulosum
psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant.
squamellum (Nyl. ex Hasse) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Dermatocarpon squamellum
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides
andicolum Breuss = Placidium andicola
caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss = Placidium chilense
#compactum (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Heteroplacidium compacta
congestum Breuss & McCune = Heteroplacidium congestum
heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. = Placidium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss = Clavascidium lacinulatum
michelii (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Placidium michelii
norvegicum Breuss = Placidium norvegicum
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson (p.p.)
= Verrucaria inficiens (Breuss 1998)
podolepis Breuss = Placidium podolepis
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium rufescens
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant. = Placopyrenium coloradoense for North American reports
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium squamulosum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium arboreum
umbrinum Breuss = Clavascidium umbrinum
waltheri (Kremp.) Körber = Involucropyrenium waltheri
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium stanfordii

CATILLARIA A. Massal.
atomarioides (Müll. Arg.) H. Kilias (Kocourková et al. 2010)
chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.
contristans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Miller et al. 2005)
cupressi Zahlbr.
erysiboides (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Arthonia carneorufa (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavens (Willey) Fink
glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse
lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
*lobariicola (Alstrup) Coppins & Aptroot (Spribillle et al. 2010)
muscicola Lynge
nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler Syn.: Bacidia declinis, Bilimbia declinis, Lecidea declinis
picila (A. Massal.) Coppins (McCune & Rosentreter 2014)
*stereocaulorum (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier (Zhurbenko 2010)
subnegans
(Nyl.) Boistel
subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
terrena (Willey) Zahlbr.

arctica Lynge = Toninia philippea
athallina (Hepp) Hellbom = Toninia athallina
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Catinaria atropurpurea
bahusiensis (Blomb.) Th. Fr. = Tylothallia biformigera
biformigera (Leighton) H. Magn. = Tylothallia biformigera
bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei
columbiana (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Megalaria columbiana
crystallifera R. Kilias = Toninia lutosa
endochroma(Fée) Zahlbr. = Catillochroma endochroma
franciscana (Tuck.) Herre = Lecania franciscana
globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. = Biatora globulosa
graniformis (K. G. Hagen) Vainio = Cliostomum corrugatum
griffithii (Sm.)
Malme = Cliostomum griffithii
groenlandica Lynge = a Lecania sp.
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Körber = Megalaria grossa
*heerii (Hepp) H. Olivier = Scutula heerii
*herrii (Hepp) Fink (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant for C. heerii
jemtlandica Th.
Fr. & Almq. = Megalaria jemtlandica
kansuensis H. Magn. = Toninia philippea
laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Megalaria laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Riddle = Megalaria leptocheila
micrococca (Körber) Th. Fr. = Micarea micrococca (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
philippea (Mont.) A. Massal. = Toninia philippea (Thomson 1997)
prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Micarea prasina
pulverea (Borrer) Lettau = Megalaria pulverea
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant. = Placocarpus schaereri, but a misidentification for N.A. (McCune et al. 2014b)
sculpturata H. Magn. = Toninia sculpturata
sphaeroides (A. Massal.) Schuler = Mycobilimbia pilularis
subnitida Hellbom = Toninia subnitida
subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = a European species
superflua (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = ?Megalaria grossa (Printzen 1995)
tricolor auct. = Cliostomum griffithii
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Arnold = Toninia subnitida

CATILLOCHROMA Kalb (Kalb 2007)
endochromum (Fée) Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.: Catillaria endochroma
albocinctum (Degel.) Kalb = Megalaria albocincta  (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
leptocheilum (Tuck.) Kalb = Megalaria leptocheila  (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)

CATINARIA Vainio
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Vězda & Poelt Syns.: Biatora atropurpurea, Catillaria atropurpurea
brodoana R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck (Lendemer et al. 2016a)
radulae R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck (Lendemer et al. 2016a)
subcorallina (Zahlbr.) Brako Syn.: Phyllopsora subcorallina
albocincta Degel. = Megalaria albocincta
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Vainio = Megalaria grossa
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Degel. = Megalaria laureri
leucoplaca auct. = Megalaria grossa
versicolor (Fée) Sipman = Megalaria versicolor

CATOLECHIA Flotow
wahlenbergii (Ach.)
Körber  Syns.: Buellia wahlenbergii, B. pulchella

CAVERNULARIA Degel. = HYPOGYMNIA (Miądlikowska et al. 2011)
hultenii Degel. = Hypogymnia hultenii
lophyrea (Ach.) Degel. = Hypogymnia lophyrea

CECIDONIA Triebel & Rambold
*umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold  Syn.: Lecidea umbonella
*xenophana (Körber) Triebel & Rambold (Hinds et al. 2002)  Syn.: Lecidea columnata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)

CELIDIUM Tul. = ARTHONIA
*varians Arnold = Arthonia varians (Hawksworth 2003)

CELOTHELIUM A. Massal. (Harris 1995a)
aciculiferum (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)

CEPHALOPHYSIS (Hertel) H. Kilias
leucospila (Anzi) H. Kilias & Scheid. Syn.: Lecidea ultima

CERCIDOSPORA Körber
*caudata Kernst.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*cecidiiformans Grube & Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002, Spribille et al. 2010)
*cladoniicola Alstrup (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
#decolorella (Nyl.) O. E. Erikss. & J. Z. Yue
*epicarphinea (Nyl.) Grube & Hafellner
*epipolytropa (Mudd) Arnold
*exiguella (Nyl.) Arnold (Spribille et al. 2010)
*lobothalliae Nav.-Ros. & Calat.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)

*macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*ochrolechiae Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko 2013)
*punctillata (Nyl.) R. Sant.  (Zhurbenko 2013)
*soror Obermayer & Triebel  (McCune & Ponzetti 2005)
*stereocaulorum (Arnold) Hafellner (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*thamnoliae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*verrucosaria (Lindsay) Arnold  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*xanthoriae (Wedd.) R. Sant. (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)
*ulothii Körber = C. macrospora  (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 2004)

CEROTHALLIA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
luteoalba (Turner) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca luteoalba

CETRADONIA J.-C. Wei & Ahti (Wei & Ahti 2002)
linearis (Evans) J.-C. Wei & Ahti Syn.: Gymnoderma linearis, Cladonia linearis

CETRARIA Ach.
aculeata (Schreber) Fr. Syns.: Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata
arenaria Kärnefelt
ericetorum Opiz subsp. ericetorum
ericetorum subsp. reticulata (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica (L.) Ach. subsp. islandica
islandica subsp. crispiformis (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica subsp. orientalis (Asahina) Kärnefelt
kamczatica Savicz
laevigata Rass.
muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt Syn.: Coelocaulon muricatum
nigricans Nyl.
odontella (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Cornicularia odontella, Coelocaulon odontellum
agnata (Nyl.) Kristinsson = Melanelia agnata
alaskana W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Cetrelia alaskana
andrejevii Oxner = Arctocetraria andrejevii
arborialis (Zahlbr. ) Howard = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
atlantica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Platismatia tuckermanii
aurescens Tuck. = Ahtiana aurescens
californica Tuck. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen = Vulpicida canadensis
chicitae W. L. Culb. = Cetrelia chicitae
chlorophylla (Willd.) Vainio = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
chrysantha Tuck. = Asahinea chrysantha
ciliaris Ach. = Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
ciliaris Ach. var. halei (W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.) Ahti = Tuckermannopsis americana
commixta (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella commixta
coralligera (W. A. Weber) Hale = Tuckermanella coralligera
crispa (Ach.) Nyl. = C. ericetorum subsp. ericetorum
cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. = Flavocetraria cucullata
culbersonii Hale = Melanelia culbersonii
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Nyl. = Cetrariella delisei
elenkinii Krog = Arctocetraria nigricascens
fahlunensis (L.) Schreber = Cetrariella commixta
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Cetrariella fastigiata
fendleri (Nyl.) Tuck. = Tuckermanella fendleri
glauca (L.) Ach. = Platismatia glauca
halei W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Tuckermannopsis americana
hepatizon (Ach.) Vainio = Melanelia hepatizon
herrei Imshaug = Platismatia herrei
hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella delisei
idahoensis Essl. = Esslingeriana idahoensis
inermis (Nyl.) Krog = Masonhalea inermis
juniperina (L.) Ach. = Old North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
juniperina var. jerseyi Gyelnik (Gyelnik 1931) = V. viridis
lacunosa Ach. = Platismatia lacunosa
lacunosa Ach. var. atlantica Tuck. = Platismatia tuckermanii
merrillii Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia merrillii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin = Arctocetraria nigricascens
nivalis (L.) Ach. = Flavocetraria nivalis
norvegica (Lynge) Du Rietz = Platismatia norvegica
oakesiana Tuck. = Usnocetraria oakesiana
orbata (Nyl.) Fink = Tuckermannopsis orbata
pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Gray = Vulpicida pinastri
platyphylla Tuck. = Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
polyschiza (Nyl.) Jatta = Melanelia hepatizon
richardsonii Hooker = Masonhalea richardsonii
scholanderi Llano = Asahinea scholanderi
scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
scutata auct. = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
sibirica H. Magn. = Arctocetraria nigricascens
simmonsii Krog = Arctocetraria andrejevii
stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Platismatia stenophylla
subalpina Imshaug = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
tilesii Ach. = Vulpicida juniperina (Saag et al. 2014)
tristis (Weber ex F. H. Wigg.) Fr. = Cornicularia normoerica (Santesson et al. 2004)
tuckermanii Oakes non Herre = Platismatia tuckermanii
tuckermanii Herre non Oakes = Platismatia herrei
viridis Schwein. = Vulpicida viridis
weberi Essl. = Tuckermanella weberi

CETRARIASTRUM Sipman = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
catawbiense (Degel.)
W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis

CETRARIELLA Kärnefelt & A. Thell
commixta (Nyl.) A. Thell & Kärnefelt (Thell et al. 2009)  Syns.:  Cetraria commixta, C. fahlunensis, Melanelia commixta
delisei
(Schaerer) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria delisei, C. hiascens
fastigiata (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria fastigiata

CETRELIA W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
alaskana (C. F. Culb. & W. L. Culb.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria alaskana
cetrarioides (Duby) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
chicitae (W. L. Culb.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chicitae
monachorum (Zahlbr.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Syns.: Parmelia olivetorum, P. olivaria

CHAENOTHECA Th. Fr.
balsamconensis J. L. Allen & McMullin (Allen & McMullin 2015)
brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe sulphurea
brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Coniocybe gracilescens
cinerea (Pers.) Tibell
erkahomattiorum Selva  (Selva 2013)
ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
floridana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
furfuracea (L.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe furfuracea
gracilenta (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & Middelb.  Syn.:  Cybebe gracilenta (Tibell 2001)
gracillima (Vainio) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe gracillima
hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hygrophila Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
laevigata Nádv.
nitidula Tibell (Tibell & Koffman 2002)
olivaceorufa Vainio (Rikkinen 1998)
phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
servitii Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
sphaerocephala Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
stemonea (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr.
trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
xyloxena Nádv.
carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau = C. chlorella
melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh = C. ferruginea
savonica (Räsänen) Tibell = Chaenothecopsis savonica
schaereri (De Not.) Zahlbr. = C. cinerea
sulphurea (Retz.) Middleborg & J.-E. Mattsson = C. brachypoda
trichialis var. cinerea (Pers.) Blomb. & Forssell = C. cinerea

CHAENOTHECOPSIS Vainio
+aeruginosa Goward & E. B. Peterson (Peterson & Goward 2016)
amurensis Titov  (Selva 2013)
*arthoniae Tibell (Dillman et al. 2012)
+asperopoda Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*australis Tibell (Selva 2014)
*brevipes Tibell
+claydenii Selva & Tuovila (Selva & Tuovila 2016)
*consociata (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt
+debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell
+diabolica Rikkinen & Tuovila (Tuovila et al. 2011, 2012)
*dibbleandersoniarum Selva  (Selva 2013)
+dolichocephala Titov (Selva 2010)
+edbergii Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*epithallina Tibell
+eugenia Titov (Selva & Tuovila 2016)
+exilis Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+fennica (Laurila) Tibell (Selva 2014)
+haematopus Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+irregularis Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*kalbii Tibell & K. Ryman (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
*lecanactidis Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
+marcineae Selva  (Selva 2013)
+montana Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b)
+nana Tibell
*nigra Tibell (Harris & Lendemer 2005, Spribille & Björk 2008)
+nigripunctata Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003a)
+nivea (F. Wilson) Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
+norstictica R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+oregana Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b, Tuovila et al., 2011, 2012)
*ochroleuca (Körber) Tibell & K. Ryman (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*pilosa Tibell & Kalb (Harris 1995a)
#pusilla (Ach.) A.F.W. Schmidt Syns.: Calicium pusillum, C. floerkei, C. subpusillum, C. asikkalense
#pusiola (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Calicium pusiolum, Mycocalicium pusiolum
+rappii (Nádv.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)  Syn.: Mycocalicium rappii
+resinicola Tibell & Titov (Selva 2010)
+rubescens Vainio
*rubina Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+savonica (Räsänen) Tibell Syns.: Mycocalicium savonicum, Chaenotheca savonica
+sitchensis Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
*subparoica (Nyl.) Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+tasmanica Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+tsugae Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
+ussuriensis Titov (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+vainioana (Nádv.) Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
*viridialba (Kremp.) A.F.W. Schmidt
#viridireagens (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt
#lignicola (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt = C. pusiola
#subpusilla (Vainio) Tibell = C. pusilla
+thujae Rikkinen (Selva & Tibell 1999) = C. tsugae (Selva 2010)
+zebrina Rikkinen & Tuovila (Tuovila et al. 2011) = C. oregana (Tuovila et al. 2012)

CHALARA (Corda) P. A. Saccardo
*lobariae Etayo (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)

CHAPSA A. Massal. (Frisch 2006)
alborosella (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Ocellularia alborosella, Thelotrema alborosellum (Frisch 2006)
boninensis (Tat. Matsumoto) Rivas Plata & Mangold (Seavey et al. 2017)
chionostoma (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Mangold  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Graphina leptocarpa, Thelotrema leptocarpum (Frisch 2006)
paralbida (Riddle) Rivas Plata & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2017)
phlyctidioides (Müll. Arg.) Mangold (Seavey et al. 2017)

platycarpa (Tuck.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Thelotrema platycarpoides, T. platycarpum (Frisch 2006)
platycarpoides (Tuck.) Breuss & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subpatens (Hale) Mangold  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

CHEIROMYCINA B. Sutton
flabelliformis B. Sutton (Tønsberg 2002)

CHIODECTON Ach.
malmei Thor
ochroleucum Zahlbr. = Paraschismatomma ochroleucum (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
californicum Tuck. = Schizopelte crustosa (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
inscriptum (Nyl.) Fink = Sclerophyton inscriptum
montagnaei auct. N.A. = Cryptothecia striata
perplexum Nyl. = Syncesia graphica (Tehler 1996)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Nyl. = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
sanguineum (Sw.) Vainio = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
sphaerale Ach.  = misidentification for North America (Harris 1995a)
subochroleucum Fink = Dendrographa franciscana (Kocourková et al. 2010; Ertz & Tehler 2011)

CHIONOSPHAERA Cox
*apobasidialis Cox (According to Diederich [1996, and pers. comm.], only non-lichenicolous specimens are known for North America, and the lichenicolous specimens from Europe may represent a distinct species.)

CHRISMOFULVEA Marbach
dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia dialyta (Marbach 2000)
pinastri (Erichsen) Marbach Syn.: Buellia pinastri (Marbach 2000)
rubifaciens (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia rubifaciens (Marbach 2000)

CHROMATOCHLAMYS Trevisan (Nelsen et al. 2017)
muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt var. muscorum  Syn.: Thelenella muscorum
muscorum var. octospora (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt  Syn.: Thelenella muscorum var. octosporum

CHRYSOPSORA M. Choisy
testacea (Hoffm.) M. Choisy = Protoblastenia testacea, but not in North American flora.

CHRYSOTHRIX Mont.
caesia (Flotow) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Allarthonia caesia, Arthonia caesia, A. lecideella
candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lepraria candelaris, L. flava, L. citrina sens. lat.
chamaecyparicola Lendemer (Lendemer & Elix 2010)
chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: Lepraria chlorina
chrysophthalma (P. James) P. James & J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 2002)
granulosa
G. Thor  (Tønsberg 2004a)
insulizans R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
onokoensis (Wolle) R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
susquehannensis Lendemer & Elix (Lendemer & Elix 2010)
xanthina (Vainio) Kalb (Harris & Ladd 2008)
flavovirens Tønsberg (Harris & Lendemer 2005) North American report is C. chamaecyparicola

CIPOSIA Marbach
wheeleri (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia wheeleri (Marbach 2000)

CIRCINARIA Link (Nordin et al. 2010)
arida Owe-Larsson, A. Nordin & Tibell (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)  Syns.: Aspicilia desertorum, Lecanora desertorum (American reports only)
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia caesiocinerea, Lecanora caesiocinerea
calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia calcarea, Lecanora calcarea
contorta (Hoffm.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia contorta, Lecanora contorta
elmorei (E. D. Rudolph) Owe-Larsson, A. Nordin & M. Sohrabi (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)  Syn.: Lecanora elmorei
gibbosa (Ach.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia gibbosa, Lecanora gibbosa, L. gibbosula
hispida (Mereschk.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Agrestia hispida, A. cyphellata, Aspicilia hispida
leprosescens (Sandst.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syn.: Aspicilia leprosescens
rogeri (Sohrabi) Sohrabi (Sohrabi et al. 2013b)  Syn.: Aspicilia rogeri

CLADIDIUM Hafellner
bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan Syns: Lecanora thamnitis, L. bolanderi
thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner = C. bolanderi

CLADINA Nyl. = CLADONIA (Ahti & DePriest 2001)
aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia stellaris
alpestris (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia stellaris
arbuscula (Wallr.)
Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
beringiana (Ahti) Trass = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
ciliata (Stirton) Trass var. ciliata = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M. J. Lai = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
conspicua Ahti = Cladonia conspicua
evansii (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb.
= Cladonia evansii
impexa B. de Lesd. = Cladonia portentosa
leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
mitis (Sandst.) Mong. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis
pacifica (Ahti) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa (Dufour) Follmann = Cladonia portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
pseudoëvansii (Asahina) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia pseudoëvansii
rangiferina (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia rangiferina
sandstedei (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia sandstedei
stellaris (Opiz) Brodo = Cladonia stellaris
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia stellaris
stygia (Fr.) Ahti = Cladonia stygia
submitis (A. Evans) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia submitis
subtenuis (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia subtenuis f. cinerea
tenuis (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
terrae-novae (Ahti) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia terrae-novae

CLADONIA P. Browne
abbreviatula G. Merr.
acuminans R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
acuminata (Ach.) Norrlin
alaskana A. Evans
albonigra Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
alinii Trass (Ahti 1980)
amaurocraea (Flörke) Schaerer
andereggii S. Hammer
anitae W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
apodocarpa Robbins
appalachensis Yoshim. & Sharp ex Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2013b)
arbuscula (Wallr.) Flotow subsp. arbuscula  Syn.: Cladina arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana Ahti  Syn.: Cladina arbuscula subsp. beringiana
arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.)
Ruoss  Syn.: Cladina mitis (Piercey-Normore 2010)
artuata S. Hammer
asahinae J. W. Thomson
atlantica A. Evans
bacilliformis (Nyl.) Sarnth.
beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio
bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaerer
borealis S. Stenroos
boryi Tuck.
botryocarpa G. Merr.
botrytes (K. G. Hagen) Willd.
brevis (Sandst.) Sandst.
buckii R. C. Harris
caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke
cariosa (Ach.) Sprengel
carneola (Fr.) Fr.
caroliniana Tuck.  Syn.: Pycnothelia cladinoides
cenotea (Ach.) Schaerer
cervicornis (Ach.) Flotow subsp. cervicornis
chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel
ciliata Stirton Syn.: Cladina ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti Syn.: Cladina ciliata var. tenuis
cinerella Ahti (Ahti  2000, Seavey 2010[2011])
coccifera (L.) Willd.
concinna Ahti & Goward (Ahti 2007)
coniocraea (Flörke) Sprengel
conista (Nyl.) Robbins (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012)
conspicua (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina conspicua
cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. cornuta
cornuta subsp. groenlandica (E. Dahl) Ahti
crispata (Ach.)
Flotow var. crispata
crispata var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vainio
cristatella Tuck.
cryptochlorophaea Asahina
cyanipes (Sommerf.) Nyl.
cylindrica (A. Evans) A. Evans
dactylota Tuck.
dahliana Kristinsson
decorticata (Flörke) Sprengel
deformis (L.) Hoffm.
didyma (Fée) Vainio
didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vainio
digitata (L.) Hoffm.
dimorpha S. Hammer
dimorphoclada Robbins
ecmocyna Leighton subsp. ecmocyna
ecmocyna subsp. intermedia (Robbins) Ahti
ecmocyna subsp. occidentalis Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
evansii Abbayes Syn.: Cladina evansii
extracorticata S. Hammer
farinacea (Vainio) A. Evans
fimbriata (L.) Fr.
firma (Nyl.) Nyl.
floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
floridana Vainio
furcata (Hudson) Schrader
glauca Flörke
gracilis (L.) Willd. subsp. gracilis
gracilis subsp. elongata (Jacq.) Vainio
gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti
gracilis subsp. vulnerata Ahti
granulans Vainio
grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst.
homosekikaica Nuno
humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon
hypoxantha Tuck.
imbricarica Kristinsson
incrassata Flörke
jakutica Ahti (McCune et al. 2009)
jaliscana Ahti & Guzm.-Dáv. (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
kanewskii Oxner
labradorica Ahti & Brodo
lacryma S. Hammer (Hammer 2001)
leporina Fr.
libifera Savicz  (McCune et al. 2009; Hansen & Ahti 2011)
luteoalba Wheldon & A. Wilson
macilenta Hoffm.
macilenta var. bacillaris (Ach.) Schaerer
macroceras (Delise) Ahti
macrophylla (Schaerer) Stenh.
macrophyllodes Nyl.
magyarica Vainio
maritima K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a)
mateocyatha Robbins
maxima (Asahina) Ahti
merochlorophaea Asahina
monomorpha Aptroot, Sipman & van Herk (Kowalewska et al. 2008)
multiformis G. Merr.
nana Vainio
nashii Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
nipponica Asahina
nitens Ahti (Ahti 2007)
norvegica Tønsberg & Holien
novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
ochrochlora Flörke
oricola Ahti & S. Stenroos (Ahti & Stenroos 2008)
pachycladodes Vainio
parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.
perforata A. Evans
perlomera Kristinsson
petrophila R. C. Harris
peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon
phyllophora Hoffm.
piedmontensis G. Merr.
pleurota (Flörke) Schaerer
pocillum (Ach.) O. J. Rich.
poroscypha S. Hammer
portentosa (Dufour) Coem. Syn.: Cladina portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer
prostrata A. Evans
pseudalcicornis Asahina (Ahti 2007)
pseudoëvansii Asahina  Syn.: Cladina pseudoëvansii
pulvinella S. Hammer
pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laundon
rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Cladina rangiferina
rappii A. Evans
ravenelii Tuck.
rei Schaerer  (Syrek & Kukwa 2008, Dolnik et al. 2010, Pino-Bodas et al. 2010)
robbinsii A. Evans
sandstedei Abbayes Syn.: Cladina sandstedei
santensis Tuck.
scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
scotteri Ahti & E. S. Hansen (Hansen & Ahti 2011)
simulata Robbins
singularis S. Hammer
squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm.
squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Vainio
stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda Syn.: Cladina stellaris
stipitata Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2009)
straminea
(Sommerf.) Flörke (Timdal & Tønsberg 2012)
strepsilis
(Ach.)
Grognot
stricta (Nyl.) Nyl.
stygia (Fr.) Ruoss Syn.: Cladina stygia
subcariosa Nyl. (Ahti 2000)
subfimbriata Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
subfurcata (Nyl.) Arnold
submitis A. Evans Syn.: Cladina submitis
subradiata (Vainio) Sandst.
subsetacea Robbins ex A. Evans
subsquamosa Kremp.
subtenuis (Abbayes) Mattick Syn.: Cladina subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea Ahti Syn.: Cladina subtenuis f. cinerea
subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg.
sulphurina (Michaux) Fr.
symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr. (Ahti 2000, Hansen & Ahti 2011)
terrae-novae Ahti Syn.: Cladina terrae-novae
thiersii S. Hammer
thomsonii Ahti
transcendens (Vainio) Vainio
trassii Ahti (Ahti 1998)
turgida Ehrh. ex Hoffm.
uliginosa (Ahti) Ahti (Ahti 1998)
umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti
uncialis (L.) F. H. Wigg. subsp. uncialis (Stenroos et al. 2015)
uncialis subsp. biuncialis (Hoffm.) M. Choisy (Stenroos et al. 2015)
verruculosa (Vainio) Ahti
verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaerer (Ahti, in litt.)
wainioi Savicz
aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb.
= Cladonia stellaris
acuminata var. norrlinii (Vainio) Lynge = C. acuminata
alpestris (L.) Rabenh. = C. stellaris
alpestris f. aberrans Abbayes = C. stellaris
alpicola (Flotow) Vainio = C. macrophylla
anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James = C. ramulosa
bacillaris (Ach.) Genth = C. macilenta var. bacillaris
balfourii auct. = C. subradiata
balfourii Crombie = C. macilenta
blakei Robbins = C. coccifera
borbonica (Delise) Nyl.  North American reports are C. cylindrica (Evans 1950)
botryoides (Tuck.) Vainio = C. squamosa (Ahti et al. 2016)
calycantha Delise ex Nyl. = C. rappii for North American records.
capitata (Michaux) Sprengel = C. peziziformis
carassensis Vainio = misidentification for North America
cerasphora Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. stricta (Ahti 1998)
cerasphora auct. = C. trassii (Ahti, in litt.)
cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti = Cladonia verticillata (Ahti, in litt.)
cetrarioides Schwein. ex Tuck. (Fink 1935) = C. leporina (Lendemer & Hewitt 2002)
cladinoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Cladonia caroliniana
clavulifera Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
conistea auct. = C. humilis
conoidea Ahti = C. humilis
cornucopioides auct. (Mohr 1901) = C. coccifera
cornutoradiata (Leighton) Sandst. = C. subulata
corymbosula Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Apparent misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
crinita Bertol. = C. evansii (Ahti et al. 2016)
cyathomorpha «(Evans) Evans» (Qian & Klinka 1998) = misidentification for North America
degenerans (Flörke) Sprengel = C. phyllophora
delessertii Vainio = C. subfurcata
delicata auct.
= C. parasitica
diversa Asperges (Lendemer 2006) = misidentification for North America (Ahti, in litt.)

elongata auct. non (Jacq.) Hoffm. = misidentification for North America, possibly C. macroceras or C. maxima,
elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. = C. gracilis var. elongata
endoxantha Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. hypoxantha (Thomson 1967)
exasperatula G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = C. beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio (Thomson 1967)
flabelliformis Vainio = C. polydactyla
flavescens Vainio = misidentification for North America
foliacea (Hudson) Willd. = misidentification for North America
furcata subsp. subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata (Ahti, in litt.)
gonecha (Ach.) Asahina = C. sulphurina
gracilescens auct. = C. stricta
graciliformis Zahlbr.  North American reports are errors, mostly representing C. bellidiflora (Dillman et al. 2012)
gracilis subsp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti = C. gracilis subsp. elongata
hammeri Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002) = C. pulvinella (Pino-Bodas et al. 2013)
herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick = C. furcata
heteromorpha G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = Pycnothelia papillaria (Laundon 1986)
hookeri Tuck. = C. bellidiflora
hookeri sensu J. W. Thomson = C. graciliformis
humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer = C. conista
innominata Lendemer (Lendemer 2008) = C. conista (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012)
invisa Robbins = C. ochrochlora
japonica Vainio = C. crispata
lepidota auct. = C. trassii (Ahti, in litt.)
leptothallina G. Merr. = C. peziziformis
linearis A. Evans = Cetradonia linearis
macroptera Räsänen = C. scabriuscula (fide T. Ahti)
major (K. G. Hagen) Sandst. = C. fimbriata
merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea Sipman = C. novochlorophaea
metacorallifera Asahina = C. straminea (Timdal & Tønsberg 2012)
microphylliza G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = C. beaumontii (Thomson 1967)
mitis Sandst. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis
mitrula Tuck. = C. peziziformis
nanodes Robbins ex Sandst. = nom. invalid., identity uncertain
nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold = C. rei
norrlinii Vainio = C. acuminata var. acuminata
palamaea (Ach.) Fink (Fink 1935) = C. furcata (Thomson 1967)
paludicola (Tuck.) G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = incrassata (Thomson 1967)
papillaria (Ehrh.) Hoffm. = Pycnothelia papillaria
pityrea (Flörke) Fr.
= C. ramulosa
polycarpia G. Merr. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polycarpoides Nyl. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polydactyla (Flörke) Sprengel = misidentification for North America, mostly refers to C. umbricola (fide T. Ahti)
pseudodigitata Gyelnik = C. coccifera
pseudohondoensis Asahina = misidentification for North America
pseudomacilenta Asahina = misidentification for North America
pseudorangiformis Asahina = C. wainioi
pseudostellata Asahina (Spribille et al. 2010) = C. uncialis subsp. uncialis (Stenroos et al. 2015)
psoromica J. P. Dey = C. dimorphoclada Robbins (Ahti 2000)
pulchella Schwein. (Mohr 1901) = C. didyma
pycnoclada (Gaudich.) Nyl.  = misidentification for North America (Ahti 1961)
rangiformis Hoffm. = not in North America
rappii var. exilior (Abbayes) Ahti = C. rappii var. rappii
reticulata (Russell) Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. boryi (Thomson 1967)
schofieldii Ahti & Brodo (Brodo & Ahti 1996) = C. pseudalcicornis
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) ined. = C. stellaris (Ahti, in litt.)
stenophyllodes Vainio (Fink 1935)  = misidentification for North America
stricta var. uliginosa Ahti = C. uliginosa
subapodocarpa Harris, nomen nudum (Hale 1979) = Cladonia petrophila
subcervicornis (Vainio) Kernst.
= misidentification for North America
subclavulifera Asahina = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
subrangiformis auct.
N. Am. = C. furcata
subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Crombie nom. illeg.
= C. squamosa var. subsquamosa
subsubulata Nyl. = misidentification for North America
sylvatica nom. utique rej. s. auct. = C arbuscula subsp. arbuscula (Ahti, in litt.)
theiophila Asahina = C. vulcani, but not present in North America
vulcani Savicz = misidentification for North America
vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi = C. didyma var. vulcanica
yunnana (Vainio) Abbayes ex J. C. Wei & Y. M. Jiang = misidentification for North America

CLADOPHIALOPHORA Borelli (Diederich et al. 2013)
*megalosporae Diederich (Diederich et al. 2013)
*parmeliae Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d) Syn.: Sclerococcum parmeliae

CLATHROPORINA Müll. Arg.
isidiifera R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
subpungens (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
tetracerae (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+amygdalina sensu Fink = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a).
confinis Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)
diphloea Zahlbr. =
Astrothelium megaspermum
+exiguella Zahlbr. = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a)
nuculastrum Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)

CLAUROUXIA D. Hawksw.
chalybeioides (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. (Fyday 2010)

CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellem.
chondrodes (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux (Lendemer et al. 2013)
immersa (Hoffm.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syn.: Lecidea calcivora
metzleri (Körber) Clauzade & Cl. Roux ex D. Hawksw. (Hansen 2003)
monticola (Ach.) Hafellner & Bellem.  Syns.: Lecidea monticola, L. fuscorubens, Protoblastenia monticola

CLAUZADEANA Cl. Roux
macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold (Hertel 1991) Syn.: Lecanora morioides

CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
lacinulatum (Ach.) M. Prieto var. lacinulatum (Prieto et al. 2012) Syns.: Catapyrenium lacinulatum, Placidium lacinulatum
lacinulatum var. atrans (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012)
lacinulatum var. erythrostrum (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012)
umbrinum
(Breuss) Breuss  Syn.: Placidium umbrinum (Prieto et al. 2012)

CLIOSTOMUM Fr.
corrugatum (Ach.: Fr.) Fr. Syn.: Catillaria graniformis
flavidulum Hafellner & Kalb (Tønsberg 1997)
griffithii (Sm.) Coppins Syns.: Catillaria griffithii, C. tricolor auct.
leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg
spribillei Goward & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Goward 2016)
tenerum (Nyl.) Coppins & S. Ekman (Ekman 1997)  Syns.: Lecania tenera, Lecanora tenera
vitellinum Gowan
graniforme (K. G. Hagen) Coppins = C. corrugatum
luteolum Gowan = C. leprosum
pallens (Kullhem) S. Ekman = Biatora pallens

CLYPEOCOCCUM D. Hawksw.
*bisporum Zhurb.
(Zhurbenko 2009b)
*grossum (Körber) D. Hawksw.
*hypocenomycis D. Hawksw.
*epicrassum (H. Olivier) Hafellner & Nav..-Ros.  According to Hawkworth (1986), our records probably based on Polycoccum squamarioides

COCCOCARPIA Pers.
domingensis Vainio
erythroxyli (Sprengel) Swinscow & Krog
filiformis Arv.  (Kaminsky et al. 2013)
palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D. J. Galloway
pellita (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Kaminsky et al. 2013)  Syn.: Pannaria molybdaea
prostrata Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Lücking et al. 2007)
stellata Tuck. Syns.: Pannaria stellata, Parmeliella stellata
asterella (Nyl.)
Vainio = C. stellata
cronia (Tuck.) Vainio = C. palmicola
incisa Pers. = C. erythroxyli
molybdaea Pers. = C. pellita
parmelioides (Hooker) Tuck. ex M. A. Curtis = C. erythroxyli

COCCOTREMA
Müll. Arg.
hahriae T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Spribille et al. 2010)
maritimum Brodo
minutum (Degel.) R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)
pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo Syns.: Ochrolechia pacifica, Perforaria minuta

COELOCAULON Link
aculeatum (Schreber) Link = Cetraria aculeata
divergens (Ach.) R. Howe = Bryocaulon divergens
muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon = Cetraria muricata
odontellum (Ach.) R. Howe = Cetraria odontella

COENOGONIUM Ehrenb.
congensis C. W. Dodge  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
disjunctum Nyl.
geralense (P. Henn) Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
implexum Nyl.
interplexum Nyl.
interpositum Nyl.
isidiatum (G. Thor & Vězda) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman
(Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
isidiiferum (
Lücking) Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
isidiigerum (Vězda & Osorio) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
isidiosum (Breuss) Rivas Plata, Lücking, Umaña & Chavez (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
linkii
Ehrenb.
luteocitrinum Rivas Plata, Lücking & Umaña  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lutescens (Vězda & Malcolm) Malcolm (Seavey et al. 2014)
luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking  Syn.: Dimerella lutea (Lücking & Kalb 2000), Gyalecta lutea, Microphiale lutea
maritimum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
missouriense J. Davis
moniliforme Tuck.
nepalense (G. Thor & Vězda) Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
pineti (Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch (Lücking, Stuart & Lumbsch 2004)  Syns. Dimerella pineti, D. diluta, Microphiale diluta
pusillum (Mont.) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey et al. 2014)
pyrophthalmum (Mont.) Lücking (Seavey et al. 2017)
roumeguerianum (Müll. Arg.) Kalb (Seavey et al. 2014)
stenosporum (Malme) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey et al. 2014)
subdentatum (Vězda & G. Thor) Rivas Plata, Lücking, Umaña & Chavez  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subdilutum (Malme) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
subfallaciosum (Vězda & Farkas) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

COLLEMA F. H. Wigg.
coniophilum Goward (Spribille et al. 2009)
curtisporum Degel.
flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Synechoblastus rupestris
furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz
furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel.
glebulentum (Nyl. ex Crombie) Degel.
leptaleum Tuck.  Syns.:  Synechoblastus leptaleus, S. microptychius
nigrescens (Hudson) DC.  Syn.:  Synechoblastus nigrescens
pulchellum Ach.  Syn.: Leptogium pulchellum
pulchellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel.
pulchellum var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel.
pustulatum Ach.
ryssoleum (Tuck.) A. Schneider  Syn.:  Synechoblastus ryssoleus
subflaccidum Degel.
subnigrescens Degel.
subparvum Degel.
texanum Tuck. Syns.: Synechoblastus texanus, S. laciniatus
thamnodes Riddle
apalachense Tuck. = Scytinium apalachense (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
arcticum Lynge = Rostania ceranisca
aggregatum (Ach.) Röhl = Gabura fasciculare
auriculatum Hoffm. = Lathagrium auriforme
auriforme (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon = Lathagrium auriforme (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. = Enchylium bachmanianum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
bermudanum Tuck. ex Riddle = C. pustulatum (Degelius 1974)
bermudiana Tuck. ex Riddle (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant of C. bermudanum
callibotrys Tuck. = Rostania callibotrys (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
callopismum A. Massal. = Scytinium callopismum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
callopismum var. rhyparodes (Nyl.) Degel. = Scytinium callopismum
ceraniscum Nyl. = Rostania ceranisca (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
cheileum (Ach.) Ach. = Blennothallia crispa
coccophorum Tuck. = Enchylium coccophorum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
conglomeratum Hoffm. = Enchylium conglomeratum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
conglomeratum var. corynesporum (Malme) Degel. = Enchylium conglomeratum
conglomeratum var. crassiusculum (Malme) Degel. = Enchylium conglomeratum 
crispum (Hudson) Weber ex F. H. Wigg. = Blennothallia crispa (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
cristatellum Tuck. = Enchylium tenax
cristatum (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg. = Lathagrium cristatum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
cristatum var. marginale (Hudson) Degel. = Lathagrium cristatum
cyrtaspis Tuck. = Enchylium conglomeratum
dichotomum (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon =Lathagrium dichotomum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
dubium B. de Lesd. = Enchylium coccophorum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. = Gabura fasciculare (Jørgensen 2014)
fayettense Fink = C. pustulatum
fecundum Degel. = Blennothallia fecunda (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
fluviatile (Hudson) Steudel = Lathagrium. dichotomum
fragrans (Sm.) Ach. = Scytinium fragrans (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
furvum (Ach.) Ach. = Lathagrium fuscovirens (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laundon = Lathagrium fuscovirens (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
glaucescens Hoffm. = Enchylium limosum
granosum auct. = C. auriforme
kauaiense H. Magn. = Scytinium kauaiense (Otálora et al. 2014)
laciniatum Nyl. = C. texanum
leucocarpum Hooker & Taylor = misidentification for North America
leucopeplum (Tuck.) A. Schneider = C. pulchellum var. leucopeplum
limosum (Ach.) Ach. = Enchylium limosum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
microphyllum Ach.
= Scytinium fragrans
microptychium Tuck. = C. leptaleum
multipartitum Sm. = Callome multipartita (Otálora et al. 2014)
myriococcum (Ach.) Ach. = Lempholemma polyanthes
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Enchylium coccophorum
nylanderianum Zahlbr. = C. texanum
occultatum Bagl. = Rostania occultata (Otálora et al. 2014)
ohioense (Fink) Zahlbr. = Enchylium conglomeratum
plicatile (Ach.) Ach. = Scytinium plicatile
(Otálora et al. 2014)
polycarpon Hoffm. = Enchylium polycarpon (Otálora et al. 2014)
pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. = Enchylium tenax
pycnocarpum Nyl. = Enchylium conglomeratum

quadrifidum D. F. Stone & McCune (Stone & McCune 2010) = Rostania quadrifida (McCune et al. 2014b)

rugosum Kremp.  Not known from North America.
stenophyllum Nyl. = Lathagrium dichotomum
subfurfuraceum Degel. = C. furfuraceum var. luzonense
subfurvum sensu Degelius = C. subflaccidum Degel.
subfurvum (Müll. Arg.)
Degel. = C. rugosum, but this taxon is not known from North America.
tenax (Sw.) Ach. = Enchylium tenax (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tenax var. crustaceum (Kremp.) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tenax var. expansum Degel. = Enchylium expansum (
Jørgensen & Goward 2014b)
tenax var. substellatum (H. Magn.) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. = Lathagrium fuscovirens
undulatum Laurer ex Flotow = Lathagrium undulatum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
undulatum var. granulosum Degel. = Lathagrium undulatum
verruciforme auct. = excluded as doubtful

COLLEMODES Fink = COLLEMA
bachmanianum Fink = Enchylium bachmanianum

COLLEMOPSIDIUM Nyl.
angermannicum (Degel.) A. Nordin Syn.: Pyrenocollema strontianense (Nordin 2002)
bryospilum (Nyl.)
Coppins Syn.: Arthopyrenia bryospilum (Fryday 2004a)
elegans (R. Sant.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Pyrenocollema elegans
foveolatum (A. L. Sm.) F. Mohr (Dillman et al. 2012)
halodytes (Nyl.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syns.: Arthopyrenia halodytes, Pyrenocollema halodytes
sublitorale (Leighton) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syns.: Arthopyrenia sublitoralis, A. litoralis auct., Pyrenocollema sublitorale

COLLEMOPSIS Nyl. ex Crombie
segregata Nyl. ex Hasse = Lempholemma chalazanum

COMBEA De Not.
californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer = Schizopelte californica

CONIAMBIGUA Etayo & Diederich
*phaeographidis Etayo & Diederich (Diederich 2003)

CONIARTHONIA Grube
gregarina (Willey) Grube (Grube 2001) Syns: Arthonia gregarina, Arthothelium gregarinum
pyrrhula (Nyl.) Grube (Grube 2001) Syn.: Arthonia pyrrhula

CONIOCYBE Ach.
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Chaenotheca furfuracea
gracilescens Willey = Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Selva 2004)
gracillima Vainio = Chaenotheca gracillima
nivea (Hoffm.)
Arnold non Tuck. & Mont. = Sclerophora nivea
pallida (Pers.) Fr. = Sclerophora nivea
sulphurea (Retz.) Nyl. = Chaenotheca brachypoda

CONIOCYBOPSIS Vainio
arenaria (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Vainio = Microcalicium arenarium

CONOTREMA Tuck.
albonigrum Zahlbr.
= Trinathotrema stictideum
urceolatum (Ach.) Tuck. = Stictis urceolatum

CONSTRICTOLUMINA Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot
cinchonae (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syns: Arthopyrenia cinchonae, Pyrenula cinchonae (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
leucostoma (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia confluens (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
lyrata (R. C. Harris) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia lyrata (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
majuscula (Nyl.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia majuscula (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
malaccitula (Nyl.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Apttroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia malaccitula (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
planorbis (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia planorbis (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

CORA Fr. (Lawrey et al. 2009)
glabrata (Sprengel) Fr.  Syn.: Dictyonema glabratum
pavonia (Sw.) Fr. = Cora glabrata, for North American reports

CORISCIUM Vainio = LICHENOMPHALIA
viride (Ach.) Vainio = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana

CORNICULARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
normoerica (Gunn.)
Du Rietz
aculeata (Schreber) Ach. = Cetraria aculeata
californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia californica
divergens Ach. = Bryocaulon divergens
fibrillosa (Ach.) Halsey = Bryoria furcellata
muricata (Ach.) Ach. = Cetraria muricata
odontella (Ach.) Westend. = Cetraria odontella
pseudosatoana Asahina = Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum

CORNUTISPORA Piroz.
*ciliata Kalb (Cole & Hawksw. 2001)
*intermedia Punith & D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*lichenicola D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (Kalb et al. 1995)
*pyramidalis Etayo (McMullin et al. 2017)

CORTICIFRAGA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*chugachiana Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*fuckelii (Rehm) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. Syn.: Phragmonaevia fuckelii
*peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii Zhurb. & Zavarzin (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*scrobiculatae Pérez-Ortega (Spribille et al. 2010)

CORYNESPORA Güssow
laevistipitata (M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.) Heuchert & U. Braun  Syn.: Taeniolella laevistipitata (Heuchert & Braun 2006)

CRATIRIA Marbach (Marbach 2000)

americana (Fée) Kalb & Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia modesta

lauricassiae (Fée) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia lauricassiae
melanochlora (Kremp.) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia melanochlora

CRESPOA (D. Hawksw.) Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2012)
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson  2012) Syns.: Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Parmelia crozalsiana, Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana

CRESPONEA
Egea & Torrente
chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis chloroconia
flava (Vainio) Egea & Torrente (Harris 1995a)
leprieurii (Mont.) Egea & Torrente
premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis premnea
premnea var. saxicola (Leighton) Egea & Torrente
proximata (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente

CROCODIA Link (Galloway & Elix 2013)
aurata (Ach.) Link  Syns.: Pseudocyphellaria aurata, Sticta aurata

CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
gossypina (Sw.) A. Massal.
pyxinoides Nyl.
aliciae Hue = Lepraria finkii (fide J. Lendemer)
alpina B. de Lesd. = Leparia neglecta
americana B. de Lesd. = Lepraria finkii (fide J. Lendemer)
finkii B. de Lesd. = Lepraria finkii
membranacea (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Lepraria membranacea
moxleyi Plitt = non-lichenized Septobasidium sp.
neglecta (Nyl.) Hue = Lepraria neglecta

CRYPTODISCUS Corda
*cladoniicola (D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.) Pino-Botas, Zhurb. & S. Stenroos  Syn.: Lettauia cladoniicola (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)
*epicladonia Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)
*galaninae Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)

gloeocapsa (Nitschke ex Arnold) Baloch, Gilenstam & Wedin  Syn.: Bryophagus gloeocapsa (Baloch et al. 2009)

CRYPTOLECHIA A. Massal.
carneolutea (Turner) A. Massal. Syns.: Gyalectina carneolutea, Gyalecta carneolutea
nana (Tuck.) D. Hawksw. & Dibben  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

CRYPTOTHECIA Stirton
calusarum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
effusa (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
evergladensis
Seavey (Seavey 2009)
fuscopunctata
F. Seavey & J. Seavey (
Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
miniata
Vainio ex Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
punctosorediata Sparrius  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
randallii F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
striata
G. Thor  Syn.: Chiodecton montagnei sensu auct. N.A. (Thor 1991)
submacrocephala F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
rubrocincta (Ehrenb. : Fr.) G. Thor = Herpothallon rubrocinctum

CRYPTOTHELE
Th. Fr.
granuliforme (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Pyrenopsidium granuliforme, Pyrenopsis granuliformis
permiscens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Pyrenopsis phylliscina

CULBERSONIA Essl. (Esslinger 2000a)
nubila (Moberg) Essl. (Esslinger 2002b)
americana Essl. = C. nubila

CYANISTICTA Gyelnik
epiflavoides Gyelnik (Gyelnik 1931) =
Pseudocyphellaria epiflavoides

CYBEBE Tibell = CHAENOTHECA (Tibell 2001)
gracilenta (Ach.) Tibell = Chaenotheca gracilenta (Tibell 2001)

CYCLOHYMENIA McCune & M. J. Curtis (McCune et al. 2017)
epilithica McCune & M. J. Curtis

CYPHELIOPSIS Vainio = THELOMMA
bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Thelomma mammosum

CYPHELIUM Ach. = CALICIUM (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
brachysporum Nádv. 
Identity and disposition not indicated by Prieto & Wedin 2017
andersonii Herre = Thelomma californicum
brunneum W. A. Weber = Thelomma brunneum
caliciforme (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Pseudothelomma occidentale for most North American records
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma californicum
carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. =
Calicium carolinianum
chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Acolium chloroconium
farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre = Thelomma californicum
inquinans (Sm.) Trevisan = Acolium inquinans
karelicum (Vainio) Räsänen = Acolium karelicum

lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. = Calicium lucidum
notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forssell = Calicium notarisii
occidentale Herre =
Pseudothelomma occidentale
ocellatum (Körber) Trevisan =
Pseudothelomma ocellatum
pinicola Tibell = Calicium pinicola
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Texosporium sancti-jacobi
*sessile (Pers.) Trevisan = Acolium sessile
tigillare (Ach.) Ach. = Calicium tigillare
tigillare subsp. notarisii (Tul.) W. A. Weber =
Calicum notarisii
trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostrup) Erichsen = Calicium trachylioides

ventricosulum (Müll. Arg.)
Zahlbr. = Acolium inquinans

CYPHOBASIDIUM Millanes, Diederich & Wedin
*hypogymniicola (Diederich & Ahti) Millanes, Diederich & Wedin  Syn.: Cystobasidium hypogymniicola (Millanes et al. 2016)
*usneicola (Diederich & Alstrup) Millanes, Diederich & Wedin  Syn.: Cystobasidium usneicola (Millanes et al. 2016)

CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff
*hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti (Diederich 1996) = Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola (Millanes et al. 2016)
*usneicola Diederich & Alstrup (Diederich 1996) = Cyphobasidium usneicola (Millanes et al. 2016)

CYSTOCOLEUS Thwaites
ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites

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DACAMPIA A. Massal.
*engeliana (Sauter) A. Massal. (Henssen 1995)
hookeri (Borrer) A. Massal.
*lecaniae Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourkova & Knudsen 2010)
*rufescentis (Vouaux) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

DACTYLINA Nyl.
arctica (Hooker f.) Nyl.
beringica C. D. Bird & J. W. Thomson (Treated as subsp. of D. arctica by Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
ramulosa (Hooker f.) Tuck.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DACTYLOSPORA Körber
*aeruginosa Holien & Ihlen (Ihlen et al. 2004a)
*ahtii Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)
*amygdalariae Triebel
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner Syn.: Karschia athallina
*attendenda (Nyl.) Arnold
*borealis Holien & Ihlen  (Ihlen et al. 2004a)
*deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel
*frigida Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)
*glaucomarioides (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia glaucomarioides, Leciographa “glaucomarioidea”
*inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia inquilina, Buelliella inquilina
*lobariella (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Buelliella nuttallii
*lurida Hafellner (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
*parasitica (Flörke ex Sprengel) Zopf Syn.: Leciographa inspersa, Sclerophyton occidentale
*parellaria (Nyl.) Arnold
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia pertusariicola, Leciographa pertusariicola
*pleiosperma Triebel  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*porphyrea Hafellner & Kalb (Etayo & Breuss 1998)
*purpurascens Triebel
*rhyparizae Arnold (Zhurbenko 2013)
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Hafellner var. saxatilis Syn.: Buelliella saxatilis
*suburceolata Coppins & Fryday (McMullin et al. 2017)
*urceolata (Th. Fr.) Arnold Syn.: Leciographa urceolata

DEGELIA Arv. & D. J. Galloway
plumbea (Lightf.)
P. M. Jørg. & P. James = Pectenia plumbea (Ekman et al. 2014)

DENDRISCOCAULON Nyl.
intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen Syns.: Leptogidium intricatulum, Polychidium intricatulum
umhausense (Auersw.) Degel. Syn.: Polychidium umhausense

DENDRISCOSTICTA B. Moncada & Lücking (Moncada et al. 2013)
oroborealis (Goward & Tønsberg) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Sticta oroborealis (Moncada et al. 2013)
wrightii (Tuck.) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Sticta wrightii (Moncada et al. 2013)

DENDRODOCHIUM Bonord
*subeffusum Ellis & Everh.

DENDROGRAPHA Darb.
alectoroides Sundin & Tehler (Sundin & Tehler 1996)
conformis (Tehler) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
leucophaea
(Tuck.) Darb. Syn.: Roccella leucophaea
minor Darb. = D. leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. (Sundin & Tehler 1996)

DERMATINA (Almq.) Zahlbr. = PEZICULA
"pyrenocarpa" (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mycoporum compositum

DERMATISCUM Nyl.
catawbense (Willey) Nyl. = Dermiscellum oulocheila

DERMATOCARPON Eschw.
americanum Vainio  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)
arenosaxi Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
arnoldianum Degel.
atrogranulosum Breuss (Breuss 2003)
bachmannii Anders  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)
dolomiticum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
intestiniforme (Körber) Hasse
leptophyllodes (Nyl.)
Vainio ex Hav. (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004, Heiđmarsson 2017)
linkolae Räsänen (Goward et al. 1996)
lorenzianum Anders
luridum (With.) J. R. Laundon
luridum var. xerophilum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
meiophyllizum Vainio  (Glavich & Geiser 2004)
miniatum (L.) W. Mann  Syn.: Endocarpon miniatum
moulinsii (Mont.)
Zahlbr.
muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Amtoft et al. 2008)
multifolium Amtoft (Amtoft et al.d 2008)
polyphyllizum
(Nyl.)
Blomb. & Forssell  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)
reticulatum H. Magn.
rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
[Entosthelia saxicola B. de Lesd.]
schaechtelinii Werner  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)

taminium Heipmarsson (Heiđmarsson 2003)
tenue (Müll. Arg.) Heiđmarsson  (Heiđmarsson 2003)
tomentulosum Amtoft (Amtoft 2006)
vellereum Zschacke
acarosporoides Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. = D. luridum
arboreum (Schwein.) Fink = Placidium arboreum
cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
#compactum (A. Massal.) Lettau = Heteroplacidium compactum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium daedaleum
fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. = D. luridum
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium granulosum
hepaticum auct. = Placidium squamulosum
hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
heppioides Zahlbr. = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. = Placidium lachneum
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse = Placopyrenium lecideoides
leptophyllum (Ach.) Lång = D. miniatum
lyngei Servít  Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not U. S. or Canada
michelii (A. Massal.) Zwackh = Placidium michelii
miniatum (L.) W. Mann var. complicatum (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = D. miniatum (Heiđmarsson 2003)
novomexicanum ( B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr. = a sterile psoroid lichen; a misidentifcation for North America
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.)
Zahlbr. = Verrucaria inficiens
polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. intestiniforme
rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Placidium rufescens
rupicola (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Verrucaria othmarii (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
squamellum (Nyl.) Herre = Catapyrenium squamellum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.)
Zahlbr. = Placidium arboreum
vagans Imshaug = D. reticulatum H. Magn.
waltheri (Kremp.) Blomb. & Forssell = Involucropyrenidium waltheri
weberi (Ach.) W. Mann = D. luridum
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Placopyrenium stanfordii

DERMISCELLUM Hafellner, H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
oulocheila (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Dermatiscum catawbense, Opegrapha oulocheila (Lendemer 2003)
catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt = D. oulocheila

DESMAZIERIA Mont.
 cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.)
Trevisan = Vermilacinia ceruchis , but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
combeoides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Vermilacinia combeoides
evernioides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina lacera
homalea (Ach.) Mont. = Niebla homalea
peruviana (Ach.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina peruviana
testudinaria (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla homalea

DIBAEIS Clem.
absoluta (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl Syn.: Baeomyces absolutus
baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel Syn.: Baeomyces roseus
fungoides (Sw.) Kalb & Gierl = A tropical species, not in North America
rosea (Pers.) Clem. = D. baeomyces

DICTYOCATENULATA Finley & E. F. Morris
alba Finley & E. F. Morris  (Lendemer & Harris 2004)

DICTYOMERIDIUM Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking
amylosporum (Vainio) Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking  Syns.: Campylothelium amylosporum, Polyblastiopsis dealbens (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
proponens (Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking) Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking  Syn.: Polymeridium proponens
(Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

DICTYONEMA
C. Agardh
moorei (Nyl.) Henssen
phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
sericeum (Sw.) Berk.
glabratum (Sprengel) D. Hawksw. = Cora glabrata
guadalupense (Rabenh.) Zahlbr. = D. sericeum
irpicinum Mont. = misidentification for North America
pavonium (Sw.) Parmasto = Cora glabrata, for North American reports

DIDYMELLOPSIS (P. A. Saccardo) Clem. & Shear
*latitans (Nyl.) Clem. & Shear (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*pulposi (Zopf) Grube & Hafellner (Zhurbenko 2013)

DIDYMOCYRTIS Vainio
*bryonthae (Arnold) Hafellner  Syn.:  Polycoccum bryonthae (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*cladoniicola (Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phoma cladoniicola (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*consimilis Vainio (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*epiphyscia Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phoma physciicola (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*melanelixiae (Brackel) Diederich, Harris & Etayo (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*xanthomendozae (Diederich & Freebury) Diederich & Freebury  Syn.: Phoma xanthomendozae (Ertz et al. 2015a)

DIDYMOSPHAERIA Fuckel
*epicrassa (H. Olivier) Vouaux = Clypeococcum epicrassum, but see note there

DIGITOTHYREA P. P. Moreno & Egea
divergens (Henssen) Moreno & Egea (Sweat et al. 2004)
polyglossa (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2002b)

DIMELAENA Norman
#californica (H. Magn.) Sheard
#lichenicola K. Knudsen, Sheard, Kocourk. & H. Mayrhofer  (Knudsen et al. 2013b)
oreina (Ach.) Norman Syns.: Rinodina oreina, R. hueana, R. novomexicana, R. suboreina
radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. (Matzer et al. 1996) Syns.: Buellia radiata, Rinodina radiata
tenuis (Müll. Arg.) H. Mayrhofer & Wippel (Beeching 2007)
thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb. Syn.: Rinodina thysanota
weberi Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Mobergia angelica
chrysomelaena (Ach.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Rinodina chrysomelaena
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = D. oreina
suboreina (B. de Lesd.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = D. oreina

DIMERELLA Trevisan = COENOGONIUM (Lücking & Kalb 2000)
diluta (Pers.) Trevisan = Coenogonium pineti
lutea (Dickson) Trevisan = Coenogonium luteum
pineti (Ach.) Vězda = Coenogonium pineti

DIMIDIOGRAPHA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
longissima (Müll. Arg.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Graphis, atrorubens, Opegrapha longissima

DINEMASPORIUM Lév.
*strigosum (Fr.) Sacc. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

DIORYGMA Eschw.
antillarum (Vainio) Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Nelsen et al. 2012) Syn.: Herpothallon antillarum
basinigrum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (
Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
junghuhnii (Mont. & Bosch) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Tripp et al. 2010)
microsporum M. Cáceres & Lücking (Lumbsch et al. 2011; Lücking et al. 2011b)
poitaei (Fée) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Kalb et al. 2004) Syn.: Graphina virginea
pruinosum (Ehrh.) Kalb  Syn.: Graphina platyleuca (Tripp et al. 2010)
reniforme (Fée) Kalb, Staiger, & Elix (Tripp et al. 2010)

DIPLOICIA
A. Massal.
canescens (Dickson) A. Massal. Syn.: Buellia canescens

DIPLOLAEVIOPSIS Giralt & D. Hawksw.
*ranula Giralt & D. Hawksw.  (Diederich 2003)

DIPLOSCHISTELLA Vainio

athalloides (Nyl.) Lücking, Knudsen & Fryday (Lücking et al. 2007)  Syn.: Rhizocarpon athalloides

DIPLOSCHISTES Norman
actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Urceolaria actinostoma
aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch
arabiensis Lumbsch
badius Lumbsch & Elix
caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vainio (Lumbsch 2002)
candidissimus (Kremp.) Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch Syn.: Urceolaria albissima
gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hypoleucus Zahlbr.
muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman Syn.: Urceolaria scruposa
albissimus (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. diacapsis
bisporus (Bagl.) J. Steiner = Ingvariella bisporus
bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
canadensis Räsänen = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum
straminescens Zahlbr. = D. hypoleucus

DIPLOTOMMA Flotow
alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flotow Syns.: Buellia alboatra, Rhizocarpon alboatrum
ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey Syn.: Buellia ambigua
chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leighton) Szatala Syns.: Rhizocarpon chlorophaeum, Buellia chlorophaea
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 1995) Syn.: Buellia nivalis
penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala Syns.: Buellia penichra, Rhizocarpon penichrum
venustum (Körber) Körber Syn.: Buellia epipolia, B. venusta, B. lecanoroides, Rhizocarpon cumulatum
epipolium sensu auct. = D. venustum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
epipolium (Ach.) Arnold = D. alboatrum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
*pulverulentum (Anzi) D. Hawksw. (Molina et al. 2002) = Tetramelas pulverulentus

DIRINA Fr.
catalinariae Hasse
massiliensis Durieu & Mont. (Harris & Ladd 2005; reported as f. sorediata)
paradoxa (Fée) Tehler
approximata Zahlbr. subsp. hioramii (B. de Lesd.) Tehler = D. paradoxa
calcicola Sparrius  (Sparrius 2004a) = Fulvophyton calcicola (Tehler et al. 2013)
californica Tuck. = Sigridea californica
franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre = Dendrographa franciscana
hassei Zahlbr. = Sigridea californica
rediunta Hasse = Schismatomma rediunta

DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
aegialita (Afz.) B. J. Moore Syn.: Physcia aspera, P. aegialita
applanata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi
confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi
confusa D. D. Awasthi
confusa var. saxicola (Räsänen) D. D. Awasthi
frostii (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb. Syns.: Physcia frostii, Pyxine frostii
leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi
neotropica Kalb  (Kalb 2004a)
papillulifera (Nyl.) D. D. Awasthi
picta (Sw.) Clem. & Shear Syns.: Physcia picta, Pyxine picta
purpurascens (Vainio) B. J. Moore  Syn.: Physcia purpurascens
aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi = D. aegialita

DISCOTHECIUM Zopf = ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*gemmiferum Vouaux = an uncertain species of Endococcus

DISTOPYRENIS Aptroot
americana Aptroot
pachyospora Aptroot (Harris 1995a)
quercicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

DITREMIS Clem. = ANISOMERIDIUM
albiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium albisedum
ambigua (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium anisolobum
biformis (Borrer) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca (Steiner) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium distans
finkii R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium finkii
leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium aureopunctatum
nyssigena (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori
quaternaria R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium quaternarium
sanfordensis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium subprostans
tamarindii (Fée) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tamarindii
terminata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium terminatum
tuckerae (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tuckerae

DUFOUREA Ach.
madreporiformis (Ach.) Ach. = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DYPLOLABIA A. Massal.
afzelii (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Graphis afzelii (Staiger 2002)

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ECHINODISCUS Etayo & Diederich
*lesdainii (Vouaux) Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková et al. 2010)

ECHINOPLACA
Fée
areolata Lücking & W. R. Buck  (Lücking et al. 2007)
basalis W. B. Sanders & Lücking (Sanders & Lücking 2015)
furcata Sérus. subsp. neotropica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2007)
intercedens Vězda
leucotrichoides (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lucernifera Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)
pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
similis Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)
tetraplaca (Zahlbr.) Lücking  (Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2007)

ECHINOTHECIUM Zopf
*aerophilum Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*reticulatum Zopf = Sphaerellothecium reticulatum

EDRUDIA W. P. Jordan
constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jordan Syn.: Caloplaca constipans, Lecanora constipans

EIGLERA Hafellner
flavida (Hepp) Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora flavida, Aspicilia flavida

ELIXIA Lumbsch
flexella (Ach.) Lumbsch (Spribille & Björk 2008)

ELLISEMBIA Subram.
*lichenicola Heuchert & U. Braun (Heuchert & Braun 2006)


ENCHYLIUM (Ach.) Gray (Otálora et al. 2014)
bachmanianum (Fink) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin Syns.: Collema bachmanianum, Collemodes bachmanianum
coccophorum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema coccophorum, C. dubium, C. novomexicanum, Synechoblastus coccophorus
conglomeratum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema conglomeratum, C. pycnocarpum, Synechoblastus ohioense, S. cyrtaspis, S. pycnocarpus
expansum (Degel.)
P. M. Jørg.  Syn.: Collema tenax var. expansum (Jørgensen & Goward 2015)
limosum (Ach.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema glaucescens, C. limosum
polycarpon (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema polycarpon, Synechoblastus polycarpus, S. wyomingensis
substellatum (H. Magn.) P. M. Jørg.  (
Jørgensen & Goward 2015)
tenax (Sw.) Gray  Syn.: Collema tenax

ENDOCARPON Hedwig
adscendens (Anzi) Müll. Arg.
adsurgens Vainio
lepidallum Nyl.
loscosii Müll. Arg. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidum Ach.
petrolepideum (Nyl.) Nyl.
pseudosubnitescens Breuss  (Knudsen 2005b)
pulvinatum Th. Fr. Syns.: Pyrenothamnia brandegei, P. spraguei
pusillum Hedwig
schisticola B. de Lesd. (Breuss 2002a)
simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
subnitescens Nyl.
tortuosum Herre
arboreum Schwein.  (Mohr 1901) = Placidium arboreum

diffractellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Gueidan et al. 2007) = Willeya diffractella (Gueidan & Lendemer 2015)

drummondii (Tuck.) M. Choisy = Staurothele drummondii
miniatum (L.) Schaerer (Mohr 1901) = Dermatocarpon miniatum
moenium Vainio = Acarospora moenium
monicae Zahlbr. = Staurothele monicae
*ochroleucum Tuck. = Heterocarpon ochroleucum

tenuissimum (Degel.) Lendemer & E. Tripp =Willeya diffractella (Gueidan & Lendemer 2015)

tuckermanii Rav. ex Mont. = Placidium arboreum (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
wilmsoides Zahlbr. = Staurothele drummondii

ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*apiciicola (J. Steiner) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
*incrassatus Etayo & Breuss (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b)
*macrosporus (Arnold) Nyl.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*matzeri D. Hawksw. & Iturr. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*nanellus Ohlert (Diederich 2003)

*oreinae Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*perpusillus Nyl.
*propinquus (Körber) D. Hawksw.

*rugulosus Nyl. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010b)
*stigma (Körber) Stizenb.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*thelommatis Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2011)

*verrucosus Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Ticothecium zahlbrucknerella
*buelliae (C. W. Dodge) Matzer (Matzer et al. 1996) = E. matzeri for North American reports

ENDOHYALINA Marbach
ericina Giralt, van den Boom & Elix var. ericina  (Giralt et al. 2010)
*insularis (Arnold) Giralt, van den Boom & Elix  Syn.: Rinodina insularis (Nadyeina et al. 2010)
rappii (Imshaug ex R. C. Harris) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia rappii (Marbach 2000)

circumpallida (H. Magn.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) =  Buellia circumpallida (Giralt et al. 2010)

ENDOPYRENIUM Flotow
americanum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria americana
bajadanae B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
crustaceum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
granulosum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
plumbeum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria inficiens
rupicola B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria othmarii
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Placidium arboreum

ENTEROGRAPHA Fée
*bagliettoae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
bradleyana F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
caudata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
hutchinsiae (Leighton) A. Massal.  (Sparrius 2004b)
johnsoniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
keylargoensis F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)

murrayana F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
nitidula F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
oregonensis Sparrius & Björk (Sparrius & Björk 2008)
*osagensis C. A. Morse  (Morse 2013)
pallidella (Nyl.) Redinger (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
quassiicola Fée
subserialis (Nyl.) Redinger (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
zonata (Körber) Källsten  Syn.: Opegrapha zonata (Ertz et al. 2009)

anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger (Sparrius 2004b) = Opegrapha anguinella

carnea (Eckfeldt) R. C. Harris = Mazosia ocellata
elegans (Eschw.) Tuck. = Sclerophyton elegans
lecanoroides
R. C. Harris =
Opegrapha anguinella 

ENTEROSTIGMA Müll Arg.
montagnaei (Tuck) Fink (Fink 1935) = Cryptothecia striata (Thor 1991)

ENTOSTHELIA (Wallr.) Hue
saxicola B. de Lesd. = unknown Dermatocarpon sp.

EOPYRENULA R. C. Harris
intermedia Coppins Syn.: Pyrenula leucoplaca var. pluriloculata
parvispora R. C. Harris & Aptroot
leucoplaca (Wallr.)
R. C. Harris = misidentification for North America (fide R. Harris)

EPAPHROCONIDIA Calatayud & V. Atienza
*hawksworthii Calatayud & V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)

EPHEBE Fr.
americana Henssen
hispidula (Ach.) Horw.  Syn.: Ephebeia hispidula
lanata (L.)
Vainio
ocellata Henssen
perspinulosa Nyl.
solida Bornet
mamillosum (Lyngb.) E. Fr.
(Fink 1935)  Possibly Stigonema mamillosum, a cyanobacterium
pubescens (Ach.) Fr. = Pseudephebe pubescens

EPHEBEIA Nyl. = EPHEBE
hispidula (Ach.) Nyl. = Ephebe hispidula

EPICLADONIA D. Hawksw.
*sandstedei (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (Scholz 1998)
*simplex D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*stenospora (Harm) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)

EPICOCCUM Link
*purpurascens Schltdl. (Diederich 2003)

EPIGLOEA Zukal
intermedia Döbbeler (Lendemer & Harris 2004)
medioincrassata (Grummann) Döbbeler (Fryday 2004a)
pleiospora Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)
renitens (Grummann) Döbbeler (Spribille et al. 2010)
soleiformis Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)

EPILICHEN Clem.
#glauconigellus (Nyl.) Hafellner (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. Syn.: Buellia scabrosa
*stellatus Triebel

EPITHAMNOLIA Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*karatyginii Zhurb.

ERINACELLUS T. Sprib., Muggia & Tønsberg (Spribille et al.2014b)
dendroides (Henssen) T. Sprib., Muggia & Tønsberg  Syn.: Spilonema dendroides

ERIODERMA Fée
mollissimum (Samp.) Du Rietz
pedicellatum (Hue) P. M. Jørg.
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.
boreale Ahlner = E. pedicellatum

ERYTHRICIUM J. Erikss. & Hjortstam (Hawksworth & Helcini 2015)
*aurantiacum (Lasch) D. Hawksw. & A. Henrici  Syn.: Marchandiobasidium aurantiacum (Hawksworth & Helcini 2015)

ESCHATOGONIA Trevisan
prolifera (Mont.) R. Sant. (Seavey et al. 2014)

ESSLINGERIANA Hale & M. J. Lai
idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria idahoensis

ETAYOA Diederich & Ertz (Ertz et al. 2014)
*trypethelii (Flakus & Kukwa) Diederich & Ertz

EUGENIELLA Lücking, Sérus. & Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leucocheila (Tuck.) Lücking, Sérus. & Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

EUOPSIS Nyl.
granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syns.: Pyrenopsis granatina, Lecanora granatina, Pannaria granatina
pulvinata (Schaerer) Nyl. Syn.: Pyrenopsis pulvinata

EVERNIA Ach.
divaricata (L.) Ach.
mesomorpha Nyl.
perfragilis Llano
prunastri (L.) Ach.
ceratea (Ach.) Zopf (Fink 1935) = Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, but a misidentification for North America
esorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz = misidentification for North America (Bird 1974)
furfuracea (L.) W. Mann = Pseudevernia consocians and P. intensa for North American records
thamnodes (Flotow) Arnold = E. mesomorpha
vulpina (L.) Ach. = Letharia vulpina

EVERNIASTRUM Hale ex Sipman = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
catawbiense (Degel.) Hale ex Sipman = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis
sorocheilum (Vainio) Hale ex Sipman = Hypotrachyna sorocheila, but reports apparently based on H. catawbiense

EVERNIICOLA D. Hawksw.
*flexispora D. Hawksw.

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FARNOLDIA Hertel
hypocrita (A. Massal.) Fröberg Syns.: Lecidea hypocrita, L. lithospersa, L. ypocrita
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea jurana, L. albosuffusa, Tremolecia jurana, Melanolecia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea rhaetica, Melanolecia micropsis, Tremolecia nivalis, T. micropsis

FAYODIA Kühner
*leucophylla (Gillet) M. T. Lange = Gamundia leucophylla (Bigelow 1983)
*striatula (Kühner) Singer = Gamundia striatula (Raitelhuber 1983)

FELIPES Frisch & G. Thor (Frisch et al. 2014)
leucopellaeus (Ach.) Frisch & G. Thor Syn.: Arthonia leucopellaea

FELLHANERA Vězda
aurantiaca (Vězda) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia aurantiaca
bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda Syn.: Catillaria bouteillei
crucitignorum C. A. Morse & Ladd (Morse & Ladd 2013)
eriniae R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
fallax R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
floridana (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia floridana, Biatora floridana, Bilimbia floridana
granulosa R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
hybrida R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
minnisinkorum R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
montesfumosi R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
rhapidophylli (Rehm)Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
silicis R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
subtilis (Vězda) Diederich & Sérus. (Goward et al. 1996)

FELLHANEROPSIS Sérus. & Coppins
myrtillicola (Erichsen) Sérus. & Coppins (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
vezdae (Coppins & P. James) Sérus. & Coppins (Tønsberg 1997)

FIBRILLITHECIS  A. Frisch  (Frisch 2006)
confusa Lücking, Kalb & Rivas Plata (Rivas Plata et al. 2010)
halei (Tuck. & Mont.) Mangold  Syns.: Myriotrema halei, Thelotrema halei (Lücking et al. 2016)
insignis (Zahlbr.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006) = F. confusa (Rivas Plata et al. 2010)

FISSURINA Fée
aggregatula Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
albolabiata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
alligatorensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
americana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
analphabetica Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cingalina (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
columbina
(Tuck.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina columbina, G. virginalis, Graphis columbina, Phaeographina columbina (Staiger 2002)
confusa Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
crassilabra Mont. & Bosch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina cypressi (Lendemer 2007a)
dumastioides (Fink) Staiger Syn.: Graphina dumastioides, Graphis dumastioides (Staiger 2002)
egena (Nyl.) Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
humilis
(Vainio) Staiger  (Staiger & Kalb 2004)
ilicicola Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
illiterata (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphis illiterata (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
incisura F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
incrustans Fée Syns.: Graphina incrustans, G. glaucoderma, Graphis incrustans (Staiger 2002)
insidiosa C. Knight & Mitten  Syn.: Graphis beaumontii, G. insidiosa (Staiger 2002)
inspersa Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
insculpta
Mont.  Syn.:  Graphina babingtonii (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
leuconephela
Nyl.  Syn. :  Graphina leuconephela (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
mexicana (Zahlbr.) Lücking & Rivas Plata  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
nitidescens
(Nyl.) Nyl. Syns.: Graphina nitidescens, Graphis nitidescens (Staiger 2002)
pseudostromatica Lücking & Rivas Plata  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
radiata Mont.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
rufula
(Mont.) Staiger Syn.:  Graphis rufula (Staiger 2002)
scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Graphina scolecitis, Graphis scolecitis (Lendemer 2007a)  North American records of Graphina adscribens belong here
subcomparimuralis Common & Lücking (Lumbsch et al. 2011; Lücking et al. 2011b)
subnitida
(Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
subnitidula (Nyl.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina subnitidiula, Graphis subnitidula (Staiger 2002)
tachygrapha (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
tuckermaniana Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
varieseptata Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subcontexta (Nyl.) Nyl. = F. rufula  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

FISTULARIELLA Bowler & Rundel
almquistii (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina almquistii
dilacerata (Hoffm.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
geniculata (Hooker f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina geniculata
inflata (Hooker f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina inflata
minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina roesleri
scoparia (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina scoparia

FLAKEA O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)
papillata O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)

FLAVOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & A. Thell
cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria cucullata, Allocetraria cucullata
minuscula (Elenkin & Savicz) Ahti, Poryadina & Zhurb.
(Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria nivalis, Allocetraria nivalis

FLAVOPARMELIA Hale
baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale Syns.: Parmelia baltimorensis, Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia caperata, P. cylisphora, P. flavicans, P. herreana, P. negativa, Pseudoparmelia caperata
rutidota (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rutidota, Pseudoparmelia rutidota, and P. conspersa var. subconspersa and Xanthoparmelia subconspersa for North American records.
subcapitata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hale ex DePriest & B. Hale (Knudsen et al. 2005)  Syn.:  Parmelia subcapitata
[Parmelia concreta Stizenb.] This name was apparently never effectively published; identified as an uncertain species of Flavoparmelia by Hale & DePriest (1999), although an apparent ‘type’ specimen in FH was annotated by Mason Hale as an Aspicilia sp.

FLAVOPLACA
Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
austrocitrina (Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca austrocitrina

citrina (Hoffm.)
Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca citrina
flavocitrina (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca flavocitrina
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca granulosa
marina (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca marina
microthallina (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca microthallina

FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale
darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Hale Syns.: Parmelia darrowi, Punctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Hale Syns.: Parmelia flaventior, P. andreana, P. kernstockii, Punctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesignis, P. incorrupta, P. caperata var. incorrupta, Punctelia praesignis
soredica (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia soredica, P. ulophyllodes, P. manshurica, Punctelia soredica

FORAMINELLA S. F. Meyer = PARMELIOPSIS

FORSSELLIA Zahlbr. = PTERYGIOPSIS
minnesotensis (Fink) Fink = Lichinella minnesotensis
neglecta Erichsen = Pterygiopsis neglecta

FOURAGEA Trevisan  (Frisch et al. 2014)
filicina (Mont.) Trevisan  Syn.: Opegrapha filicina (Frisch et al. 2014)

FRUTIDELLA Kalb (Kalb 1994)
caesioatra (Schaerer) Kalb (Kalb 1994) Syn.: Lecidea caesioatra, L. arctica
pullata (Norman) Schmull (Schmull et al. 2011)  Syns.:  Biatora pullata, Lecidea pullata

FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not. = GYALOLECHIA (Arup et al. 2013)
bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen subsp. bracteata = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) Poelt = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina
bracteata subsp. deformis Poelt  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. deformis
desertorum (Tomin) Poelt = Gyalolechia desertorum
fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin = Gyalolechia fulgens
subbracteata (Nyl.)
Poelt (Brodo et al. 2001, Kasalicky 2004) = Gyalolechia subbracteata

FULGIDEA Bendiksby & Timdal  (Bendiksby & Timdal 2013)
oligospora (Timdal) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce oligospora
sierrae (Timdal) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce sierrae

FULVOPHYTON Ertz & Tehler
calcicola
(Sparrius) Tehler & Ertz  Syn.: Dirina calcicola (Tehler et al. 2013)

FUSARIUM Link
*peltigerae Westend. (Spribille et al. 2010)

FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vězda
aleutica (Degel.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
appalachensis Fryday (Fryday 2008)
arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg
gothoburgensis (H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda (Fryday 2006)
intercincta (Nyl.) Poelt
lowensis (H. Magn.) R. A. Anderson & Hertel  Syn.: Lecidea lowensis
mollis (Wahlenb.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea mollis
praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea praeruptorum
pusilla Tønsberg
recensa (Stirton) Hertel, V. Wirth & Vězda Syns.: Lecidea recensa
recensa var arcuatula (Arnold) Fryday  Syns. Lecidea arcuatula, L. gyrodes (Fryday 2008)
scrupulosa (Eckfeldt) Fryday (Fryday 2008)  Syn.: Biatora scrupulosa, Lecidea scrupulosa, L. kochiana var. subreagens
texana
Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
thomsonii Brodo & V. Wirth (Brodo & Wirth 1998)
cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda  = misidentification for North America (Fryday 2008)
kochiana (Hepp) V. Wirth & Vězda   = misidentification for North America (Fryday 2008)
lightfootii (Sm.)
Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Tønsberg 2002, Fryday 2008)
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Brako = Lecidea subfilamentosa (Fryday 2008)
subreagens (H. Magn.) Oberholl. & V. Wirth = Fuscidea scrupulosa (Fryday 2008)

FUSCOPANNARIA P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria ahlneri
alaskana P. M. Jørg.
& Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
aurita P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cheiroloba (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2000c) Syn.: Parmeliella cheiroloba
confusa (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
convexa P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005)
coralloidea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
crustacea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b) Syns.: Pannaria cyanolepra, Parmeliella cyanolepra
incisa (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria laceratula
leprosa P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucostictoides
maritima (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Synyonym: Pannaria maritima
mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria mediterranea
pacifica P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria praetermissa, Parmeliella praetermissa, P. lepidiota
pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria pulveracea
ramulina P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
sorediata P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
thiersii P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
viridescens P. M. Jørg. & Zhurb. (Jørgensen & Zhurbenko 2002)
californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella californica
globigera Fryday & P. M. Jørg. (Fryday 2004a) = Vahliella globigera
hookerioides P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella hookerioides
labrata P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005) = Vahliella labrata
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg.
= Vahliella leucophaea
saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella saubinetii

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GABURA Adanson
fasciculare (L.) P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2014)  Syns.: Collema fasciculare, Synechoblastus aggregatus, S. fascicularis

GAMUNDIA Raithelh.
*leucophylla (Gillet) H. E. Bigelow  Syn.: Fayodia leucophylla (Bigelow 1983)
*striatula (Kühner) Raitelh.  Syn.: Fayodia striatula (Raitelhuber 1983)

GASPARRINIA Tornab. = CALOPLACA

GASSICURTIA Fée
catasema (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia catasema, B. caloosensis (Marbach 2000)
coccinea Fée  Syn.:  Buellia coccinea (Marbach 2000)
subpulcella (Vainio) Marbach Syn.: Buellia subpulcella, B. pachnidisca (Marbach 2000)
elizae (Tuck.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Buellia elizae (Lendemer et al. 2013)
vernicoma (Tuck.) Marbach = Buellia vernicoma (Lendemer et al. 2013)

GEISLERIA Nitschke (Aptroot et al. 2014)
sychnogonioides Nitschke  Syn.: Strigula sychnogonioides

GELATINOPSIS Rambold & Triebel
#geoglossi (Ellis & Everh.) Rambold & Triebel (Diederich et al. 2010)
*acarosporicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009a) = Llimoniella acarosporicola

GELTINGIA Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*associata (Th. Fr.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Lecidea associata

GLAUCOMARIA M. Choisy
rupicola (L.) M. Choisy = Lecanora rupicola
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Lecanora rupicola

GLAUCOTREMA Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Rivas Plata et al. 2012)
glaucophaenum (Kremp.) Rivas Plata & Lumbsch  Syns.: Myriotrema glaucophaenum, Ocellularia glaucophaena  Presence in N.A. is doubtful

GLOBOSPHAERIA D. Hawksw.
*jamesii D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

GLOEOHEPPIA Gyelnik
polyspora Henssen (Schultz 2002c)
rugosa Henssen (Knudsen et al. 2017)
squamulosa (Zahlbr.) M. Schultz  Syn. : Psorotichia squamulosa (Schultz 2007b)

GLYPHIS Ach.
atrofusca (Müll. Arg.)
Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cicatricosa Ach.
scyphulifera (Ach.) Staiger  Syn.: Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Staiger 2002, Lücking et al. 2011b)
substriatula (Nyl.) Staiger  Syn.:  Graphina substriatula (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
achariana Tuck. = G. cicatricosa
confluens Zenker = G. cicatricosa
favulosa Ach. = G. cicatricosa

GLYPHOLECIA Nyl.
scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg. Syns.: Acarospora rhagadiosa, A. scabra, A. saxicola

GOMPHILLUS Nyl.
americanus Essl.
calycioides (Duby) Nyl. (Buck 1998)

GONGYLIA Körber
muscorum Zschacke (North American only) = Protothelenella pluriseptata (Fryday 2004b)
nadvornikii Servít = Segestria mammillosa, but a misidentification for North America (Fryday 2004b)

GONOHYMENIA J. Steiner = LICHINELLA
cribellifera (Nyl.) Henssen = Lichinella cribellifera
melamphylla (Tuck.) Henssen = Lichinella melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Henssen = Lichinella minnesotensis
nigritella (Lettau) Henssen = Lichinella nigritella

GOWARDIA P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen (Halonen et al. 2009, Myllys et al. 2014)
arctica P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen  Syn.:  Alectoria gowardii
nigricans (Ach.) P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen  Syn.: Alectoria nigricans

GRANULOPYRENIS Aptroot
hymnothora (Ach.) Aptroot Syns.: Verrucaria hymnothora, Microthelia hymnothora, Sphaeria bignoniae

GRAPHINA Müll. Arg. = GRAPHIS (Lücking et al. 2007; Tripp et al. 2010)
abaphoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis leucopepla 
acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Graphis acharii
acrophaea Müll. Arg. = Graphis parilis
adscribens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina scolecitis for North American records
anguina (Mont.)
Müll. Arg. = Thalloloma anguinum
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = Graphis antillarum
babingtonii (Mont.) Zahlbr.
= Fissurina insculpta
colliculosa (Mont.) Hale = Platythecium colliculosum
columbina (Tuck.) M. Wirth & Hale = Fissurina columbina
cypressi Müll. Arg. = Fissurina cypressi
dimidiata (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
dumastioides (Fink) ined. = Fissurina dumastioides
floridana (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Platythecium floridanum
glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
incrustans (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
leprocarpa (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. = Chapsa leprocarpa
marcescens (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mendax (Nyl.)
Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America
nitidescens (Nyl.) Riddle = Fissurina nitidescens
leuconephela (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina leuconephela
parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Graphis parilis
peplophora M. Wirth & Hale = Acanthothecis peplophora
platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
platyleuca (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris 1995a) = Diorygma pruinosum
plittii Zahlbr. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
scolecitis
(Tuck.) Fink = Fissurina scolecitis
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Graphis sophisticascens
subnitida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitida
subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitidula
substriatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Glyphis substriatula
subvirginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis mosquitensis
virginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina columbina
virginea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.= Diorygma poitaei
xylophaga R. C. Harris = Graphis xylophaga

GRAPHIS Adanson
acharii F
ée  Syn. Graphina acharii   Presence in N. Am. uncertain (Tripp et al. 2010)
analoga Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
anfractuosa
Eschw.
antillarum Vainio  Syn.: Graphina antillarum
aperiens Müll. Arg.
appendiculata Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
argentata Lücking & Umaña  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
assimilis Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
botryosa
Tuck.
brittoniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
bungartzii Barcenas-Peña, Lücking, Herrera-Campos & R. Miranda (Seavey et al. 2017)
caesiella Vainio
caesiocarpa Redinger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
caribica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
chlorotica A. Massal. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
chromothecia R. C. Harris
cincta (Pers.) Aptroot (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
conferta Zenker  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
crebra Vainio (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
cupei Vainio ex Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
dendrogramma Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
desquamescens (Fée) Zahlbr. 
disserpens Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach.
elevata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
elongata Zenker (Seavey et al. 2017)
endoxantha Nyl. (Lücking 2009)
eulectra
Tuck. Syn.: Phaeographis eulectra
ferrugineodisca F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
filiformis Adaw. & Makhija (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
furcata Fée (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
glaucescens Fée
haleana R. C. Harris
handelii Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
hinnulea F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
hodgesiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2010b)
hyphosa Staiger (Lendemer 2010b)
intermedians Vainio (Lendemer 2010b)
intricata Fée
inversa R. C. Harris
koltermaniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
leptocarpa Fée
leptoclada Müll. Arg
librata C. Knight
lineola Ach.
longula Kremp.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lucifica R. C. Harris
lumbricina Vainio
modesta Zahlbr. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
neoelongata Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
oshioi M. Nakan.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
oxyclada Müll. Arg.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
paralleloides M. Cáceres & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2014)
parilis Kremp.  Syn.: Graphina parilis (Lücking et al. 2008)
pavoniana
Fée  North American reports uncertain (Lendemer 2010b)
pergracilis (Zahlbr.) Lücking & A. W. Archer (Lücking & McCune 2012)
perstriatula Nyl. (Seavey et al. 2017)
pinicola Zahlbr. (Lendemer 2010b)
platycarpella Müll. Arg.
proserpens Vainio (Tucker 1981)
pseudocinerea Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
pseudoserpens Chaves, Lücking & Umaña (Seavey et al. 2017)
pyrrhocheiloides Zahlbr. (Seavey et al. 2014)
renschiana (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
rimulosa (Mont.) Trevisan
sauroidea Leighton  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
saxorum
Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1997)
schiffneri Zahlbr. (Seavey et al. 2014)
scripta (L.) Ach.
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris & Ladd 2005; Tripp et al. 2010)
stellata
M. Cáceres & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
sterlingiana E. Tripp & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
striatula
(Ach.) Sprengel
subamylacea Zahlbr.
subflexibilis Lücking & Chaves  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
supracola A. W. Archer (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
tamiamiensis Lendemer (Lendemer 2010b)
tenella
Ach.
xanthospora Müll. Arg.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
xylophaga (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina xylophaga (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
afzelii Ach. = Dyplolabia afzelii
amicta Nyl. (1935) = Carbacanthographis amicta (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
anguilliformis Taylor (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain; probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
atrorubens Tuck. ex Fink = Dimidiographa longissima
balbisina Nyl. (Fink 1935) = G. implicata F
ée  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
beaumontii Tuck. = Fissurina insidiosa
candidata Nyl. = Carbacanthographis candidata
celtidis Müll. Arg. = G. librata
cinerea F
ée (Fink 1935)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
dendritica (Ach.) Ach. (Mohr 1901) = Phaeographis dendritica
diversa Nyl. (Fink 1935) =  Leiorreuma exaltata (Zahlbruckner 1924, Staiger 2002)
dumastii (F
ée) Sprengel (Fink 1935) = Fissurina dumastii Fée  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
dumastioides Fink = Fissurina dumastioides
floridana Tuck. = Platythecium floridanum
grammatis Fée = Platythecium grammitis
illiterata R. C. Harris = Fissurina illiterata
incrustans  = Fissurina incrustans
insidiosa (C. Knight & Mitten) Hooker f. = Fissurina insidiosa
intertexta Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
inustula Stirton (Stirton 1875) = Thalloloma anguinum
lactea (F
ée) Sprengel (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
leucopepla Tuck.
= Acanthothecis leucopepla
marcescens  = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mosquitensis Tuck. = Acanthothecis mosquitensis
nitida (Eschw.) Tuck. = Medusulina nitida
nitidescens Nyl. = Fissurina nitidescens
poitaeoides Nyl. =Acanthothecis poitaeoides
radiata (Mont.) Nyl.
(Fink 1935)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
rigidula Müll. Arg.  (Lendemer & Yahr 2004) = G. leptoclada (Lücking 2009)
ramificans Nyl. (Fink 1935)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
rufula Mont. = Fissurina rufula
scalpturata Ach. (Mohr 1901) = Phaeographis scalpturata
scolecitis Tuck. = Fissurina scolecitis
scripta var. varia Ach. (Fink 1935) = G. scripta
subdiversa Nyl. (Fink 1935)  a nomen nudum; identity uncertain
subelegans Nyl. = G. endoxantha (Lücking 2009)
subnitidula Nyl. = Fissurina subnitidula
subparilis Nyl. = Fissurina rufula
turbulenta Nyl. = Anomomorpha turbulenta

GRAPHIUM Corda
*aphthosae Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

GYALECTA Ach.
erythrozona Lettau
carneola (Ach.) Hellbom  Syns. Pachyphiale carneola (Baloch et al. 2013a)
fagicola (Hepp ex Arnold) Kremp.  Syns.: Pachyphiale fagicola (Baloch et al. 2013a)
flotowii
Körber
foveolaris (Ach.) Schaerer
friesii Flotow ex Körber
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Secoliga geoica
gyalizella (Nyl.) Baloch & Lücking  Syn.: Pachyphiale gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
herrei Vězda
*hypoleuca (Ach.) Zahlbr. (McMullin et al. 2017)
jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr.
kukriensis (Räsänen) Räsänen
obesispora R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013a)
peziza (Mont.) Anzi
russula (Körber ex Nyl.) Baloch, Lumbsch & Wedin  Syns.: Belonia fennica, B. russula (Baloch et al. 2013a)
truncigena (Ach.) Hepp
carneolutea (Turner) H. Olivier = Cryptolechia carneolutea
cupularis (Hedwig) Schaerer  = G. jenensis
farlowii Tuck. ex Nyl. = Petractis farlowii
lamprospora Nyl. = Bactrospora lamprospora
lutea (Dickson) Tuck. = Coenogonium luteum
odora Ach. (Fink 1935) = Ionaspis odora
radiatilis Tuck. = Skyttea radiatilis

GYALECTARIA Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch (Schmitt et al. 2010)
diluta (Björk, G. Thor & T. B. Wheeler) Schmitt, T. Sprib. & Lumbsch (Schmitt et al. 2010)

GYALECTIDIUM Müll. Arg.
appendiculatum Lücking, Lendemer & E. Tripp (Lücking et al. 2007, Lendemer & Tripp 2008)
catenulatum (Cavalc. & A. A. Silva) L. I. Ferraro, Lücking & Sérus.  (Lücking et al. 2007)
filicinum Müll. Arg.
floridense Safranek & Lücking  (Safranek & Lücking 2005)
imperfectum Vězda (Ferraro, Lücking & S
érusiaux 2001)
paolae Herrera-Campos & Lücking (Sanders & de los Ríos 2015)
tuckerae Lücking & Lendemer (Lücking et al. 2007)
ulloae Herrera-Campos & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
viride Lücking, W. R. Buck & Rivas Plata (Lücking et al. 2007)
yahriae W. R. Buck & Sérus. (Buck & Sérusiaux 2000)
rotuliforme Müll. Arg. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

GYALECTINA Vězda = CRYPTOLECHIA
carneolutea (Turner) Vězda = Cryptolechia carneolutea

GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vězda
asteriscus (Anzi) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2003) Syn.: Solorinella asteriscus
fritzei (Stein) Vězda (Hutten et al. 2013)
hyalinescens (Nyl.) Vězda
lecideopsis (A. Massal.) Lettau ex Vězda
lecideopsis var. eucarpa (Servít) Vězda
lecideopsis var. kurdistanica (J. Steiner) Vězda
roseola (Arnold) Lettau (Brodo 1995)
dodgei Vězda = G. hyalinescens
lecideopsis var. convarians (Nyl.) Vězda = G. lecideopsis var. eucarpa

GYALIDEOPSIS Vězda
africana Kalb & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)
americana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
bartramiorum Lendemer (Lendemer 2017)
berenice (Ellis & Everh.) Lücking & W. R. Buck
buckii Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Tricharia vezdae
epicorticis (A. Funk) Tønsberg & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Microlychnus epicorticis
floridae Etayo & Diederich (Etayo & Diederich 2001)
helvetica van den Boom & Vězda (Spribille & Björk 2008)
lambinonii Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) 
macarthurii Lücking, Umaña & Aptroot (Lücking et al. 2007)
mexicana Tretiach, Giralt & Vězda (Lendemer 2011a, Lendemer & Tripp 2014)
moodyae Lendemer & Lücking (Lendemer & Lücking 2004)
ozarkensis Lücking, W. R. Buck & R. C. Harris (Lücking et al. 2007)
piceicola (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt
pusilla Lücking & Tønsberg (Lücking & Tønsberg 2016)
sessile W. B. Sanders & Lücking (Sanders & Lücking 2015)
subaequatoriana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
submonospora Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. semicirculata Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. vainioi
wesselsii
Lücking, Sipman & Chaves (Lücking et al. 2007)
alnicola W. Noble & Vězda = G. piceicola
anastomosans P. James & Vězda = Jamesiella anastomosans
athalloides (Nyl.) Vězda = Diploschistella athalloides
muscicola P. James & Vězda (Tønsberg 1997) = misidentification of G. moodyae (Lücking et al. 2007)

GYALOLECHIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
bracteata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. subsp. bracteata  Syn.: Caloplaca bracteata, Fulgensia bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) ined.  Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina
bracteata subsp. deformis (Poelt) ined.  Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata subsp. deformis
desertorum (Tomin) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Fulgensia desertorum
epiphyta (Lynge) Vondrák  Syns.: Caloplaca arizonica, C. epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)
flavorubescens (Hudson) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca aurantiaca, C. flavorubescens
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca erythrella, C. flavovirescens
fulgens (Sw.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca fulgens, Fulgensia fulgens, Placodium fulgens
persimilis (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca persimilis
stantonii (W. A. Weber ex Arup) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca stantonii
stipitata (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca stipitata
subbracteata (Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Fulgensia subbracteata
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: C. discolor, C. xanthostigmoidea
arizonica (H. Magn.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup = G. epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)

GYMNODERMA Nyl.
lineare (A. Evans) Yoshim. & Sharp = Cetradonia linearis

GYPSOPLACA Timdal
macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal

GYROGRAPHA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz et al. 2015b)
gyrocarpa (Flotow) Ertz & Tehler  Syn.: Opegrapha gyrocarpa (Ertz et al. 2015b)

GYROPHORA Ach. = UMBILICARIA
angulata (Tuck.) Herre = Umbilicaria angulata
anthracina (Wulfen) Körber = Umbilicaria rigida
arctica Ach. = Umbilicaria arctica
cylindrica (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. = Umbilicaria decussata
deusta (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria deusta
dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Umbilicaria mammulata
erosa (G. Weber) Ach. = Umbilicaria torrefacta
flocculosa (Wulfen) Turner & Borrer =  Umbilicaria deusta
grisea Swartz (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria grisea Hoffm.  = misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hyperborea Ach. = Umbilicaria hyperborea var. hyperborea
muhlenbergii Ach. = Umbilicaria muhlenbergii
phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. = Umbilicaria phaea
polyphylla (L.) Funck = Umbilicaria polyphylla
polyrrhiza (L.) Körber = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza
proboscidea (L.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria proboscidea
rugifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria virginis (Llano 1950)
torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria torrefacta
vellea (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria vellea

GYROSTOMUM Fr.
curtisii Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Baculifera curtisii
scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl. = Glyphis scyphuliferum

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

HAEMATOMMA A. Massal.
accolens (Stirton) Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
americanum Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
fenzlianum A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
flexuosum Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
guyanense Kalb & Staiger (Brodo et al. 2008)
leprarioides (Vainio) Vainio (Brodo et al. 2008)
ochroleucum (Necker) J. R. Laundon var. ochroleucum 
ochroleucum
(Necker) J. R. Laundon var. porphyrium (Pers.) J. R. Laundon  Syn.: H. porphyrium
persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
rufidulum (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
caesium Coppins & P. James = Mycoblastus caesius
californicum Sigal & D. Toren = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman1996)
cismonicum Beltr.
= Loxospora cismonica
coccineum (Dickson) Körber = misidentification for North America
elatinum (Ach.) A. Massal. = Loxospora elatina
lapponicum Räsänen = Ophioparma lapponica
ochrophaeum (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Loxospora ochrophaea
pacificum Hasse = Ophioparma rubricosa (Staiger & Kalb 1995, Ekman 1996)
porphyrium (Pers.) Zopf = H. ochroleucum var. porphyrium
puniceum (Sw.) A. Massal.  North Amrican records are H. persoonii
pustulatum Brodo & W. L. Culb. =
Lepra pustulata
rappii Zahlbr. = Schismatomma rappii
subpuniceum (Fée) B. de Lesd. = H. fenzlianum
ventosum (L.) A. Massal. = Ophioparma ventosa

HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. = Buellia (Nordin & Tibell 2005)
arnoldii (Servít) Hafellner & Türk = Buellia arnoldii
bahiana (Malme) Sheard = Buellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotropa (Malme) Sheard =Buellia bahiana var. pleiotropa
callispora (C. Knight) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard = Buellia callispora
curatellae (Malme) Marbach  (Marbach 2000) = Buellia curatellae
disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer = Buellia disciformis
fosteri Imshaug & Sheard = a species of Buellia
parastata (Nyl.)
Kalb = Buellia parastata
pleiotera (Malme) Marbach (Hansen et al. 2008) = Buellia pleiotera

HAFELLNERA Houmeau & Cl. Roux
parasemella (Nyl.) Houmeau & Cl.
Roux = Schaereria parasemella

HALECANIA M. Mayrhofer
alpivaga (Th. Fr.) M. Mayrhofer Syns.: Lecania alpivaga, L. disceptans, L. thallophila, Lecanora disceptans
australis Lumbsch  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004a)
pepegospora (H. Magn.) van den Boom (van den Boom & Elix 2005) Syn.: Lecania pepegospora
viridescens Coppins & P. James

HALEGRAPHA Rivas Plata & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011a, 2011b)
floridana Common & Lücking

HALOSPORA (Zschacke) Tomas. & Cif.
*discrepans (J. Lahm ex Arnold) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)

HARPIDIUM
Körber
nashii Scheid. (Schultz et al. 2000)
glaucophanum (Hasse) Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana

HASSEA Zahlbr.
*bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Sarcopyrenia bacillosa

HAZSLINSZKYA Körber (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
gibberulosa (Ach.) Körber  Misidentifications for North America (Perlmutter et al. 2015)

HAWKSWORTHIANA U. Braun
*peltigericola (D. Hawks.) U. Braun

HEIOMASIA Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Nelsen & Lücking 2010 [2011])
seaveyorum Nelsen & Lücking

HELMINTHOCARPON Fée
leprevostii Fée

HELOCARPON Th. Fr.
crassipes Th. Fr. Syns.: Lecidea crassipes, Micarea crassipes
lesdainii (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss 2001)
corticola Breuss (Etayo 1998) = H. lesdainii

HENRICA B. de Lesd.
americana Breuss (Breuss 2002c)
melaspora (Taylor) Savić & Tibell  Syn.: Polyblastia melaspora  (Savić & Tibell 2008)
theleodes (Sommerf.) Savić, Tibell & Nav.-Ros.  Syn.: Polyblastia theleodes (Savić & Tibell 2008)

HEPPIA Nägeli
adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.
conchiloba Zahlbr.
despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. (Büdel et al. 2002)  Syns.:  Anema dodgei, Solorinaria despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.
alumenensis Herre Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
bolanderi (Tuck.)
Vainio = Peltula bolanderi
deserticola Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. deserticola
euploca (Ach.) Vainio = Peltula euploca
guepinii (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca
hassei Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. hassei
leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
macrospora B. de Lesd.
= H. conchiloba
placodizans Zahlbr. = Peltula placodizans.
planescens Nyl. Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
polyphylla B. de Lesd. = Peltula euploca
polyspora Tuck. = Peltula patellata
psammophila Nyl. = misidentification for North America
richardsii Herre = Peltula richardsii
terrena Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
tortuosa (Nees) Vainio = Peltula tortuosa
virescens (Despr.) Nyl. = H. lutosa
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Peltula zahlbruckneri

HERPOTHALLON Tobler (Aptroot et al. 2009)
echinatum Aptroot, Lücking & Will-Wolf  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
hyposticticum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (
Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor  Syns. Cryptothecia rubrocincta, C. sanguineum
rubroechinatum Frisch & G. Thor (Frisch et al. 2010)
antillarum (Vainio) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Diorygma antillarum

HERTELIANA P. James
alaskensis (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia alaskensis, Lecidea alaskensis (Ekman 1996)
schuyleriana Lendemer (Lendemer 2016c)

HERTELIDEA Printzen & Kantvilas (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
botryosa (Fr.) Printzen & Kantvilas  Syns.:  Biatora botryosa, Lecidea botryosa (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
pseudobotryosa R. C. Harris, Ladd & Printzen (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)

HETEROCARPON Müll. Arg.
*ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Endocarpon ochroleucum

HETEROCEPHALACRIA Berthier
bachmannii
(Diederich & M. S. Christ.) Millanes & Wedin (McMullin et al. 2017, Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)

HETEROCYPHELIUM Vainio
leucampyx (Tuck.)
Vainio

HETERODERMIA Trevisan
albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog Syns.: Anaptychia domingensis, A. ravenelii
appalachensis (Kurok.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia appalachensis
boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh Syns.: Anaptychia boryi, A. neoleucomelaena
casarettiana (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia casarettiana
chondroidea W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia chondroidea
comosa (Eschw.) Follm. & Redón (Harris 1995b)  Syn.: Physcia comosa
crocea R. C. Harris North American reports of H. corallophora belong here
dendritica (Pers.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia diademata
echinata (Taylor) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia echinata
erecta Lendemer (Lendemer 2009a)
erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber Syn.: Anaptychia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) W. L. Culb. Syns.: Anaptychia comosa (for North American records), A. galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia granulifera
hypoleuca (Muhl.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia hypoleuca
japonica (M. Sat
ô) Swinscow & Krog
leucomela (L.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia "leucomelaena"
microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa  Questionable for N. America (Lendemer 2009a)
namaquana Brusse (Esslinger & Bratt 1998)
neglecta Lendemer, R. C. Harris & E. Tripp (Lendemer et al. 2007)
obscurata (Nyl.) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia heterochroa, A. hypoleuca var. colorata, A. obscurata, A. sorediifera
palpebrata (Taylor) Vainio  (Moberg 2011)
podocarpa (Bél.) Awasthi (Moberg & Nash 1999)
pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa
rugulosa (Kurok.) Wetmore
sitchensis Goward & W. Noble
speciosa (Wulfen) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans, A. speciosa
squamulosa (Degel.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia squamulosa
tropica (Kurok.) Sipman Syn.: Anaptychia tropica (Marcano et al. 1996)
barbifera (Nyl.) K. P. Singh = misidentification for N.A. (Lendemer 2009a)
corallophora (Taylor) Skorepa = H. crocea for North American reports
domingensis (Ach.) Trevisan = H. albicans
leucomelaena (L.) Poelt = H. leucomela
neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón = H. boryi
propagulifera (Vainio) J. P. Dey  = misidentification for North America, mostly H. neglecta (Lendemer et al. 2007)
tremulans (Müll. Arg.) W. L. Culb. = H. speciosa

HETEROPLACIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
#compactum (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Prieto et al. 2012) Syns.: Catapyrenium compactum, Dermatocarpon compactum, Verrucaria compacta
congestum (Breuss & McCune) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium congestum
#transmutans K. Knudsen, Breuss & Kocourk. (Knudsen et al. 2014a)
zamenhofianum (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux (Kocourková et al. 2012) Syn.: Verrucaria zamenhofiana
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides
podolepis (Breuss) Breuss = Placidium podolepis

HETEROTHECIUM Flotow
conspersum (Fée) Flotow = Piccolia conspersa
domingense (Pers.) Flowtow = Letrouitia domingense
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) A. Massal. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
nannarium Tuck. = Piccolia nannaria
pachycheilum Tuck. = Megalospora pachycheila
tuberculosum (Fée) Flotow = Megalospora tuberculosa

HOBSONIA Massee
*christiansenii B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw. = Illosporiopsis christiansenii

HOBSONIOPSIS D. Hawksw. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)
*santessonii (Lowen & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

HOMOSTEGIA Fuckel
*dermatocarpi Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*hertelii D. Hawksw., V. Atienza & M. Cole  (Hawksworth et al. 2004)
*piggotii (Berk. & Broome) P. Karsten  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*parmeliana (Jacz.) Vouaux (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) Erroneous report based on H. hertelii (Hawksworth et al. 2004)

HUBBSIA W. A. Weber (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber Syn.: Reinkella californica
lumbricoides W. A. Weber = Schizopelte lumbricoides (Ertz & Tehler 2011), but not known north of Mexico
parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Loht., Myllys & Sundin = Schizopelte parishii (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

HUILIA Zahlbr. = PORPIDIA
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel = Porpidia albocaerulescens
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia cinereoatra
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia crustulata
elegantior ( H. Magn.) Hertel = Amygdalaria elegantior
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel = Porpidia flavicunda
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia rugosa
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
melinodes (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia melinodes
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel = Amygdalaria panaeola
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel = Porpidia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Hertel = Porpidia soredizodes
superba (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia superba
tuberculosa (Sm.) P. James = Porpidia tuberculosa

HYALOPEZIZA Fuckel
*rapax Huhtinen (Huhtinen et al. 2008)

HYDROPUNCTARIA Keller, Gueidan & Thüs (Gueidan et al. 2009)
amphibia (Clemente) Orange  (Orange 2012)  Syn.: Verrucaria amphibia
maura (Wahlenb.) C. Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  Syn.:  Verrucaria maura
rheitrophila (Zschacke) C. Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  Syn.:  Verrucaria kernstockii, V. rheitrophila
scabra (Vězda) C. Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  (McCune et al. 2014b)

HYDROTHYRIA J. L. Russell = PELTIGERA
venosa J. L. Russell = Peltigera hydrothyria

HYMENELIA Kremp.
arctica (Lynge) Lutzoni Syn.: Ionaspis arctica, I. epulotica var. arctica
ceracea (Arnold ) M. Choisy
cyanocarpa (Anzi) Lutzoni (Miller et al. 2005)
epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis epulotica, Lecanora epulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis heteromorpha, I. annularis, I. ochracella, I. reducta, I. schismatopis
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold Syn.: Ionaspis melanocarpa
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis ochromicra, I. rhodopis
lacustris (With.) M. Choisy = Ionaspis lacustris
ochrolemma (Vainio) Gowan & Ahti = Porpidia ochrolemma
prevostii (Duby) Kremp. = H. epulotica

HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg.
adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syns.: Physcia adglutinata, P. elaeina, Physciopsis adglutinata, P. elaeina
confusa Essl., C. A. Morse & S. Leavitt (Esslinger et al. 2012)
minor (Fée) D. D. Awasthi Syns.: Physcia minor, Physciopsis minor
pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) Moberg & Aptroot (Esslinger et al. 2012)
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb Syns.: Physcia syncolla, Physciopsis syncolla

HYPOCENOMYCE M. Choisy
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) M. Choisy Syns.: Lecidea scalaris, L. ostreata, Psora scalaris, P. ostreata
anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider (Timdal 2002a) = Carbonicola anthracophila
castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal = Carbonicola myrmecina
friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Xylopsora friesii
leucococca R. Sant. = Toensbergia leucococca
oligospora Timdal (Timdal 2001) = Fulgidea oligospora
praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal = Pycnora praestabilis
sierrae Timdal (Timdal 2001) = Fulgidea sierrae
sorophora (Vainio) P. James & Poelt = Pycnora sorophora
xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Pycnora xanthococca

HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl.
apinnata Goward & McCune
austerodes (Nyl.) Räsänen Syn.: Parmelia austerodes
beringiana (Krog) McCune (McCune 2008)
bitteri (Lynge) Ahti Syn.: Parmelia bitteri
canadensis Goward & McCune (Goward & McCune 2007)
castanea McCune & Krog (McCune 2008)
dichroma Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
duplicata (Ach.) Rass. Syn.: Parmelia elongata (Spribille et al. 2010)
enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl.
farinacea Zopf  Uncertain for North America (Goward et al. 2012)
fistulosa McCune & Krog (McCune 2008)
gracilis McCune (McCune 2002)
heterophylla L. Pike

hultenii (Degel.) Krog  Syn.: Cavernularia hultenii (Miądlikowska et al. 2011)
imshaugii Krog
inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson
incurvoides  Rass.  (McCune et al. 2006)
krogiae Ohlsson
lophyrea (Ach.) Krog  Syns.: Cavernularia lophyrea, Parmelia lophyrea (Miądlikowska et al. 2011)
lugubris (Pers.) Krog
minilobata McCune & Schoch (McCune & Schoch 2009)
mollis L. Pike & Hale
occidentalis L. Pike
oceanica Goward
physodes (L.) Nyl. Syns.: Parmelia duplicata var. douglasicola, P. physodes, P. oregana
protea Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti (Goward et al. 2012)
pulverata (Nyl. ex Crombie) Elix
recurva Goward, Bj
örk, & Hollinger (Goward et al. 2010)
rugosa (G. Merr.) L. Pike
salsa Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
schizidiata McCune (McCune 2002)
subcapitata (Nyl.) Rass.
subobscura (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Parmelia subobscura
subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson (McCune & Rosentreter 1997)
tubulosa (Schaerer) Hav. Syn.: Parmelia tubulosa
verruculosa Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
vittata (Ach.) Parrique Syn.: Parmelia vittata
wilfiana Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti (Goward et al. 2010)
amplexa Goward, Björk & T. B. Wheeler (Lumbsch et al. 2011) = H. imshaugii (McCune et al. 2011)
atrofusca (Schaerer) Räsänen = Brodoa atrofusca, but North American reports are misidentifications
bitteriana (Zahlbr.) Räsänen = H. farinacea
elongata (Hillm.) Rass. = H. duplicata
encausta (Sm.) Walter Watson = Brodoa intestiniformis (but see below)
intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen = Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American records are misidentifications of, e.g., Brodoa oroarctica
metaphysodes (Asahina) Rass. = misidentification for North America (Goward et al. 2010)
oroarctica Krog = Brodoa oroarctica
pseudophysodes (Asahina) Rass. North American reports are H. oceanica

HYPOTRACHYNA (Vainio) Hale
afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
catawbiensis (Degel.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch  Syns.: Cetrariastrum catawbiense, Everniastrum catawbiense, Parmelia sorocheila var. catawbiensis
consimilis (Vainio) Hale (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale
croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia croceopustulata
cryptochlora (Vainio) D. Hawksw. & A. Crespo  Syns.: Parmelinopsis cryptochlora (Divakar et al. 2013)
dactylifera (Vainio) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia densirhizinata
dentella (Hale & Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dentella
ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ensifolia, P. lobulifera var. insensitiva
gondylophora (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia gondylophora
horrescens (Taylor) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia horrescens, Parmelina horrescens, Parmelinopsis horrescens (Divakar 2013)
imbricatula (Zahlbr.)
Hale Syns.: Parmelia imbricatula, P. lobulifera, P. lobulifera var. luteoreagens
laevigata (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigata
livida (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia livida
lividescens (Kurok.) Hale (Hodkinson 2010)
meridensis Hale & López (Nash, et al. 2002)
minarum (Vainio) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia dissecta, P. hubrichtii, Parmelina dissecta, P. minarum, Parmelinopsis minarum (Divakar 2013)
oostingii (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia oostingii
osseoalba (Vainio) Park & Hale Syns.: Parmelia formosana
polydactyla (Krog & Swinscow) T. H. Nash
producta Hale Syn.: Parmelia producta
prolongata (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia prolongata, P. lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens, P. rachista
pseudosinuosa (Asahina) Hale
pulvinata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia pulvinata
punoensis Kurok. & K. H. Moon (Nash et al. 2002)
pustulifera (Hale) Skorepa Syn.: Parmelia pustulifera
revoluta (Flörke) Hale Syn.: Parmelia revoluta
riparia McCune (McCune 1998a)
rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia rockii
showmanii Hale
sinuosa (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sinuosa
spumosa (Asahina) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia spumosa, Parmelina spumosa, Parmelinopsis spumosa (Divakar et al. 2013)
subsaxatilis (B. de Lesd.) Hale
swinscowii (Hale) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia swinscowii, Parmelina swinscowii, Parmelinopsis swinscowii (Divakar et al. 2013)
taylorensis (M. E. Mitch.) Hale (Groner & Dietrich 1996)
thysanota (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia thysanota
virginica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia virginica
formosana (Zahlbr.)
Hale = H. osseoalba
rachista (Hale) Hale = H. prolongata
sorocheila (Vainio) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch  Reports apparently based on H. catawbiensis (Egan 1987)

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ICMADOPHILA Trevisan
ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Baeomyces aeruginosa

ILLOSPORIOPSIS D. Hawksw.
*christiansenii (B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawks. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)

ILLOSPORIUM Martius
*carneum Fr.
*corallinum Roberge = Marchandiomyces corallinus

IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschm.
athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.
carbonoidea (J. W. Thomson) Esnault & Cl. Roux Syn.: Lecidea carbonoidea

IMSHAUGIA S. F. Meyer
aleurites (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis aleurites
placorodia (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syn.: Parmeliopsis placorodia

INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch
bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch  (Lumbsch 2004)

 

INODERMA (Ach.) Gray
byssaceum (Weigel) Gray Syn.: Arthonia byssacea (Frisch et al. 2015)

INTRALICHEN D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole
*baccisporus Hawksworth & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole Syn.: Bispora christiansenii (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*lichenicola (M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole (Kocourková et al. 2012)
*lichenum (Diederich) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)  Syn.: Bispora lichenum

INVOLUCROPYRENIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
waltheri (Kremp.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium waltheri, Dermatocarpon waltheri

IONASPIS Th. Fr.
alba Lutzoni
lacustris (With.) Lutzoni Syns.: Hymenelia lacustris, Aspicilia lacustris, Lecanora lacustris, L. deplanans
lavata H. Magn. Syn.: Lecanora lavata
obtecta (Vainio) R. Sant.  (McCune et al. 2014b)
odora (Ach.) Th. Fr. ex Stein  Syns.:  Gyalecta odora, Lecanora odora
suaveolens (Fr.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
annularis H. Magn. (Thomson 1997) = Hymenelia heteromorpha
arctica Lynge = Hymenelia arctica
chrysophana (Körber) Stein = I. suaveolens
epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia epulotica
epulotica var. arctica (Lynge) H. Magn. = Hymenelia arctica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia heteromorpha
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia melanocarpa
ochracella (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
ochromicra (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia rhodopis
reducta H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia rhodopis
schismatopis (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia heteromorpha
spitsbergensis H. Magn. = nom. invalidum

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JAMESIELLA
Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda
anastomosans (P. James & Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Gyalideopsis anastomosans

JAPEWIA
Tønsberg
subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg
tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg Syns.: Lecidea tornoënsis, Mycoblastus tornoënsis
carrollii (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Printzen 1999)

JAPEWIELLA Printzen
dollypartoniana
J. L. Allen & Lendemer (Allen & Lendemer 2015)

JARXIA D. Hawksw. (Harris 1995a)
ilicicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
thelenula R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

JULELLA Fabre
+asema R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+dispora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis dispora
+fallaciosa (Arnold) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa
+geminella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis rappii
+lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis lactea
+sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins (Aptroot 2002b)
+sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Clathroporina exiguella, C. amygdalina, Polyblastiopsis sublactaea
+taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+variiformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+vitrispora (Cooke & Harkness) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)

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KAERNEFELTIA A. Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996)
californica (Tuck.) A. Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.: Alectoria californica, A. cetrariza, Cetraria californica,Cornicularia californica, Tuckermannopsis californica
merrillii (Du Rietz) A. Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.:Cetraria merrillii, Tuckermannopsis merrillii

KALCHBRENNERIELLA Diederich & M. S. Christ.
*cyanescens (Kalchbr.) Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 2002)

KARSCHIA Körber
*talcophila (Ach.) Körber  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Vouaux = Dactylospora athallina
*inops Triebel & Rambold = Buelliella inops

KARSTENIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*peltigerae (P. Karsten) D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

KEPHARTIA R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
crystalligera R. C. Harris & Lendemer
spinadiaboli R. C. Harris & Lendemer

KILIASIA Hafellner = TONINIA
athallina (Hepp) Hafellner = Toninia athallina
philippea (Mont.)
Hafellner = Toninia philippea
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner = Toninia subnitida

KIRSCHSTEINIOTHELIA D. Hawksw. Omitted as a totally saprophytic genus

KNUFIA L. J. Hutchinson & Unter.
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Réblová & Unter.  Syn.: Capronia peltigerae (Réblová et al. 2013)

KOERBERIA A. Massal.
biformis A. Massal.
sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen =
Tingiopsidium sonomense (Hafellner & Spribille 2016)

KOERBERIELLA Stein
wimmeriana (Körber) Stein

KOHLMEYERA Schatz
complicatula (Nyl.) Schatz = Mastodia tesselata (Kohlmeyer et al. 2004)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

LABROCARPON Etayo & Pérez-Ortega
*canariense (D. Hawksw.) Etayo & Pérez-Ortega (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)

LAEVIOMYCES D. Hawksw. = LICHENODIPLIS
*lecanoricola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Lichenodiplis lecanoricola
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. = Lichenodiplis pertusariicola

LAHMIA Körber
fueistingii Körber = Arthrorhaphis grisea

LAMBIELLA Hertel
arenosa McCune & Lumbsch (McCune & Lumbsch 2017)
caeca
(J. Lowe) Resl & T. Sprib.  Syns.: Lecidea caeca, Rimularia caeca (Resl et al. 2015)
furvella (Nyl. ex Mudd) M. Westb. & Resl  Syns.: Lecidea furvella, Rimularia furvella (Resl et al. 2015)
gyrizans (Nyl.) M. Westb. & Resl  Syn.: Rimularia gyrizans (Resl et al. 2015)
impavida (Th. Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl.  Syns.: Lecidea impavida, Rimularia impavida (Resl. et al. 2015)
#insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib.  (Spribille et al. 2014a)  Syns.:  Lecidea insularis, Rimularia insularis
sphacelata
(Th. Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl  Syns.: Lecidea sphacelata, Rimularia sphacelata (Resl et al. 2015)

LASALLIA
Mérat
caroliniana (Tuck.) Davydov, Peršoh & Rambold  Syn.: Umbilicaria carolininana (Davydov et al. 2010)
papulosa (Ach.) Llano Syns.: Umbilicaria pustulata var. papulosa, U. papulosa
pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano Syn.: Umbilicaria pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Mérat Syn.: Umbilicaria pustulata
pustulata subsp. papulosa (Ach.) W. A. Weber = L. papulosa

LASIOSPHAERIOPSIS D. Hawksw. & Sivan.
*stereocaulicola (Lindsay) O. E. Eriksson & R. Sant. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

LATHAGRIUM (Ach.) Gray (Otálora et al. 2014)
auriforme (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema auriculatum, C. auriforme, C. granosum auct.
cristatum (L.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema cristatum, C. cristatum var. marginale
dichotomum (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema dicotomum C. fluviatile, C. stenophyllum
fuscovirens (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema furvum, C. fuscovirens, C. tuniforme
undulatum (Flotow) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema undulatum

LAUDERLINDSAYA J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a) = Normandina (Muggia et al. 2010)
*borreri (Tul.) J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a) = Normandina pulchella

LAURERA Rchb.
madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle = Bathelium madreporiforme (Harris 1995a)
megasperma (Mont.) Riddle = Astrothelium megaspermum
subdisjuncta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Astrothelium subdisjunctum
varia (Fée) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America

LECANACTIS Körber
abietina (Ach.) Körber
[Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Fink]
californica Tuck.
dubia G. Merr.
epileuca (Nyl.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha subattingens, Schismatomma subattingens
salicina Zahlbr.
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Arnold = Lecanographa amylacea
chloroconia Tuck. = Cresponea chloroconia
dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa grumulosa
illicebrosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa amylacea
megaspora (G. Merr.) Brodo = L. abietina
nashii Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa hypothallina
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio = Bactrospora patellarioides
premnea (Ach.) Arnold = Cresponea premnea
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = L. epileuca
subdryophila Follmann & Vězda = Lecanographa subdryophila
zahlbruckneri Herre (Fink 1935) = L. californica (Ryan & Tehler 2004)

LECANIA A. Massal.
aipospila (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (McCune 2017)  Syn.: Lecanora spodophaeiza
arizonica B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
brunonis (Tuck.) Herre
#caloplacicola B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
chalcophila B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
coeruleorubella (Mudd) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
constricta W. A. Weber
croatica (Zahlbr.) Kotlov (Harris & Lendemer 2010)
cuprea (A. Massal.) van den Boom & Coppins Syn.: Bacidia cuprea, B. cupreorosella, Bilimbia cupreorosella
cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Biatora cyrtella, Lecidea cyrtella
dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
dudleyi Herre
erysibe (Ach.) Mudd
flavescens Lynge (Thomson 1997)
franciscana (Tuck.) K. Knudsen & Lendemer Syns.: Biatora franciscana, Catillaria franciscana (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
fructigena Zahlbr.
fuscella (Schaerer) Körber
fuscelloides B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
[Catillaria groenlandica Lynge]
hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble Syn.: Solenopsora hassei
hutchinsiae (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. (Spribille et al. 2010)
inundata (Hepp ex Körber) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
koerberiana J. Lahm (McCune 2017)
madida Reese Naesb. & Björk  (Reese Naesborg 2008)
naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & van den Boom Syn.: Bacidia naegelii, Bilimbia naegelii (Ekman 1996)
nylanderiana A. Massal.
pacifica Zahlbr. ex B. D. Ryan & van den Boom  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
polycycla (Anzi) Lettau (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
prasinoides Elenkin  (Reese Naesborg 2008)
rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
ryaniana van den Boom  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
shastensis Herre
stigmatella (Tuck.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syn.: Bacidia stigmatella
subcaesia (Nyl.) B. de Lesd.
subfuscula (Nyl.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syns.: Bacidia sibiriensis, B. subfuscula
toninioides Zahlbr.
turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg.
albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = L. turicensis
alpivaga Th. Fr. = Halecania alpivaga
arctica Lynge = Caloplaca diphyodes
brattiae B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b) = L. hassei (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
californica (Zahlbr.)
Fink = L. turicensis (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
cyathiformis
Szatala (Tavares et al. 1997) = Solenopsora cyathiformis
cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. = L. cyrtella
curvescens (Mudd) A. L. Sm. = Bryonora curvescens
dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = L. dubitans
disceptans (Nyl.) Lynge = Halecania alpivaga (Dillman et al. 2011)
pepegospora H. Magn. = Halecania pepegospora
perproxima auct. = uncertain species of Lecania, perhaps L. chalcophila (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
perproxima (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca atroalba (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
subdispersa B. D. Ryan [non (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse] = L. franciscana
subdispersa
(Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. fuscella
tenera (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Cliostomum tenera
thallophila H. Magn. = Halecania alpivaga

LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
aggregata Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b, as Lecanographa “aff.” aggregata)
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Lecanactis amylacea, L. illecebrosa, Opegrapha illecebrosa
brattiae (Egea & Ertz) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)  Syn.: Opegrapha brattiae
dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Opegrapha diaphoroides, Lecanactis grumulosa, but questionable for North America
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum, Opegrapha hypothallina, O. hassei, Lecanactis nashii
insolita Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2010) 
lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al.  2004b)
lynceoides
(Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b)
subdryophila
(Follmann & Vězda) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis subdryophila

LECANORA Ach.
achroa Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
achroides Vainio
actophila Wedd.
aitema (Ach.) Hepp  Syn.: Lecidea aitema
alaskensis H. Magn.
albella (Pers.) Ach. var. albella
albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch
albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)
albocaesiella B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
albula (Nyl.)
Hue
aleutica H. Magn.
allophana (Ach.) Nyl.
anakeestiicola Lendemer & E. Tripp (Lendemer & Tripp 2015)
annularis Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2014c)
anopta Nyl.  Syns.: Biatora pullula, Lecidea pullula (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010)
anoptiza Nyl.
apochroeoides Vainio
appalachensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
arenisaxicola B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
argentata (Ach.) Malme
argentea Oxner & Volkova
argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
atrosulphurea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
austrocalifornica Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2009)
bicincta Ramond
boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl.
brattiae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
brodoana Lumbsch & T. H. Nash
[Parmularia brouardii B. de Lesd.]
bryopsora (Doppelb. & Poelt) Hafellner & Türk (Dillman et al. 2012)
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. Syns.: Lecidea cadubriae, L. ramulicola
caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
caesiorubella subsp. glaucomodes (Nyl.) Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. saximontana Imshaug & Brodo
caesiosora Poelt (Miller et al. 2005)
caesiosulphurea
Vainio
californica Brodo
campestris (Schaerer) Hue
canadensis Lynge & H. Magn.
carneolutescens Nyl. (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
carpinea (L.) Vainio
cateilea (Ach.) A. Massal.
[Lecidea caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
cavicola Creveld (Nash et al. 1998)
cenisia Ach.
chlarotera Nyl.
chloroleprosa (Vainio) H. Magn. (Spribille et al. 2010)
chlorophaeodes Nyl.
cinereofusca H. Magn.
circumborealis Brodo & Vitik.
cladonioides Lynge
collatolica J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash
comonduensis T. H. Nash & Hertel (Nash & Hertel 1997)
confusa Almb.
congesta Lynge
coniferarum Printzen (Printzen 2001)
conizaeoides Nyl. ex Crombie
cupressi Tuck.
demosthenesii Lumbsch & Messuti (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
densa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
discoënsis Lynge
elapheia Stizenb.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
epanora (Ach.) Ach.
epibryon (Ach.) Ach.
expallens Ach.
farinaria Borrer
floridula Lumbsch
frustulosa (Dickson) Ach. (Spribille et al. 2010)
fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecidea fuscescens
fuscidula Degel.
gangaleoides Nyl.
geophila
(Th. Fr.) Poelt
glabrata (Ach.) Malme
granulifera (Ach.) Nyl.
groenlandica Lynge
gypsicola St. Clair & Newberry (Rajvanshi et al. 1998)
helicopis (Wahlenb.)
Ach. (identification uncertain)
horiza (Ach.) Lindsay
hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo
hypocrocina Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
hypopta (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Lecidea hypopta
hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
impudens Degel.  In eastern N.A. at least, a misapplied name (Lendemer et al. 2013)

imshaugii Brodo
inaurata C. A. Morse & Ladd (Morse & Ladd 2016)
insignis Degel.
intricata (Ach.) Ach.
intumescens (Rebent.) Rabenh.
iowensis Fink
jamesii J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 1997)
kariana Räsänen
latens Printzen (Printzen 2001)
laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
layana Lendemer (Lendemer 2015)
leprosa Fée
leptacina Sommerf.
leptacinella Nyl.
lividolutea Räsänen
louisianae B. de Lesd.
luteovernalis Brodo
marginata (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea marginata, L. elata, L. purissima. See note under "Lecidea amylacea."
masana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
maxima Lynge
melaena (Hedl.) Fink
mellea W. A. Weber
meridionalis H. Magn.
microbola I. M. Lamb
microfusca Lynge
miculata Ach.
minutella Nyl.
monticola H. Magn.
mughicola Nyl.
munzii K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c)
nashii B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al.  2004)
neoalbomarginata Gyelnik
neodegelii B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  Syn.:  Squamarina degelii (Ryan et al. 2004)
nordenskioeldii Vainio
nothocaesiella R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
ochraceorubescens Arnold (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
orae-frigidae R. Sant.
oreinoides (Körber) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea oreinodes, L. tennessensis, L. tesselina
orizabana Vainio (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea orosthea
pacifica Tuck. Syn.: L. tetraspora
paddensis (Tuck.) T. Sprib.  Syns.: Biatora paddensis, Lecidea paddensis (McCune et al. 2014b)
pallidochlorina T. H. Nash, B. D. Ryan & Lumbsch (Ladd & Morse 2012)
pannonica Szatala (McCune 2017)
peninsularis K. Knudsen, Lendemer & Elix (Knudsen et al. 2011a)
permutata Zahlbr.
perplexa Brodo
phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. Syn.: Lecidea phaeophora, Biatora phaeophora
phryganitis Tuck.
placidensis (Magnusson) Knoph, Leuckert & Rambold (Knoph & Leuckert 1994) Syns.: Lecidea placidensis, Lecidella placidensis, Fuscidea placidensis
plumosa Müll. Arg. (Nash et al. 1998)
poliophaea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
poluninii Lynge
polytropa (Ehrh.) Rabenh.
populicola (DC.) Duby
pringlei (Tuck.) I. M. Lamb subsp. pringlei  Syn: Lecidea pringlei
pringlei subsp. brandegei (Tuck.) Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
proserpens Nyl. (Barrett & Thomson 1975)
protervula Stirton (Stirton 1876)
pseudargentata Lumbsch (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
pseudistera Nyl.
pseudolivacea Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
pseudomellea B. D. Ryan
pseudosarcopidoides M. Brand & van den Boom (Hutten et al. 2013)
pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.
reagens Norman
remota K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2017)
rhodi Szatala (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
rubicunda Bagl.
rupicola (L.)
Zahlbr. Syn.: Glaucomaria rupicola, G. sordida
salicicola H. Magn.
saligna (Schrader) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecanoropsis saligna
sarcopidoides (A. Massal.) Hedl. (Hutten et al. 2013)
saxigena Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014d)
scrobiculata (Th. Fr.) Øvstedal & Elix  Syn.:  Lecidea scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
simeonensis K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Lendemer & Knudsen 2009)
sophodopsella Nyl.
soralifera (Suza) Räsänen (McCune 2017)
stenotropa Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
stramineoalbida Vainio (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
strobilina (Sprengel) Kieffer
subcavicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
subimmergens Vainio
subintricata (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
subpallens Zahlbr.  (Lumbsch et al. 1997, Lendemer 2004e)
subravida Nyl. (Hutten et al. 2013)
subrugosa Nyl.
subsaligna M. Brand & van den Boom (van den Boom & Brand 2008)
substrobilina Printzen (Printzen 2001)
sulphurea (Hoffm.)
Ach. Syn.: Lecidea sulphurea
swartzii (Ach.) Ach. (Nash et al. 1998)
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Lecidea symmicta
texana W. A. Weber
thallophila H. Magn.
thysanophora R. C. Harris (Harris et al. 2000)
tristiuscula H. Magn.
tropica Zahlbr. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
umbrosa Degel.
urceolaria (Fr.) Wetm.
utahensis H. Magn. (Knudsen 2012)
valesiaca (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.
varia (Hoffm.) Ach.
vegae Malme
viriduloflava B. de Lesd.
willeyi Tuck.
wisconsinensis H. Magn.
xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt
xylophila Hue
zeroensis Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
agardhiana Ach. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis agardhiana
albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostrup (Śliwa 2007b, Laundon 2010) = Myriolecis albescens
albomarginata (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia albomarginata
albopruinosa Looman = an Aspicilia sp.
alboradiata H. Magn. = Aspicilia alboradiata
aliena Zahlbr. = Aspicilia aliena
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.)
Ach. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina Sommerf. = Bellemerea alpina
americana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia americana

andrewii B. de Lesd. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis andrewii
annulata Lynge = Aspicilia annulata
anseris Lynge = Aspicilia anseris
applegatei Herre = Bellemerea alpina (Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2007)
aquatica (Körber) Hepp = Aspicilia aquatica
arctica Lynge = Aspicilia arctica
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) W. A. Weber = Omphalora arizonica
atra (Hudson) Ach. = Tephromela atra
atriseda (Fr.) Nyl. = Protoparmelia atriseda
atrosanguinea G. Merr. = Caloplaca atrosanguinea
atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. = Lecanora cenisia
badia (Hoffm.) Ach. = Protoparmelia badia
barkmaniana Aptroot & Herk (Kaminsky et al. 2013) = misidentification of L. floridula (Lendemer & Harris 2014b)
basaltica Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
beringii Nyl. ("behringii") = L. zosterae var. beringii (Śliwa 2007b)
bipruinosa Fink = Protoparmeliopsis bipruinosa
bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. = Rimularia gibbosa
bolanderi Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr. = Circinaria caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia caesiopruinosa
caesiorubella subsp. lathamii Imshaug & Brodo = L. subpallens
caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (Fink) R. C. Harris = L. subpallens
calcarea (L.) Sommerf. = Circinaria calcarea
cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vainio = L. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
candida (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia candida
candida (Anzi) Nyl. var. nikrapensis (Darb.) Oxner (Barrett & Thomson 1975) = Aspicilia candida

carlottiana Lewis & Śliwa (Lewis & Śliwa 2012) = Myriolecis carlottiana

cascadensis H. Magn. = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii
castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. = Bryonora castanea
chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) Ach. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
chloropolia (Erichsen) Almb. = L. impudens for most North American records
christoi W. A. Weber = Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea
cinereofusca var. appalachensis Brodo = L. saxigena (Lendemer & Harris 2014d)
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
cingulata Zahlbr. = Aspicilia cingulata
circinata (Pers.) Ach. = Lobothallia radiosa
coilocarpa auct. = L. circumborealis
coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
composita Lynge = Aspicilia composita
concinna J. W. Thomson = Aspicilia concinna
conizaea auct.
= L. strobilina
conizaea (Ach.) Nyl. ex Crombie = L. expallens
constipans (Nyl.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Edrudia constipans
contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner = Circinaria contorta
contractula Nyl. = Myriolecis contractula
crenulata Hooker  (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis crenulata
crustacea (Savicz) Zahlbr. (Ryan & Nash 1997b) = Protoparmeliopsis crustacea
degelii T. Schauer & Brodo = L. cinereofusca var. cinereofusca
demissa (Körber) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca demissa
deplanans Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
desertorum Kremp.  North American reports are Circinaria arida
diffracta Ach.
= Protoparmeliopsis muralis
diphasia Tuck. = Caloplaca diphasia
disceptans Nyl. = Halecania alpivaga (Dillman et al. 2011)

dispersa (Pers. ) Sommerf. = Myriolecis dispersa
dispersoareolata (Schaerer) Lamy = Protoparmeliopsis dispersoareolata

disserpens (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.
= Aspicilia disserpens
distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. = L. populicola
effusa (Hoffm.) Ach. = L. saligna
elevata Lynge = Aspicilia elevata
elmorei E. D. Rudolph = Circinaria elmorei
epulotica (Ach.) Nyl. = Hymenelia epulotica
erythrantha Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Caloplaca erythrantha (Wetmore 2007b)
exigua f. pruinosa Merrill = Rinodina hallii  (Sheard 2010)
eyerdamii Herre = L. xylophila
filamentosa (Stirton) Elix & Palice (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010; Palice et al. 2011) = Palicella filamentosa (Rodriguez Flakus & Printzen 2014)
fimbriata H. Magn. = Aspicilia fimbriata
flavida Hepp = Eiglera flavida
flavopunctata Tønsberg = Biatora flavopunctata
floridana Tuck.
= Caloplaca floridana
flotoviana Sprengel  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Myriolecis semipallida for North American reports (Śliwa 2007a, Zhao et al. 2016)

flowersiana H. Magn. = Myriolecis flowersiana

frustulosa auct. N. A. in part = L. argopholis  (Vänska 1984)

fugiens Nyl. (Ryan et al. 2004, as  Lecanora “aff.” fugiens, Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis fugiens

fuliginosa Brodo = L. argentea
fulva Schwein. (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Harris 2004)
fuscidula Degelius = L. minutella Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)

galactina (Ach.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Myriolecis albescens (Scholz 2000, Zhao et al. 2016))
galactinula Vainio = L. pseudistera

garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr. subsp. garovaglii = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii
garovaglii subsp. cascadensis (H. Magn.) B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii
geiserae B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004) =  Protoparmeliopsis geiserae

gelida (L.) Ach. = Placopsis gelida
gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Circinaria gibbosa
gibbosula H. Magn. = Circinaria gibbosa
glaucomela Tuck. = Pertusaria glaucomela
glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana
glaucopsina Nyl.
= Aspicilia glaucopsina
granatina Sommerf. = Euopsis granatina
granifera Ach. = Malmidea granifera
grandis H. Magn. = Protoparmelia badia
grantii H. Magn. = L. xylophila
gyalectodes Nyl. = Topelia gyalectodes
gyrophorica Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c) = Protoparmeliopsis gyrophorica
hagenii (Ach.) Ach. = Myriolecis hagenii
haydenii Tuck. = Rhizoplaca haydenii
heteroplaca Zahlbr. = Aspicilia heteroplaca
holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. = Solenopsora holophaea
hypospilota Vainio = L. oreinoides

incusa (Fr.) Vainio = Caloplaca demissa
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
invadens H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis invadens
juniperina Śliwa (Ryan et al. 2004) = Myriolecis juniperina
kofae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash = Protoparmeliopsis kofae
laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt = Protoparmeliopsis laatokkaensis
lacustris (With.) Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris
laevata (Ach.) Nyl.
= Aspicilia laevata
laevis Poelt = L. horiza, but N. American records are L. xylophila
lavata (H. Magn.) Fink = Ionaspis lavata
lentigera (Weber) Ach. = Squamarina lentigera
lesleyana (Darb.) Paulson = Aspicilia lesleyana
limitata H. Magn. = Aspicilia limitata
marginalis Hasse = Rhizoplaca marginalis
mastoidea Lynge = Aspicilia berntii
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Ach. (Wetmore 1967) = Sagedia mastrucata
mazatzalensis B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash = Protoparmeliopsis mazatzalensis
melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. = Lobothallia melanaspis
melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond = Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
mniaroeiza Nyl. = Rinodina mniaroeiza
morioides (Blomb. ex Arnold) Blomb. = Clauzadeana macula
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
muralis var. brunneola (Mereschk.) Ryan & T. H. Nash (Nash et al. 1998) = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
muralis var. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
mutabilis Sommerf. = L. intricata
mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. = Megaspora verrucosa
myrina F
ée (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain; possible orthographic error for L. myrinii (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
myrinii (Fr.) Tuck. = Aspilidea myrinii
narssaquensis Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
nephaea Sommerf. = Protoparmelia nephaea

nevadensis H. Magn. = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii

nigromarginata H. Magn. = Rhizoplaca nigromarginata
nikrapensis (Darb.)
Zahlbr. = Aspicilia nikrapensis
novae-semliae Zahlbr. = Aspicilia novae-semliae
novomexicana H. Magn. = Rhizoplaca novomexicana
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = identity uncertain
obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse = Acarospora obpallens
occidentalis (Lynge) Lynge = L. argopholis
ochrococca (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Protoparmelia ochrococca
odora (Ach.) Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Ionaspis odora
olivacea (Bagl. & Carestia) J. Steiner (Herre 1911, Fink 1935) = Lecanora pseudolivacea
olivaceopallida H. Magn. = Aspicilia olivaceopallida
opiniconensis Brodo = Rhizoplaca opiniconensis
oregana Tuck. = L. argopholis
pachythallina Lynge = L. geophila
palanderi Vainio = L. zosterae
pallescens (L.) Röhl = Ochrolechia pallescens (L.) A. Massal., but misidentification for North America
pallescens var. upsaliensis (L.) Flotow = Ochrolechia upsaliensis
pallida (Schreber) Rabenh. var. pallida = L. albella var. albella
pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo = L. albella var. rubescens
parisiensis Nyl. = L. horiza
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Sommerf. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
peltata (Ramond) Steudel = Protoparmeliopsis peltata
peltastictoides Hasse (Knudsen 2003) = Aspicilia peltastictoides (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)
percrenata H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis percrenata
pergibbosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia pergibbosa
perpruinosa Fröberg (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis perpruinosa
perradiata Nyl. = Aspicilia perradiata
persimilis (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Myriolecis persimilis
pertusa Lynge = Aspicilia pertusa
phaedrophthalma Poelt var. phaedrophthalma = Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma
phaedrophthalma var. christoi (W. A. Weber) B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma
phaeobola Tuck. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
pinastri (Schaerer) H. Magn. = L. pulicaris
pinguis Tuck. = Protoparmeliopsis pinguis
piniperda Körber = L. albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)

pleiospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
pleistospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
plicigera Zahlbr. = Aspicilia plicigera
polychroma (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia polychroma
praecrenata Nyl. = Aspicilia praecrenata
praeradiosa Nyl. = Lobothallia praeradiosa
privigna (Ach.) Nyl. = Polysporina simplex
privigna var. revertens Tuck. = Polysporina simplex
pruinosa Chaub.  Not in North America
pseudochlarotera Brodo = L. hybocarpa
punicea (Sw.) Ach.  North American records are Haematomma persoonii
radiosa (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Lobothallia radiosa
ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. May (Printzen & May 2002) = L. filamentosa
reptans Looman = Aspicilia reptans
riparia G. Merr. non (Flotow) M. Steiner = L. xylophila
rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia rolleana
rosulata (Körber) Stizenb. = Aspicilia rosulata
rubina (Vill.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
rugosa auct. (Fink 1935) = L. chlarotera (Brodo 1984)
rugosella Zahlbr. = L. chlarotera (Ryan et al. 2004)
ryrkaipiae H. Magn. = Aspicilia ryrkaipiae
salina H. Magn. = Myriolecis salina

sambuci (Pers.) Nyl. = Myriolecis sambuci

sanguinea (Kremp.)
Mig. = Bellemerea sanguinea
saxicola (Pollich) Ach. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis

schizochromatica Pérez-Ortega, T. Sprib.
& Printzen  (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010) = Palicella schizochromatica (Rodriguez Flakus & Printzen 2014)
schofieldii Brodo  (Brodo 2010) = Myriolecis schofieldii
scotopholis (Tuck.) Timdal = Miriquidica scotopholis
semipallida H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a) = Myriolecis semipallida
sipeana H. Magn. = Aspicilia sipeana
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = L. rupicola
spodophaeiza Nyl. (Fink 1935, Ryan et al. 2004) = Lecania aipospila
stenospora Stizenb. = Pleopsidium flavum
straminea Ach. = Myriolecis straminea
stygioplaca Nyl.
= Aspicilia subradians
subdispersa Nyl. ex Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
subfusca (L.) Ach. = nom. rej. prop. = L. allophana
subfusca var. campestris (Schaerer) Rabenh. = Lecanora campestris
subfuscata H. Magn. = L. argentata
sublapponica Zahlbr. = Aspicilia sublapponica
subolivascens Nyl. = Caloplaca demissa
subpallida G. Merr. non C. Knight = L. subpallens
subradians Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subradiascens Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
superfluens H. Magn. = L. geophila
supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia supertegens
sylvestris (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = L. rubicunda
symmictera Nyl. = L. symmicta
tartarea (L.) Ach. = Ochrolechia tartarea
tenera (Nyl.) Crombie = Cliostomum tenerum
tenuis H. Magn. = Aspicilia tenuis
tesselina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = L. oreinoides
tetraspora H. Magn. = L. pacifica
thamnitis Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
thamnoplaca Tuck. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
thelococcoides Nyl.
= Acarospora thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
thomsonii H. Magn. = Rhizoplaca novomexicana (Ryan & Nash 1991, Zhao et al. 2016)
torrida Vainio = Myriolecis torrida
turbinata Poelt & Leuckert = L. zosterae var. beringii (Sliwa 2007b)
umbrina (Ach.) A. Massal. = L. hagenii (Śliwa 2007b)
urceolaria (Fr.) Wetmore = Megaspora verrucosa
varia subsp. densa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. densa
varia subsp. laxa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. laxa
variolascens auct. = L. impudens for North American records
#verrucariicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Miriquidica verrucariicola (Knudsen et al. 2015)
verrucigera (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia verrucigera
verrucosa (Ach.)
Laurer = Megaspora verrucosa
versicolor (Pers.) Ach. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
victoriae (F. Wilson) “Tibell”  Erroneous creation by typographic error (in ver. 10), should be Mycocalicium victoriae
weberi B. D. Ryan = Rhizoplaca weberi
wetmorei Śliwa  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Myriolecis wetmorei
xanthophana Nyl. = Acarospora xanthophana, but a misidentification for North America
zosterae (Ach.) Nyl. var. zosterae = Myriolecis zosterae

zosterae var. beringii (Nyl.) Śliwa (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis zosterae

zosterae var. palanderi (Vainio) Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis zosterae

LECANOROPSIS M. Choisy
saligna (Schrader) M. Choisy = Lecanora saligna


LECIDEA
Ach.
albofuscescens Nyl.
albohyalina (Nyl.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Biatora albohyalina (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
alpestris Sommerf.
amniculensis J. Lowe  Possibly a syn. of Brianaria lutulata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
atomaria Th. Fr.
atrobrunnea (Ramond ex Lam. & DC.) Schaerer subsp. atrobrunnea
atrobrunnea subsp. planaica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Leuckert 2011)

atromarginata H. Magn.
atroviridis (Arnold) Th. Fr.
auriculata Th. Fr. subsp. auriculata (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
auriculata subsp. brachyspora Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
baffiniana H. Magn.
betulicola (Kullh.) H. Magn. f. endamylea (Hedl.) Hinter. (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
brachyspora (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
brodoana Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
brunneofusca H. Magn.
californica Zahlbr.
carneoalbens Nyl.
carnulenta (Tuck.) Fink
cascadensis H. Magn.
cellularis Lowe
cinerata Zahlbr.
commaculans Nyl. (Fryday 2006)
confluens (Weber) Ach.
confluentula Müll. Arg. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2014b)
congesta Fink
coriacea Holien & Palice (Holien et al. 2016)
crassilabra Müll. Arg.
crisima Nyl.
cruciaria Tuck.
cyrtidia Tuck.
(Harris 1997)
deminutula H. Magn.
deplanaica (Hertel & Leuckert) McCune  Syn.: L. atroburnnea ssp. deplanaica (McCune et al. 2017)
despecta Th. Fr.
diducens Nyl.
eckfeldtii Zahlbr.
ecrustacea (Anzi ex Arnold) Arnold
enalla Nyl. (Printzen 1995)
enterophaea Vainio
epiphaea Nyl. 
(Spribille et al. 2010)
erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf.
extenuata Vainio
flavidolivens (Tuck.)
Fink
formosa (Bagl. & Carestia) Knoph & Leuckert (Knudsen et al. 2017)
fuliginosa Taylor
furvonigrans (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
fuscatoatra Nyl.
fuscoatra (L.) Ach.
goniophiloides B. de Lesd.
haerjedalica H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a)
hassei Zahlbr.
herteliana Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2012)
hoganii E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp & Lendemer 2015)
holopolia (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
homosema Nyl.
hypomela Nyl.
intropallida Fink
katahdinensis Degel.
kingmanii (Hasse) Hertel & S. Ekman  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
laboriosa Müll. Arg. (Hertel 1995)
labradorica Arnold
lactea Flörke ex Schaerer  (McCune et al. 2014b)
lapicida (Ach.) Ach. (Coppins 2002; Hertel & Andreev 2003)
leprarioides Tønsberg
leucothallina Arnold
lithophila (Ach.) Ach.
louisianae B. de Lesd.
lyngei Degel.
malmeana Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
mamillana Tuck.
mannii Tuck.
meiocarpa Nyl. var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
melaphanoides Nyl.
merrillii H. Magn.
microps Tuck. (Fink 1935, Perlmutter & Greene 2005)
micytho Tuck. ex Willey (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
moreliiensis B. de Lesd.
mutabilis Fée
nearingii H. Magn.
nylanderi (Anzi) Th. Fr.
occidentalis Lynge
olivascens Th. Fr
oreophila K. Knudsen & Kocourk.  (Knudsen & Kocourková 2014a)
pacifica Herre
paupercula Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
peliaspis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
perlatolica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
phaeopelidna Vainio
phaeops Nyl.
picea Lynge
plana (J. Lahm) Nyl.
plebeja Nyl.
polaris Lynge
polycocca Sommerf.
populina Müll. Arg. ex Nyl. Syn.: Micarea populina
praenubila Nyl.
praetermissa Tønsberg
promiscens Nyl.
protabacina Nyl.
pseudaglaea Hertel  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
pulla Lowe
pumicicola H. Magn.
ramulosa Th. Fr.
rivulorum H. Magn.
roseotincta Coppins & Tønsberg
rubrocastanea T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille & Printzen 2007)
sarcogynoides Körber (McMullin & Lendemer 2013)
sauteri Körber  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
scabridula Hedl. nom. illeg. (Spribille & Björk 2008)
silacea Ach.
somphoterella Vainio
sphaerella Hedl. = a species of Lecania? (Printzen 1995)
steineri Hertel
strasseri Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
stratura K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2017)
subaglaea B. de Lesd.
subcandida H. Magn.
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
subrhagadiella Lynge
swartzioidea Nyl.
syncarpa Zahlbr. (McCune 1998b)
tenayucae B. de Lesd.
tenuissima Lynge
tessellata Flörke
tessellata var. caesia (Anzi) Arnold
theodori Lynge
torquens Müll. Arg. = a species of Lecanora? (Printzen 1995)
trapelioides Printzen  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
truckeei Herre
turgidula Fr.  Syn.: Biatora turgidula
umbonata (Hepp) Mudd
uniformis McCune (McCune et al. 2017)
varians Ach.  Syn.: Biatora varians, Pyrrhospora varians (Hertel & Printzen 2004), Lecidea subtilis (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
versicolor Schwein. (Printzen 1995)
virginiensis Calk. & Nyl.
xanthococcoides Zahlbr.
ablephora Nyl. = Ramonia ablephora
acrocyanea (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. = Lecidella patavina
adirondackii H. Magn. = Psilolechia clavulifera
admiscens Nyl. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
aenea (Fr.) Nyl. = Miriquidica garovaglioi
aeruginosa Borrer = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
aglaea Sommerf. = Calvitimela aglaea
aglaeida Nyl. = Calvitimela aglaea
ahlesii (Hepp) Nyl. (Harris 1995b) = Bryobilimbia ahlesii
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday & Coppins (Coppins & Fryday 2006b) = Bryobilimbia ahlesii var. nemoralis
aitema Ach. = Lecanora aitema
alaiensis Vainio = Lecidella patavina
alaskensis Nyl. = Herteliana alaskensis
albidocinerella (Vainio) Vainio = Lecidella effugiens
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Ach. = Porpidia albocaerulescens
albonigra H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
albosuffusa Th. Fr. = Farnoldia jurana
aleutica Degel. = Fuscidea aleutica
amabilis B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
amaurospoda (Anzi) Vainio = Lecidea pullata
"amylacea Ach. 1810" nom. illeg. Probably refers to Lecanora marginata
aniptiza Stirton = Micarea denigrata
anthracophila Nyl. = Carbonicola anthracophila
antoniensis H. Magn. = L. hassei
apochroeiza Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
arctica Sommerf. = Frutidella caesioatra
arctogena (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Calvitimela testaceoatra
arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
armeniaca (DC.) Fr. = Calvitimela armeniaca
assimilata Nyl. = Micarea assimilata
assimilis (Körber) Th. Fr. = Carbonea assimilis
associata Th. Fr. = Geltingia associata
atrata (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Tremolecia atrata
atrobrunnea subsp. deplanaica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Leuckert 2011) = L. deplanaica (McCune et al. 2017)

atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. syncarpa (McCune et al. 2014b)
atrobrunnea subsp. stictica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. protabacina (McCune et al. 2014b)
atrofulva Sommerf. = Miriquidica atrofulva
atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
atrolutescens Nyl. = L. mannii
atronivea Arnold = Carbonea atronivea
austrocalifornica Zahlbr. = Carbonea latypizodes
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Nyl. (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = Mycobilimbia berengeriana
botryosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Hertelidea botryosa
brandegei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegei
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Psorula rufonigra
brujeriana (D. Dietr.) Leighton = Ainoa mooreana, but a misidentification for North America
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Lecanora cadubriae
caeca J. Lowe = Lambiella caeca
caesioatra Schaerer = Frutidella caesioatra
caesiocoronata J. Lowe  = Lecidea olivascens (Degelius 1957); belongs to Lecanora according to Printzen (1995)
calcivora (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Clauzadea immersa
carbonoidea J. W. Thomson = Immersaria carbonoidea
carpathica (Körber) Szatala = Lecidella carpathica
catalinaria Stizenb. = Lecidella asema
caudata Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Ropalospora lugubris
caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = a Lecanora sp.
chalybeiza Nyl.= Leimonis erratica
cinereoatra Ach. = Porpidia cinereoatra
cinereorufa Schaerer = Schaereria cinereorufa
cinnabarina Sommerf. = Ramboldia cinnabarina
circumnigrata H. Magn. = Miriquidica pulvinata
circumnigrata var. reagens H. Magn. = Miriquidica lulensis
coarctata (Turner ex Sm.) Nyl. = Trapelia coarctata
colludens Nyl. = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
columbiana H. Magn. = L. tessellata
columnata J. Lowe = Cecidonia xenophana
conferenda Nyl. = Adelolecia kolaensis
contigua Fr. = Porpidia macrocarpa
contigua var. convexella (Wainio) Fink (Claassen 1917) = Porpidia macrocarpa
coroniformis Kremp. = Psora crenata
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Helocarpon crassipes
crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata
crustulata (Ach.) Sprengel = Porpidia crustulata
cuprea Sommerf. = Biatora cuprea
cyanea (Ach.) Rohl. = L. tessellata
cyanescens Lynge = L. lapicida
cyathoides (Ach.) Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but a misidentification for North America
cyrtella Ach. = Lecania cyrtella
decipiens (Hedwig) Ach. = Psora decipiens
degelii H. Magn. = Porpidia degelii (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
delincta Nyl. = Bryobilimbia ahlesii  (Arup 2004, Fryday et al. 2014)
declinis Tuck. = Catillaria nigroclavata (Ekman 1996)
demissa (Rutstr.) Ach. = Lecidoma demissum
deustata Zahlbr. = Miriquidica deusta
diapensiae Th. Fr. = Bryobilimbia diapensiae
dicksonii auct. = Tremolecia atrata
dicksonii (Gmelin) Ach. = nomen dubium
dilutiuscula Nyl. = Brianaria bauschiana
diversa J. Lowe = Porpidia contraponenda
dolodes Nyl. = Schaeraria dolodes
efflorescens (Hedl.) Erichsen = Biatora efflorescens
elabens Fr. = Ramboldia elabens
elaeochroma (Ach.) Ach. = Lecidella elaeochroma
elata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
elegantior H. Magn. = Amygdalaria elegantior
ementiens Nyl. = Biatora ementiens  (Printzen2014)
endolithea Lynge = Lecidella patavina
enteroleuca auct. = Lecidella spp.
epiiodiza Nyl. = Schaereria endocyanea
epixanthoidiza Nyl. nom. rej. prop. = Biatora efflorescens
erratica Körber = Leimonis erratica
euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. = Lecidella euphorea
evansii H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica
fissuriseda Poelt = Mycobilimbia fissuriseda
flavocaerulescens Hornem. = Porpidia flavicunda
flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
floridensis Nyl. = Malmidea floridensis (Cáceres et al. 2017)
friesii Ach. = Xylopsora friesii
furfuracea Pers. = Phyllopsora furfuracea
furfurosa Tuck. ex Nyl. = Malmidea furfurosa
furva J. Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
furvella Nyl. ex Mudd = Lambiella furvella
fusca (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
fuscescens Sommerf. = Lecanora fuscescens
fuscoatrina Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. cascadensis (Hutten et al. 2013)
fuscocinerea Nyl. = Schaereria fuscocinerea
fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Clauzadea monticola (Scholz 2000)
garovaglioi Schaerer = Miriquidica garovaglioi
gelatinosa Flörke = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
geophana Nyl. = Steinia geophana
glaucophaea Körber = Porpidia rugosa (Fryday 2005)
glaucopholis Nyl. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
glebulosa (Fr.) Clem. = Trapeliopsis wallrothii, but misidentifications for North America
globulosa Flörke = Biatora globulosa
globifera Ach. = Psora globifera
glomerulosa (DC.) Steudel = Lecidella euphorea
goniophila auct. = Lecidella anomaloides
granosa Tuck. = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
granulata H. Magn. = Lecidella granulata
granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa
granulosa var. phyllizans Zahlbr. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
gregaria G. Merr. = Trapelia glebulosa
grisella Flörke ex Schaerer = L. fuscoatra
griseoatra (Flotow) Schaerer (Fink 1935) = Miriquidica griseoatra (Santesson et al. 2004)
gyrodes H. Magn. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
gyalizella Nyl. = Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
gyrophoroides Sprengel (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hebescens
Nyl. = Porpidia albocaerulescens (Lendemer 2004a)
helvola (Körber) Th. Fr. = Biatora helvola
helvola var. longispora Degel. = Biatora longispora
heppii R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Lecidella wulfenii
homalodes Nyl. = L. tessellata Flörke (Hertel 1991)
humilis J. Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
humosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Placynthiella uliginosa
hypnorum Lib. = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
hypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
hypopta Ach. = Lecanora hypopta
icterica (Mont.) Taylor = Psora icterica
impavida Th.
Fr. = Lambiella impavida
instrata Nyl. = Miriquidica instrata
insularis Nyl. = Lambiella insularis
internectens Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
intrudens H. Magn. = Carbonia intrudens (Dillman et al. 2012)
intumescens (Flotow) Nyl.
= Lambiella insularis
jurana Schaerer = Farnoldia jurana
kochiana Hepp = Fuscidea kochiana, but apparently a misidentification for N.A. (Fryday 2008)
kochiana var. subreagens H. Magn.
= Fuscidea scrupulosa
lacus-crateris H. Magn. = Lecidella stigmatea
lapicida var. pantherina Ach. (Hertel & Andreev 2003) = L. lactea (Coppins 2002)
latypea auct. non Ach. = Lecidella carpathica
latypea Ach. = L. plana
latypiza Nyl. = Lecidella carpathica

lepidastra Tuck. = Buellia lepidastra

leptoboloides Nyl. = L. laboriosa
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaea
leucophaeoides Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaeoides
limborina (Nyl.) Lamy = Rimularia limborina
limitata auct. = Lecidella elaeochroma
limosa Ach.
= Protomicarea limosa
lithospersa Zahlbr. = Farnoldia hypocrita
lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann = Ainoa mooreana, but a misidentification for North America
lowensis H. Magn. = Fuscidea lowensis
lucida (Ach.) Ach. = Psilolechia lucida
lugubris Sommerf. = Ropalospora lugubris
lulensis (Hellbom) Stizenb. = Miriquidica lulensis
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Romjularia lurida
luridella Tuck. = Psora luridella
lynceola Th. Fr. = Micarea lynceola, but a misidentification for N. America (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lynceola auct. N. Am. = Brinaria bauschiana (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lyngeana Zahlbr. = Adelolecia pilati
macrocarpa (DC.) Steudel = Porpidia macrocarpa
macrocarpa var. trullisata (Arnold) Mig. = Porpidia zeoroides
mamillaria Tuck. (Mohr 1901)  Apparent typographical error for L. mamillana
manni Tuck. (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)  Orthographic variant of L. mannii
marciensis J. Lowe = Miriquidica pycnocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
marginata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
marylandensis H. Magn. = Miriquidica leucophaea  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
medialis Tuck. ex Nyl. = Bacidia medialis (Ekman 1996)
meiocarpa Nyl.
= Biatora meiocarpa
meiocarpa var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg = Biatora meiocarpa var. tacomensis
melancheima Tuck. = Ramboldia elabens
melinodes (Körber) H. Magn. ex Lynge = Porpidia melinodes
micacea Körber = Lecidella stigmatea
michenerii (Tuck.)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
minuta (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora meiocarpa
misella (Nyl.) Nyl. = Micarea misella
mollis (Wahlenb.) Nyl. = Fuscidea mollis
monticola Ach.
= Clauzadea monticola
mundula M
üll. Arg. = Lecanora oreinodes (Rambold 1989)
myriocarpella (G. Merr.) Zahlbr., nom. illeg., probable synonym of Lecidea enalla (Printzen 1995)
myriocarpoides Nyl. = L. plebeja
neglecta Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Lepraria neglecta
nemoralis J. Lowe = Bryobilimbia ahlesii var. nemoralis
nivalis Anzi = Farnoldia micropsis
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) W. A. Weber ex R. A. Anderson = Psora nipponica
oblongula H. Magn. = Caloplaca oblongula
obtegens Th. Fr. = Trapelia obtegens
occidentalis Lynge = L. tessellata (Hertel 1991)
ochrococca Nyl. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
ochrophora Nyl. = Piccolia ochrophora
oligotropha J. R. Laundon = Placynthiella oligotropha
olivacea (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Lecidella elaeochroma
oreinodes (Körber) W. A. Weber & Hertel = Lecanora oreinoides
ornata (Sommerf.) Hue = Trapelia glebulosa
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora orosthea
ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Hypocenomyce scalaris
*oxyspora (Tul.) Nyl. = Phacopsis oxyspora
paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora paddensis (McCune et al. 2014b)
pallida Th. Fr. = Pilophorus dovrensis
panaeola (Ach.) Ach. = Amygdalaria panaeola
pantherina (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. lactea
parasema (Ach.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Lecidella elaeochroma (Scholz 2000)
parasemella Nyl. = Schaereria parasemella
parvifolia Pers. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
"pelobotrion" = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leighton = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
petri (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Romjularia lurida
phaeophora Stizenb. = Lecanora phaeophora
phylliscina Nyl. = Porpidia macrocarpa
pilati (Hepp) Körber = Adelolecia pilati
placidensis H. Magn. = Lecanora placidensis
planetica Tuck. ex Willey = Leimonis erratica
platycarpa Ach. = Porpidia macrocarpa
plumbeoatra Vainio = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
polycarpa Fl
örke (Fink 1935) = L. lapicida (Santesson et al. 2004)
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Th. Fr. = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
praeruptorum Du Rietz & H. Magn. = Fuscidea praeruptorum
prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd. = Lecidella scabra
pringlei Tuck. = Lecanora pringlei
pruinosa Ach. = L. lithophila
pulcherrima Vainio = Anamylopsora pulcherrima
pullata (Norman) Th. Fr. (Jørgensen et al. 2002) = Frutidella pullata
pullula (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora anopta
punctella (Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea rhabdogena
purissima Darb. = Lecanora marginata
pycnocarpa (Körber) Ohlert = Miriquidica pycnocarpa
quadricolor (Dickson) Borrer = Trapeliopsis granulosa
quernea (Dickson) Ach. = Pyrrhospora quernea
ramulicola H. Magn. = Lecanora cadubriae
recedens Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus
recensa Stirton = Fuscidea recensa
rhaetica Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Farnoldia micropsis
rivulosa Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but a misidentification for North America
rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Psora rubiformis
rufofusca (Anzi) Nyl. = Myochroidea rufofusca
rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl. = Psorula rufonigra
rugosa J. Lowe = Schaereria cinereorufa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
russula Ach. = Ramboldia russula
sanguineoatra sens. Nyl. = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
santae-monicae H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
santensis Tuck.
= Phyllopsora santensis
saxosa R. A. Anderson = L. syncarpa (Hertel 1995, Leuckert & Hertel 2003)
scabra Taylor = Lecidella scabra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
schizopeltica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004, Hertel & Leuckert 2011) = L. truckeei (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007)
scholanderi Lynge = Toninia tristis subsp. scholanderi
scotopholis (Tuck.) Herre = Miriquidica scotopholis
scrobiculata Th. Fr. = Lecanora scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
scrupulosa (Eckfeldt) H. Magn. = Fuscidea scrupulosa
shushanii J. W. Thomson = Lecidea aglaeida (Haugan & Timdal 1994) = Calvitimela aglaea (Hertel & Andreev 2003)

soredifera J. Lowe = Porpidia macrocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
sorediza Nyl. = Porpidia tuberculosa
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Vainio = Porpidia soredizodes
speirea (Ach.) Ach. = Porpidia speirea
sphacelata Th. Fr. = Lambiella sphacelata
stenotera (Nyl.) Nyl. = L. alpestris
steriza (Ach.) Vainio = Porpidia macrocarpa
stigmatea Ach. = Lecidella stigmatea
suballinita Nyl. = Micarea ternaria (Nyl.)
Vězda (Printzen 1995)
subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge = Lecidella spp.
subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd. = Adelolecia pilati
subcinnabarina Tønsberg = Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina 
subcontinuior B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
suberratica J. Lowe = Micarea erratica
sublimosa Nyl. = Megalaria jemtlandica
subplebeia Nyl. = Carbonea latypizodes
subplebeja Vainio  This name (a corticolous Brazilian taxon) was first added to the North American checklist in the 1960 Hale & Culberson version, apparently erroneously replacing L. subplebeia Nyl. (a saxicolous California taxon) which had been in the 1956 version.
subplumbea Anzi = (?) Miriquidica griseoatra
subramosa J. Lowe = Toninia squalescens  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
subsimplex H. Magn. = Porpidia subsimplex
subsorediza Lynge = Bellemerea subsorediza
subtilis Degel. = Lecidea varians (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb. = Lecanora sulphurea
sylvana (Körber) Th.
Fr. = Biatoraa globulosa
sylvicola Flotow = Brianaria sylvicola
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora symmicta
symmictella Nyl. (Spribille & Björk 2008) = Puttea caesia (Dillman et al. 2012)
templetonii Taylor = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
tenebrosa Flotow = Schaereria fuscocinerea
tennessensis Nyl. = Lecanora oreinoides
tesselina Tuck. = Lecanora oreinoides
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. = Psora testacea  Not included in the North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana
tornoënsis Nyl. = Japewia tornoënsis
trochodes (Taylor ex Leighton) Crombie = Rimularia limborina
tuckeii Herre (Fink 1935)  Apparent typographic error for L. truckeei
tumida A. Massal. = Porpidia tuberculosa
uliginosa (Schrader) Ach. = Placynthiella uliginosa
ultima Th. Fr. = Cephalophysis leucospila
umbonella Nyl. = Cecidonia umbonella
vacciniicola Tønsberg = Biatora vacciniicola
vernalis (L.) Ach. = Biatora vernalis
vernicoma Tuck. = Buellia vernicoma
violascens H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
viridans (Flotow) Lamy = Lecidella viridans
viridescens (Schrader) Ach. = Trapeliopsis viridescens
*vitellinaria Nyl. = Carbonea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Körber = Carbonea vorticosa
vulgata Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
wallrothii Flörke ex Sprengel = Trapeliopsis wallrothii, but misidentifications for North America
washingtonensis H. Magn. = L. cascadensis
wulfenii (Hepp) Arnold = Lecidella wulfenii
xanthococca Sommerf. = Pycnora xanthococca
ypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
zahlbruckneri Fink = Lecidella latypiza (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)

LECIDELLA Körber
anomaloides (A. Massal.) Hertel & H. Kilias Syn.: Lecidea goniophila auct.
asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea catalinaria
bullata Körber
carpathica Körber Syns.: Lecidea latypiza, L. carpathica, L. latypea auct., L. evansi, L. albonigra
chiricahuana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
dimelaenophila Hertel
effugiens (Nilson) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea albidocinerella
elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syns.: Lecidea elaeochroma, L. olivacea, L. limitata auct.
enteroleucella (Nyl.) Hertel
euphorea (Flörke) Hertel  Syns.: Lecidea euphorea, L. glomerulosa
flavosorediata (Vězda) Hertel & Leuckert
granulata (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea granulata
granulosula (Nyl.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
latypiza (Nyl.) M. Choisy
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Körber (Goward et al. 1996)
meiococca (Nyl.)
Leuckert & Hertel
nashiana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
patavina (A. Massal.)
Knoph & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea acrocyanea, L. alaiensis, L. endolithea
pulveracea (Flörke ex Th. Fr.) P. Sydow  (Laundon 2005)
scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea scabra, L. prasinula
stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Bacidia arthoniza, Lecidea micacea, L. stigmatea, L. vulgata, L. lacus-crateris
[Lecidea subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge]
subviridis Tønsberg  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
tumidula (A. Massal.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
viridans (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Lecidea viridans
wulfenii (Hepp) Körber Syns.: Lecidea heppii, L. wulfenii
alaiensis (Vainio) Hertel = L. patavina
chodatii (Samp.) Knoph & Leuckert = L. granulosula
elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel = L. asema
enteroleuca auct. = various Lecidella spp.
glomerulosa (DC.) M. Choisy = L. euphorea
goniophila auct. = L. anomaloides
inamoena (Müll. Arg.) Hertel = L. patavina
incongruella (Vainio) Hertel & Leuckert = L. effugiens placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel = L. scabra
pycnocarpa Körber = Miriquidica pycnocarpa
spitsbergensis (Lynge) Hertel & Leuckert = L. patavina
subincongrua (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.)
Hertel & Leuckert = L. asema

LECIDOMA Gotth. Schneider & Hertel
demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel Syns.: Lecidea demissa, Lepidoma demissum, Psora demissa

LECIOGRAPHA A. Massal. = OPEGRAPHA
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Phacographa glaucomaria
*glaucomarioidea (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = Dactylospora glaucomarioides
*inspersa (Tul.) Rehm = possibly Dactylospora parasitica
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc. = Opegrapha lamyi
*parasitica A. Massal. = Opegrapha rupestris
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Fink = Dactylospora pertusariicola
*urceolata (Fr.) Körber = Dactylospora urceolata

LECIOPHYSMA Th. Fr.
finmarkicum Th. Fr.
furfurascens (Nyl.) Gyelnik
saximontana (T. Sprib., P. M. Jørg. & M. Schultz) P. M. Jørg., Wedin & S. Ekman  Syn.: Santessoniella saximontana (Ekman et al. 2014)

LEIGHTONIOMYCES D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton
#phillipsii (Berk. & Leighton) D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (McCune & Stone 2009)

LEIMONIS R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
erratica (Körber) R. C. Harris & Lendemer  Syns.: Lecidea chalybeiformis, L. erratica, L. suberratica, Micarea erratica

LEIODERMA
Nyl.
cherokeense P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2005)
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.

LEIORREUMA Eschw.
erodens F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
exaltatum (Mont. & Bosch) Staiger Syn.: Graphis diversa, Phaeographis exaltata (Staiger 2002)
explicans (Fink) Lendemer  Syn.:  Phaeographina explicans (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
patellulum (F
ée) Staiger  Syn.:  Phaeographis patellula (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
sericeum (Eschw.) Staiger  Syn.: Phaeographis sericea (Staiger 2002)

LEMMOPSIS (Vainio) Zahlbr.
arnoldiana (Hepp) Zahlbr.
(Schultz 2002d)

LEMPHOLEMMA Körber
chalazanum (Ach.) B. de Lesd. 
Syn.: Psorotichia segregata, Collemopsis segregata (Schultz 2007b)
cladodes (Tuck.)
Zahlbr.
intricatum (Arnold) Zahlbr.
isidiodes (Nyl. ex Arnold) H. Magn.
oblique-peltatum (Eschw.) C. W. Dodge
polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme  Syn.: Collema myriococcum
radiatum (Sommerf.) Henssen
umbella (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Omphalaria umbella
vesiculiferum Henssen
albonigrumH. Magn. = L. cladodes
fennicum (Räsänen) Degel. (Goward 1999) = L. intricatum
myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. polyanthes

LEPIDOCOLLEMA Vainio
marianum (Fr.) P. M. Jørg.  Syns.: Pannaria mariana, Parmeliella mariana  (Ekman et al. 2014)  Uncertain for North America (Jørgensen 2000c)
stylophorum (Vainio) P. M. Jørg.  Syns.: Pannaria stylophora, Parmeliella stylophorum (Ekman et al. 2014)

LEPIDOMA (Ach.) Gray
demissum (Rutstr.) M. Choisy = Lecidoma demissum

LEPRA Scop. (Hafellner & Türk 2016, Lendemer & Harris 2017)
albescens (Hudson) Hafellner  Syns.: Pertusaria albescens, P. globulifera, P. scutellaris
amara (Ach.) Hafellner  Syns.: Pertusaria amara, Variolaria amara
andersoniae (Lendemer) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria andersonii
commutata (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria commutata, P. copiosa
dactylina (Ach.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria dactylina
excludens (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria excludens
floridana (Dibben) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria floridana
hypothamnolica (Dibben) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria hypothamnolica
multipunctoides (Dibben) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria multipunctoides, Variolaria multipunctoides
ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria lecanina subsp. nigra, P. ophthalmiza, Variolaria ophthalmiza
panyrga (Ach.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria panyrga
pustulata (Brodo & W. Culb.) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Haematomma pustulatum, Loxospora pustulata, Variolaria pustulata
subdactylina (Nyl.) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria subdactylina
trachythallina (Erichsen) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria trachythallina, Variolaria trachythallina
ventosa (Malme) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria ventosa
waghornei (Hulting) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Pertusaria waghornei, Variolaria waghornei

LEPRARIA Ach.
albicans (Th. Fr.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon albicans, Stereocaulon albicans  (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
arbuscula (Nyl.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon arbuscula, Stereocaulon arbuscula (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
aurescens Orange & Wolseley (Lendemer 2010a)
barbatica Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
brodoi Lendemer & Tønsberg (Lendemer & Tønsberg 2014)
caesiella
R. C. Harris  (Lendemer 2005a)
cryophila Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa  Syn.: Leproloma diffusum (Kukwa 2002)
disjuncta Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
eburnea
J. R. Laundon
elobataTønsberg (Tønsberg 1997)
finkii (B. de Lesd.) R. C. Harris (Lendemer 2013b)  Syns: Crocynia aliciae, C. americana
friabilis Lendemer, K. Knudsen & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008b)
gracilescens (Nyl.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Leprocaulon gracilescens (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
harrisiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2012a)
hodkinsoniana Lendemer (Lendemer 2011b)
humida Slav.-Bayr. & Orange (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
jackii Tønsberg (Kümmerling et al. 1995)
lanata Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007)
lecanorica Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
leprolomopsis Diederich & Sérus. (Lendemer 2013b)
membranacea (Dickson) Vainio Syn.: Leproloma membranaceum, Amphiloma lanuginosum (Kukwa 2002)
neglecta (Nyl.)
Erichsen  Syn.: Crocynia neglecta
nivalis J. R. Laundon
normandinoides Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2007)
oxybapha Lendemer (Lendemer 2012b)
pacifica Lendemer (Lendemer 2011b)
rigidula (B. de Lesd.) Tønsberg
squamatica Elix (Lendemer 2008)
subalbicans (I. M. Lamb) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon subalbicans, Stereocaulon subalbicans (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
torii P
érez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009a)
vouauxii (Hue) R. C. Harris Syn.: Leproloma vouauxii (Kukwa 2002)
xanthonica Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
xerophila Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2007) = Leprocaulon adhaerens
aeruginosa auct. = misidentification for North America
aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm. = not a lichen-forming fungus
alpina (B. de Lesd.)
Tretiach & Baruffo (Knudsen & Elix 2007a) = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
arctica (Lynge) Wetmore = L. vouauxii
borealis Loht. & Tønsberg = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013b)
cacuminum sensu J. R. Laundon = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
cacuminum sensu Loht. = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
caesioalba
(B. de Lesd.) J. R. Laundon = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)

candelaris (L.) Fr. = Chrysothrix candelaris
chlorina (Ach.) Ach. = Chrysothrix chlorina
citrina (Schaerer) Rabenh.
= Chrysothrix candelaris
crassissima (Hue) Lettau = misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
crassissima var. isidiata Llimona = misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
diffusa
(J. R. Laundon) Kukwa var. chrysodetoides (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa = L. diffusa (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
flava (Schreber) Sm. = Chrysothrix candelaris
frigida J. R. Laundon = L. eburnea (Tønsberg 2004b)
gelida Tønsberg & Zhurb. (Kukwa & Zhurbenko 2010) = Lepraria neglecta (Lendemer 2013b)
incana (L.) Ach. = misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
lesdainii (Hue) R. C. Harris = Botryolepraria lesdainii

lobificans
auct. N.A. non Nyl. = L. finkii  (Lendemer 2013b)
moroziana Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a) = Andreiomyces morozianus

salazinica Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007) = L. elobata (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
santamonicae K. Knudsen & Elix (Knudsen & Elix 2007b) = Leprocaulon santamonicae
terricola Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a) = Leprocaulon terricola
texta K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen & Elix 2007a) = Leprocaulon textum
zonata Brodo = L. neglecta

LEPROCAULON Nyl. ex Lamy
adhaerens (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria adhaerens (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
americanum Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
knudsenii Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
santamonicae (K. Knudsen & Elix) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepararia santamonicae (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
terricola (Lendemer) Lendemr & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria terricola (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
textum (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria texta (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Lepraria albicans
arbuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. = Lepraria arbuscula
gracilescens (Nyl.) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria gracilescens
microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. = L. quisquiliare, but North American records are L. americanum (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
pseudoarbuscula (Asahina) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward =
Lepraria subalbicans for North American records
quisquiliare (Leers) M. Choisy = misidentification for North America

subalbicans
(I. M. Lamb) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria subalbicans

LEPROCOLLEMA Vainio
americanum Vainio   Apparently absent from N.A. north of Mexico (Schultz 2007a)

LEPROLOMA Nyl. ex Crombie = LEPRARIA  (Kukwa 2002)
angardianum (Øvstedal) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria neglecta
cacuminum (A. Massal.) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria neglecta
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. diffusum = Lepraria diffusa
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. chrysodetoides J. R. Laundon (Goward et al. 1996) = Lepraria diffusa
membranaceum (Dickson) Vainio = Lepraria membranacea
"membranaceum var. chrysodetoides" Removed as a typographical error here
vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria vouauxii

LEPROPLACA (Nyl.) Hue (Arup et al. 2013)
cirrochroa (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca cirrochroa
chrysodeta (Vainio) J. R. Laundon ex Ahti  Syn.: Caloplaca chrysodeta
obliterans (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca obliterans

LEPTOCHIDIUM M. Choisy
albociliatum (Desm.) M. Choisy Syns.: Polychidium albociliatum, Leptogium albociliatum, L. pilosellum
crenatulum (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2006)

LEPTOGIDIUM Nyl. (Muggia et al. 2011)
contortum (Henssen) T. Sprib. & Muggia (Muggia et al. 2011)
dendriscum (Nyl.) Nyl.  Syn.: Polychidium dendriscum
intricatulum Nyl. = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum

LEPTOGIUM (Ach.) Gray
acadiense J. W. Hinds, F. L. Anderson & Lendemer (Stone et al. 2016)
adpressum Nyl.
arcticum P. M. Jørg.
arsenei Sierk
austroamericanum (Malme) C. W. Dodge
azureum (Sw. ex Ach.)
Mont.
brebissonii Mont.
burgessii (L.) Mont.
byssinum (Hoffm.) Zwackh ex Nyl.
chloromelum (Ach.) Nyl.
compactum D. F. Stone, F. L. Anderson & J. W. Hinds (Stone et al. 2016)
cookii D. F. Stone & Lendemer (Stone et al. 2016)
coralloideum (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)  Syn.: Parmelia coralloideum
corticola (Taylor) Tuck.
crenatulum (Nyl.) Vainio
cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körber
digitatum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
floridanum Sierk
fusisporum (Tuck.) C. W. Dodge
hibernicum M. E. Mitch. ex P. M. Jørg.  (Nealy & Anderson 2010)
hirsutum Sierk
hypotrachynum Müll. Arg.
insigne P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2010)
isidiosellum (Riddle) Sierk
joergensenii Marcelli & Kitaura (Kitaura et al. 2015)
juressianum Tav.
(Lendemer et al. 2008c)
laceroides B. de Lesd.
marginellum (Sw.) Gray
microstictum Vainio
milligranum Sierk
nanum Herre (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge  (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.
pseudofurfuraceum P. M. Jørg. & Wallace (Jørgensen 1997)
resupinans Nyl. (
Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
rivulare (Ach.) Mont.
rugosum Sierk
saturninum (Dickson) Nyl.
sessile Vainio
stipitatum Vainio
albociliatum Desm. = Leptochidium albociliatum
americanum Degel. = L. laceroides
amphineum Ach. ex Nyl. = L. byssinum
apalachense (Tuck.) Nyl. = Scytinium apalachense (Otálora et al. 2014)
aquale (Arnold) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium aquale (Otálora et al. 2014)
aragonii Otálora (Otálora et al. 2008) = Scytinium aragonii (Otálora et al. 2014)
arizonicum Zahlbr. = Scytinium juniperinum
biatorinum (Nyl.) Leighton (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = L. nanum, for North American report (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
bullatum (Sw. in Ach.) Nyl.
(Fink 1935)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
burnetiae C. W. Dodge  Misidentifications for North America (Stone et al. 2016)
burnetiae C. W. Dodge var. hirsutum (Sierk) P. M. Jørg. = L. hirsutum
caesiellum Tuck. = L. byssinum
caesium (Ach.) Vainio = L. cyanescens
californicum Tuck. = Scytinium californicum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
cellulosum P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium cellulosum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
contortum Sierk = Scytinium contortum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks = Scytinium palmatum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
crenatellum (Nyl.) Tuck. = L. rivulare
dactylinum Tuck. = Scytinium dactylinum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
denticulatum Nyl. = misidentification for North America (Kitaura et al. 2015)
denticulatum sensu Sierk (1964) = L. joergensenii (Kitaura et al. 2015)
erectum Sierk = Scytinium erectum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
fragile (Tayl.) Nyl (Fink 1935) = Scytinium fragile Taylor, but a likely misidentification for North America (Degelius 1954)
furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk = L. pseudofurfuraceum (for North American reports; Jørgensen 1997)
gelatinosum (With.) J. R. Laundon = Scytinium gelatinosum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
hildenbrandii (Garov.) Nyl. = a European species, a misidentification for North America (Sierk 1964)
imbricatum P. M. Jørg. = Scytinium imbricatum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
inflexum Nyl. = L. burgessii (fide Jørgensen)
intermedium (Arnold) Arnold = Scytinium intermedium
(Otálora et al. 2014)
intricatulum Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Scytinium teretiusculum (Sierk 1964)
juniperinum Tuck. = Scytinium juniperinum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
lacerum (Sw.) Gray = Scytinium lichenoides
lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr. = Scytinium lichenoides (Otálora et al. 2014)
lividofuscum (Florke ex Schlecht.) Flotow = Scytinium tenuissimum
microdium (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Scytinium plicatile (Sierk 1964)
minutissimum (Flörke) Fr.
= Scytinium subtile
minutissimum auct. = Scytinium intermedium
muscicola (Sw.) Fr. = Polychidium muscicola
palmatum (Hudson) Mont.  (Hoffman & Hafellner 2000; Santesson et al. 2004) = Scytinium palmatum (Otálora et al. 2014)
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge  North American reports refer to L. pseudofurfuraceum
parculum Nyl. = Scytinium parculum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
perminutum Hedr. = Scytinium subtile
pilosellum G. Merr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
platynum (Tuck.) Herre = Scytinium platynum (Otálora et al. 2014)
plectenchymum Fink = Scytinium juniperinum
plicatile (Ach.) Leighton = Scytinium plicatile (Otálora et al. 2014)
polycarpum P. M. Jørg. & Goward = Scytinium polycarpum (Otálora et al. 2014)
pulchellum (Ach.) Nyl. = Collema pulchellum
pulvillus Tuck. (Fink 1935)  Possible synonym of Scytinium lichenoides (Sierk 1964)
rhyparodes Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Scytinium callopismum
rivale Tuck. = Scytinium rivale (Otálora et al. 2014)
schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. = Scytinium schraderi (Otálora et al. 2014)
scotinum (Ach.) Fr. = Scytinium gelatinosum (Santesson et al. 2004)
sinuatum (Hudson) A. Massal. = Scytinium gelatinosum
siskiyouensis D. F. Stone & Ruchty (Stone & Ruchty 2008) = Scytinium siskiyouensis (Otálora et al. 2014)
subaridum P. M. Jørg. & Goward = Scytinium subaridum (Otálora et al. 2014)
subtile (Schrader) Torss. = Scytinium subtile (Otálora et al. 2014)
tacomae P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium tacomae (McCune et al. 2014b)
tenuissimum (Dickson) Körber = Scytinium tenuissimum (Otálora et al. 2014)
teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold = Scytinium teretiusculum (Otálora et al. 2014)
tremelloides auct. = L. cyanescens
turgidum (Ach.) Crombie (McCune & Rosentreter 2007) = Scytinium turgidum (Otálora et al. 2014)

LEPTORHAPHIS Körber
atomaria (Ach.) Szatala
#contorta Degel.
#epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
lucida Körber
+parameca (A. Massal.) Körber
quercus (Beltr.) Körber = identity uncertain

LEPTOSPHAERULINA McAlpine
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Riedel

LEPTOTREMA Mont. & Bosch (Frisch 2006)
auberianum (Mont.) Fink = Stegobolus auberianus
glaucescens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Leucodecton glaucescens
heterosporum (C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema santense
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. =
Ocellularia laeviusculum
lepadodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema monosporum
monosporum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Thelotrema monosporum
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale = Ocellularia bahiana
polycarpum Müll. Arg. = Leucodecton subcompunctum
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink = Sanguinotrema wightii
reclusum (Kremp.) Zahlbr. =
Leucodecton compunctellum
santense (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Reimnitzia santensis

wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg. (Frisch 2006) = Sanguinotrema wightii (Lücking et al. 2015)

LETHARIA (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr.
columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson
gracilis Kroken ex McCune & Altermann (McCune & Altermann 2009)
lupina Altermann, Leavitt & Goward (Altermann et al. 2016)
vulpina (L.) Hue Syn.: Evernia vulpina
californica (Lév.) Hue = L. columbiana
vulpina (L.) Hue f. californica (Lév.) W. A. Weber = L. columbiana

LETHARIICOLA Grummann = SPHAEROPEZIA (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*cucularis (Norman) Lumbsch & D. Hawksw. = Sphaeropezia cuculuris
*sipei Grummann = Sphaeropezia sipei

LETROUITIA Hafellner & Bellem.
domingensis (Pers.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Bombyliospora domingensis, Lopadium domingense, Heterothecium domingense
parabola (Nyl.) R. Sant. & Hafellner
vulpina (Tuck.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Lopadium vulpinum, Bombyliospora vulpina

LETTAUIA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*santessonii Ihlen & Tønsberg (Ihlen & Tønsberg 1996)
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Cryptodiscus cladoniicola

LEUCOCARPIA Vězda
biatorella (Arnold) Vězda (Buck & Harris 2001)
dictyospora (Orange) R. Sant.  (Alstrup 2004)

LEUCODECTON Massal. (Frisch 2006)
compunctellum (Nyl.) Frisch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syns.: Leptotrema reclusum, Myriotrema reclusum
compunctum (Ach.) A. Massal. (Seavey et al. 2017)
fissurinum (Hale) A. Frisch (Seavey et al. 2017)

glaucescens (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema glaucescens, Myriotrema glaucescens, Thelotrema glaucescens (Frisch 2006)
occultum (Eschw.) A. Frisch  Syn: Myriotrema compunctum (Frisch 2006)
phaeosporum (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2014)
subcompunctum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema polycarpum (Frisch 2006), Myriotrema subcompunctum
willeyi (Nyl.) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Phlyctis willeyi  (Lendemer & Harris 2014d)

LEUCOGYROPHANA
Pouzar
*lichenicola Thorn, Malloch & Ginns (Thorn et al. 1998)

LICHENOBARYA Etayo, Diederich & Lawrey (Lawrey et al. 2015)
*usneae (Etayo) Etayo, Diederich & Lawrey (Lawrey et al. 2015)

LICHENOCHORA Hafellner
*arctica Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*galligena R. Sant. & Hafellner (Diederich 2003)
*haematommatum R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
*lepidiotae (Anzi) Etayo & Nav.-Ros. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*obscuroides (Lindsay) Triebel & Rambold (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*rinodinae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*verrucicola (Wedd.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant.
*xanthoriae Triebel & Rambold
*thallina (Cooke) Hafellner = L. obscuroides

LICHENOCONIUM Petrak & H. Sydow
*cargillianum (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*christiansenii M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2004)
*edgewoodensis Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*erodens M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.
*follmannii Kondratyuk & Galloway (Kondratyuk & Galloway 1995)
*laevisporum Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb et al. 1995)
*lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw.
*lichenicola (P. Karsten) Petrak & H. Sydow (Etayo et al. 2007)
*pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petrak & H. Sydow
*usneae (Anzi) D. Hawksw.
*xanthoriae M. S. Christ.

LICHENODIPLIS Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*dendrographae Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*lecanoricola (M. S. Cole & Hawksw.) Diederich Syn.: Laeviomyces lecanoricola (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*rinodinicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) Diederich 
Erroneously listed here (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOMPHALIA Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys (Redhead et al. 2002)
alpina (Britzelm.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina alpina, O. luteovitellina, Phytoconis luteovitellina, Botrydina luteovitellina (Redhead et al. 2002)
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina hudsoniana, Botrydina viridis, Coriscium viride, Phytoconis viridis (Redhead et al. 2002)
oreades (Singer) Voitk, Thorn & I. Saar (Lücking et al. 2017b)
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina umbellifera, O. ericetorum, Phytoconis ericetorum, Botrydina botryoides, B.vulgaris (Redhead et al. 2002)
velutina (Quél.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina velutina, Phytoconis velutina, Botrydina velutina (Redhead et al. 2002)

LICHENOPELTELLA Höhn.
*arctomiae P
érez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*biatorae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib.
(Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*cladoniarum E. S. Hansen & Alstrup (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)
*heterodermiicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2002)
*leprosulae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii (P. M. Kirk & Spooner) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*stereocaulorum Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2010)
*thamnoliae R. Sant. 
Erroneously listed here; reported only from South America (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOPUCCINIA D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*poeltii D. Hawksw. & Haffelner (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOSTICTA Zopf
*alcicornaria (Lindsay) D. Hawksw.

LICHENOSTIGMA Hafellner
*alpinum (R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phaeosporobolus alpinus (Ertz et al. 2014)
*ampla Calat. & Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*anatolica Halici & Kocakaya (Lendemer et al. 2009b)
*bolacinae Nav.-Ros., Calat. & Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*chlaroterae (F. Berger & Brackel) Ertz & Diederich  (Ertz et al. 2014)
*cosmopolites Hafellner & Calatayud (Hafellner & Calatayud 1999)
*dimelaenae Calat. & Hafellner  (Calatayud et al. 2004)
*elongata Nav.-Ros. & Hafellner (Navarro-Rosines & Hafellner 1996)
*fellhanerae (R. C. Harris & Lendemer) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phaeosporobolus fellhanerae (Ertz et al. 2014) 
*maureri Hafellner  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) Syns: Abrothallus usneae auct. non Rabenh., Phaeosporobolus usneae (Ertz et al. 2014)
*radicans Calatayud & Barreno (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008)
*rugosa Thor
*saxicola K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010d)
*semiimmersa Hafellner (Hafellner 1999)
*subradians Hafellner, Calatyud & Nav.-Ros. (Calatayud et al. 2002)

LICHENOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
#arida Muggia, Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Muggia et al. 2015)
#calcarea Henssen
#convexa Henssen
#intermixta Henssen
#metzleri (J. Lahm) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia metzleri
#renobalesiana D. Hawksw. & V. Atienza (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d)
#scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Microthelia aterrima, Rinodina aterrima
#tenuissima Henssen
#umbrophila Muggia, Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Muggia et al. 2015)

LICHENOTHRIX Henssen = PYRENOTHRIX
riddlei Henssen = Pyrenothrix nigra

LICHINA C. Agardh
confinis (O. F. Müller) C. Agardh
willeyi (Tuck.) Henssen

LICHINELLA Nyl.
americana Henssen
cribellifera (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea  Syn.: Gonohymenia cribellifera, Rechingeria cribellifera
flexa Henssen, Büdel & T. H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
granulosa M. Schultz (Schultz 2005)
intermedia Henssen (Schultz 2005)

iodopulchra (Croz.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
melamphylla (Tuck.) Essl. Syns.: Gonohymenia melamphylla, Pannaria melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Essl. Syns.: Forsellia minnesotensis, Gonohymenia minnesotensis
myriospora (Zahlbr.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
nigritella (Lettau) P. P. Moreno & Egea  Syn.: Gonohymenia nigritella, Thyrea nigritella

robustoides Henssen, Büdel & T.H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
sinaica (Marton & Galun) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
stipatula Nyl.

LICHINODIUM Nyl.
ahlneri Henssen (Spribille et al. 2010)
canadense Henssen
saxicola Henssen
sirosiphoideum Nyl.

LIGNOSCRIPTA B. D. Ryan
atroalba B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan 2004a)

LITHOGRAPHA Nyl.
tesserata (DC.) Nyl.

LITHOTHELIUM Müll. Arg.
hyalosporum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Arthopyrenia hyalospora, Plagiocarpa hyalospora, Pleurotrema solivagum
illotum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa illota, P. langloisii
macrosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa macrospora
microsporum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
phaeosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa phaeosporum
septemseptatum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa septemseptata

LLIMONAEA Egea & Torrente
californica (Tuck.) Sparrius (Sparrius 2004b) = Schizopelte crustosa (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius (Sparrius 2004b) = Sparria cerebriformis (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

LLIMONIELLA
Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.
*acarosporicola (Kocourk. & K. Knudsen) Diederich & Ertz  Syn.: Gelatinopsis acarosporicola  (Diederich et al. 2010)
*catapyrenii Zhurb., Kukwa & Flakus (Zhurbenko 2013)
*cinnabarinae Pérez-Ortega, Etayo & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011)
*pertusariae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*phaeophysciae Diederich, Ertz & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2010)
*pyrenulae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*neglecta (Vainio) Triebel & Rambold = Rhymbocarpus neglectus

LOBARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
amplissima
(Scop.) Forssell (Tønsberg & Goward 2001)  Syn.: Sticta amplissima, S. glomulifera
anomala (Brodo & Ahti) T. Sprib. & McCune  Syns.: Anomalobaria anomala, Pseudocyphellaria anomala (McCune et al. 2014b)
anthraspis (Ach.) T. Sprib. & McCune  Syns.: Anomalobaria anthraspis, Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis, Sticta anthraspis (McCune et al. 2014b)
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Sticta hallii
kurokawae Yoshim.
linita (Ach.) Rabenh. Syn.: Sticta linita
oregana (Tuck.)
Müll. Arg. Syn.: Sticta oregana
pseudopulmonaria Gyelnik
pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Syn.: Sticta pulmonaria
quercizans Michaux  Syn.: Sticta quercizans
ravenelii (Tuck.) Yoshim. Syn.: Sticta erosa
retigera (Bory) Trevisan
scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. Syn.: Sticta verrucosa
silvae-veteris (Goward & Goffinet) Goward & Goffinet Syn.: Nephroma silvae-veteris (Goffinet & Goward 1998)
tenuis Vainio
erosa (Eschw.) Nyl. = L. ravenelii
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vainio Not in North America.
laetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr. = L. virens (With.) J. R. Laundon, but not known from North America
lobulifera B. J. Moore = L. tenuis
verrucosa (Hudson) Hoffm. = L. scrobiculata

LOBOTHALLIA (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia alphoplaca, Lecanora alphoplaca, Lecanora thamnoplaca
melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia melanaspis, Lecanora melanaspis
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia praeradiosa, Lecanora praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syn.: Aspicilia radiosa, Lecanora radiosa, L. circinata

LOPADIOPSIS Vainio = GYALECTIDIUM
floridana Zahlbr. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

LOPADIUM Körber
augustini (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
coralloideum (Nyl.) Lynge
disciforme (Flotow) Kullhem
dodgei Herre
pezizoideum (Ach.) Körber
alpinum (Körber) R. Sant. = Schadonia alpina
domingense (Pers.) Fink = Letrouitia domingensis
fecundum Th. Fr. = Schadonia fecunda
fuscum Müll. Arg. = Calopadia fusca
fuscoluteum (Dickson) Mudd = Brigantiaea fuscolutea
gemellum (Anzi) Stizenb. = Schadonia alpina
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) Zahlbr. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Calopadia puiggarii
phyllocharis (Mont.) Fink = Tapellaria epiphylla
vulpinum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia vulpina

LOPEZARIA Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) = MEGALARIA Hafellner (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
versicolor (Fée) Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) = Megalaria versicolor

LOXOSPORA A. Massal.
assateaguensis Lendemer (Lendemer 2013c)
cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner Syn.: Haematomma cismonicum
confusa Lendemer (Lendemer 2013c)
elatina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Haematomma elatinum
ochrophaea (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Haematomma ochrophaeum
pustulata (Brodo & W. L. Culb.) R. C. Harris =
Lepra pustulata

LOXOSPOROPSIS Henssen
corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

MACENTINA Vězda
dictyospora Orange (Will-Wolf 1998) = Psoroglaena dictyospora (Harada 2003)

MALCOLMIELLA Vězda
granifera (Ach.) Kalb & Lücking (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007) = Malmidea granifera

MALMIDEA
Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cineracea Breuss & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2017)
flavopustulosa (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
floridensis (Nyl.) M. Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Lecidea floridensis (Cáceres et al. 2017)
furfurosa (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb & Lücking  Syn.: Lecidea furfurosa (Lücking et al. 2011b)
fuscella (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
granifera (Ach.) Kalb, Rivas Platas & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora granifera, Malcolmiella granifera (Lücking et al. 2011b)
gyalectoides (Vainio) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leptoloma (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
piperis (Sprengel) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
rhodopis (Tuck.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
variabilis Kalb (Lücking et al. 2011b)
vinosa (Eschw.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)

MARCHANDIOBASIDIUM Diederich & Schultheis (Diederich & Lawrey 2007) = ERYTHRICIUM
*aurantiacum (Lasch) Diederich & Schultheis = Erythricium aurantiacum (Hawksworth & Helcini 2015)

MARCHANDIOMYCES
Diederich & D. Hawksw.
*buckii Diederich & Lawrey (Diederich & Lawrey 2007)
*corallinus (Roberge) Diederich & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Illosporium corallinum
#lignicola Lawrey & Diederich (DePriest et al. 2005)

MARONEA A. Massal.
constans (Nyl.) Hepp  Questionable for N.Am. (Harris 2006b)
polyphaea H. Magn.
carolinae H. Magn. = M. polyphaea (Harris 2006b)
porinoidea Zahlbr. = Ramonia valenzueliana

MASONHALEA Kärnefelt
inermis (Nyl.) Lumbsch, M. Nelsen & A. Thell  Syns.: Cetraria inermis, Tuckermannopsis inermis (Nelsen et al. 2013)
richardsonii (Hooker) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cetraria richardsonii

MASSALONGIA Körber
carnosa (Dickson) Körber
microphylliza (Nyl. ex Hasse) Henssen Syns.: Placynthium dubium, P. microphyllizum

MASSARINA Sacc.
staphyleae (Petr.) Aptroot = Pseudopyrenula staphyleae

MASTODIA Hooker f. & Harvey
tessellata (Hooker f. & Harvey) Hooker f. & Harvey  Syns.: Kohlmeyera complicatula, Turgidosculum complicatulum (Kohlmeyer et al. 2004)

MAZOSIA A. Massal.
carnea (Eckfeldt) Aptroot & M. Cáceres (Aptroot et al. 2014) Syns.: Enterographa carnea, Ocellularia carnea, Thelotrema carneum
viridescens (Fée) Aptroot & M. Cáceres (Seavey et al. 2017) Syns.: Platygrapha ocellata, Schismatomma ocellatum
ocellata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = M. viridescens (Tehler 1993, Aptroot et al. 2014)


ocellata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Platygrapha ocellata, Schismatomma ocellatum, Thelotrema carneum, Enterographa carnea, Ocellularia carnea
viridescens (Fée) Aptroot & M. Cáceres (Seavey et al. 2017)
carnea (Eckfeldt) Aptroot & M. Cáceres (Aptroot et al. 2014) = M. ocellata (Harris 1990)

MEDUSULINA Müll. Arg.
nitida (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Graphis nitida
texana Müll. Arg.

MEGALARIA Hafellner
albocincta (Degel.) Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)  Syns.: Catillaria albocincta, Catillochroma albocinctum (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
allenae Lendemer & McMullin (McMullin & Lendemer 2016)
alligatorensis Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
beechingii
Lendemer (Lendemer 2007b)
brodoana S. Ekman & Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
columbiana (G. Merr.) S. Ekman (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Catillaria columbiana
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.)
Hafellner Syns.: Catillaria grossa, Catinaria grossa, C. leucoplaca auct.
jemtlandica (Th. Fr. & Almq.) Fryday  Syn.: Catillaria jemtlandica, Lecidea sublimosa (Fryday 2004a)
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Hafellner (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)  Syns.: Catillaria laureri, Catinaria laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Fryday & Lendemer  Syns.: Catillaria leptocheila, Catillochroma leptocheilum (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
pannosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday & Lendemer (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
pulverea
(Borrer) Hafellner & E. Schreiner  Syn.: Catillaria pulverea
versicolor (Flotow) Fryday & Lendemer  Syn.: Catillochroma versicolor (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)

MEGALOSPORA Meyen
pachycheila (Tuck.) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora pachycheila, Heterothecium pachycheilum
porphyritis (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bombyliospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman Syn.: Bombyliospora tuberculosa, Heterothecium tuberculosum
sanguinaria (L.) A. Massal. = Mycoblastus sanguinaria
versicolor (Fée) Zahlbr. = Megalaria versicolor

MEGASPORA (Clauz. & Cl. Roux) Hafellner & V. Wirth
verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth  Syns.: Pachyospora verrucosa, P. mutabilis, Lecanora verrucosa, L. mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl.non Sommerf., L. urceolaria, Pertusaria freyi

MELANARIA Erichsen = PERTUSARIA
macounii I. M. Lamb = Pertusaria macounii

MELANELIA Essl.
agnata (Nyl.) A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria agnata
culbersonii (Hale) A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria culbersonii
hepatizon (Ach.) A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria hepatizon, C. polyschiza
stygia (L.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia stygia
albertana (Ahti) Essl.  = Melanelixia albertana
commixta (Nyl.) A. Thell = Cetrariella commixta
disjuncta
(Erichsen) Essl. = Montanelia disjuncta 
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperata

exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. =  Melanelixia fuliginosa, but apparently absent from North America

glabra (Schaerer) Essl.  North American reports are Melanelixia californica

glabratula (Lamy) Essl. = Melanelixia glabratula

glabroides (Essl.) Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides

granulosa (Lynge) Essl. = Montanelia disjuncta

halei (Ahti) Essl. = Melanohalea halei
incolorata (Parrique) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula

infumata (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) Essl. = Melanohalea multispora

olivacea (L.) Essl. = Melanohalea olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) Essl. = Melanohalea olivaceoides
panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. = Montanelia panniformis

septentrionalis (Lynge) Essl. =  Melanohalea septentrionalis

sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti = Montanelia sorediata

sorediosa (Almb.) Essl. = Montanelia sorediata

subargentifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subargentifera

subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subaurifera

subelegantula (Essl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subolivacea
substygia (Räsänen) Essl. = Montanelia tominii, but North American reports are M. saximontana or M. secwepemc
tominii (Oxner) Essl. = Montanelia tominii, but North American reports are M. saximontana or M. secwepemc

trabeculata (Ahti) Essl. = Melanohalea trabeculata

villosella (Essl.) Essl. (Esslinger 2002c) = Melanelixia villosella

MELANELIXIA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004a)
ahtii S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)

albertana (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia albertana, Parmelia albertana
californica A. Crespo & Divakar  (Divakar et al. 2010)
glabratula (Lamy) Sandler & Arup  Syns.: Melanelia glabratula, Parmelia glabratula

glabroides (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia glabroides, Parmelia glabroides
robertsoniorum S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et   al. 2016)
subargentifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subargentifera, Parmelia subargentifera, P. conspurcata

subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subaurifera, Parmelia subaurifera

villosella (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia villosella, Parmelia villosella
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) O. Blanco et al.  North American reports are misidentifications of M. glabratula ( Leavitt et al. 2012)

glabra (Schaerer) O. Blanco et al.  North American reports are M. californica

 

MELANOGRAPHA Müll. Arg. (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
*tribulodes (Tuck.) Müll. Arg.  Syn.: Melaspilea tribulodes, Opegrapha tribulodes (Ertz & Diederich 2015)

 

MELANOHALEA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004a)
beringiana S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)
clari S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)
columbiana S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)

elegantula (Zahlbr.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia elegantula, M. incolorata, Parmelia elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia exasperata, Parmelia exasperata,  P. aspera, P. aspidota

exasperatula (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia exasperatula, Parmelia exasperatula

halei (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia halei, Parmelia halei

infumata (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia infumata, Parmelia infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia multispora, Parmelia multispora

olivacea (L.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia olivacea, Parmelia olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia olivaceoides, Parmelia olivaceoides

septentrionalis (Lynge) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia septentrionalis, Parmelia septentrionalis

subelegantula (Essl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subelegantula, Parmelia subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia subolivacea, Parmelia subolivacea
tahltan S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)
trabeculata (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia trabeculata, Parmelia trabeculata

MELANOLECIA Hertel
transitoria (Arnold) Hertel ex Poelt
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel = Farnoldia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.)
Hertel = Farnoldia micropsis

MELANOMMA Nitschke ex Fuckel
+oxysporum (Zahlbr.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia oxyspora

MELANOPHLOEA P. James & Vězda
americana K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2011b) = Trimmatothelopsis americana (Knudsen & Lendemer 2016)

Syn.: Thelenella americana (Knudsen & Kocouroková 2013)

MELANOTHECA Körber = PYRENULA
achariana Fée = Pyrenula anomala
aggregata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
= not in North America
anomala (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pyrenula anomala
cinerata Zahlbr. = Pyrenula sexlocularis
concatervans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula sexlocularis
cruenta (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruenta
esenbeckiana Fée = Tomasellia esenbeckiana, but a misidentification for North America
subincruenta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula cruenta
wrightii Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North American records

MELANOTOPELIA Lumbsch & Mangold (Mangold et al. 2008)
toensbergii (Vězda & Kantvilas) Lumbsch & Mangold  Syn.: Topeliopsis toensbergii (Mangold et al. 2008)

MELANOTREMA A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)
meiospermum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syn.: Ocellularia meiosperma, Phaeotrema meiospermum (Frisch 2006)
platystomum (Mont.) Frisch (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)

MELASPILEA Nyl.
amota Nyl.
cinerascens (Willey) Fink  Syn.: Opegrapha cinerascens
constrictella (Stirton) A. L. Sm.
*cupularis Müll. Arg.
demissa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Opegrapha demissa
*epigena Müll. Arg.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
gemella (Eschw.) Nyl. (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
interjecta (Leighton) A. L. Sm. (Villella et al. 2013)
maculosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
stellans Zahlbr.
urceolata
(Fr.) Ertz & Diederich (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
arthonioides (Fée) Nyl. = M. urceolata (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
deformis (Schaerer) Nyl. = Hazslinszkya gibberulosa, but misidentifications for North America (Perlmutter et al. 2015)
difformis (Rabenh.) Nyl. = Hazslinszkya gibberulosa (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
gibberulosa (Ach.) Zwackh  (Brodo 1967) = Hazslinszkya gibberulosa (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
lentiginosula (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. = misidentification for North America (Perlmutter et al. 2015)
mesophlebia (Nyl.)
Müll. Arg. = Opegrapha mesophlebia (Perlmutter et al. 2015)
octomera Müll. Arg. = Opegrapha astraea (Perlmutter et al. 2015)
+proximella (Nyl.) Nyl. = Melaspileella proximella (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
*tribulodes (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Melanographa tribulodes (Ertz & Diederich 2015)

MELASPILEELLA
(P. Karsten) Vainio  (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
+proximella (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Melaspilea proximella

MENEGAZZIA
A. Massal.
subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant.  (Bjerke 2003)
terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia pertusa, P. sipeana
pertusa (Schrank) Stein = M. terebrata

MERISMATIUM Zopf
*coccisporum (Norman) Vouaux
*decolorans (Rehm ex Arnold) Triebel
*heterophractum (Nyl.) Vouaux (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*nigritellum (Nyl.) Vouaux (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*peregrinum (Flotow) Triebel (Harris & Lendemer 2005)

METAMELANEA Henssen
melambola (Tuck.) Henssen Syns.: Pyrenopsis melambola, Synalissa melambola
umbonata Henssen (Fryday 2006)

METASPHAERIA Sacc.
*tartarina (Nyl.) Keissler (Talbot et al. 2000) = Sagediopsis campsteriana

MICAREA Fr.
adnata Coppins (McCune 2017)
alabastrites (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
anterior (Nyl.) Hedl. (McCune et al. 2014b)
assimilata (Nyl.) Coppins Syn.: Lecidea assimilata
botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins (McCune 1996)
byssacea (Th. Fr.) Czarnota, Guzow-Krzemińska & Coppins (Launis & Myllys 2014)
chlorosticta (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia chlorosticta
cinerea (Schaerer) Hedl.
coppinsii Tønsberg (Fryday 2006)
deminuta Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
denigrata (Fr.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea aniptiza
elachista (Körber) Coppins & R. Sant.
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) R. C. Harris Syn.: Bacidia endocyanea
globulosella (Nyl.) Coppins
hedlundii Coppins
incrassata Hedl.
leprosula (Th. Fr.) Coppins & A. Fletcher
lignaria (Ach.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia lignaria
lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl.
marginata Coppins & Muhr (Fryday 2006)
melaena (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Bacidia melaena, Bilimbia melaena
micrococca (Körber) Gams ex Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
misella (Nyl.) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea misella
myriocarpa V. Wirth & V
ězda ex Coppins (Tønsberg 1999a)
neostipitata Coppins & P. May (Coppins & May 2001)
nigella Coppins (McCune 2017)
nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm.
paratropa (Nyl.) Alstrup (Alstrup et al. 1994)
peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia trisepta, Bilimbia trisepta
perparvula (Nyl.) Coppins & Printzen (Printzen 1995, Coppins 2008)
prasina Fr. Syn.: Catillaria prasina
prasinella (Jatta) I. M. Lamb (Spribille et al. 2010)
pycnidiophora Coppins & P. James
rhabdogena (Norman) Hedl. Syn.: Lecidea punctella (Printzen 1995)
subalpina Coppins & T. Sprib.  (Coppins & Spribille 2004)
subviridescens (Nyl.) Hedl. (McCune 2017)
synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins (Tønsberg & Coppins 2000)
ternaria (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Lecidea suballinita

turfosa (A. Massal.) Du Rietz
vulpinaris (Nyl.) Muhr
xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (Coppins & Tønsberg 2001)

bauschiana (Körber) V. Wirth & Vězda  = Brianaria bauschiana (Ekman & Svensson 2014)

clavopycnidiata Brodo & Tønsberg = Szczawinskia tsugae (Aptroot et al. 1997)
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Coppins = Helocarpon crassipes
erratica (Körber) Hertel, Rambold & Pietschmann = Leimonis erratica
gelatinosa (Flörke) Brodo = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
globularis "(Ach. ex Nyl.)
Hedl." = M. misella
lutulata (Nyl.) Coppins = Brianaria lutulata (Ekman & Svensson 2014)
lynceola (Th. Fr.) Palice = misidentification for North America? (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
melanobola (Nyl.) Coppins = misidentifaction for North America (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
populina (Müll. Arg. ex Nyl.) R. A. Anderson & M. P. Carmer = Lecidea populina
subviolascens (H. Magn.) Coppins = Micarea paratropa (Alstrup et al. 1994)
sylvicola (Flotow) Vězda & V. Wirth = Brianaria sylvicola (Ekman & Svensson 2014)
trisepta (Hellbom) Wetmore = M. peliocarpa
tuberculata (Sommerf.)
R. A. Anderson = Brianaria tuberculata (Ekman & Svensson 2014)
violacea (Crouan ex Nyl.)
Hedl. = M. peliocarpa
viridescens (Schrader) Brodo = Trapeliopsis viridescens

MICAREOPSIS R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
irriguata R. C. Harris & Lendemer

MICROCALICIUM Vainio
+ahlneri Tibell
#arenarium (Hampe ex A. Massal.)
Tibell Syn.: Coniocybopsis arenaria
*conversum Tibell  (Tibell & Ryan 2004)
*disseminatum (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Mycocalicium disseminatum, Calicium disseminatum
*subpedicellatum (Schaerer) Tibell = M. disseminatum

MICROGLAENA Körber nom. illegit. = THELENELLA
corrosa (Körber) Arnold = Protothelenella corrosa
hassei Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei
inductula (Nyl.) Servít = Thelenella inductula
muscorum (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Thelenella muscorum
sordidula Th. Fr. = Thelenella sordidula
sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Lönnr. = Protothelenella sphinctrinoides
subcorallina Hasse = Thelenella modesta
sychnogonoides Zahlbr. = Thelenella hassei

MICROLYCHNUS A. Funk
epicorticis A. Funk = Gyalideopsis epicorticis

MICROPHIALE (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = COENOGONIUM
diluta (Pers.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Coenogonium pineti
lutea (Dickson) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Coenogonium luteum

MICROTHELIA Körber = ANISOMERIDUM
#aterrima (Kremp. ex Anzi) Zahlbr. = Lichenothelia scopularia
hymnothora (Ach.) Trevisan = Granulopyrenis hymnothora
#inops Degel. = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops
#metzleri J. Lahm = Lichenothelia metzleri
#micula auct. non Flotow ex Körber = Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops for most North American records
+oblongata Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
+oxyspora Zahlbr. = Melanomma oxysporum
+thelena (Ach.) Trevisan = Mycomicrothelia thelena, but not found in North America
verruculosa Anastasiou = identity uncertain
+wallrothii (Hepp) Rehm = Mycomicrothelia wallrothii
#willeyana Müll. Arg. = Mycomicrothelia willeyana

MINUTOEXCIPULA V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.
*mariana V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)
*miniatoexcipula R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
*tuckerae V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.

MIRIQUIDICA Hertel & Rambold (Hertel & Rambold 1987)
atrofulva (Sommerf.) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea atrofulva
deusta (Stenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea deustata
garovaglioi (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea garovaglioi, L. aenea
griseoatra (Flotow) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: (?) Lecidea subplumbea
instrata (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea instrata
intrudens (H. Magn.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecanora intrudens
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea leucophaea, L. marylandensis
leucophaeoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Andreev  Syn.: Lecidea leucophaeoides (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
lulensis (Hellbom) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea lulensis, L. circumnigrata var. reagens
nigroleprosa (Vainio) Hertel & Rambold (Spribille et al. 2010)
plumbeoatra (Vainio) A. J. Schwab & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea plumbeoatra, L. furva, L. humilis
pulvinatula (Arnold) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea circumnigrata
pycnocarpa (Körber) Andreev  Syn.: Lecidea marciensis, L. pycnocarpa, Lecidella pycnocarpa (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
scotopholis (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan & Timdal  Syns.:  Lecanora scotopholis, Lecidea scotopholis, Psora scotopholis, Psorula scotopholis (Nash et al. 2004a)
subplumbea (Anzi) Cl. Roux (McCune 2017, McMullin et al. 2017)
#verrucariicola (B. D. Ryan) K. Knudsen & Kocourk.  Syns.: Lecanora verrucariicola, Protoparmelia ryaniana (Knudsen et al. 2015)
mexicana Rambold, Sipman & Hertel (Knudsen & Owe-Larson 2005) = M. scotopholis (Knudsen et al. 2008b, Lendemer & Knudsen 2008, Knudsen et al. 2015)

MOBERGIA H. Mayrhofer & Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina angelica, R. bolodes, R. dirinoides, Dimelaena angelica
calculiformis (W. A. Weber) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina calculiformis, R. platyloba

MOELLEROPSIS Gyelnik
nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyelnik subsp. nebulosa (Jørgensen 2002)
nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyelnik subsp. frullaniae Maass (Jørgensen 2000a, Maass 1986)

MONOBLASTIA Riddle
borinquensis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
buckii R. C. Harris
cypressi R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
palmicola Riddle (Seavey et al. 2017)
rappii Zahlbr.

MONOBLASTIOPSIS R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse
konzana R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse (Harris & Morse 2008)
nigrocortina R. C. Harris & C. A. Morse (Harris & Morse 2008)

MONODICTYS S. Hughes
*cellulosa S. Hughes (Diederich 2003)
*fuliginosa Etayo (Zhurbenko 2009b)

MONTANELIA Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl. (Divakar et al. 2012)
disjuncta (Erichsen) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia disjuncta, Parmelia disjuncta, P. granulosa, P. denalii
ocultipanniformis S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)
panniformis (Nyl.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia panniformis, Parmelia panniformis
saximontana (R. Anderson & W. Weber) S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016) Syn.: Parmelia saximontana, P. substygia p.p.
secwepemc S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)
sorediata (Ach.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  Syns.: Melanelia sorediata, M. sorediosa, Parmelia sorediata, P. sorediosa
tominii (Oxner) Divakar, A. Crespo, Wedin & Essl.  North American reports are M. saximontana or M. secwepemc

 Syns.: Melanelia tominii, Parmelia saximontana, P. substygia

MOSIGIA Fr. ex A. Massal.
= RIMULARIA
gibbosa (Ach.) Fr. ex A. Massal. = Rimularia gibbosa

MUELLERELLA Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
*erratica (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. John  Syn.: M. pygmaea v. athallina (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*hospitans Stizenb.
(Spribille et al. 2010)
*lecanactidis Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola (Sommerf. ex Fr.) D. Hawksw.
*pygmaea (Körber) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Tichothecium pygmaeum
*ventosicola (Mudd) D. Hawksw.
*pygmaea var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel = *M. erratica
*pygmaea var. ventosicola (Mudd) Triebel = *M. ventosicola

MULTICLAVULA R. H. Petersen
coronilla (G. W. Martin) R. H Petersen
corynoides (Peck) R. H. Petersen
mucida (Fr.) R. H. Petersen
sharpii R. H. Petersen
vernalis (Schwein.) R. H. Petersen

MYCOBILIMBIA Rehm
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth  Syn.: Lecidea berengeriana
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman & Printzen (Ekman 2004c)  Syns.: Bacidia carneoalbida, B. sphaeroides, Biatora carneoalbida, Bilimbia sphaeroides auct.
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Vitik., Ahti, Kuusinen, Lommi & T. Ulvinen (Hafellner & Türk 2001)  Syns: Biatora epixanthoides, Lecidea epixanthoides
fissuriseda (Poelt) Poelt & Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea fissuriseda
pilularis (Körber) Hafellner & Türk  Syns.: Bacidia sphaeroides, Biatora sphaeroides, Bilimbia sphaeroides, Catillaria sphaeroides (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
tetramera (De Not.) Vitik., Ahti, Kuusinen, Lommi & T. Ulvinen ex Hafellner & Türk (Hafellner & Türk 2001)  Syn.: Bacidia fusca
accedens (Arnold) V. Wirth ex Hafellner = Bilimbia accedens
austrocalifornica (Zahlbr.) Knudsen (Knudsen 2005b) = Carbonea latypizodes
fusca (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth = M. tetramera
hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner = Bilimbia lobulata
lurida
(Ach.) Hafellner & Türk (Hafellner & Türk 2001) = Romjularia lurida
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) W. Brunnbauer = Bilimbia microcarpa
obscurata (Sommerf.) Rehm = M. tetramera
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner = Bilimbia sabuletorum

MYCOBLASTUS Norman
affinis (Schaerer) T. Schauer
alpinus (Fr.) Th. Fr. Ex Hellbom
caesius (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg Syn.: Haematomma caesium
glabrescens (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. (Kantvilas 2009)
sanguinarioides Kantvilas (Spribille et al. 2011b)
sanguinarius (L.) Norman  Syn.: Megalospora sanguinaria
fucatus (Stirton) Zahlbr. = Violella fucata (Spribille et al. 2011a)
marginatus Degel. = M. affinis (Spribille & Tønsberg 2007)
melinus (Kremp. ex Nyl.) Hellbom = M. affinis
tornoënsis (Nyl.) R. A. Anderson = Japewia tornoënsis

MYCOCALICIUM Vainio
+albonigrum (Nyl.)
Fink Syn.: Calicium albonigrum
+americanun (R. Sant.) Tibell
+calicioides (Nádv.)
Tibell Syn.: Sphinctrinella calicioides
fuscipes (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Calicium fuscipes
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink Syn.: Calicium ravenelii
reticulatum Nádv.
+sequoiae Bonar
+subtile (Pers.) Szatala Syns.: M. parietinum, Calicium subtile
victoriae (C. Knight & F. Wilson) Nádv. (Nash et al. 1998; Tibell 2007)
+compressulum Nyl. ex Szatala = Phaeocalicium compressulum
*disseminatum (Ach.) Fink = Microcalicium disseminatum
*microcephalum (Sm.) Fink = Sphinctrina anglica
+parietinum (Ach. ex Schaerer) D. Hawksw. = M. subtile
#pusiolum (Ach.) Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
+rappii Nádv. = Chaenothecopsis rappii (Harris 1995a)
+savonicum Räsänen = Chaenothecopsis savonica

MYCOGLAENA Höhnel
+acuminans (Nyl.) Vainio
+alni (Dearness & House) Barr
+canadensis (Ellis & Everh.) Barr
+elegans (Berk. & Curtis) Höhnel
+meridionalis (Zahlbr.) Szatala
+myricae (Nyl.) R. C. Harris
+quercicola R. C. Harris
+subcoerulescens (Nyl.) Höhnel

MYCOMICROTHELIA Keissler
apposita (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. (Seavey et al. 2017)
#captiosa (Kremp.) D. Hawksw.
decipiens (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Seavey et al. 2017)
+dothideaspora (Cook & Harkn.) D. Hawksw.
#hemisphaerica (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+inaequalis (Fabre) D. Hawksw.
#subfallens (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw.
+wallrothii (Hepp) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia wallrothii, M. oblongata
#willeyana (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia willeyana
thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia thelena, but not found in North America

MYCOPORELLUM Müll. Arg.
californicum Zahlbr.
= Mycoporum californicum (Harris 1995a)
difforme (Minks) Fink = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
hassei Zahlbr. = Mycoporum lacteum (Harris 1995a)
sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum sparsellum (Harris 1995a)

MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
acervatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
antecellens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia antecellens (Harris 1995a)
biseptatum Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Arthonia biseptata (Lendemer & Harris 2014c, Lendemer & Harris 2015a)
buckii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
californicum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia californica, Mycoporellum californicum
compositum (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Dermatina "pyrenocarpa", Arthothelium lichenale
eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Tomasellia eschweileri
+hippocastani (DC) Coppins (Aptroot 2002c)
lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Mycoporellum difforme, M. hassei, Tomasellia lactaea
mycoporoides (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Arthopyrenia mycoporoides
pycnocarpoides Müll. Arg.
sparsellum Nyl. (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Tomasellia sparsella, Mycoporellum sparsellum
uniloculatum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
ohiense Nyl. ex Fink = M. compositum
pycnocarpum Nyl. = M. compositum

MYELOCHROA (Asahina) Elix & Hale
aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina aurulenta, Parmelia aurulenta, P. silvestris
galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina galbina, Parmelia galbina, P. subquercifolia, P. sulphurosa
metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina metarevoluta, Parmelia metarevoluta
obsessa (Ach.)
Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina obsessa, Parmelia obsessa, P. finkii

MYOCHROIDEA Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Printzen et al. 2008)
leprosula (Arnold) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg
minutula Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg  Syns.:  Biatora porphyrospoda, Lecidea porphyrospoda
rufofusca (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg  Syn. : Biatora rufofusca, Lecidea rufofusca

MYRIOLECIS Clem.
agardhiana (Ach.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora agardhiana (Zhao et al. 2016)
albescens (Hoffm.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora albescens, L. galactina (Zhao et al. 2016)
andrewii (B. de Lesd.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora andrewii (Zhao et al. 2016)
carlottiana (Lewis & Śliwa) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora carlottiana (Zhao et al. 2016)
contractula (Nyl.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora contractula (Zhao et al. 2016)
crenulata (Hooker) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora crenulata (Zhao et al. 2016)
dispersa (Pers.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora dispersa (Zhao et al. 2016)
flowersiana (H. Magn.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora flowersiana (Zhao et al. 2016)
fugiens (Nyl.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora fugiens (Zhao et al. 2016)
hagenii (Ach.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora hagenii (Zhao et al. 2016)
invadens (H. Magn.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora invadens (Zhao et al. 2016)
juniperina (Śliwa) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora juniperina (Zhao et al. 2016)
percrenata (H. Magn.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora percrenata (Zhao et al. 2016)
perpruinosa (Fröberg) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora perpruinosa (Zhao et al. 2016)
persimilis (Th. Fr.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora persimilis (Zhao et al. 2016)
salina (H. Magn.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora salina (Zhao et al. 2016)
sambuci (Pers.) Clem.  Syn.: Lecanora sambuci (Zhao et al. 2016)
schofieldii (Brodo) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora schofieldii (Zhao et al. 2016)
semipallida (H. Magn.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syns.: Lecanora flotoviana, L. semipallida (Zhao et al. 2016)
straminea (Ach.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora straminea (Zhao et al. 2016)
torrida (Vainio) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora torrida (Zhao et al. 2016)
wetmorei (Śliwa) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora wetmorei (Zhao et al. 2016)
zosterae (Ach.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch  Syn.: Lecanora zosterae (Zhao et al. 2016)

MYRIONORA R. C. Harris
albidula (Willey) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Biatorella albidula

MYRIOSPORA Nägeli ex Uloth (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
hassei (Herre) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns.: Acarospora hassei, A. particularis, Silobia hassei (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
rhagadiza (Nyl.) K.Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns.: Acarospora amphibola auct., Silobia rhagadiza (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
scabrida (Hedl. ex Magn.) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia Syns.: Acarospora scabrida, Silobia scabrida (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
smaragdula (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Nägeli ex Uloth Syns.: Acarospora amphibola, A. smaragdula, A. smaragdula var. lesdainii, Silobia smaragdula (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Körber) Hue = Caeruleum heppii

immersa (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris = Caeruleum immersum

MYRIOTREMA Fée
clandestinum (Fée) Hale  Syn.: Ocellularia terebratula (Lücking et al. 2016)
glauculum (Nyl.) Hale
microporum (Mont.) Hale Syn.:  Ocellularia micropora
rugiferum (Harm.) Hale
bahianum (Ach.) Hale  North American reports are Ocellularia obturascens (Lücking et al. 2011)
compunctum (Ach.) Hale = Leucodecton occultum

erodens R. C. Harris = Ocellularia erodens (Lücking et al. 2016)
glaucescens (Nyl.) Hale = Leucodecton glaucescens
glaucophaenum (Kremp.) Hale = Glaucotrema glaucophaenum
granulosum (Leighton) Hale  Erroneously reported for North America
halei (Tuck.) Hale = Fibrillithecis halei
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Hale = Ocellularia laeviusculum (Lücking et al. 2016)
peninsulae R. C. Harris = Nadvornikia peninsulae (Lücking et al. 2016)
pycnoporellum (Nyl.) Hale (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Pycnotrema pycnoporellum (Lücking et al. 2016)
reclusum (Kremp.) Hale = Leucodecton compunctellum (Lücking et al. 2016)
subcompunctum (Nyl.) Hale = Leucodecton subcompunctum
terebratulum (Nyl.) Hale = Myriotrema clandestinum (Lücking et al. 2016)
wightii (Taylor) Hale = Sanguinotrema wightii

MYXOBILIMBIA Hafellner = BILIMBIA (Veldkamp 2004)
accedens (Arnold) Hafellner = Bilimbia accedens
sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner = Bilimbia sabuletorum

MYXOPHORA Döbbeler & Poelt
+leptogiophila (Minks ex G. Winter) Nik.
Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)

MYXOTRICHUM Kunze
*bicolor (Ehrenb. ex Pers.)
Fr.
poluninii Apinis = M. bicolor

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

NADVORNIKIA Tibell
hawaiiensis (Tuck.) Tibell
peninsulae (R. C. Harris) I. Medeiros, Lücking & Lumbsch  Syn.: Myriotrema peninsulae (Lücking et al. 2016)
sorediata R. C. Harris

NAETROCYMBE Körber
#atomarioides (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#atractospora (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#cedrina (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#fraxini (Massal.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
herrei K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009b)
#megalospora (Lönnr.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#punctiformis (Pers.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
#quassiicola (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
saxicola (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2010)
#massalongiana (Hepp) R. C. Harris  A European species, listed here erroneously(Harris 1995a)


NANOSTICTIS M. S. Christ.
*christiansenii Etayo (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*pseudocyphellariae Sherwood

NECTRIA (Fr.) Fr.
+zonata Seaver
*lecanodes Ces. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Nectriopsis lecanodes
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) D. Hawksw. = Ovicuculispora parmeliae
*rubefaciens Ellis & Everh. = Nectriopsis rubefaciens

NECTRIELLA Nitschke ex Fuckel
*anisospora Lowen = Pronectria anisospora

NECTRIOPSIS Maire
*cladoniicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*lecanodes (Ces.) Diederich & Schroers  Syn. Nectria lecanodes (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
*rubefaciens (Ellis & Everh.) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.  Syn.:  Nectria rubefaciens (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Ovicuculispora parmeliae

NEOBARYA Lowen
*peltigerae Lowen, Boqueras & Gomez-Bolea (Zhurbenko 2009c)

NEOCATAPYRENIUM Harada
disparatum Breuss (Breuss 2005)

NEOCOLEROA Petrak
*inundata (Vainio) Diederich (Harris & Lendemer 2009) Reported as uncertain

NEOFUSCELIA Essl.
= XANTHOPARMELIA (Blanco et al. 2004b; but, see McCune et al 2014b)
ahtii (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia ahtii
atticoides (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia atticoides
brunella (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia brunella
chiricahuensis (R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia chiricahuensis
infrapallida (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia infrapallida
loxodes (Nyl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia loxodes
occidentalis (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia occidentalis
pulla (Ach.) Essl.
= Xanthoparmelia pulla, but not present in North America
pustulosa (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia pustulosa
subhosseana (Essl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia subhosseana
verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Xanthoparmelia verruculifera

NEOLAMYA Theissen & Sydow
*peltigerae (Mont.) Theissen & Sydow (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*xanthoparmeliae Kocourk. (Kocourková 2009)

NEPHROMA Ach.
arcticum (L.) Torss.
bellum (Sprengel) Tuck.
expallidum (Nyl.) Nyl.
helveticum Ach. subsp. helveticum  Syn.: Nephromium helveticum
helveticum subsp. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Goward & Ahti
isidiosum (Nyl.) Gyelnik
laevigatum Ach.
occultum Wetmore
parile (Ach.) Ach.
resupinatum (L.) Ach.  Syn.: Sticta drummondii
aspera Tuck. = N. helveticum subsp. helveticum
canadense Räsanen = N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
filarszkyanum Gyelnik = N. bellum
helveticum Ach. var. sipeanum (Gyelnik) Wetmore = N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
laevigatum auct. non Ach.
= N. bellum
lusitanicum Schaerer = N. laevigatum Ach. non auct.
massachusettsianum Gyelnik = N. helveticum subsp. helveticum
plittii Gyelnik = N. helveticum subsp. helveticum
rameum (Schaerer) A. Massal.
(Fink 1935) = N. resupinatum (L.) Ach. (Wetmore 1960)
silvae-veteris Goward & Goffinet = Lobaria silvae-veteris
sipeanum Gyelnik = N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
szatalae Gyelnik = N. laevigatum
subtomentellum (Nyl.) Gyelnik = N. bellum
washingtoniense Gyelnik = N. laevigatum

NEPHROMIUM Nyl. = NEPHROMA
helveticum (Ach.) Nyl. = Nephroma helveticum
tropicum (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Gyelnik 1932) = Nephroma helveticum subsp. helveticum

NEPHROMOPSIS Müll. Arg.
californica Gyelnik = Tuckermannopsis orbata (Tucker 2013)
ciliaris (Ach.) Hue = Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
platyphylla (Tuck.) Herre = Tuckermannopsis platyphylla

NESOLECHIA A. Massal.
cladoniscum (Willey) Fink = apothecia of Pycnothelia papillaria
*oxyspora (Tul.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis oxyspora
*oxysporella (Nyl.) Arnold (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
papillariae (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = apothecia of Pycnothelia papillaria (Rambold & Triebel 1992)
*thallicola (A. Massal.) A. Massal. = Phacopsis thallicola
vitellinaria (Nyl.) Rehm (Fink 1935) = Carbonea vitellinaria (Scholz 2000)

NEUROPOGON Nees & Flotow = USNEA
lambii Imshaug = Usnea lambii
sulphureus (J. König) Hellbom = Usnea sphacelata
sphacelatus (R. Br.) Alstrup & E. S. Hansen = Usnea sphacelata

NIEBLA Rundel & Bowler
cedrosensis J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash  Syns.:  Vermilacinia cedrosensis, V. reptiloderma (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria cephalota, Ramalina, cephalota, Vermilacinia cephalota  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ceruchis Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria ceruchis, Ramalina, ceruchis, Vermilacinia  cerebra, V. corrugata, V. ceruchis, V. howei, V. leoni, V. leopardina, V. nylanderi, V. vesiculosa, V. zebrina  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ceruchoides Rundel & Bowler  Syns.:  Desmazieria ceruchoides, Vermilacinia ceruchoides, V. acicularis, V. pumila  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
combeoides (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.: Desmazieria combeoides, Ramalina combeoides, Vermilacinia combeoides  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
homalea (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler  Syns.: Desmazieria homalea, D. testudinaria, Ramalina homalea, R. testudinaria
isidiascens Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash & Riefner
laevigata Bowler & Rundel  Syns.:  Vermilacinia johncassadyi, V. laevigata, V. ligulata, V. paleoderma, V. rigida, V. rosei, V. varicosa (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
polymorpha Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash, & Riefner  Syn.:  Vermilacinia polymorpha (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
procera Rundel & Bowler  Syn.:  Vermilacinia procera (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
ramosissima Spjut  (Spjut 1996, Knudsen & Wheeler 2015)
robusta
(R. Howe) Rundel  Syns.:  Ramalina combeoides var. robusta,  Vermilacinia robusta  (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
tuberculata Riefner, Bowler, J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash  Syn: Vermilacinia tuberculata (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
caespitosa Spjut (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
cornea Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
dactylifera Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
disrupta (Nyl.) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
dissecta Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
eburnea Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
fimbriata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
flaccescens (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler = a South American species, not in North America
flagelliforma Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
halei Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
infundibula Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
laminaria Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
palmeri Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
siphonoloba Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
sorediata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
sorocarpia Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
testudinaria (Nyl.) Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea
undulata Spjut  (Spjut 1996) = N. homalea

NIESSLIA Auersw.
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & W. Gams (Hansen & Alstrup 1995)
*keissleri Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)
*lobariae Etayo & Diederich (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) Etayo (Zhurbenko 2010)

NIGROPUNCTA D. Hawksw.
*rugulosa D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

NIGROVOTHELIUM Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot
tropicum (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syns.: Pyrenula tropica, Trypethelium tropicum (Aptroot et al. 2016)

NODOBRYORIA Common & Brodo
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria abbreviata, Alectoria abbreviata
oregana (Tuck.) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria oregana, Alectoria oregana
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Common & Brodo Syns.: Bryoria subdivergens, Alectoria subdivergens

NORMANDINA Nyl.
pulchella (Borrer) Nyl. 
Syn.: Lauderlindsaya borreri (Muggia et al. 2010)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

OBRYZUM Wallr.
*corniculatum Wallr. (Diederich 2007b)

OCELLULARIA
G. Meyer
americana Hale
auberianoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cavata (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
concolor Meyen & Flotow (Harris 1995a)
erodens (R. C. Harris) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch  Syn.: Myriotrema erodens (Lücking et al. 2016)
fissa (Nyl.) Hale
laeviuscula (Nyl.) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch  Syns.: Leptotrema laeviusculum, Myriotrema laeviuscula (Lücking et al. 2016)
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale (Lücking et al. 2011b) Syn.: Thelotrema bahianum var. obturascens
postposita (Nyl.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006)
praestans (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema praestans
retispora R. C. Harris
sanfordiana (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Thelotrema sanfordianum  Possible synonym of Ocellularia interposita (Frisch 2006)
alborosella (Nyl.) R. Sant. = Chapsa alborosella
auberiana (Mont.) Hale = Stegobolus auberianus
bahiana (Ach.) A. Frisch  North American reports are O. obturascens (Lücking et al. 2011)
carnea (Eckfeldt) Zahlbr. = Mazosia ocellata
domingensis (Fée) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America
emersa (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. (Harris 1995a) = Rhabdodiscus emersus
floridensis Fink = Thelotrema porinoides
glaucophaena (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Glaucotrema glaucophaenum
granulosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Rhabdodiscus granulosus
interposita (Nyl.) Hale = misidentification for North America
lathraea (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema lathraeum
leiostoma (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Redingeria leiostoma (Tuck.) A. Frisch, but not in North America (Frisch & Kalb 2006)
meiosperma (Nyl.)
Hale = Melanotrema meiospermum
micropora (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Myriotrema microporum

stictidea (Nyl.) Vězda = Trinathotrema stictideum
subtilis (Tuck.) Riddle = Thelotrema subtile
terebratula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. =
Myriotrema clandestinum

OCHROLECHIA A. Massal.
africana Vainio
alaskana (Verseghy) Kukwa (Kukwa 2009b)
androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold
antillarum Brodo
arborea (Kreyer) Almb.
brodoi Kukwa  (Brodo & McCune 2017)
bryophaga (Erichsen) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch  Syn.: Pertusaria bryophaga
farinacea Howard
frigida (Sw.) Lynge
gowardii Brodo
grimmiae Lynge
gyalectina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
inaequatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
isidiata (Malme) Verseghy (Lendemer & Harris 2014b)
juvenalis Brodo
laevigata (Räsänen) Verseghy
mahluensis Räsänen (Brodo & Lendemer 2012; Knudsen 2012)
mexicana Vainio
microstictoides Räsänen (Brodo & Lendemer 2012)
montana Brodo
oregonensis H. Magn.
pseudopallescens Brodo
rhodoleuca (Th. Fr.) Brodo  Syn.: Pertusaria rhodoleuca
splendens Lumbsch & Messuti  (Roemer et al. 2004)
subathallina H. Magn.
subisidiata Brodo
subpallescens Verseghy
subplicans (Nyl.) Brodo subsp. subplicans Syn.: Pertusaria subplicans
subplicans subsp. hultenii (Erichsen) Brodo Syn.: Pertusaria hultenii
szatalaënsis Verseghy
tartarea (L.) A. Massal.
[Pertusaria trachydactyla Vainio]
trochophora (Vainio) Oshio var. trochophora
trochophora var. pruinirosella Brodo
turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot (Brodo & Lendemer 2012)
upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal.
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) K. Schmitz & Lumbsch  Syn.: Pertusaria xanthostoma
yasudae Vainio
alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr. = a European taxon, not in North America
apiculata Verseghy  Mistakenly reported for North America
californica Verseghy = O. oregonensis
elisabethae-kolae Verseghy = O. frigid
frigida f. alaskana Verseghy = O. alaskana
geminipara (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Pertusaria geminipara
gonatodes (Ach.) Räsänen = O. frigida
groenlandica Verseghy = O. frigida (Kukwa 2009a)
pacifica H. Magn. = Coccotrema pocillarium
pallescens (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
parella (L.) A. Massal. Not in North America
pennsylvanica Verseghy = O. yasudae
pseudotartarea (Vainio) Verseghy =
O. szatalaënsis (Brodo 1992, Messuti & Lumbsch 2000)
pterulina (Nyl.) Howard = O. frigida
rhamni-purshianae E. Senft  Identity uncertain
rosella (Müll. Arg.) Verseghy = O. trochophora
sorediosa Howard = O. szatalaënsis
subviridis (Høeg) Erichsen Not in North America
tuckermanii Verseghy = O. yasudae

ODONTOTREMA Nyl. (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*bryoriae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia intermedia

*intermedium Diederich, Zhurb. & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia intermedia
*lecanorae Diederich & G. Marson (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia lecanorae
*melaneliae Diederich & Zhurb.
(Diederich et al. 2002) =Sphaeropezia melaneliae
*ochrolechiae Diederich, Holien & Zhurb. (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia ochrolechiae
*santessonii Zhurb., Etayo & Diederich (Zhurbenko 2012) = Sphaeropezia santessonii
*sipei (Grummann) Diederich (Diederich et al. 2002) = Sphaeropezia sipei

*thamnoliae Zhurb., Diederich & Etayo (Zhurbenko 2012) = Sphaeropezia thamnoliae

OMPHALARIA Girard & Dunal ex Nyl. = THYREA
girardii Durieu & Mont. = Thyrea girardii
kansana Tuck. = Peccania kansana
pulvinata (Schaerer) Nyl. (Claassen 1912) North American reports are Thyrea confusa
symphorea (Ach.) Tuck. = Synalissa ramulosa
umbella Tuck. = Lempholemma umbella

OMPHALINA Quélet
alpina (Britzelm.) Bresinsky & Stangl = Lichenomphalia alpina
ericetorum (Pers. : Fr.) M. T. Lange = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) H. E. Bigelow = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) M. T. Lange = Lichenomphalia alpina
*peltigerina (Peck) P. Collin = Arrhenia peltigerina
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Quélet = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
velutina (Quélet) Quélet = Lichenomphalia velutina

OMPHALODISCUS Schol. = UMBILICARIA
crustulosus (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria crustulosa
decussatus (Vill.) Schol. = Umbilicaria decussata
krascheninnikovii (Savicz) Schol. = Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii, but N.A. reports are U. polaris
virginis (Schaerer) Schol. = Umbilicaria virginis

OMPHALODIUM Meyen & Flotow
arizonicum (Tuck.) Tuck. = Omphalora arizonica

OMPHALORA T. H. Nash & Hafellner
arizonica (Tuck.) T. H. Nash & Hafellner  Syns.: Lecanora arizonica, Omphalodium arizonicum, Parmelia arizonica

OPEGRAPHA Ach.
*agelaea Fée (Ertz 2009)
anguinella (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (Ertz et al. 2009)  Syns.: Enterographa anguinella, Schismatomma pallidellum auct.
*anomea Nyl. (Ertz et al. 2004)
astraea Tuck.  Syn.: Melaspilea octomera
aurantiaca B. de Lesd. (Harris 1995a)
bonplandii Fée
*buelliae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
candida Müll. Arg.
corticola Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 2002)
*diffracticola R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)
dolomitica (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.
Roux ex Torrente & Egea (Lendemer et al. 2009b)
erosa Egea & Ertz (Ertz & Egea 2007))
*foreaui (Moreau) Hafellner & R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fumosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
*geographicola (Arnold) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)
gyrophorica F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2014)
*hellespontica Vondrák & Kocourk. (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d)
herbarum Mont.
keyensis F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2014)
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Triebel Syn.: Leciographa lamyi
leucoplaca Müll. Arg.
levidensis Willey (Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
lithyrga Ach.
*melanospila Müll. Arg. (Diederich 2003)
mesophlebia Nyl. Syn.: Melaspilea mesophlebia (Perlmutter et al. 2015)
microcycla Tuck.
moroziana Lendemer (Lendemer 2009)
niveoatra (Borrer) J. R. Laundon
*phaeophysciae R. Sant., Diederich, Ertz & Christnach (Hafellner 2009)
prosodea Ach.
protocetrarica F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2014)
protuberans Zahlbr.
*pulvinata Rehm Syn.: Opegraphoidea pulvinata
ravenelii (Tuck.) Tehler Syns.: Lecanactis ravenelii, Platygrapha ravenelii, Schismatomma ravenelii
*rupestris Pers. Syn.: Leciographa parasitica
sorediifera P. James
*sphaerophoricola Isbrand & Alstrup
*stereocaulicola Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko 2010)
*thelotrematis Coppins (Tønsberg 1997 [1998])
umbellulariae Zahlbr.
vulgata Ach.
xerica Torrente & Egea (Ertz & Egea 2007)
atra Pers. = Arthonia atra (Ertz et al. 2009)
betulina Sm. = O. herbarum
bicolor R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2005) = Alyxoria bicolor (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
brattiae Egea & Ertz (Ertz & Egea 2007) = Lecanographa brattiae (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
calcarea Turner ex Sm.
& Sowerby = Arthonia calcarea (Ertz et al. 2009)
cinerea Chevall. = O. vulgata
cypressi R. C. Harris = Vigneronia cypressi (Ertz et al. 2015b)
demissa Tuck = Melaspilea demissa

diaphora (Ach.) Ach. = Alyxoria varia
diaphoroides Nyl. = Lecanographa grumulosa
filicina Mont. = Fouragea filicina (Frisch et al. 2014)
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) Källsten ex Hafellner = *Phacographa glaucomaria
gyrocarpa Flotow = Gyrographa gyrocarpa (Ertz et al. 2015b)
hassei Zahlbr.
= Lecanographa hypothallina
herpetica (Ach.) Ach. = O. rufescens
herpetica var. subocellata Ach.
(Fink 1935) = O. rufescens (Santesson et al. 2004)
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Tehler = Lecanographa hypothallina
lichenoides Pers.
= Alyxoria varia
longissima Müll. Arg. = Dimidiographa longissima (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
mesophlaebia Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant of O. mesophlebia Nyl. =  Melaspilea mesophlebia

mougeotii A. Massal. (Harris & Ladd 2005) = Alyxoria mougeotii

ochrocheila Nyl.= Alyxoria ochrocheila (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
oulocheila Tuck. = Dermiscellum oulocheila
*physciaria (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & Coppins (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Phacothecium varium (Hafellner 2009)
prosiliens Stirton = O. protuberans
pulicaris auct.
= Alyxoria varia
*quaternella Nyl. = O. anomea (Ertz et al. 2004)
rimalis Pers. ex Ach. = Alyxoria varia
rufescens Pers. = Pseudoschismatomma rufescens (Ertz et al. 2015b)
*saxicola Ach. = O. rupestris
scaphella var. gemella (Eschw.) Eckfeldt (Fink 1935) = Melaspilea gemella
*trassii S. Y. Kondr. & Coppins (Coppins & Kondratyuk 1998) = O. foreaui
*tribulodes Tuck. (Mohr 1901) = Melanographa tribulodes
varia Pers. = Alyxoria varia (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
viridis (Pers. ex Ach.) Behlen & Desberger = Zwackhia viridis (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
*
wetmorei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = O. anomea (Ertz et al. 2004)
zonata Körber  (Sparrius 2004b) = Enterographa zonata (Ertz et al. 2009)

OPEGRAPHOIDEA Fink
*staurothelicola Fink (fide D. Ertz)
*pulvinata (Rehm) Fink = Opegrapha pulvinata
*quaternella (Nyl.) Fink = Opegrapha anomea

OPHIOPARMA Norman
lapponica (Räsänen) Hafellner & R. W. Rogers
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia rubricosa, B. herrei, Haematomma californicum
ventosa (L.) Norman (May 1997)
herrei (Zahlbr.) Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995) = O. rubricosa (Ekman 1996)

ORCULARIA (Malme) Kalb & Giralt (Kalb & Giralt 2011)
insperata (Nyl.) Kalb & Giralt  Syn.: Amandinea insperata (Kalb & Giralt 2011)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Kalb & Giralt  Syn.: Amandinea placodiomorpha, Buellia placodiomorpha (Kalb & Giralt 2011)

ORPHNIOSPORA Körber
moriopsis (A. Massal.)
D. Hawksw. Syns.: Buellia atrata, B. moriopsis, B. coracina
atrata (Sm.) Poelt = O. moriopsis

OVICUCULISPORA Etayo  (Etayo 2010)
*parmeliae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Etayo (Etayo 2010)  Syns.: Nectria parmeliae, Nectriopsis parmeliae

OXNERIA S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt (Kondratyuk & Kärnefelt 2003a, 2003b) = XANTHOMENDOZA (Lindblom 2006)
weberi S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt = Xanthomendoza weberi (Lindblom 2006)

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PACHNOLEPIA A. Massal. (Frisch et al. 2014)
pruinata (Pers.) Frisch & G. Thor Syn.: Arthonia pruinata

PACHYOSPORA A. Massal.
mutabilis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa
verrucosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Megaspora verrucosa

PACHYPELTIS Søchting, Arup & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
cladodes (Tuck.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca cladodes, Placodium cladodes
invadens (Lynge) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca invadens

PACHYPHIALE Lönnr. = GYALECTA (Baloch et al. 2013a)
carneola (Ach.) Arnold = Gyalecta carneola
fagicola (Arnold) Zwackh = Gyalecta fagicola
gyalizella (Nyl.) S. Ekman = Gyalecta gyalizella

PACHYPHYSIS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)
ozarkana R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)

PALICELLA Rodr. Flakus & Printzen  (Rodriguez Flakus & Printzen 2014)
filamentosa (Stirton) Rodr. Flakus & Printzen  Syn.: Lecanora filamentosa
schizochromatica (Pérez-Ortega, T. Sprib. & Printzen) Rodr. Flakus & Printzen  Syn.: Lecanora schizochromatica 

PANNARIA Delise
conoplea (Ach.) Bory
elatior Stirton (Jørgensen 2000c)
hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl.
lurida (Mont.) Nyl. subsp. lurida  Syn.: Physma luridum
lurida subsp. quercicola P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
lurida subsp. russellii (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
rubiginella P. M. Jørg. & Sipman (Jørgensen 2005)
rubiginosa (Thunb.) Delise
subfusca P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
tavaresii P. M. Jørg.
ahlneri P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria ahlneri
crossophylla Tuck. =
Rockefellera crossophylla
cyanolepra Tuck. = Fuscopannaria cyanolepra
granatina (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Euopsis granatina
halei Tuck. = Phyllopsora halei
hypnorum (Vahl) Körber = Psoroma hypnorum
isidiata Degel. =
Tingiopsidium isidiatum (Hafellner & Spribille 2016)
laceratula Hue = Fuscopannaria laceratula
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella leucophaea
leucosticta Tuck. = Fuscopannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides Ohlsson = Fuscopannaria leucostictoides
malmei C. W. Dodge (Jørgensen 2000c) = misidentification of P. rubiginella
mariana (Fr.) Müll. Arg. = Lepidocollema marianum (Jørgensen 2000c, Ekman et al. 2014)
maritima P. M. Jørg. = Fuscopannaria maritima
mediterranea Tav. = Fuscopannaria mediterranea
melamphylla Tuck. = Lichinella melamphylla
microphylla "(Sw.)" Delise = Vahliella leucophaea
microphylla var. californica Tuck. = Vahliella californica
molybdaea (Pers.) Tuck. = Coccocarpia pellita
nigra (Hudson) Nyl. = Placynthium nigrum
nigrocincta (Mont.) Nyl. (Mohr 1901) = Parmeliella nigrocincta, but a probable misidentification for North America
pannosa Nyl. = Parmeliella pannosa
petersii (Nyl.) Tuck. = Placynthium petersii
pezizoides (Weber) Trevisan = Protopannaria pezizoides
pityrea auct.
= P. conoplea
praetermissa Nyl. = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
pulveracea P. M. Jørg. & Henssen = Fuscopannaria pulveracea
rubiginosa var. lanuginosa (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = P. conoplea
saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl. = Vahliella saubinetii
stenophylla Tuck. = Placynthium stenophyllum
stylophora Vainio = Lepidocollema stylophorum  (Ekman et al. 2014)
sonomensis Tuck. =
Tingiopsidium sonomense (Hafellner & Spribille 2016)
stellata (Tuck.) Nyl. = Coccocarpia stellata
triptophylla (Ach.) A. Massal. = Parmeliella triptophylla
waghornei Eckfeldt = identity uncertain, possibly Santessoniella arctophila

PARABAGLIETTOA Gueidan & Cl. Roux
disjuncta
(Arnold) Krzewicka  (McCune et al. 2014b)

PARANECTRIA Sacc.
*alstrupii Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)
*oropensis (Ces.) D. Hawks. & Piroz.
subsp. parviseptata M. S. Cole & D. Hawks.
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = P. oropensis (Diederich 2003)

PARAPARMELIA Elix & J. Johnston
alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix & J. Johnston = Canoparmelia alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001)

PARASCHISMATOMMA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2012)
ochroleucum (Zahlbr.) K. Knudsen, Ertz & Tehler  Syns.: Chiodecton ochroleucum, Platygrapha plurilocularis, Schismatomma pluriloculare (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

PARATHELIUM Nyl. = PYRENULA
cuyabense Malme = Pyrenula cuyabensis
emergens Nyl. ex Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula erumpens
martinicanum Vainio = Pyrenula adacta
microcarpum Riddle = Pyrenula microtheca
subferrugineum Malme = Pyrenula circumfiniens

PARMELIA Ach.
barrenoae Divakar, M. C. Molina & A. Crespo (Hodkinson et al. 2010)
fertilis Müll. Arg.
fraudans (Nyl.) Nyl.
hygrophila Goward & Ahti
imbricaria Goward, Divakaar, M. C. Molina & A. Crespo (Molina et al. 2016)
mayi Divakar, A. Crespo, M. C. Molina (Molina et al. 2011)
neodiscordans Hale
omphalodes (L.) Ach.
pinnatifida Kurok. (Crespo et al. 2004)
pseudosulcata Gyelnik
saxatilis (L.) Ach.
skultii Hale
squarrosa Hale
sulcata Taylor
sulymae Goward, Divakar, M. C. Molina & A. Crespo (Molina et al. 2016)
acanthifolia Pers. = Parmotrema cetratum
abstrusa Vainio = Relicina abstrusa
ahtii Essl. = Xanthoparmelia ahtii
ajoensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia ajoensis
alabamensis Hale & McCull. = Canoparmelia alabamensis
albertana Ahti = Melanelixia albertana
aleuritica Nyl. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
almquistii Vainio = Allantoparmelia almquistii
alpicola Th. Fr. = Allantoparmelia alpicola
amazonica Nyl. = Canoparmelia amazonica
andreana Müll. Arg. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
antillensis Nyl. = Parmotremopsis antillensis
appalachensis W. L. Culb. = Punctelia appalachensis
arizonica (Tuck.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Omphalora arizonica
arnoldii Du Rietz = Parmotrema arnoldii
arseneana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
aspera A. Massal. = Melanohalea exasperata
aspidota (Ach.) Poetsch = Melanohalea exasperata
atrofusca (Schaerer) Crombie = Brodoa atrofusca
atticoides Essl. = Xanthoparmelia atticoides
aurulenta Tuck. = Myelochroa aurulenta
austerodes Nyl. = Hypogymnia austerodes
austrosinensis Zahlbr. = Parmotrema austrosinense
baltimorensis Gyelnik & Fóriss = Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
birulae Elenkin var. grumosa Llano = Arctoparmelia separata
bitteri Lynge = Hypogymnia bitteri
bolliana Müll. Arg. = Punctelia bolliana
borreri (Sm.) Turner = Punctelia borreri
brunella Essl. = Xanthoparmelia brunella
caperata (L.) Ach. = Flavoparmelia caperata
caperata var. incorrupta (J. P. Moore) E. C. Berry = Flavopunctelia praesignis
caroliniana Nyl. = Canoparmelia caroliniana
catawbiensis (Degel.) Hale & M. Wirth = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis
centrifuga (L.) Ach. = Arctoparmelia centrifuga
cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl. = Cetrelia cetrarioides
cetrata Ach. = Parmotrema cetratum
cetrata var. hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema hypotropum
chiricahuensis R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Xanthoparmelia chiricahuensis
chlorochroa Tuck. = Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa
chrysantha Tuck. = Parmotrema xanthinum (Lendemer 2016a)
cirrhata Fr. = Everniastrum cirrhatum, but a misidentification for North America.
cladonia (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Pseudevernia cladonia
claudelii (Harm.) Vainio = Parmotrema stuppeum
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb. (Fink 1935) = Anzia colpodes
commensurata Hale = Parmotrema commensuratum
concreta Stizenb.  Identity uncertain, see note under Flavoparmelia
confoederata W. L. Culb. = Bulbothrix confoederata
congensis Stein = Xanthoparmelia congensis, but not found in North America north of Mexico.
congruens auct. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Ach. = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
conspersa var. subconspersa (Nyl.) Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia rutidota
conspurcata (Schaerer) Vainio = Melanelixia subargentifera
coralloidea (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio (Fink 1935) = Leptogium coralloideum, but N. Am. reports were apparently an unknown species of Parmotrema (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
coronata Fée = Bulbothrix coronata
crinita Ach. = Parmotrema crinitum
cristifera Taylor = Parmotrema cristiferum
croceopustulata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna croceopustulata
crozalsiana B. de Lesd. ex Harm. = Crespoa crozalsiana
cryptochlorophaea Hale = Canoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
cubensis Nyl. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
cumberlandia (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
cylisphora (Ach.) Vainio = Flavoparmelia caperata
darrowi J. W. Thomson = Flavopunctelia darrowi
delavayi Hue = Hypogymnia delavayi (Hue) Rass., but a misidentification for North America
denalii Krog = Montanelia disjuncta
densirhizinata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna densirhizinata
dentella Hale & Kurok. = Hypotrachyna dentella
dierythra Hale = Xanthoparmelia dierythra
diffractaica Essl. = Parmotrema diffractaicum
digitata Lynge = Hypotrachyna physcioides (Nyl.) Hale, but a misidentification for North America (?)
dilatata Vainio = Parmotrema dilatatum
disjuncta Erichsen = Montanelia disjuncta
dissecta Nyl. = Hypotrachyna minarum
dissensa T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia dissensa
dominicana Vainio = Parmotrema dominicanum
dubia (Wulfen) Schaerer = Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog, but a misidentification for North America
duplicata var. douglasicola Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Szatala = Melanohalea elegantula
elongata J. Hillmann = Hypogymnia duplicata (Spribille et al. 2010)
encausta (Sm.) Nyl. = Brodoa intestiniformis, but this species is not found in North America
endosulphurea (Hillm.) Hale = Parmotrema endosulphureum
endoxantha G. Merr. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ensifolia Kurok. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
enteromorpha Ach. = Hypogymnia enteromorpha
epiclada Hale = Parmotrema submarginale
erecta E. C. Berry = Parmotrema perforatum
eurysaca Hue = Parmotrema eurysacum
exasperata De Not. = Melanohalea exasperata
exasperatula Nyl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
eximbricata (Gyelnik) Hale & Kurok. = Relicina eximbricata
finkii Zahlbr. = Myelochroa obsessa
flaventior Stirton = Flavopunctelia flaventior
flavicans (Tuck.) Tuck. = Flavoparmelia caperata
formosana Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna osseoalba
frondifera G. Merr. = Punctelia bolliana
fuliginosa (Wibel) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Melanelixia fuliginosa, but
North American reports are misidentifications ( Leavitt et al. 2012)
furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Pseudevernia intensa and P. consocians for North American records
galbina Ach. = Myelochroa galbina
glabra (Schaerer) Nyl.  North American records are Melanelixia californica
glabratula (Lamy) Nyl. = Melanelixia glabratula
glabroides Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides
goebelii Zenker  North American reports are Bulbothrix scortella (Benatti & Elix 2012)
gondylophora Hale = Hypotrachyna gondylophora
graminicola B. de Lesd. = Punctelia graminicola
granulosa Lynge = Montanelia disjuncta
hababiana Gyelnik = Parmotrema hababianum
haitiensis Hale = Parmotrema haitiense
halei Ahti = Melanohalea halei
halseyana Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Arctoparmelia centrifuga (Hale & DePriest 1999, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
herreana Zahlbr. = Flavoparmelia caperata
herrei Zahlbr. = Parmotrema herrei
horrescens Taylor = Hypotrachyma horrescens
huachucensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia huachucensis
hubrichtii E. C. Berry = Hypotrachyna minarum
hypoleucina J. Steiner = Parmotrema hypoleucinum
hypoleucites Nyl. = Punctelia hypoleucites
hypomelaena Hale = Xanthoparmelia hypomelaena
hypopsila Müll. Arg. = Xanthoparmelia hypopsila, but North American records are X. angustiphylla
hypotropa Nyl. = Parmotrema hypotropum
hypotropa var. sorediata M
üll. Arg. (Fink 1935) = Parmotrema hypotropum (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hypotropoides Nyl. ex Willey = Parmotrema perforatum
hypotrypodes (Nyl.) Willey (Fink 1935)  Apparent orthographic error for P. hypotropoides (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
imbricatula Zahlbr.
= Hypotrachyna imbricatula
incorrupta J. P. Moore = Flavopunctelia praesignis
incurva (Pers.) Fr. = Arctoparmelia incurva
infrapallida Essl. = Xanthoparmelia infrapallida
infumata Nyl. = Melanohalea infumata
internexa Nyl. = Parmotrema internexum
intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach.
= Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American reports are B. oroarctica
ioanis-simae Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but western North American records are probably Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis
isidiata (Anzi) Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia conspersa
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Hale = misidentification for North America
isidiotyla Nyl. = Xanthoparmelia loxodes
joranadia T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia joranadia
kernstockii (Lynge) Zahlbr. = Flavopunctelia flaventior
kerguelensis A. Wilson = chemotype of Parmelia saxatilis
kerguelensis auct. N. Am. = Parmelia pseudosulcata
kurokawae Hale = Xanthoparmelia lavicola
laciniatula (Flagey) Zahlbr. (Eyerdam 1960) = misidentification for North America
laevigata (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna laevigata
laevigatula Nyl. = Bulbothrix laevigatula
lanata (L.) Wallr. = Pseudephebe pubescens
latissima Fée = Parmotrema latissimum, but reports are a misidentification for North America.
lecanorica Hale = Xanthoparmelia lecanorica, but reports are a misidentification for North America
leucochlora Tuck. = Pseudoparmelia cubensis
lineola E. C. Berry = Xanthoparmelia lineola
livida Taylor = Hypotrachyna livida
lobulifera Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. insensitiva Degel. = Hypotrachyna ensifolia
lobulifera var. luteoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna imbricatula
lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens Degel. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
lophyrea Ach. (Fink 1935) = Hypogymnia lophyrea
louisianae Hale = Parmotrema louisianae
loxodes Nyl. = Xanthoparmelia loxodes
madagascariacea (Hue) Abbayes = Parmotrema xanthinum (Lendemer 2016a)
mandshurica Asahina = Flavopunctelia soredica
margaritata Hue = Parmotrema margaritatum
martinicana Nyl. = Canoparmelia martinicana
maxima Hue = Parmotrema stuppeum
mellissii C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema mellissii
mesogens Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Apparent typographic error for P. mesogenes Nyl = Parmotrema mesogenes, a misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
metarevoluta Asahina = Myelochroa metarevoluta
mexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia mexicana
michauxiana Zahlbr. = Parmotrema submarginale
molliuscula Ach. = misidentification for North America
monticola J. P. Dey = Xanthoparmelia monticola
mordenii Hale = Parmotrema mordenii
mougeotii Schaerer = Xanthoparmelia mougeotii
multispora A. Schneider = Melanohalea multispora
negativa Gyelnik = Flavoparmelia caperata
neoconspersa Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia neoconspersa
nigropsoromifera T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia nigropsoromifera
njalensis C. W. Dodge = Bulbothrix scortella
novomexicana Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
obsessa Ach. = Myelochroa obsessa
occidentalis Essl. = Xanthoparmelia occidentalis
olivacea (L.) Ach. = Melanohalea olivacea
olivaceoides Krog = Melanohalea olivaceoides
olivaria (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Cetrelia olivetorum
olivetorum Nyl. = Cetrelia olivetorum
omphalodes subsp. glacialis Skult = P. skultii
omphalodes subsp. pinnatifida (Kurok.) Skult = P. pinnatifida
oncodes Tuck. (Fink 1935)  Name not located in any available source (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
oostingii J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna oostingii
oregana Gyelnik = Hypogymnia physodes
panniformis (Nyl.) Vainio = Montanelia panniformis
perfoliata (Jacq.) Ach. (Mohr 1901) = misspelling of P. perforata
perforata (Jacq.) Ach. = Parmotrema perforatum
perlata (Hudson) Ach. = Parmotrema perlatum
permaculata Hale = Parmotrema eurysacum
perreticulata (Räsänen) Hale = Punctelia perreticulata
pertusa (Schrank) Schaerer = Menegazzia terebrata
phaea Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Physcia phaea
physodes (L.) Ach. = Hypogymnia physodes
piedmontensis Hale = Xanthoparmelia piedmontensis
plittii Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia plittii
praesignis Nyl. = Flavopunctelia praesignis
praesorediosa Nyl. = Parmotrema praesorediosum
preperforata W. L. Culb. = Parmotrema
hypoleucinum
proboscidea Tayl.
(Fink 1935) = Parmotrema crinitum (Hale & DePriest 1999)
producta (Hale) J. P. Dey = Hypotrachyna producta
prolixa (Ach.)
Carroll = Neofuscelia pulla, but a misidentification for North America.
prolongata Kurok. = Hypotrachyna prolongata
pseudoborreri Asahina = Punctelia borreri
psoromifera Kurok. = Xanthoparmelia psoromifera
pubescens (L.) Vainio = Pseudephebe pubescens
pulla Ach. = Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) Crespo et al., but a misidentification for North America
pulvinata Fée = Hypotrachyna pulvinata
pustulifera Hale = Hypotrachyna pustulifera
pustulosa Essl. = Xanthoparmelia pustulosa
quercina (Willd.) Vainio  North American reports are Parmelina coleae
rachista Hale = Hypotrachyna prolongata
rampoddensis Nyl. = Parmotrema rampoddense
recipienda Nyl. = Parmotrema subcaperatum (Kremp.) Hale., but a misidentification for North America
reddenda Stirton = Punctelia reddenda
relicina Fr. = Relicina relicinula (Müll. Arg.) Hale, but a misidentification for North America
reparata Stirton = Parmotrema cetratum
reticulata Taylor = Parmotrema reticulatum
revoluta Flörke = Hypotrachyna revoluta
rigida Lynge = Parmotrema subrigidum (N. Am. records only)
robusta Degel. = Parmotrema robustum, but North American records are Parmotrema gardneri
rockii Zahlbr. = Hypotrachyna rockii
rudecta Ach. = Punctelia rudecta
rutidota Hooker f. & Taylor = Flavoparmelia rutidota
salacinifera Hale = Canoparmelia salacinifera
santae-crucis Vainio = Parmotrema praesorediosum
saximontana R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Montanelia saximontana
scortea (Ach.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale, but an apparent misidentification for North America
scortella Nyl. = Bulbothrix scortella
semansiana W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Punctelia graminicola
separata Th. Fr. = Arctoparmelia separata
septentrionalis (Lynge) Ahti = Melanohalea septentrionalis
sibirica Zahlbr. = Allantoparmelia sibirica
silvestris Degel. = Myelochroa aurulenta
simulans Hale = Parmotrema simulans
sinuosa (Sm.) Ach. = Hypotrachyna sinuosa
sipeana Gyelnik = Menegazzia terebrata
sorediata (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Montanelia sorediata
soredica Nyl. = Flavopunctelia soredica
sorediosa Almb. = Montanelia sorediata
sorocheila Vainio = Hypotrachyna sorocheila, but North American records apparently refer to E. catawbiense
sphaerospora Nyl. (North American records) = Pseudoparmelia uleana
sphaerosporella Müll. Arg. = Ahtiana sphaerosporella
spumosa Asahina = Parmelinopsis spumosa
stenophylla (Ach.) Du Rietz = Xanthoparmelia stenophylla
stictica (Duby) Nyl. = Punctelia stictica
stuppea Taylor = Parmotrema stuppeum
stygia (L.) Ach. = Melanelia stygia
subargentifera Nyl. = Melanelixia subargentifera
subarnoldii Abbayes = Parmotrema subarnoldii, but a misidentification for North America north of Mexico
subaurifera Nyl. = Melanelixia subaurifera
subcapitata Nyl. ex Hasse = Flavoparmelia subcapitata
subcentrifuga Oxner = Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga
subcrinita auct. = Parmotrema ultralucens
subcrinita Nyl. = Parmotrema subtinctorium
subdecipiens Vainio = Xanthoparmelia subdecipiens
subelegantula Essl. = Melanohalea subelegantula
subhosseana Essl. = Xanthoparmelia subhosseana
subinvoluta Hale = Parmotrema rampoddense
subisidiosa (Müll. Arg.) C. W. Dodge = Parmotrema subisidiosum
sublaevigata (Nyl.) Nyl. = Hypotrachyna sublaevigata, but a misidentification for North America (Hale 1979)
submarginalis (Michaux) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Parmotrema submarginale (Hale & DePriest 1999)
subobscura Vainio = Hypogymnia subobscura
subolivacea Nyl. = Melanohalea subolivacea
subpraesignis Nyl. = Punctelia subpraesignis
subquercifolia Hue = Myelochroa galbina
subramigera Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia subramigera
subrudecta Nyl. = Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog, but a misidentification for North America (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2010)
subrugata Kremp. = misidentification for North America
substygia Räsänen  North American reports are Montanelia saximontana or M. secwepemc
subsumpta Nyl. = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria Zahlbr. = Parmotrema subtinctorium
sulphurata Nees & Flotow = Parmotrema sulphuratum
sulphorosa (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Myelochroa galbina (Hale & DePriest 1999)
swinscowii Hale = Parmelinopsis swinscowii
taractica Kremp. = Xanthoparmelia taractica, but see note there
tasmanica Hooker f. & Taylor = Xanthoparmelia tasmanica
texana Tuck. = Canoparmelia texana
thysanota Kurok. = Hypotrachyna thysanota
tinctina Maheu & A. Gillet = Xanthoparmelia tinctina, but not found in North America
tinctorum Delise ex Nyl. = Parmotrema tinctorum
trabeculata Ahti = Melanohalea trabeculata
trichotera Hue = Parmotrema perlatum
tuberculata Gyelnik = Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
tubulosa (Schaerer) Bitter = Hypogymnia tubulosa
tucsonensis T. H. Nash = Xanthoparmelia tucsonensis
uleana Müll. Arg. = Pseudoparmelia uleana
ulophyllodes (Vainio) Savicz = Flavopunctelia soredica
ultralucens Krog = Parmotrema ultralucens
verruculifera Nyl. = Xanthoparmelia verruculifera
virginica Hale = Hypotrachyna virginica
vittata (Ach.) Röhl. = Hypogymnia vittata
weberi Hale = Xanthoparmelia weberi
wyomingica (Gyelnik) Hale = Xanthoparmelia wyomingica
xanthina (Müll. Arg.) Vainio = Parmotrema xanthinum
xanthomela Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Typographic error for P. xanthomyela = Hypotrachyna endochlora (Leighton) Hale, a misidentification for North America
zollingeri Hepp = Parmotrema zollingeri

PARMELIELLA Müll. Arg.
appalachensis P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
corallinoides (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.
pannosa (Sw.) Nyl.  Syn.: Pannaria pannosa
parvula P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2000c)
ruderatula (Nyl.) Hasse
triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg.  Syn.: Pannaria triptophylla
arctophila (Th. Fr.) Malme = Santessoniella arctophila (Henssen 1997)
cheiroloba Müll. Arg. = Fuscopannaria cheiroloba
crossophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham = Rockefellera crossophylla
cyanolepra (Tuck.) Herre = Fuscopannaria cyanolepra
mariana (Fr.) P. M. Jørg. & D. J. Galloway =Lepidocollema marianum (Ekman et al. 2014)
lepidiota (Sommerf.) Vainio = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
microphylla "(Sw.)" Müll. Arg. = Vahliella leucophaea
plumbea (Lightf.) Vainio = Pectenia plumbea (Ekman et al. 2014)
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. James = Fuscopannaria praetermissa
saubinetii (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Vahliella saubinetii
stellata (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Coccocarpia stellata
stylophora (Vainio) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Lepidocollema stylophorum (Ekman et al. 2014)

PARMELINA Hale
coleae Argüello & A. Crespo (Argüello et al. 2007a, 2007b)
yalungana (Zahlbr.) P. R. Nelson & Kepler  (Nelson et al. 2013)
antillensis (Nyl.) Hale = Parmotremopsis antillensis
aurulenta (Tuck.) Hale = Myelochroa aurulenta
dissecta (Nyl.) Hale = Hypotrachyna minarum
galbina (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa galbina
horrescens (Taylor) Hale = Hypotrachyna horrescens
metarevoluta (Asahina) Hale = Myelochroa metarevoluta
minarum (Vainio) Skorepa = Hypotrachyna minarum
obsessa (Ach.) Hale = Myelochroa obsessa
quercina (Willd.) Hale   North American reports are P. coleae
spumosa (Asahina) Hale = Hypotrachyna spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Hale = Hypotrachyna swinscowii
tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale   North American reports are misidentifications

PARMELINOPSIS Elix & Hale = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
cryptochlora (Vainio) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna cryptochlora
horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna horrescens
minarum (Vainio) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna minarum
spumosa (Asahina) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna spumosa
swinscowii (Hale) Elix & Hale = Hypotrachyna swinscowii

PARMELIOPSIS Nyl.
ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl. Syn.: Foraminella ambigua
capitata R. C. Harris ex J. W. Hinds & P. L. Hinds (Hinds & Hinds 1998)
esorediata (Degel.) Nordnes (McCarthy et al. 2012)
hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Foraminella hyperopta
subambigua Gyelnik Syn.: Foraminella subambigua
aleurites (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia aleurites
diffusa (Weber) Riddle = P. hyperopta
halei (Tuck.) Hale = P. subambigua
placorodia (Ach.) Nyl. = Imshaugia placorodia

PARMENTARIA Fée = PYRENULA
astroidea Fée = Pyrenula astroidea
[Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.] = ?
nana (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anthracothecium nanum
rappii Zahlbr. = Pyrenula leucostoma Ach.
ravenelii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ravenelii

PARMOTREMA A. Massal.
arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia arnoldii
austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia austrosinensis
cetratum (Ach.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia cetrata, P. herrei, Rimelia cetrata (Blanco et al. 2005)
commensuratum (Hale) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia commensuratum, Rimelia commensuratum
conferendum Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina conferenda, Rimeliella conferenda
crinitum (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syn.: Parmelia crinita, Parmelia proboscidea
cristiferum (Taylor) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia cristifera
despectum Kurok. (Kurokawa 2001)
diffractaicum (Essl.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia diffractaica, Rimelia diffractaica
dilatatum (Vainio) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia dilatata
dominicanum (Vainio) Hale  Syn.: Parmelia dominicana
endosulphureum (Hillm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia endosulphurea
eurysacum (Hue) Hale Syns.: Parmelia eurysaca, P. permaculata
gardneri (C. W. Dodge) Sérus.  Syn.: Parmelia robusta
hababianum (Gyelnik) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hababiana
haitiense (Hale) Hale  Syns.:  Parmelia haitiensis, Canomaculina haitiensis
herrei (Zahlbr.) Spielmann & Marcelli (Marcelli et al. 2011)
hypoleucinum (J. Steiner) Hale Syn.: Parmelia hypoleucina
hypotropum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia hypotropa, Parmelia hypotropa var. sorediata , P. cetrata var. hypotropoides
internexum (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia internexa
louisianae (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia louisianae
margaritatum (Hue) Hale Syn.: Parmelia margaritata
mellissii (C. W. Dodge) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mellissii
mordenii (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia mordenii
neotropicum Kurok. ex Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina neotropica, Rimeliella neotropica
overeemii (Zahlbr.) Elix (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
perforatum (Jacq.) A. Massal. Syns.: Parmelia perforata, P. erecta, P. hypotropoides
perlatum (Hudson) M. Choisy  Syns.: Parmelia perlata, P. trichotera
praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesorediosa, P. santae-crucis
rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rampoddensis, P. subinvoluta
reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy  Syns.: Parmelia reticulata, Rimelia reticulata
rubifaciens (Hale) Hale
simulans (Hale) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia simulans, Rimelia simulans
stuppeum (Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia stuppea, P. claudelii, P. maxima
subisidiosum (Müll. Arg.) Hale  Syns.: Parmelia subisidiosa, Rimelia subisidiosa
submarginale (Michaux) DePriest & B. Hale Syns.: Parmelia michauxiana, P. epiclada (DePriest & Hale 1998), P. submarginalis
subrigidum Egan (Egan et al. 2005)
subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina subsumpta, Rimeliella subsumpta, Parmelia subsumpta
subtinctorium (Zahlbr.) Hale  Syns.: Canomaculina subtinctoria, Rimeliella subtinctoria, Parmelia subtinctoria
sulphuratum (Nees & Flotow) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sulphurata
tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia tinctorum
ultralucens (Krog) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ultralucens, P. subcrinita auct. non Nyl.
wrightii L. I. Ferraro & Elix (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia xanthina, P. chrysantha, P. madagascariacea
zollingeri (Hepp) Hale Syn.: Parmelia zollingeri  
Uncertain for North America (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
chinense (“Osbeck”) Hale & Ahti = P. perlatum (Hawksworth 2004)
crozalsianum (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Hawksworth = Crespoa crozalsiana (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2012)
madagascariaceum (Hue) Hale = P. xanthinum (Lendemer 2016a)
michauxianum (Zahlbr.)
Hale = P. submarginale
ochrocrinitum Elix & J. Johnst.  Erroneously mapped for North America (Michlig & Ferraro 2010)

preperforatum (W. L. Culb.) Hale = Parmotrema hypoleucinum (Widhelm et al. 2017)


rigidum (Lynge) Hale   North American records are P. subrigidum
robustum (Degel.) Hale   North American records are P. gardneri

PARMOTREMOPSIS Elix & Hale
antillensis (Nyl.)
Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelina antillensis, Parmelia antillensis

PARMULARIA Nilson
brouardii B. de Lesd. = a Lecanora sp.
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = Identity uncertain

PARVOPLACA
Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
nigroblastidiata Arup, Halici & Vondrák (Arup et al. 2015)
tiroliensis (Zahlbr.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca subolivacea, C. tiroliensis

PATRICIOMYCES D. Hawksw.
*valentinianus D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001)

PAULIA Fée
pyrenoides (Nyl.) Henssen  Syn.: Thyrea pyrenoides

PECCANIA A. Massal. ex Arnold
arizonica Tuck. ex Herre
cernohorskyi (Servít) Scheiman-Cseika, Cseika & Guttová (Knudsen et al. 2017)
corallina Hazsl. (Knudsen et al. 2017)
coralloides (A. Massal.) A. Massal. (McCune 2017)

kansana (Tuck.) Forssell Syn.: Omphalaria kansana
kansuensis (H. Magn.) M. Schultz ined. (McCune et al. 2014b)
subnigra (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore Syns.: Placynthium subnigrum, Synalissa subnigra
texana (Tuck.) Wetmore Syn.: Synalissa texana
tiruncula (Nyl.)
Henssen (Tretiach & Schultz 2007)

PECTENIA P. M. Jørg., L. Lindblom, Wedin & S. Ekman (Ekman et al. 2014)
plumbea (Lightf.) P. M. Jørg., L. Lindblom, Wedin & S. Ekman  Syn.: Degelia plumbea

PELTIGERA Willd.
aphthosa (L.) Willd.
aquatica
Miądl. & Lendemer (Miądlikowska et al. 2014b)
britannica (Gyelnik) Holt.-Hartw.
& Tønsberg
canina (L.) Willd.
castanea Goward, Goffinet & Miądl. (Goffinet et al. 2003)
chionophila Goward & Goffinet (Goward & Goffinet 2000)
cinnamomea Goward
collina (Ach.) Schrader
degenii Gyelnik
didactyla (With.) J. R. Laundon
elisabethae Gyelnik
evansiana Gyelnik
extenuata (Nyl. ex Vainio) Lojka (Goffinet et al. 2003)
fibrilloides (Gyelnik) Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2004)
frippii Holt.-Hartw. (Vitikainen 1994)
gowardii Lendemer & H. O’Brien (Lendemer & O’Brien 2011)
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg.
hydrothyria Miądl. & Lutzoni  Syn.: Hydrothyria venosa (Miądlikowska & Lutzoni 2000)
hymenina (Ach.) Delise
islandica Goward & Manoharan-Basil (Manoharan-Basil et al 2016)
kristinssonii Vitik.
latiloba Holt.-Hartw.  (Holtan-Hartwig 2005)
lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vainio) Bitter
leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyelnik
lyngei Gyelnik  (Dillman et al. 2012)
malacea (Ach.) Funck
membranacea (Ach.) Nyl.
monticola Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2004)
neckeri Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
neopolydactyla (Gyelnik) Gyelnik
pacifica Vitik.
phyllidiosa Goffinet & Miądl. (Goffinet & Miądlikowska 1999)
polydactylon (Necker) Hoffm.
polydactylon subsp. udeghe Magain, Miadl. & Sérus. (Magain et al. 2016)
ponojensis Gyelnik
praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
retifoveata Vitik.
rufescens (Weiss) Humb.
scabrosa Th. Fr.
scabrosella Holt.-Hartw.
seneca Magain, Miadl. & Sérus. (Magain et al. 2016)
tartarea (Llano) Vitik.  (Vitikainen 2006)
venosa (L.) Hoffm.
aphthosa f. complicata (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. = P. leucophlebia
aphthosa var. variolosa A. Massal. = P. leucophlebia
avenosa Gyeln
canina var. rufescens (Weiss) Mudd = P. rufescens
canina var. rufescens f. innovans (Körber) J. W. Thomson = P. praetextata
canina var. spuria (Ach.) Schaerer = P. didactyla
didactyla var. extenuata (Nyl. ex Vainio) Goffinet & Hastings (Goffinet & Hastings 1995) = P. extenuata
dolichorrhiza (Nyl.) Nyl. = P. polydactylon
erumpens (Taylor) Elenkin = P. didactyla
hazslinszkyi Gyelnik = P. extenuata
horizontalis (Hudson) Baumg. f. zopfii (Gyelnik) J. W. Thomson This name has often been used for P. elisabethae
lactucifolia (With.) J. R. Laundon = P. hymenina
occidentalis sensu Kristinsson = P. kristinssonii
occidentalis (E. Dahl) Kristinsson = P. neopolydactyla
polydactyla var. hymenina (Ach.) Flotow = P. hymenina
polydactyla var. neopolydactyla Gyelnik = P. neopolydactyla
praecanina Gyelnik (Gyelnik 1931)  no type designated, identity uncertain
pulverulenta (Taylor) Kremp. = P. scabrosa Th. Fr. for North American records
scutata (Dickson) Duby = P. collina
sorediata (Schaerer) Fink (Fink 1935) = P. didactyla (Vitikainen 1994)
spuria (Ach.) DC. = P. didactyla
variolosa (A. Massal.) Gyelnik = P. leucophlebia
zopfii Gyelnik (Fink 1935) = P. horizontalis (Vitikainen 1994)

PELTULA Nyl.
bolanderi (Tuck.) Wetmore  Syn.: Heppia bolanderi
clavata (Kremp.) Wetmore
corticola Büdel & R. Sant. (Büdel et al. 2007)
cylindrica Wetmore
euploca (Ach.) Poelt ex Ozenda & Clauzade  Syns.: Heppia euploca, H. guepinii, H. polyphylla
farinosa Büdel (Büdel & Nash 2002)
michoacanensis (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore
obscurans (Nyl.) Gyelnik var. obscurans
obscurans var. deserticola (Zahlbr.) Wetmore  Syn.: Heppia deserticola
obscurans var. hassei (Zahlbr.) Wetmore  Syn.: Heppia hassei
omphaliza (Nyl.) Wetmore
patellata (Bagl.) Swinscow & Krog  Syn.: Heppia leptopholis, H. polyspora, H. terrena
placodizans (Zahlbr.) Wetmore  Syn.: Heppia placodizans
psammophila (Nyl.) Egea (Büdel & Nash 2002)
radicata (Ach.) Nyl.
richardsii (Herre) Wetmore  Syn.: Heppia richardsii
sonorensis Büdel & T. H. Nash
tortuosa (Nees) Wetmore   Syn.: Heppia tortuosa
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) Wetmore  Syn.: Heppia zahlbruckneri
polyspora (Tuck.) Wetmore = P. patellata

PERFORARIA Müll. Arg. = COCCOTREMA
minuta Degel. = Coccotrema pocillarium

PERIDIOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
+fuliguncta (Norman) D. Hawksw. (Aptroot 2002d)
+grandiuscula (Anzi) D. Hawksw.

PERIGRAPHA Hafellner
*superveniens (Nyl.) Hafellner (Diederich 2003)

PERTUSARIA DC.
alaskensis Erichsen
alpina Hepp ex Ahles
appalachensis Lendemer, R. C. Harris & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008a)
atra Lynge
azulensis B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
borealis Erichsen
brattiae Lumbsch & T. H. Nash (Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
bryontha (Ach.) Nyl.
californica Dibben
carneopallida (Nyl.)
Anzi
chiodectonoides Bagl. ex A. Massal.
coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. (Tønsberg 1999a)
consocians Dibben
copiosa Erichsen
coriacea (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
epixantha R. C. Harris
expolita R. C. Harris
flavicunda Tuck.
flavocorallina Coppins & Muhr
geminipara (Th. Fr.) C. Knight ex Brodo  Syn.: Ochrolechia geminipara
glaucomela (Tuck.) Nyl. Syn.: Lecanora glaucomela
globularis (Ach.)
Tuck.
glomerata (Ach.) Schaerer
hakkodensis Yasuda ex Räsänen
hymenea (Ach.) Schaerer
iners R. C. Harris
islandica Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt (Schmitt et al. 2006)
lecanina Tuck.
leioplaca DC.
macounii (I. M. Lamb) Dibben  Syn.: Melanaria macounii
mariae B. de Lesd.
(Lumbsch & Nash 1999)
mccroryae Björk, Goward & T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2010)
moreliensis B. de Lesd.
(Nash et al. 1998)
neolecania Lumbsch & T. H. Nash (Lendemer et al. 2013)
neoscotica I. M. Lamb
obruta R. C. Harris
occidentalis Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt (Schmitt et al. 2006)
octomela (Norman) Erichsen
oculata (Dickson) Th. Fr.
ostiolata Dibben
papillata (Ach.) Tuck.
paratuberculifera Dibben
plittiana Erichsen
propinqua Müll. Arg.
pruinifera Erichsen
pseudocorallina (Lilj.) Arnold
pupillaris (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
pustulata (Ach.) Duby
rhexostoma Nyl.
rigida Müll. Arg. (Seavey et al. 2017)
rubefacta Erichsen
saximontana Wetmore
sinusmexicani Dibben
sommerfeltii (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Fr.
stenhammarii Hellbom
subambigens Dibben
subobducens Nyl.
suboculata Brodo & Dibben
subpertusa Brodo
subrigida Müll. Arg. (Seavey et al. 2017)
sulcata Dibben
tejocotensis B. de Lesd. (Lumbsch et al. 1999)
tetrathalamia (Fée) Nyl.
texana Müll. Arg.
trochiscea Norman
valliculata Dibben
virensica R. C. Harris
wulfenioides B. de Lesd.
xanthodes Müll. Arg.
zeorina Erichsen
albescens (Hudson) M. Choisy & Werner = Lepra albescens
aleutensis Erichsen = P. alaskensis
amara (Ach.) Nyl. = Lepra amara
amara var. flotowiana (Flörke) Vainio = Lepra amara, at least for Europe
ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. = P. subambigens, for North American records
andersonii Lendemer (Lendemer 2009c) = Lepra andersoniae
arizonica Dibben = P. tejocotensis
bryophaga Erichsen = Ochrolechia bryophaga
canadensis Stirton = P. pustulata
ceuthocarpa (Sm.) Turner & Borrer = P. excludens
ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. = P. excludens
communis DC. (Mohr 1901) = P. pertusa, a misidentification for North America
commutata Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Lepra commutata
concentrica Erichsen Type not found. May be Lepra multipunctoides
coriacea var. obducens (Nyl.) Vainio = P. coriacea
dactylina (Ach.) Nyl. = Lepra dactylina
diffusilis Erichsen = P. glomerata
diluta Björk, G. Thor & T. B. Wheeler (Spribille et al. 2009) = Gyalectaria diluta
discoidea (Pers.) Malme = P. albescens
disticha Erichsen = P. texana (Dibben 1980)
excludens Nyl. = Lepra excludens
finkii Zahlbr. ex Fink = P. rhexostoma
flavida (DC.) J. R. Laundon = a European taxon, not in North America
floridana Dibben = Lepra floridana
freyi Erichsen = Megaspora verrucosa
globulifera (Turner) A. Massal. (Fink 1935) =
Lepra albescens
granulata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = P. wulfenioides for North American records
hemisphaerica (Flörke) Erichsen = a European taxon, not in North America
hultenii Erichsen = Ochrolechia subplicans subsp. hultenii
hypothamnolica Dibben = Lepra hypothamnolica
laevigata (Nyl.) Arnold non (Th. Fr.) Anzi = Variolaria trachythallina
lecanina subsp. nigra Fink ex Hedrick =
Lepra ophthalmiza
leioterella Erichsen = P. macounii for North American reports
leucostoma (Ach.) A. Massal. = P. leioplaca
lutescens (Hoffm.) Lamy = P. flavida, but not in North America
marginata Nyl. = P. propinqua
microsticta (Sm. & Sow.) Erichsen = P. excludens
monogona Nyl. = P. excludens for North American records
multipuncta (Turner) Nyl. = misidentification for North America
multipunctoides Dibben =
Lepra multipunctoides
nolens Nyl. = P. chiodectonoides
ocellata (Wallr.) Körber = misidentification for North America
ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Nyl. = Lepra ophthalmiza
panyrga (Ach.) A. Massal. = Lepra panyrga
pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. = misidentification for North America
pocillum Cumm. (Eyerdam 1960) = apparent nomen nudum of uncertain identity
protuberans (Sommerf. ex Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. = P. carneopallida
pulchella Malme = Varicellaria velata (Archer & Messuti 1997)
raesaenenii Erichsen = misidentification for North America
rhodoleuca Th. Fr. = Ochrolechia rhodoleuca
rubescens Erichsen = P. propinqua
santamonicae Dibben = Varicellaria velata (Archer & Messuti 1997)
scutellaris (Schaerer) Hue (Fink 1935) =
Lepra albescens
shenandoensis Hale & Dibben = P. plittiana (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
subamplicata Nyl.  Erroneous name created by typographic error, first appearing in Egan (1987)
subdactylina Nyl. = Lepra subdactylina
subplicans Nyl. = Ochrolechia subplicans
subpupillaris Vězda = P. glaucomela
tabuliformis Erichsen = P. leioplaca
taeniata Erichsen = P. zeorina
torquata Müll. Arg. = P. propinqua
trachydactyla Vainio = identity uncertain, possibly an Ochrolechia sp.
trachythallina Erichsen =
Lepra trachythallina
tuberculifera Nyl. = misidentification for North America; most specimens are P. paratuberculifera
tuckermanii Erichsen = P. subobducens
ventosa Malme = Lepra ventosa
velata (Turner) Nyl. = Varicellaria velata (Schmitt et al. 2012)
waghornei Hulting =
Lepra waghornei
wulfenii DC. = P. hymenea
xanthostoma (Sommerf.) Fr. = Ochrolechia xanthostoma

PETRACTIS Fr.
clausa (Hoffm.) Kremp. (Dillman et al. 2012)
farlowii (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Vězda  Syn.: Gyalecta farlowii

PEZIZELLA Fuckel
*epithallina (W. Phillips & Plowr.)
Sacc. (Diederich 2003)

PHACOGRAPHA Hafellner (Hafellner 2009)
*glaucomaria (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syns.:  Leciographa glaucomaria, Opegrapha glaucomaria

PHACOPSIS Tul.
*cephalodioides (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold (Diederich 2003)
*doerfeltii Alstrup & Scholz (Scholz 1998)
*fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (Diederich 2003)
*oxyspora (Tul.)
Triebel & Rambold  Syns.: Abrothallus oxysporus, Lecidea oxyspora, Nesolechia oxyspora
*thallicola (A. Massal.) Triebel & Rambold Syn.: Nesolechia thallicola
*vulpina Tul.

*huuskonenii Räsänen = Raesaenenia huuskonenii(Divakar et al. 2015)

*oxyspora var. defecta Triebel & Rambold = P. oxyspora
*oxsypora var. fusca Triebel & Rambold = P. fusca

PHACOTHECIUM Trevisan
*varium (Tul.) Trevisan  Syn.:  Opegrapha physciaria (Hafellner 2009)

PHAEOCALICIUM A.F.W. Schmidt
+betulinum (Nyl.) Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+boreale (Nyl.) Tibell  (McCune et al. 2014b)
+compressulum (Nyl. ex Vainio) A.F.W. Schmidt  Syn.: Mycocalicium compressulum
+curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell Syn.: Calicium curtisii
+flabelliforme Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+interruptum (Nyl.) Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
+matthewsianum Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+minutissimum (G. Merr.) Selva Syns.: Calicium minutissimum, Stenocybe minutissima (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell
+populneum (Brond. ex Duby) A.F.W. Schmidt  Syn.: Calicium populneum
+praecedens (Nyl.) A.F.W. Schmidt
+tremulicola (Norrlin ex Nyl.) Tibell  Syn. Stenocybe tremulicola (Tibell 1996; Selva & Tibell 1999)

PHAEOGRAPHINA Müll. Arg.
asteroides Fink = Phaeographis asteroides
caesiopruinosa (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Platygramme caesiopruinosa
columbina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina columbina
explicans Fink = Leiorreuma explicans
plurifera (Nyl.) Fink = Platygramme caesioipruinosa
quassiicola (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Thecaria quassiicola
scalpturata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Phaeographis scalpturata

PHAEOGRAPHIS Müll. Arg.
arthonioides (Vainio) Zahlbr.
asteroides (Fink) Lendemer  Syn.: Phaeographina asteroides (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
atromaculata (A. W. Archer) A. W. Archer (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
brasiliensis
(A. Massal.) Kalb & Matthes-Leicht (Archer 2006)
delicatula Common & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
dendritica (Ach.) Müll. Arg.  Syn.: Graphis dendritica
dendriticella Müll. Arg.
dividens (Nyl.) Kr. P. Singh & Swarnalatha (Seavey et al. 2017)
erumpens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
flavescens Dal Forno & Eliasaro (Lücking et al. 2011b)
haematites (Fée) Müll. Arg.
inconspicua (Fée) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
intricans (Nyl.) Staiger Syn.: Sarcographa intricans (Staiger 2002)
inusta (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
leiogrammodes (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lobata (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
major (Kremp.) Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
multicolor R. C. Harris
nylanderi (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
oricola Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
pseudostromatica F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
punctiformis (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
quadrifera (Nyl.) Staiger (Seavey et al. 2017)
radiata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
scalpturata (Ach.) Staiger (Lücking et al. 2011b)
schizoloma (Müll. Arg.)
Müll. Arg. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
smithii (Leighton) B. de Lesd. (Tønsberg 1999a)
subfulgurata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tortuosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
exaltata (Mont. & Bosch) Müll. Arg. = Leiorreuma exaltatum
eulectra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Graphis eulectra
lyellii (Sm.)
Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
patellula (F
ée) Müll. Arg. (Fink 1935) = Leiorreuma patellulum
sericea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = Leiorreuma sericea
sexloculata Fink = P. arthonioides
subtigrina
(Vainio) Zahlbr. = P. brasiliensis

PHAEOPHYSCIA Moberg
adiastola (Essl.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia adiastola
ciliata (Hoffm.)
Moberg Syns.: Physcia ciliata, P. obscura auct.
constipata (Norrlin & Nyl.) Moberg Syn.: Physcia constipata
decolor (Kashiw.) Essl.
endococcina (Körber) Moberg Syns.: Physcia endococcina, P. lithotodes, (?) P. columbiana
endococcinodes (Poelt) Essl. Syn.: Physcia endococcinodes
erythrocardia (Tuck.) Essl.
hirsuta (Mereschk.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia hirsuta
hirtella Essl.
hispidula (Ach.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia hispidula, P. setosa
insignis (Mereschk.) Moberg
kairamoi (Vainio) Moberg Syn.: Physcia kairamoi
leana (Tuck.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia leana
nigricans (Flörke) Moberg Syn.: Physcia nigricans
orbicularis (Necker) Moberg Syn.: Physcia orbicularis, P. virella
pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl. Syn.: Physcia pusilloides
rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. Syns.: Physcia orbicularis f. rubropulchra, P. endochrysea, P. rubropulchra
sciastra (Ach.)
Moberg Syns.: Physcia sciastra, P. lithotea
squarrosa Kashiw. (Moberg 1995) Syn: Physcia lacinulata, for North American records
cernohorskyi (Nádv.) Essl. = P. hirsuta (Esslinger 2004b)
chloantha (Ach.) Moberg = Physciella chloantha
imbricata sensu Esslinger (1978) = P. squarrosa
imbricata (Vainio) Essl. = P. hispidula
melanchra (Hue) Hale = Physciella melanchra
nepalensis (Poelt) D. D. Awasthi = Physciella nepalensis

PHAEOPYXIS Rambold & Triebel (Rambold & Triebel 1990)
*punctum (A. Massal.) Rambold, Triebel & Coppins (Rambold & Triebel 1990)

PHAEORRHIZA H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
nimbosa (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syns.: Rinodina nimbosa, R. phaeocarpa
sareptana (Tomin) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt

PHAEOSPORA Hepp ex Stein
*arctica Horáková & Alstrup
*catolechiae Zopf  (Zhurbenko 2014)
*parasitica (Lönnr.) Arnold
*rimosicola (Leighton ex Mudd) Hepp ex Stein Syn.: Pyrenulella endococcoidea

PHAEOSPOROBOLUS D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*alpinus R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.= Lichenostigma alpinum (Ertz et al. 2014)
*fellhanerae R. C. Harris & Lendemer  (Harris & Lendemer 2009) = Lichenostigma fellhanerae  (Ertz et al. 2014)
*usneae D. Hawksw. & Hafellner = Lichenostegma maureri  (Ertz et al. 2014)

PHAEOTREMA Müll. Arg.
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema californicum
meiospermum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Melanotrema meiospermum

PHARCIDIA Körber = STIGMIDIUM
*dispersa (J. Lahm ex Körber) Winter ex Rabenh. = Zwackhiomyces dispersus
*ephebes Henssen = Stigmidium ephebes
*epicymatia (Wallr.) Winter = a Stigmidium spp.
*parva Henssen (see Stigmidium)

PHLOEOPECCANIA J. Steiner (Schultz & Büdel 2005)
major Henssen ined.  (Schultz & Büdel 2005)
pulvinulina J. Steiner  (Schultz & Büdel 2005)

PHLYCTELLA
Kremp.
andensis Nyl.

PHLYCTIDIA Müll. Arg.
ludoviciensis Müll. Arg.
= Phlyctis boliviensis

PHLYCTIS Wallr.
agelaea (Ach.) Flotow
argena (Ach.) Flotow
boliviensis Nyl.  Syn.: Phlyctidia ludoviciensis  (Lendemer & R. C. Harris 2014d)
petraea R. C. Harris, Muscavitch, Ladd & Lendemer (Muscavitch et al. 2017a)
speirea G. Merr.
ludoviciensis (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer (Lendemer 2005a) = P. boliviensis
willeyi Tuck. = Leucodecton willeyi

PHOEBUS R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)
hydrophobius R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2005, 2007)

PHOMA Fr.
*caloplacae D. Hawksw. (Lawrey et al. 2012)
*fuliginosa M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.  (Hawksworth & Cole 2004)

*grumantiana Zhurb. & Diederich (Diederich et al. 2007)
*lobariae Diederich & Etayo (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*lobariicola Alstrup (Spribillle et al. 2010)
*peltigerae (P. Karsten) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)
*puncteliae Diederich & Lawrey (Lawrey et al. 2012)

*cladoniicola Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2007) = Didymocyrtis cladoniicola (Ertz et al. 2015a)

*cytospora (Vouaux) D. Hawks. (Cole & D. Hawksworth 2001) = Briancoppinsia cytospora (Diederich et al. 2012; Kocourkova et al. 2012)
*physciicola Keissler (Alstrup & Cole 1998) = Didymocyrtis epiphyscia (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*xanthomendozae Diederich & Freebury (Lawrey et al. 2012)
= Didymocyrtis xanthomendozae (Ertz et al. 2015a)

PHRAGMONAEVIA Rehm
*fuckelii Rehm = Corticifraga fuckelii

PHYLLISCUM Nyl.
demangeonii (Moug. & Mont.) Nyl. Syn.: Thyrea demangeonii
tenue Henssen

PHYLLOBLASTIA Vainio
fortuita
Llop & Gómez-Bolea (Carlberg 2016)

PHYLLOPSORA Müll. Arg.
breviuscula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. (Timdal 2011)
buettneri (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2011)
confusa Swinscow & Krog
corallina (Eschw.)
Müll. Arg. var. corallina
furfuracea (Pers.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecidea furfuracea
glabella (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider
glaucella (Vainio) Timdal  (Timdal 2008)
glaucescens (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider (Seavey et al. 2017)
halei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Pannaria halei
isidiotyla (Vainio) Riddle (Brako 1991)
kalbii Brako (Brako 1991)
labriformis Timdal (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
lacerata Timdal (Lücking et al. 2011b)
ochroxantha (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2008)
parvifolia (Pers.) Müll Arg. var. parvifolia Syn.: Biatora parvifolia, Lecidea parvifolia
parvifoliella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
porphyromelaena (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Timdal 2011)
rappiana (Brako) Elix (Timdal 2011)
santensis (Tuck.) Swinscow & Krog (Timdal 2008)  Syns.: Bacidia microphyllina auct., Lecidea santensis
buettneri (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. var. glauca (B. de Lesd.) Brako (Harris 1995a) = P. porphyromelaena
buettneri var. munda (Malme) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. buettneri

canoumbrina (Vainio) Brako Not known from North America; see note under Bacidia subgranulosa
corallina var. glaucella (Vainio) Brako (Brako 1991) = P. glaucella
corallina var. ochroxantha (Nyl.) Brako (Brak