A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and

Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada, Version 24

Theodore L. Esslinger

    This checklist consists of cumulative updates to the most recently published North American checklist (Esslinger 2019). The same style and conventions for listings used there continue to be followed here. Within each genus the accepted names are listed first and are in boldface. Names considered to be synonyms are listed second and are presented in normal font only. Significant changes made since the last version (#23) are given in blue font. As before, the following symbols are used to indicate the lichenicolous fungi and other allied fungi:

* = lichenicolous fungi (parasites on living lichens)
+ = saprophytic fungi related to either lichens or lichenicolous fungi, on various substrates
# = various fungi of odd or uncertain status: e.g.: those which are questionably or weakly lichen-forming; or algicolous/saprophytic; or parasitic when young but saprophytic or lichen-forming when mature; or lichenicolous lichens.

    The first North American (north of Mexico) lichen checklist produced by Mason Hale and Bill Culberson in 1956 (Castanea 21: 73-105) listed 2,280 species in 193 genera (their count), and included few or no lichenicolous or allied fungi.  Almost forty years later, the first checklist version with which I was involved (Esslinger & Egan 1995) reported 3,580 lichen species and another 219 species of lichenicolous and allied fungi, all in 477 genera.  The count for this current version (#24) is 5,823 total species in 805 genera, with an additional 38 subspecies, 51 varieties, and 3 forms.  The total species number includes 670 lichenicolous fungi (*), 113 saprophytic fungi related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi (+), and another 96 species of varying and/or uncertain biological status (#).

    This list is updated at semi-regular intervals, usually about once every twelve to eighteen months, as changes accumulate in the literature. I would appreciate being informed of any oversights or omissions, and although not all taxonomic or nomenclatural differences of opinion will be easily or immediately settled, any polite opinions that users would like to share will be welcomed and taken under consideration. Additions or changes appearing in this version of the checklist represent reports in the literature, and their presence here does not necessarily imply endorsement by the author. In addition to inviting comments or corrections, it would be very helpful if authors of publications containing additions to the North American lichen biota, or other taxonomic and nomenclatural changes that impact it, would provide me with copies, either paper or electronic. I owe a sincere thank you to the many colleagues who continue to provide suggested corrections and/or additions.

Please send comments and publications to:

Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger
Department of Biological Sciences
#2715, P.O. Box 6050
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050
E-mail: Ted.Esslinger@ndsu.edu

Citation: This version (Version #24, 10 December 2021) of the checklist is being simultaneously published online here, hosted by North Dakota State University: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm, and in Opuscula Philolichenum 20: 100-394. 2021.  [http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=484431].  The purpose of dual publication here and in O.P. is to provide a standard formatted journal article that can be cited, to assure permanent archiving of each version, and to facilitate dissemination of the checklist to those outside of the lichenological community via indexing services such as Scopus.  Although there are minor organizational differences in the introductory sections of this webpage edition and the O.P. edition, the bodies of the two editions are identical except for indenting.

Previous versions of this on-line checklist are archived and available by clicking on the following:

Version #1 (First Posted 1 December 1997)
Version #2 (First Posted 17 February 1998)
Version #3 (First Posted 22 June 1998)
Version #4 (First Posted 19 July 1999)
Version #5 (First Posted 15 May 2000)
Version #6 (First Posted 26 February 2001)
Version #7 (First Posted 27 August 2001)
Version #8 (First Posted 17 July 2002)
Version #9 (First Posted 2 March 2004)
Version #10 (First Posted 14 June 2005)
Version #11 (First Posted 10 April 2006)
Version #12 (First Posted 2 April 2007)
Version #13 (First Posted 18 January 2008)
Version #14 (First Posted 8 October 2008)
Version #15 (First Posted 27 August 2009)
Version #16 (First Posted 18 June 2010)
Version #17 (First Posted 16 May 2011)
Version #18 (First Posted 13 December 2012)
Version #19 (First Posted 23 March 2014)
Version #20 (First Posted 19 April 2015)
Version #21 (First Posted 15 November 2016)
Archived in Opuscula Philolichenum: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=479191
Version #22 (First posted 29 January 2018) Archived in Opuscula Philolichenum: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=480859
Version #23 (First posted 19 September 2019) Archived in Opuscula Philolichenum:

Suggestions For Use: This web site consists of one large file (ca. 2 MB), and, once loaded, can be efficiently navigated by using either the provided alphabetic navigation bars or the usual scrolling devices. The genera are listed in alphabetical order, as are the species lists within each genus. Click on the following letters to advance to the genera beginning with that letter or to the References Cited:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

*acetabuli Diederich (Kocourkova et al. 2012)
*bertianus De Not.
*bryoriarum Hafellner
*caerulescens I. Kotte (Diederich 2003)
*cladoniae R. Sant. & D. Hawksw.
*eriodermae Suija, Etayo & Pérez-Ortega (Suija et al. 2015)
*ertzii Suija, & Pérez-Ortega (Suija et al. 2015)
*halei Pérez-Ortega, Suija, D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Suija et al. 2011)
*hypotrachynae Etayo & Diederich (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
*lobariae (Diederich & Etayo) Diederich & Ertz  Syn.: Phoma lobariae (Diederich et al. 2018)
*microspermus Tul.
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*nephromatis Suija, & Pérez-Ortega (Suija et al. 2015)
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold Syn.: Buellia parmeliarum
*peyritschii (Stein) I. Kotte
*pezizicola Diederich & R. C. Harris (Diederich 2003)
*prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner
*secedens Wedin & R. Sant.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
*suecicus (Kirschst.) Nordin (Diederich 2003)
*tulasnei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) Possible synonym of A. caerulescens (Spribille et al 2018)
*usneae Rabenh. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001)
*welwitschii Mont. ex Tul.

*cetrariae I. Kotte (Goward et al. 1996) = A. parmeliarum (Diederich et al. 2018)

*oxysporus Tul. =
Nesolechia oxyspora
*usneae auct. non Rabenh. = Lichenostigma maureri

amabilis T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
celata Döbbeler & Poelt (Spribille et al. 2009)
lignicola Vězda & Pišút (Nash et al. 1998)
rosea Kalb & Aptroot (Spribille et al. 2020)
sphagnorum Vězda & Poelt
trivialis (Willey ex Tuck.) Vězda

aurantiaca (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb  Syns.: Graphina intertexta, Graphis intertexta (Staiger 2002)
floridana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
floridensis F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
fontana Muscavitch & Lendemer (Muscavitch & Lendemer 2016)
gracilis Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999)
leucopepla (Tuck.) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syns.:  Graphis leucopepla, Graphina abaphoides (Tripp et al. 2010)
leucoxanthoides Lendemer  (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
(Tuck.) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syns.:  Graphis mosquitensis, Graphina subvirginalis (Tripp et al. 2010)
paucispora Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
peplophora (M. Wirth & Hale) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn.:  Graphina peplophora (Tripp et al. 2010)
poitaeoides (M. Wirth & Hale) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn.:  Graphis poitaeoides (Tripp et al. 2010)
(Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb (Staiger & Kalb 1999) = A. leucopepla
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb = A. aurantiaca

ACAROCONIUM Kocourk. & D. Hawksw.  (Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008)
*punctiforme Kocourk. & D. Hawksw. (Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008)

affinis K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
amabilis H. Magn. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020d, Knudsen et al. 2021d)
americana H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
applanata H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2021d)
arenacea H. Magn.  (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a, 2020b)
asahinae H. Magn.
badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Sarcogyne athroocarpa (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)
bolleana (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen, J. N. Adams, Kocourk. & Y. Wang  Syn.: Sarcogyne bolleana (Knudsen et al. 2020)
boulderensis H. Magn.  (Knudsen et al. 2014b; McCune et al. 2014b)
brattiae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
brodoana K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & M. Westb. (Knudsen et al. 2016)
brouardii B. de Lesd. (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a)
K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2018b)
bullata Anzi (Brinker & Knudsen 2019) Previous reports for N.A. were in error (Knudsen et al. 2010)

calcarea K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
carnegiei Zahlbr. (Knudsen et al. 2021d)
chrysops (Tuck.) H. Magn.  (Knudsen et al. 2008a)
clauzadeana (Llimona) Casares & Hafellner  Syn.: Biatorella clauzadeana
coloradiana H. Magn.
contigua H. Magn. (Brodo et al. 2001, Knudsen 2007a)
elevata H. Magn.
epilutescens Zahlbr. (Knudsen 2005a)
K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2018b)
erythrophora H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
fuscata (Schrader) Arnold
fuscescens H. Magn.
glaucocarpa (Ach.)
Körber  Syns.: Lecanora glaucocarpa, L. glaucocarpa var. verrucosa
gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen & M. Westb.  Syns.: Polysporina gyrocarpa, Sarcogyne gyrocarpa, S. oligospora (Knudsen et al. 2017)
heufleriana Körber
hilaris (Dufour) Hue
impressula Th. Fr.
#interjecta H. Magn.
janae K. Knudsen (Lumbsch et al. 2011)
lendemeri K. Knudsen & Kocourk.  Syn.: Sarcogyne sphaerospora (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020c)
maccarthyi K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2015) 
macrospora (Hepp ex Nyl.) A. Massal. ex Bagl.
moenium (Vainio) Räsänen  (Nordin et al. 2009)
molybdina (Wahlenb.)
#nashii K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2011a)
nevadensis H. Magn.
nicolai B. de Lesd. (Knudsen & Morse 2009)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. nodulosa
novomexicana H. Magn. (Knudsen 2007a)
H. Magn.
obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Lecanora obpallens
oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold
orcuttii K. Knudsen  (Knudsen 2010 [2011])
organensis K. Knudsen, Kocourk., Hodková & Y. Wang (Knudsen et al. 2021d)
piedmontensis K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
privigna (Ach.) A. Schneider  Syns.: Biatorella revertens, B. simplex, Lecanora privigna, L. privigna var. revertens, Polysporina simplex, Sarcogyne simplex (Knudsen et al. 2021b)
radicata H. Magn. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020d)
robiniae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2010)
rouxii K. Knudsen, Elix & Reeb (Knudsen 2007a, Knudsen et al. 2008a)
saepincola H. Magn.
schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Lecanora schleicheri
scotica Hue
#scottii K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020b)
sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körber Syn.: Lecanora fuscata var. sinopica
socialis H. Magn.
sparsa H. Magn.)
squamulosa (Schrader) Trevisan (Knudsen et al. 2019)
#stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
*subfuscescens (Nyl.) H. Magn.  Syns.: Polysporina subfuscescens, Sarcogyne bicolor p.p., S. lapponica auct. p.p. (Knudsen et al. 2021b)
succedens H. Magn.
superfusa H. Magn. (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
tenebrica H. Magn. (Knudsen et al. 2021d)
thamnina (Tuck.) Herre Syn.: Lecanora cervina var. thamnina
thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Lecanora thelococcoides, L. pleiospora, L. pleistospora

tintickiana St. Clair, Newberry & S. Leavitt (Leavitt et al. 2018)
toensbergii K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2017)
tuckerae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a)
veronensis A. Massal.
aeruginosa Hasse = Caeruleum heppii
albida H. Magn. = A. epilutescens
albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. = A. elevata  (Knudsen 2007a)
amphibola Wedd. = Myriospora smaragdula
amphibola sensu auct. = Myriospora rhagadiza
*arenacea H. Magn. = Polysporina arenacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
arenosa Herre = Sarcogyne arenosa

asperata H. Magn. = A. boulderensis (Kocourková et al. 2014b)
bella (Nyl.) Jatta = A. rhabarbarina (Knudsen et al. 2008a), but a misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
caesiofusca (Müll. Arg.) H. Magn. = A. nicolai
californica Zahlbr. = A. badiofusca (Knudsen 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn. = Sarcogyne canadensis (Knudsen et al. 2020)
cartilaginea H. Magn. = A. fuscata
cervina A. Massal.  Not known to occur in N.A. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020c)
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
cineracea (Nyl.)
Wedd. = misidentification for North America
cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn. = A. americana (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr. =  misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Flakus 2016)
complanata H. Magn.  North American report is A. brucei (
Knudsen & Kocourková 2018b) 
desolata H. Magn. = Sarcogyne desolata
dispersa H. Magn. = Trimmatothelopsis dispersa

dissipata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
evoluta H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
flava (Bellardi) Ach. = Pleopsidium flavum
gallica H. Magn. = A. janae for North American reports (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
geogena H. Magn. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
geophila H. Magn. = A. nodulosa
glebosa (Flotow) Körber = A. oligospora
hassei Herre (Knudsen 2007a) = Myriospora hassei (
Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Hepp) Nägeli ex Körber = Caeruleum heppii
immersa Fink = Caeruleum immersum
incertula H. Magn. = A. novomexicana (Knudsen 2007a)
instrata H. Magn. = A. carnegiei (Knudsen et al. 2021d)
intercedens H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
interposita H. Magn. = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
interspersa H. Magn. = A. succedens (Knudsen 2011a)
lapponica (Ach. ex Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Sarcogyne lapponica (see note there)

*lapponica auct. N.A. = Polysporina subfuscesens
montana H. Magn. = A. rugulosa
nigromarginata B. de Lesd.
= A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
nitida H. Magn. (Weber & Wittman 2000) = A. elevata for North American records (Knudsen 2007a)
nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens Zahlbr.
= A. nodulosa
obscura H. Magn. = A. veronensis for N.A. (Knudsen 2007a,
Knudsen & Kocourková 2018)
ocellata H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
oreophila K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2007a) = Trimmatothelopsis oreophila (Knudsen et al. 2021c)
oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. = Pleopsidium flavum
particularis H. Magn. = Myriospora hassei (Knudsen 2007a,
Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
peliocypha (Wahlenb.) Th.
Fr. (“peliscypha”) = A. squamulosa (Knudsen et al. 2019)
peltastica Zahlbr. = A. strigata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
peltata Hasse = A. strigata (Knudsen 2007a)
pleiospora (Nyl.) Hasse. = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse = A. thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
pyrenopsoides H. Magn.  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a)
reagens Zahlbr. = A. nodulosa (Knudsen 2007a)
rhabarbarina Hue (Knudsen et al. 2008a)  = misidentification for North America (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
rhagadiosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra

rimulosa H. Magn. = A. socialis (Knudsen 2007a)
rubicunda H. Magn.
= A. heufleriana (Knudsen 2007a)
rufescens (Ach.) Bausch = Myriospora smaragdula
saxicola Fink = Glypholecia scabra
scabra (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Glypholecia scabra
scabrida Hedl. ex H. Magn. = Myriospora scabrida
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. = Myriospora smaragdula
smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harm. ex A.L. Smith) H. Magn. (Knudsen 2004a) = Myriospora smaragdula
sphaerosperma R. C. Harris & K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2011b) = Trimmatothelopsis sphaerosperma (Knudsen et al. 2021c)
squamulosa (Schrader) Trevisan = A. macrospora (Knudsen 2007a)
squamulosa sensu Th. Fr. = A. macrospora
stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue = Pleopsidium flavum
subalbida H. Magn. = A. socialis  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
subcontigua H. Magn. = A. schleicheri
subrufula (Nyl.) H. Olivier  (McCune et al. 1997)  Report based on a specimen of Myriospora smaragdula (Knudsen 2007b)
superfusa H. Magn. = A. americana (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011, Knudsen et al. 2011b)
terricola H. Magn. = Trimmatothelopsis terricola (Knudsen & Lendemer 2016)
texana H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
thermophila Herre = A. thamnina (Knudsen 2007a)
tongletii Hue  Not known from N.A. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020c)
tucsonensis H. Magn. = A. carnegiei Zahlbr. (Knudsen et al. 2021d)
umbilicata Bagl.  (Harris & Ladd 2005)  North American records are Acarospora nicolai (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
utahensis H. Magn. = A. strigata  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
variegata H. Magn. = A. tongleti
washingtonensis H. Magn. = A. elevata (Knudsen 2007a)
weldensis H. Magn. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta = misidentification for North America (Knudsen 2008a)

ACOLIUM (Ach.) Gray (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
chloroconium Tuck. Syn.: Cyphelium chloroconium
inquinans (Sm.) A. Massal. Syn.: Cyphelium inquinans
karelicum (Vainio) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium karelicum
*sessile (Pers.) Arnold Syns.: Calicium sessile, Cyphelium sessile
bolanderi Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Thelomma mammosum
carolinianum Tuck. = Calicium carolinianum
sancti-jacobi Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Texosporium sancti-jacobi
tympanellum (Ach.) Gray = Acolium inquinans

*strictum W. Gams  (Spribille et al. 2010)

cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Arthopyrenia cavata
conoidea (Fr.) Körber Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. Syns.: Arthopyrenia gemmata, A. alba, A. sphaeroides  (Lendemer & Harris 2014b)
megalospora (Fink) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia macrospora, A. finkii, Pyrenula megalospora

sphaerophoroides Lév.

muhlenbergii (Ach.) Schol. = Umbilicaria muhlenbergii
muhlenbergii var. alpina (Tuck.) Llano = Umbilicaria muhlenbergii
polyrrhiza (L.) Schol. = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza

ADELOCOCCUS Theissen & Sydow
*alpestris (Zopf) Theissen & Sydow

ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
kolaensis (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold Syn.: Lecidea conferenda
pilati (Hepp) Hertel & Hafellner Syns.: Lecidea pilati, L. lyngeana, L. subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd.
Hertel  (Hertel 2004)

allobata (Stizenb.) P. James (Fryday 2001)
flabelliformis Halda, Czarnota & Guzow-Krzemińska (Waters & Lendemer 2019)
gelatinosa (Ach.) M. Brand & Diederich Syn.: Polyblastia gelatinosa (Sérusiaux et al. 1999)
opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda (Lendemer 2004c)
tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Polyblastia tristicula
vouauxii (B. de Lesd.) M. Brand & Diederich  (Freebury 2014)

cyphellata J. W. Thomson = Circinaria hispida
hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Circinaria hispida

+rufum (Pers.) Fr.
carneolum Tuck. non (Corda) Rabenh. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain

leiocarpa (DC.) Gyelnik = Umbilicaria leiocarpa
lyngei (Schol.) Llano = Umbilicaria lyngei
rigida (Du Rietz) Llano = Umbilicaria rigida
scholanderi Llano = Umbilicaria scholanderi

sphaerospora (H. Magn.) G. Salisb. = Thelocarpon sphaerosporum

aurescens (Tuck.) A. Thell & Randlane Syns.: Cetraria aurescens, Tuckermannopsis aurescens (Thell et al. 1995)
pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria pallidula, Tuckermannopsis pallidula (Thell et al. 1995)
sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward Syn.: Parmelia sphaerosporella

AINOA Lumbsch & I. Schmitt (Lumbsch et al. 2001)
bella Brodo & Lendemer (Brodo & Lendemer 2015)
mooreana (Carroll) Lumbsch & I. Schmitt  Misidentification for North America (Brodo & Lendemer 2015)

ALBEMARLEA Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
pamlicoensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris

fallacina Motyka
imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw.
lata (Taylor) Lindsay
ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach.
sorediosa (Lång ex Räsänen) McMullin & Lendemer (McMullin et al. 2016)
vancouverensis (Gyelnik) Gyelnik ex Brodo & D. Hawksw.
vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb. (McMullin et al. 2016)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) R. Howe = Nodobryoria abbreviata
achariana Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
altaica (Gyelnik) Räsänen = Bryoria nadvornikiana
ambigua Motyka = Bryoria ambigua
americana Motyka = Bryoria americana
bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Bryoria bicolor
boryana Delise = Gowardia nigricans
californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Kaernefeltia californica
cana (Ach.) Leighton = Bryoria fuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018), but N.A. records are B. pseudofuscescens
canadensis Motyka = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
capillaris (Ach.) Crombie = Bryoria fuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018), many N.A. records are B. pseudofuscescens
cervinula Motyka = Bryoria cervinula
cetrariza Nyl. = Kaernefeltia californica
chalybeiformis (L.) Gray = Bryoria fuscescens
corneliae Gyelnik = Bryoria fremontii
delicata Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria trichodes subsp. trichodes
divergens (Ach.) Nyl. = Bryocaulon divergens
fremontii Tuck. = Bryoria fremontii
fuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
gowardii Lumbsch (Lumbsch & Huhndorf 2010) = Gowardia arctica
glabra Motyka = Bryoria glabra
haynaldii Gyelnik = misidentification for North America
implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Bryoria fuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018), many N.A. records are B. pseudofuscescens
irvingii Llano = Bryoria nitidula
jubata (L.) Ach.  Commonly confused and misused name applied to various pendent species of Bryoria (Brodo & Hawksworth 1977)
lanea auct. non (Hoffm.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
lanestris (Ach.) Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014; Boluda et al. 2018)
luteola Mont. = A. sarmentosa
minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. = Pseudephebe minuscula
nadvornikiana Gyelnik = Bryoria nadvornikiana
nana Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria simplicior
nidulifera Norrlin = Bryoria furcellata
nigricans (Ach.) Nyl. = Gowardia nigricans
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Vainio = Bryoria nitidula
norstictica Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
ochroleuca var. cincinnata (Fr.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = A. vexillifera

ochroleuca var. osteina Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = A. ochroleuca
ochroleuca var. rigida (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) = A. ochroleuca
oregana Tuck. = Nodobryoria oregana
positiva (Gyelnik) Motyka = Bryoria fuscescens
pseudofuscescens Gyelnik = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
pubescens (L.) R. Howe = Pseudephebe pubescens
sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. = A. vexillifera (McMullin et al. 2016)
setacea (Ach.) Motyka = Bryoria pseudofuscescens for North American records
simplicior (Vainio) Lynge = Bryoria simplicior
stigmata Bystrek = A. sarmentosa
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
subdivergens E. Dahl = Nodobryoria subdivergens
subsarmentosa Stirton = A. sarmentosa
subtilis Motyka = a nomen nudum = Bryoria pseudofuscescens
tenerrima Motyka = Bryoria fremontii
tenuis E. Dahl = Bryoria tenuis
thrausta Ach. = Ramalina thrausta
tortuosa G. Merr. = Bryoria fremontii
virens auct. = Bryoria fremontii for North American records

almquistii (Vainio) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia almquistii
alpicola (Th. Fr.) Essl. Syns.: Parmelia alpicola, P. encausta var. alpicola
sibirica (Zahlbr.) Essl.  (Spribille et al. 2009a)

ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
caesia Flotow = Chrysothrix caesia

ALLOCALICIUM M. Prieto & Wedin (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
adaequatum (Nyl.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Calicium adaequatum, C. hemisphaericum

madreporiformis (Ach.)
Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria madreporiformis, Dactylina madreporiformis, Dufourea madreporiformis (Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
stracheyi (Bab.)
Kurok. & M. J. Lai (Thell et al. 2009)
cucullata (Bellardi) Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria cucullata
nivalis (L.)
Randlane & Saag = Flavocetraria nivalis
oakesiana (Tuck.) Randlane & A. Thell = Usnocetraria oakesiana

ALLOGRAPHA Chevall. (Lücking & Kalb 2018)
acharii (Fée) Lücking & Kalb Syns.: Graphina acharii, Graphis acharii (Kalb et al. 2018) Presence in N.A. uncertain (Tripp et al. 2010)
argentata (Lücking & Umaña) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis argentata (Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb 2018)
elongata (Zenker) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis elongata (Seavey et al. 2017, Kalb et al. 2018)
longula (Kremp.) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis longula (Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb 2018)
lumbricina (Vainio) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis lumbricina (Lücking & Kalb 2018)
pavoniana (Fée) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis pavoniana (Kalb et al. 2018) N.A. reports uncertain (Lendemer 2010b)
pseudocinerea (Lücking) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis pseudocinerea (Lücking et al. 2011b, Lücking & Kalb 2018)
rimulosa (Mont.) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis rimulosa (Kalb et al. 2018)
sterlingiana (E. Tripp & Lendemer) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis sterlingiana (Lendemer et al. 2013, Lücking & Kalb 2018)
subamylacea (Zahlbr.) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis subamylacea (Lücking & Kalb 2018)
subflexibilis (Lücking & Chaves) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis subflexibilis (Lücking et al. 2011b; Lücking & Kalb 2018)
tamiamiensis (Lendemer) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis tamiamiensis (Lendemer 2010b, Lücking & Kalb 2018)
xanthospora (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Kalb Syn.: Graphis xanthospora (Lücking et al. 2011b, Kalb et al. 2018)

ALYXORIA Ach. (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
bicolor (R. C. Harris & Lendemer) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Opegrapha bicolor
culmigena (Libert) Ertz  Syn.: Opegrapha herbarum (Spribille et al. 2020)
mougeotii (A. Massal.) Ertz, Frisch & G. Thor  Syn.: Opegrapha mougeotii  (Frisch et al. 2014)
ochrocheila (Nyl.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Opegrapha ochrocheila
varia (Pers.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Opegrapha diaphora, O. varia

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
*adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Hafellner Syn.: Buellia adjuncta (Hafellner 2004b)
cacuminum (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina cacuminum (Mayrhofer & Sheard 2002)
coniops (Wahlenb.) M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer  Syn.: Buellia coniops
dakotensis (H. Magn.) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Rinodina dakotensis, R. finkii, R. inaequalis, R. pennsylvanica, R. pyriniformis, R. subplumbea, R. subpyriniformis. (Sheard & May 1997)
efflorescens (Müll. Arg.) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
endachroa (Malme) Marbach (Lücking et al. 2011bb)
langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach (Marbach 2000)  Syn.: Buellia langloisii
leucomela (Imshaug) P. May & Sheard Syns.: Buellia leucoemela (Sheard & May 1997)
lignicola Tønsberg & Nordin (Tønsberg et al. 2012)
milliaria (Tuck.) P. May & Sheard Syn.: Rinodina milliaria (Sheard & May 1997)
polyspora (Willey) E. Lay & P. May Syn.: Buellia myriocarpa var. polyspora, B. polyspora, B. punctata var. polyspora (Sheard & May 1997)
punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. Syn.: Buellia punctata, B. myriocarpa
subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000)
submontana Marbach (Marbach 2000)
insperata (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard (Lendemer et al. 2008c) = Orcularia insperata (Kalb & Giralt 2012)
placodiomorpha (Vainio) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Orcularia placodiomorpha (Kalb & Giralt 2012)
turgescens (Nyl.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) =
Monerolechia badia (Diederich et al. 2018; Bungartz & Nash 2004c)

AMELIELLA Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2008)
andreaeicola Fryday & Coppins

AMEROCONIUM U. Braun & Zhurb.
*cladoniae U. Braun & Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Braun 2013)

*phaeographidis Diederich & Common (Diederich et al. 2019)

lanuginosum (Ach.) Nyl. = Lepraria membranaceum

+bufonia (Berk. & Broome) Ces. & De Not. (Perlmutter et al. 2017)

auratum (Tuck.) Kalb ex Kalb (Seavey et al. 2014)

*foliicola Deighton (Diederich et al. 2019)

consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Brodo & Mas. Inoue
continua Brodo & Hertel
elegantior (H. Magn.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Huilia elegantior, Lecidea elegantior
haidensis Brodo & Hertel
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo Syns.: Biatora panaeola, Lecidea panaeola, Huilia panaeola
pelobotryon (Wahlenb.) Norman Syns.: Lecanora pelobotrya, Aspicilia pelobotrya, Lecidea pelobotrya, L. "pelobotrion"
subdissentiens (Nyl.) Mas. Inoue & Brodo

pulcherrima (Vainio) Timdal Syns.: Lecidea pulcherrima, Psora pulcherrima

bryorum Poelt
crinalis (Schaerer) Vězda (Esslinger 2007) Syn.: Physcia ciliaris var. crinalis
elbursiana (Szatala) Poelt (Esslinger 2002a) Syn.: Physconia thomsonii
palmulata (Michaux) Vainio Syns.: Physcia detonsa, Psoroma palmulata
ulothricoides (Vainio) Vainio
appalachensis Kurok. = Heterodermia appalachensis
aquila (Ach.) A. Massal. North American records = A. palmulata
boryi (Feé) A. Massal. = Heterodermia boryi
casarettiana A. Massal. = Heterodermia casarettiana
chondroidea (W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi) Kurok. = Heterodermia chondroidea
ciliaris (L.) Körber = misidentification for North America
comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. North American records = Heterodermia galactophylla
corallophora (Taylor) Lynge = Heterodermia crocea (for North American records)
dendritica (Pers.) Vainio = Heterodermia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia diademata
domingensis (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia albicans
echinata (Taylor) Kurok. = Heterodermia echinata
erinacea (Ach.) Trevisan = Heterodermia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevisan = Heterodermia galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia granulifera
heterochroa Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca
hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia obscurata
isidiza Kurok. (Yoshimura & Sharp 1973) = A. isidiata Tomin, but a misidentification for North America (Esslinger 2007)
kaspica Gyelnik = A. setifera, but North American reports are A. crinalis
leucomela (L.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia leucomela
"leucomelaena" auct. = Heterodermia leucomela
major (Nyl.) Vainio = misidentification for North America
neoleucomelaena Kurok. = Heterodermia boryi
obscurata (Nyl.) Vainio = Heterodermia obscurata
"palmatula" auct. = A. palmulata
pseudospeciosa Kurok. = Heterodermia pseudospeciosa
pseudospeciosa Kurok. var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok. = Heterodermia speciosa
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia albicans
setifera Räsänen   North American reports are A. crinalis
sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge = Heterodermia obscurata
speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa
squamulosa Degel. = Heterodermia squamulosa
stippaea (Ach.) Nádv. = A. bryorum
tropica Kurok. = Heterodermia tropica
wrightii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  North American report (Tuckerman 1882) is Heterodermia diademata (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)

ANDREIOMYCES Hodkinson & Lendemer (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2013)
morozianus (Lendemer) Hodkinson & Lendemer  Syn.: Lepraria morozianus

ANEMA Nyl. ex Forssell
progidulum (Nyl.) Henssen (Schultz 2002a)
dodgei Herre = Heppia despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
jenisejensis H. Magn. = misidentification for North America

ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
albisedum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis albiseda
ambiguum (Zahlbr.)
R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia ambigua, Ditremis ambigua
anisolobum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot Syns.: Arthopyrenia anisoloba, Ditremis anisoloba
aureopunctatum R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris non Makhija & Patwardhan (Harris 1995a)
biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia biformis, A. parvula, A. conformis auct. N. Am., Ditremis biformis, Trimmatothele umbellulariae
biformoides R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
carinthiacum (J. Steiner) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia carinthiaca, A. dimidiata, Ditremis carinthiaca
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia distans, Ditremis distans
excaecariae (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syns.: A. sanfordense, Arthopyrenia sanfordensis, Ditremis sanfordensis (Harris 1995a)
finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis finkii (Harris 1995a)
griffinii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
leucochlorum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia leucochlora, Ditremis leucochlora
[Ditremis macrospora R. C. Harris]
phaeospermum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr Syns.: Ditremis nyssigena, Arthopyrenia willeyana (Barr et al. 1996)
quadricoccum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 1997)
quaternarium (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis quaternaria (Harris 1995a)
subnexum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Arthopyrenia subprostans, Ditremis subprostans, Pyrenula subprostans.
tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tamarindi.
terminatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Ditremis terminata, Pleurotrema anacardii, Arthopyrenia anacardii (Harris 1995a)
tuckerae R. C. Harris Syn.: Ditremis tuckerae.
feeanum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = A. anisolobum
juistense (Erichsen) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = A. polypori
sanfordense (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae
willeyanum (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = A. polypori

ANOMALOBARIA B. Moncada & Lücking (Moncada et al. 2013) = LOBARIA (McCune et al. 2014b; Miądlikowska et al. 2014a)
anomala (Brodo & Ahti) B. Moncada & Lücking = Lobaria anomala (McCune et al. 2014b)
anthraspis (Ach.) B. Moncada & Lücking = Lobaria anthraspis (McCune et al. 2014b)

turbulenta (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Graphis turbulenta (Staiger 2002)

australiense (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot (Aptroot 2012)  Syns. : Parmentaria nana, Pleurotheliopsis australiensis, P. nana
pachycheilum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Pyrenula pachycheila (Tuckerman 1872)
prasinum (Eschw.) R. C. Harris
canellae-albae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Sulcopyrenula canellae-albae
corticatum Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula confinis
falsarium Zahlbr. = Pyrenula schiffneri
leucostomum (Ach.) Malme = Pyrenula leucostoma
libricola (Fée) Müll. Arg. 
= probable misidentification for North American
maculare Zahlbr. = Pyrenula breutelii
mucosum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = probable misidentification for North American
nanum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = A. australiense
ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula ochraceoflavens
ochraceoflavum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula ochraceoflava
pauciloculare Herre = identity uncertain
pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides

staurosporum (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Sulcopyrenula staurospora
subglobosum Riddle = Sulcopyrenula subglobosa
thelomorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenula thelomorpha
varians R. C. Harris = Pyrenula novemseptata

ANZIA Stizenb.
americana Yoshim. & Sharp
colpodes (Ach.) Stizenb.  Syns.:  Parmelia colpodes, P. cristulata
ornata (Zahlbr.) Asahina

ANZINA Scheid.
carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. (Goward et al. 1996)
carneonivea var. tetraspora Scheid.  (Spribille et al. 2010)

oblongula (H. Magn.) Poelt & Hafellner = Caloplaca oblongula

ARCTOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & A. Thell
andrejevii (Oxner) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria andrejevii, C. simmonsii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria nigricascens, C. elenkinii, C. sibirica

delicatula Th. Fr.
delicatula var. acutior (Nyl.) Henssen (McCune et al. 2020)
interfixa (Nyl.) Vainio

centrifuga (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia centrifuga, P. aleuritica, Parmelia halseyana, Xanthoparmelia centrifuga
incurva (Pers.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia incurva, Xanthoparmelia incurva
separata (Th. Fr.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia separata, P. birulae var. grumosa, Xanthoparmelia separata
subcentrifuga (Oxner) Hale Syns.: Parmelia subcentrifuga, Xanthoparmelia subcentrifuga
aleuritica (Nyl.) Hale = A. centrifuga

thuleana Poelt

*peltigerina (Peck) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syn.: Omphalina peltigerina (Redhead et al. 2002)

*acanthotheciicola Ertz & Common (Diederich et al. 2019)
*agelastica R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
albofuscescens Tuck.
+albopulverea Nyl. 
(Grube 2007)
albovirescens Nyl.  Syn.: Arthothelium albovirescens
aleuromela Nyl.
*almquistii Vainio (Zhurbenko 2013)
anglica Coppins (Hodkinson et al. 2009, Lendemer et al. 2009c)
*anjutii S. Y. Kondr. & Alstrup (Kondratyuk 1996)
antillarum (Fée) Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
apatetica (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.
arthonioides (Ach.) A. L. Sm.
asteriscus Müll. Arg.
atomaria (Lynge) R. Kilias
atra (Pers.) A. Schneider  (Ertz et al. 2009) Syn.: Opegrapha atra
atrata (Fée) Müll. Arg.
+beccariana (Bagl.) Stizenb.  (Grube 2007)
*biatoricola Ihlen & Owe-Larsson  (Ihlen et al. 2004b)
calcarea (Turner ex Sm.) Ertz & Diederich (Ertz et al. 2009) Syn.: Opegrapha calcarea
caribea (Ach.) A. Massal.
cinereopruinosa Schaerer
cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.
*circinata Th. Fr. (Villella & Sheehy 2015)
*clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr.
*colombiana Etayo (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
compensata Nyl. (Hansen & Dute 2005)
compensatula Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
complanata Fée
conferta (Fée) Nyl.
*coronata Etayo (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
cupressina Tuck.
cyrtodes Nyl. (Lendemer et al. 2009c)
+cytisi A. Massal.
dictyospora (Coppins & P. James) McCune (McCune 2017)
didyma Körber
diffusa Nyl.
diffusella Fink
*digitatae Hafellner (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
*diploiciae Calat.
& Diederich (Grube 2007, Lendemer et al. 2009b)
dispersula Nyl.
eckfeldtii Müll. Arg.
*epicladonia (Nyl.) Alstrup & Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko & Alstrup 2004)
*epimela (Almq.) I. M. Lamb (Goward et al. 1996)
*epiphyscia Nyl.
erubescens Willey
erupta Nyl.
excedens Nyl.
*excentrica Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
exilis (Flörke) Anzi
*farinacea (H. Olivier) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
fissurinea Nyl.
floridana Willey
fuliginosa (Schaerer) Flotow
*fuscopurpurea (Tul.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*gelidae R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010)
gerhardii Egea & Torrente (Grube 2007)
+glaucella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
glebosa Tuck.
granosa B. de Lesd.
gutberletiana Lendemer & D. Ray (Lendemer & Ray 2017)
gyalectoides Müll. Arg.
hamamelidis Nyl.
helvola (Nyl.) Nyl. (Harris 1977)
+hypobela (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
hypochniza Nyl. (Seavey et al. 2017)
ilicina Taylor  Syn.: Arthothelium ilicinum
impallens Nyl.
incarnata Th.
Fr. ex Almq.
infectans Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
interveniens Nyl.  Syn.: Arthothelium interveniens
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
*intexta Almq.
kermesina R. C. Harris, E. Tripp & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup
lecanactidea Zahlbr.
*lecanorina (Almq.) Grube (Grube 2007)
*lepidophila (Anzi) Clauzade, Diederich & Cl. Roux (Spribille et al. 2020)
*lethariicola Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
leucastraea Tuck.
ligniaria Hellb. (Spribille et al. 2020)
Coppins (Spribille & Björk 2008)
luridoalba Nyl.
macrotheca Fée  (Lücking et al. 2011b) Syn.:  Arthothelium macrothecum
madreana Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1995)
mediella Nyl.
mesoleuca Nyl. 
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
microsperma Nyl. (Seavey et al. 2017)
microspermella Willey
mirabilis Grube  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
*molendoi (Heufl. ex Frauenf.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998; Hafellner et al. 2002)
neoni B. de Lesd.
*nephromiaria (Nyl. ex Arn.) Sacc.
norvegica (Coppins & Tønsberg) McCune (McCune 2017)
ochrocincta Willey
ochrodiscodes Nyl.
ochrolutea Nyl.
ochrospila Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
oxytera Nyl.
(Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
palmulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
patellulata Nyl.
*peltigerea Th. Fr. (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigerina (Almq.) H. Olivier
perminuta Willey
phaeobaea (Norman) Norman
*phaeophysciae Grube & Matzer (Hafellner et al. 2002)
phlyctiformis Nyl. subsp. californica Grube (Grube 2007)
platygraphidea Nyl.
platyspilea Nyl.
*polydactylonis Diederich & Ertz (Diederich et al. 2018)
polygramma Nyl.
polymorpha Ach.
*protoparmeliopseos Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková & Knudsen 2015)
+pruinascens (Zahlbr.) Grube (Grube 2007) Syn.: Arthothelium pruinascens
+pruinosella Nyl. (Grube 2007)
pruinosula Nyl.
pseudostromatica F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
pyrrhuliza Nyl.
+quintaria Nyl.
radiata (Pers.) Ach.
ravenelii Tuck.
reniformis (Pers.) Ach.
+rhoidis Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
rubella (Fée) Nyl.
rubrocincta G. Merr. ex Grube & Lendemer (Grube & Lendemer 2009)
rupicola Fink
samdykeana Lendemer & D. Ray (Lendemer & Ray 2017)
+sanguinea Willey (Grube 2007) Syn.: Arthothelium sanguineum
septiseptella Nyl. (Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Zahlbr. (Grube 2007)
siderea Degel.
simplicascens Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
spadicea Leighton
speciosa (Müll. Arg.) Grube (Grube 2007)
stellaris Kremp.
*stereocaulina (Ohlert) R. Sant. (Zhurbenko 2010)
*stevensoniana R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
+subastroidea Anzi (McMullin et al. 2017)
subdiffusa Willey
+subdispuncta Nyl.
*subfuscicola (Lindsay) Triebel
*subgraphidicola Ertz, Common & Diederich (Diederich et al. 2019)
subminutissima Nyl.
subminutula Nyl.
subrubella Nyl.
susa R. C. Harris & Lendemer  Syn.: Arthothelium taediosum auct. N.A. (Lendemer et al. 2013)
taedescens Nyl.
*tavaresii Grube & Hafellner (Seavey et al. 2017)
terrigena Nyl.
+tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse (Grube 2007)
*thelotrematis Coppins (Spribille et al. 2020)
torulosa Fée
varia (Ach.) Nyl.
*varians (Davies) Nyl. Syn.: Celidium varians (Hawksworth 2003)
vernans Willey
vinosa Leighton
viridicans Willey
*xanthoparmeliarum Etayo (Kocourková 2009)
xylographica Nyl.
alba Müll. Arg.
= a Stirtonia sp.
aspersa Leighton = A. arthonioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora

biseptata Degel. = Mycoporum biseptatum (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
byssacea (Weigel) Almq. = Inoderma byssaceum (Weigel) Gray (Frisch et al. 2015)

caesia (Flotow) Körber = Chrysothrix caesia
carneorufa Willey = Catillaria erysiboides
+caudata Willey = Arthonia hypobela (McMullin 2018)
*ceracea Etayo & Breuss (Etayo & Breuss 1998) = A. polydactylonis (Diederich et al. 2018)

chiodectella Nyl. = Pachnolepia pruinata (Grube 2007)
convexella Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus (Mycoporum sp.?)
+dispersa (Schrader) Nyl. = Naevia dispersa (Thiyagaraja et al. 2020)
epipastoides auct. N.A. non Nyl.
= A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp = A. lapidicola
galactitella Nyl. = A. glaucella (Grube 2007)
glaucescens Nyl. = Schismatomma glaucescens
glaucomaria (Nyl.) Nyl. = A. varians (Hawksworth 2003)
gregaria (Weigel) Körber = A. cinnabarina
gregarina Willey = Coniarthonia gregarina

*hodgesii Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2016c) = Synarthonia hodgesii
impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer = Pachnolepia pruinata
lecideella Nyl. ex Willey = Chrysothrix caesia (Lendemer 2008)
leucodontis (Poelt & Döbb.) Coppins = Bryostigma muscigena

leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq. = Felipes leucopellaeus (Frisch et al. 2014)
*linitae R. Sant. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Plectocarpon linitae
lurida Ach. nom. rej. = A. spadicea
macounii G. Merr. (Kocourková et al. 2008) = Arthothelium macounii
melaspora Tuck.
= Sporostigma melaspora (Grube 2001)
montagnei (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = uncertain species of Cryptothecia? (Lücking et al. 2011b)

muscigena Th. Fr. = Bryostigma muscigena
+pinastri Anzi = Naevia pinastri (Thiyagaraja et al. 2020)
pruinata (Pers.) Steud. ex A. L. Sm. (Grube 2007) = Pachnolepia pruinata (Frisch et al. 2014)
+punctiformis Ach. = Naevia punctiformis (Thiyagaraja et al. 2020)
pyrrhula Nyl.
= Coniarthonia pyrrhula
redingeri Grube  Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Grube 2007)
ruana A. Massal. = Arthothelium ruanum
spectabilis Flotow = Arthothelium spectabile
+stictella Stizenb. = A. albopulverea (Grube 2007)
taediosa Nyl.  North American reports are Arthonia susa (Lendemer et al. 2013)
tremelloides Etayo  Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Grube 2007)
tuckermaniana Willey = Coniocarpon tuckermanianum (Van den Broeck et al. 2018)
tumidula (Ach.) Ach. = A. cinnabarina
verrucosa Egea & Torrente  Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Grube 2007)
willeyi Tuck. = A. diffusa (Lendemer 2004a)

*parmeliarum Hafellner (Diederich 2003, Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003)

+analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Harris 1995a, Aptroot 2002a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallax
betulicola R. C. Harris, E. Tripp & Lendemer (Harris et al. 2014)
cerasi (Schrader) A. Massal.
cinereopruinosa (Schaerer) A. Massal.
degelii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
esenbeckiana (Fée) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
exasperata R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
minor R. C. Harris
oblongens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+plumbaria (Stizenb. ex Hasse) R. C. Harris Syns.: Porina plumbaria, Pyrenula herrei
rappii Zahlbr.
+subcerasi (Vainio) Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
*texensis (Cooke) D. Hawksw.
affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris = Strigula affinis North American records are S. jamesii
alba (Schrader) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
ambigua Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anacardii Vainio = Anisomeridium terminatum
analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold = misidentification for North America
anisoloba Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium anisoloba
antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold = Mycoporum antecellens
atomarioides Müll. Arg. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides
atractospora Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atractospora
bifera Zahlbr. = A. malaccitula
biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. = Anisomeridium biforme
bryospila (Nyl.) Arnold = Collemopsidium bryospilum
carinthiaca J. Steiner = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris = Acrocordia cavata
cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Constrictolumina cinchonae
confluens R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = Constrictolumina leucostoma
conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America, mostly Anisomeridium biforme
conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia conoidea
dimidiata Fink = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium distans
epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
faginea (Schaerer) Swinscow = Strigula stigmatella
fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta
finkii Zahlbr. = Acrocordia megalospora
floridana Zahlbr. = Naetrocymbe atomarioides
fraxini A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe fraxini
gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. = Acrocordia gemmata
halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold = Collemopsidium halodytes
hyalospora (Nyl.) Fink = Lithothelium hyalosporum
lapponina Anzi = A. analepta
leucochlora Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
litoralis (Leighton) Arnold (Fink 1935) = Collemopsidium sublitorale (Santesson et al. 2004)
lyrata R. C. Harris = Constrictolumina lyrata
macrocarpa (Körber) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
macrospora Fink = Acrocordia megalospora
majuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Constrictolumina majuscula
malaccitula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Constrictolumina malaccitula
megalospora Lonnr. = Naetrocymbe megalospora
mycoporoides Müll. Arg. = Mycoporum mycoporoides
padi Rabenh. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
parvula Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium biforme
pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal. = A. cinereopruinosa
planorbis (Ach.) Müll. Arg. = Constrictolumina planorbis
prospersella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Pyrenocollema prospersella
punctiformis (Pers.) A. Massal. = Naetrocymbe punctiformis
quinqueseptata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Polymeridium quinqueseptatum
rhyponta (Ach.) A. Massal. (Aptroot 2002a) = Naetrocymbe rhyponta
salicis A. Massal. = Identity uncertain (Harris 1995a)
sanfordensis Zahlbr. = Anisomeridium excaecariae
sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. = Acrocordia gemmata
sublitoralis (Leighton) Arnold = Collemopsidium sublitoralis
submuriformis R. C. Harris = Strigula submuriformis
subprostans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Anisomeridium subprostans
subpunctiformis Nyl. = A. atomarioides
tenuis R. C. Harris = Strigula americana
tichothecioides Arnold = Pyrenocollema tichothecioides
willeyana R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori

floridensis Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
planicarpa (Lücking) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)  A tentative report.

abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
adveniens Nyl.
anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold
distendens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
macounii (G. Merr.) W. Noble  Syn.: Arthonia macounii
norvegicum Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Williams 2006)
orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse
ruanum (A. Massal.) Körber Syn.: Arthonia ruana
spectabile (Flotow) A. Massal. Syn.: Arthonia spectabilis
subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse
violascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink = Arthonia albovirescens
gregarinum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Coniarthonia gregarina
ilicinum (Taylor) P. James = Arthonia ilicina
interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Arthonia interveniens
lichenale (Peck) M. E. Barr (Barr et al. 1986) = Mycoporum compositum (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
macrothecum (Fée) A. Massal. = Arthonia macrothecum
+pruinascens Zahlbr. = Arthonia pruinascens (Grube 2007)
ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold = A. ruanum
+sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr. = Arthonia sanguinea (Grube 2007)
taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.   North American reports are Arthonia susa (Lendemer et al. 2013)

*aeruginosa R. Sant. & Tønsberg
#alpina (Schaerer) R. Sant. Syn.: Bacidia alpina
#citrinella (Ach.) Poelt Syns.: Bacidia citrinella, B. flavovirescens, Lecidea flavovirescens
#grisea Th. Fr. Syn.: Lahmia fueistingii
*muddii Obermayer (Spribille et al. 2020)

ARTHROSPORUM A. Massal. = TONINIA (Kistenich et al. 2018)
accline (Flotow) A. Massal. = Toninia populorum

populorum A. Massal. = Toninia populorum

ASAHINEA W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
chrysantha (Tuck.) W. L. Culb.
& C. F. Culb. Syns.: Cetraria chrysantha, Platysma septentrionale
scholanderi (Llano) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria scholanderi

albomarginata B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora albomarginata
albonota McCune & J. Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)
alboradiata (H. Magn.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora alboradiata
aliena (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora aliena
americana B. de Lesd. Syn.: Lecanora americana
angelica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
annulata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora annulata
anseris (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Synonym: Lecanora anseris
aquatica Körber Syn.: Lecanora aquatica
arctica (Lynge) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora arctica
arizonica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
aspera (Mereschk.) Tomin  (McCune et al. 2014b)
aurantiaca Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Knudsen et al. 2008b)
berntii A. Nordin, Tibell & Owe-Larsson  Syn.:  Lecanora mastoidea (Nordin et al. 2008)
bicensis F. Anderson & Lendemer (Anderson & Lendemer 2016)
Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
(H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Lecanora caesiopruinosa
californica Rosentr. (Rosentreter 1998)
californica var. gigantea McCune & J. Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)
candida (Anzi) Hue Syn.: Lecanora candida
cinerea (L.) Körber Syn.: Lecanora cinerea
cingulata (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora cingulata
composita (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora composita
concinna (J. W. Thomson) J. W. Thomson (Thomson 1997)
confusa Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
contigua (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
cuprea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
curvabilis (Nyl.) Hue (Hansen 2006)
cyanescens Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
determinata (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk. (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
diploschistiformis McCune & Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)
disserpens (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora disserpens
dudinensis (H. Magn.) Oxner (McCune et al. 2020)
elevata (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora elevata
filiformis Rosentr. (Rosentreter 1998)
fimbriata (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon Syn.: Lecanora fimbriata
fumosa Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
glaucopsina (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  (Knudsen 2005b, Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
grisea Arnold (Fryday 2001)
heteroplaca (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora heteroplaca
humboldtii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
karelica (H. Magn.) Oxner
knudsenii Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
laevata (Ach.) Arnold Syns.: Lecanora cinerea var. laevata, L. laevata
laxula (H. Magn.) Brodo
lesleyana Darb. Syn.: Lecanora lesleyana
limitata (H. Magn.) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora limitata
mansourii Sohrabi  (McCune et al. 2014b)
mazarina (Wahlenb.) R. Sant.
narssaquensis (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Lecanora basaltica, L. narssaquensis
nashii Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
nathorstii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
nikrapensis Darb.  Syn.: Lecanora nikrapensis
nordlandica (H. Magn.) Degel.
novae-semliae (Zahlbr.) Oxner  Syn.: Lecanora novae-semliae
olivaceobrunnea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
olivaceopallida (H. Magn.) Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
pacifica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
papilliformis McCune & J. Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)
peltastictoides (Hasse) K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)  Syn.: Lecanora peltastictoides
(H. Magn.) Räsänen  Syn.: Lecanora pergibbosa
perradiata (Nyl.) Hue Syn.: Lecanora perradiata
pertusa (Lynge) J. W. Thomson Syn.: Lecanora pertusa
phaea Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
plicigera (Zahlbr.) Räsänen Syn.: Lecanora plicigera
polychroma Anzi Syn.: Lecanora polychroma
praecrenata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue  Syn.: Lecanora praecrenata (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
reptans (Looman) Wetmore Syn.: Lecanora reptans:
rolleana Hue Syn.: Lecanora rolleana
rosulata Körber Syn.: Lecanora rosulata
ryrkaipiae (H. Magn.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora ryrkaipiae
santamonicae Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007, Knudsen et al. 2008b)
sipeana (H. Magn.) Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin  Syn.: Lecanora sipeana (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
sorediza (Lynge) J. W. Thomson
spicata McCune & J. Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)
subcontinua McCune & J. Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)

sublapponica (Zahlbr.) Oxner Syn.: Lecanora sublapponica
submersa (Lamy) Hue
subplicigera (H. Magn.) Oxner
subradians (Nyl.) Hue Syns.: Lecanora stygioplaca, L. subradiascens, L. subradians
substictica Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
supertegens Arnold Syn.: Lecanora supertegens
tenuis (H. Magn.) Owe-Larsson & A. Nordin  Syn.: Lecanora tenuis (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)
verrucigera Hue  Syn.: Lecanora verrucigera
wyomingensis McCune & J. Di Meglio (McCune & Di Meglio 2021)
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina (Sommerf.) Arnold = Bellemerea alpina
bennettii (Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. mashiginensis
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold = Circinaria caesiocinerea
calcarea (L.) Körber = Circinaria calcarea
cinereorufescens (Ach.) A. Massal. = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. = Circinaria contorta
desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk.  North American reports are Circinaria arida (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)
diamarta (Ach.) Boistel = Bellemerea diamarta
excavata G. Thor & Timdal = Acarospora moenium
flavida (Hepp) Rehm = Eiglera flavida
fruticulosa (Eversm.) Flagey = Circinaria rogeri for N.A. reports
gibbosa (Ach.)
Körber = Circinaria gibbosa
hispida Mereschk. = Circinaria hispida

intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold  (McCune et al. 2014b) = Aspiciliella intermutans

lacustris (With.) Th. Fr. = Ionaspis lacustris
leprosescens (Sandst.) Hav. = Circinaria leprosescens
mashiginensis (Zahlbr.) Oxner = Oxneriaria mashiginensis
(Lynge) J. W. Thomson = A. berntii (Nordin et al. 2008)
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (Wetmore 1967) = Sagedia mastrucata
melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia melanaspis
melinodes Körber = Porpidia melinodes
moenium (Vainio) G. Thor & Timdal = Acarospora moenium (Nordin et al. 2009)
myrinii (Fr.) Stein = Aspilidea myrinii
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia praeradiosa

quartzitica W. A. Weber = Schaereria fuscocinerea  (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007)

radiosa (Hoffm.) Poelt & Leuckert = Lobothallia radiosa
rogeri Sohrabi (Sohrabi et al. 2013b) = Circinaria rogeri
sanguinea Kremp. = Bellemerea sanguinea
simoënsis Räsänen (Owe-Larsson et al. 2007) = Sagedia simoënsis
stygioplaca (Nyl.)
Hue = A. subradians
subradiascens (Nyl.) Hue = A. subradians
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. = Bellemerea subsorediza
uxoris (Werner) V. J. Rico (Shrestha & St. Clair 2009)  North American report = Teuvoa junipericola (Sohrabi et al. 2013a)

intermutans (Nyl.) M. Choisy  Syn.: Aspicilia intermutans (Zakeri et al. 2017)

ASPIDOTHELIUM Vainio (Nelsen et al. 2017)
cinerascens Vainio  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.:  Thelenella cinerascens
fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  Syn.:  Thelenella fugiens (Nelsen et al. 2017)
geminiparum (Malme) R. Sant. (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.:  Thelenella geminipara
scutellicarpum Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

ASPILIDEA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
myrinii (Fr.) Hafellner

*mazaediicola D. Hawksw.

decipiens (Rehm) R. Sant.
leucophthalmum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
rotuliforme (Mull. Arg.) Sérus. Syns.: Gyalectidium rotuliforme, Lopadiopsis floridana

aeneum (Eschw.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium aeneum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
cinnamomeum (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.
crassum (Fée) Aptroot (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
diplocarpoides Müll. Arg. 
(Lücking et al. 2011b)
Nyl. (Harris 1995a)
feei (C. F. W. Meissn.) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
floridanum Zahlbr.
macrocarpum (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
marcidum (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium marcidum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
megaspermum (Mont.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syns.: Campylothecium nitidum, Clathroporina diphloea, Laurera megasperma (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
nitidiusculum (Nyl.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethlium nitidiuscula (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
phlyctaena (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking  Syns.: Trypethelium ochroleucum, T. pallescens (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
porosum (Ach.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium porosum(Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
scoria (Fée) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Trypethelium scoria (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
subdisjunctum (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Laurera subdisjuncta (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
variolosum (Ach.) Müll. Arg.  Syn.: Trypethlium variolosum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
versicolor Müll. Arg.
confusum Müll. Arg. = A. crassum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
conicum auct. = A. cinnamomeum
conicum Eschw. = (?) type not found
Kremp. = A. macrocarpum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
ochrothelizum Müll. Arg. = A. macrocarpum (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
cerinelloides (Erichsen) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca cerinelloides
holocarpa (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca holocarpa
pyracea (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syns.: Caloplaca pyracea, Placodium cerinum var. pyracea
saxifragarum (Poelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca saxifragarum
scopularis (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca scopularis
vitellinula (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca vitellinula

*arachnoidea (Berk.) Jülich (Haffelner et al. 2002)
*epiphylla Pers.
poeltii Jülich

ATLA Savić & Tibell
alaskana S. Tibell & Tibell (Tibell & Tibell 2015)
recondita Savić (Spribille et al. 2020)

ATROPHYSMA T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2020)
cyanomelanos T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2020)

microphana (Vainio) R. Sant.
quadrangula (Stirton) R. Sant.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

*punctum (A. Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas  Syn.: Phaeopyxis punctum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw. = B. punctum (Diederich et al. 2018)

absistens (Nyl.) Arnold
aggregatula Malme
alnetorum (S. Ekman & Tønsberg) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Biatora alnetorum (Kondratyuk et al. 2019, Spribille et al. 2020)
arceutina (Ach.) Arnold Syn.: Biatora effusa var. arceutina, Lecidea luteola var. arceutina
[Bilimbia artyta (Ach.) Fink]
auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig.
austinii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (“augustinii”) Syn.: Biatora austinii; misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta Syn.: Biatora muscorum
biatorina (Körber) Vainio
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.
campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb
coprodes (Körber) Lettau (Llop & Ekman 2004) Syns.: Bilimbia coprodes, Biatora trachona auct., Bilimbia trachona auct.
coruscans S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
diffracta S. Ekman
depriestiana Lendemer & Keepers (Lendemer & Keepers 2021)
eckfeldtii (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Patellaria eckfeldtii (Lendemer & Hewitt 2002)
ekmaniana R. C. Harris, Lendemer & Ladd (Lendemer et al. 2016b)
flavens (Willey) Zahlbr. Syn.: Biatora flavens = a species of Lecania (Ekman 1996)
friesiana (Hepp) Körber
gigantensis Lendemer, McCune & McMullin (McMullin et al. 2020)
granosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syns.: Bilimbia granosa, Bilimbia pammellii (Ekman 2014)
gullahgeechee Lendemer (Lendemer 2018)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio
helicospora S. Ekman
herbarum (Stizenb.) Arnold
heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
hostheleoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  Syns.: Biatora caloosensis
H. Magn. (McCune et al. 2014b)
igniarii (Nyl.) Oxner
illudens (Nyl.) Lynge
insularis Zahlbr.

jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse Syn.: Biatora jacobi = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996, 2004a)
kekesiana R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
kingmanii Hasse = misplaced here, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. Syn.: Biatora atrogrisea
lobarica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2007)

mutabilis Malme
*peltigericola Vainio (Weber & Wittman 2000)
phyllopsoropsis R. C. Harris & Lendemer  (Harris & Lendemer 2006)
polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körber  Syns.: Biatora fuscorubella, Lecidea spadicea
purpurans R. C. Harris, Lendemer & Ladd (Lendemer et al. 2016b)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia ravenelii  Correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
reagens Malme
rosellizans S. Ekman (Ekman 2009)
rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. Syn.: Biatora rubella
rubidofusca (Willey) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Bilimbia rubidofusca   Possibly a species of Gyalidea (Printzen 1995)
russeola (Kremp.) Zahlbr.
salmonea S. Ekman
saxicola Looman = misplaced, correct placement uncertain (Ekman 1996)
schweinitzii (Fr. ex Tuck.) A. Schneider Syns.: Biatora leucampyx (Lendemer & Harris 2012), B. schweinitzii, Patellaria granulosa Michaux non (Hoffm.) DC.
scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.
sorediata Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2016b)
subgranulosa (Tuck.) Riddle  Erroneously listed as a synonym of Phyllopsora canoumbrina in the checklist; possibly belongs to Psorella (Ekman 1996)
subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold
suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider  Syn.: Biatora suffusa
thiersiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2020a)
veneta S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004a)
viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James (Tønsberg 1997)
abbrevians (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = B. igniarii
abductans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = B. schweinitzii
accedens (Arnold) Lettau = Bilimbia accedens
accedens sensu Harris = unnamed species (Ekman 1996)
acclinis (Flotow) Zahlbr. =
Toninia populorum
affinis (Stizenb.) Vainio = B. subincompta
akompsa (Tuck.) Fink = a Lecanactis sp.
alaskensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Herteliana alaskensis
albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh = Bacidina phacodes
alpina (Schaerer) Vainio = Arthrorhaphis alpina
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica
arnoldiana Körber = Bacidina arnoldiana
arthoniza (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
assulata (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina assulata
atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körber = B. laurocerasi
aurantiaca Vězda = Fellhanera aurantiaca
bacillifera (Nyl.) Arnold =
Scutula circumspecta
beckhausii Körber = Biatora beckhausii (Printzen 2014)
caloosensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = B. hostheleoides
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
chlorantha (Tuck.) Fink = Ropalospora chlorantha
chlorococca (Stenh.) Lettau = Scoliciosporum chlorococcum
chlorosticta (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Micarea chlorosticta
circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vainio) Malme = Scutula circumspecta (Kistenich et al. 2018)
citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostrup = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
clementis Hasse = Bactrospora patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
cuprea (A. Massal.) Lettau = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
cupreorosella (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) A. Schneider = Lecania cuprea
declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Catillaria nigroclavata
dryina (Ach.) Fink = Bactrospora dryina
effusa auct. = Bacidina assulata
egenula (Nyl.) Arnold = Bacidina egenula
egenuloidea Fink = Bacidina egenuloidea
endocyanea (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea endocyanea
endoleuca auct. = B. laurocerasi
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Lettau = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
flavovirescens (Dickson) Anzi = Arthrorhaphis citrinella
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera floridana
fusca (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Mycobilimbia tetramera
fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch = B. polychroa
fuscorubella var. suffusa  (Fr.) Fink  = B. suffusa
globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V. Wirth =
Myrionora globulosa (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse = Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
hegetschweileri auct. =
Bibbya vermifera (Ekman 1996, Kistenich et al. 2018)
hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vainio = B. subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold (Ekman 1996)

hemipolia (Nyl.) Malme (Weber & Wittman 2000, Czarnota & Coppins 2007) = Myrionora hemipolia (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
herrei Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = Bilimbia sabuletorum
incompta (Borrer ex Hooker) Anzi = misidentification for North America
intermedia (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Arnold = Bacidina assulata (Ekman 1996)
inundata (Fr.) Körber = Bacidina inundata

ioessa Herre = Thalloidima ioen
laurocerasi subsp. idahoensis (H. Magn.) S. Ekman = B. idahoensis  (McCune et al. 2014b)
leucophyllina (Nyl.) Fink = misidentification for North America
lignaria (Ach.) Lettau = Micarea lignaria
lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris
luteola "(Ach.) Mudd" = B. rubella
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. = Byssoloma meadii
medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) B. de Lesd. (Ekman 1996) = Bacidina medialis
melaena (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Micarea melaena
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Lettau = Bilimbia microcarpa
microphyllina auct. = Phyllopsora santensis
microphyllina (Tuck.) Riddle = misidentification for North America
minuscula Anzi = B. beckhausii
molybditis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina medialis
muscorum (Sw.) Mudd = B. bagliettoana
naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. =
Lecaniella naegelii
nivalis Follmann = Stereocaulon nivale
obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia tetramera
pallens (Kullhem) Zahlbr. =
Coppinsidea pallens (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
pammellii (Fink) Zahlbr. = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
phacodes auct. N. Am. = Bacidina californica, in part
phacodes Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidina phacodes
populorum (A. Massal.) Trevisan = Arthrosporum populorum
rosella (Pers.) De Not. = B. rosellizans for North American reports
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Ophioparma rubricosa
sabuletorum (Schreber) Lettau = Bilimbia sabuletorum
sibiriensis (Willey ex Rothr.) Zahlbr. = Lecania subfuscula (Ekman 1996)
spadicea (Ach.) Zahlbr. = B. suffusa (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia pilularis
sphaeroides auct. non (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
stigmatella (Tuck.)
Zahlbr. = Lecania stigmatella
subfuscula (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Lecania subfuscula
subspadicella Zahlbr. = B. polychroa (Ekman 1996)
tetramera (De Not.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia tetramera
trachona (Ach.) Lettau  North American reports are B. coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Hellbom) Zahlbr. = Micarea peliocarpa
umbrina (Ach.) Bausch = Scoliciosporum umbrinum
verecundula (Th. Fr.) = misidentification for North America (Ekman 1996)
vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Ekman 1996) = Bibbya vermifera (Kistenich et al. 2018)

aenea S. Ekman
apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia apiahica
arnoldiana (Körber) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana
assulata (Körber) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia albescens, B. assulata, B. effusa auct., B. intermedia
brandii (Coppins & van den Boom) M. Hauck & V. Wirth (Spribille et al. 2020)
brittoniana (Riddle) LaGreca & S. Ekman (Berger & LaGreca 2014)
californica S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia phacodes auct. N.A., B. albescens auct. N.A.?
chloroticula (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt (Ekman 1996)
circumpulla S. Ekman (Spribille et al. 2020)
contecta S. Ekman & T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2009)
crystallifera S. Ekman
delicata (Leighton) V. Wirth & Vězda (Harris & Lendemer 2005)
egenula (Nyl.) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia egenula
egenuloidea (Fink) S. Ekman Syn.: Bacidia egenuloidea
inundata (Fr.) Vězda Syns.: Bacidia inundata, Biatora inundata
lacerata (Timdal) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman  Syn.: Phyllopsora lacerata (Kistenich et al. 2018)
medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman  Syn.: Bacidia medialis, Biatora medialis, B. molybditis, Bilimbia molybditis, Lecidea medialis (Kistenich et al. 2018)

(Aptroot & van Herk) S. Ekman  (Ekman 2004b)
pallidocarnea (Müll. Arg.) Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
phacodes (Körber) Vězda (Harris & Ladd 2005) Syn.: Bacidia phacodes
saxenii (Erichsen) M. Hauck & V. Wirth (Spribille et al. 2020)
squamellosa S. Ekman
sulphurella (Samp.) M. Hauck & V. Wirth (Spribille et al. 2020)
phacodes (Körber) Vězda = Bacidina californica, in part, for N.A. records
ramea S. Ekman = Mycobilimbia ramea (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
varia S. Ekman = B. brittoniana

orizabana (Vainio) Kalb (Seavey et al. 2017)
squamulosula (Nyl.) Kalb (Seavey et al. 2014)

A. Massal.
acicularis (C. W. Dodge) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004a)
brevispora R.C. Harris
brodoi Egea & Torrente
carolinensis (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
Ponzetti & McCune  (Ponzetti & McCune 2006)
denticulata (Vainio) Egea & Torrente
dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Bacidia dryina
metabola (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente (Joseph et al. 2021)  Syns.: Gyalecta lamprospora, Melampylidium macrosporum (Lendemer 2004a)
myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente
patellarioides (Nyl.) Almq. Syns.: Lecanactis patellarioides, Lecidea patellarioides, Bacidia clementis
spiralis Egea & Torrente
integrispora Seaver = B. denticulata (Harris 1995a)

lamprospora (Nyl.) Lendemer =  B. metabola (Joseph et al. 2021)
macrospora R.C. Harris = B. lamprospora
R.C. Harris = B. carolinensis
nematospora R.C. Harris = B. myriadea

BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb
curtisii (Tuck.) Marbach Syns.: Buellia curtisii (Marbach 2000), Gyrostomum curtisii
(R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia imshaugiana (Marbach 2000)
micromera (Vainio) Marbach (Seavey et al. 2017)

carneus Flörke
placophyllus Ach.
rufus (Hudson) Rebent.
absolutus Tuck. = Dibaeis absoluta
aeruginosa (Scop.) DC. = Icmadophila ericetorum
byssoides (L.) Ach. (Claassen 1912) = B. rufus
fungoides (Sw.) Ach. North American reports are Dibaeis baeomyces
roseus Pers. = Dibaeis baeomyces

baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda (Breuss 2007a) Syn.: Verrucaria baldensis
calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux  Syn.:  Verrucaria calciseda (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
marmorea (Scop.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux Syn.: Verrucaria marmorea (Yuzon et al. 2014)
rubrocincta (Breuss) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Yuzon et al. 2014)  Syn.: Verrucaria rubrocincta

BATHELIUM Ach. (Harris 1995a)
carolinianum (Tuck.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Trypethelium carolinianum
madreporiforme (Eschw.) Trevisan (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Laurera madreporiformis

BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Cl. Roux
alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Lecanora alpina, L. applegatei, Aspicilia alpina
cinereorufescens (Ach.)
Clauzade & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens, Lecanora cinereorufescens
diamarta (Ach.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syn.: Aspicilia diamarta
sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux Syns.: Aspicilia sanguinea, Lecanora sanguinea
subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant. Syns.: Lecidea subsorediza, Aspicilia subsorediza

BELLEMERELLA Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux
*ritae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2007)
*trapeliae Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux (Lendemer et al. 2013)

BELONIA Körber ex Nyl. = GYALECTA (Baloch et al. 2013a)
americana Fink ex Hedr. = Robergea pupula, but excluded as a non-lichen
fennica Vainio = Gyalecta russula
russula Körber ex Nyl. = Gyalecta russula

aegrefaciens Printzen (Printzen et al. 2002)
alaskana Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
appalachensis Printzen & Tønsberg  (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
aureolepra T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Spribille et al. 2009)
beckhausii (Körber) Tuck.  Syn.: Bacidia beckhausii  (Printzen 2014)
caulophylla Tuck.   Possibly belongs to Lecanora (Ryan & Nash 1997a)
chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen in V. Wirth (Printzen 1995)
chrysanthoides Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
cuprea (Sommerf.) Fr. Syns.: Bilimbia bacidioides, Lecidea cuprea
efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea efflorescens, L. epixanthoidiza
fallax Hepp (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
halei (Tuck.) S. Y. Kondr.  Syns.: Pannaria halei, Phyllopsora halei (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
helvola Körber ex Hellbom  (Spribille et al. 2010) Syn.: Lecidea helvola
kalbii (Brako) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Phyllopsora kalbii (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
kodiakensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
longispora (Degel.) Lendemer & Printzen  Syn.: Lecidea helvola var. longispora (Lendemer 2004b ;
Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
marmorea T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2020)
meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold Syns.: Lecidea meiocarpa, L. minuta
meiocarpa var. tacomensis (Printzen & Tønsberg) Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)  Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa var. tacomensis
mendax Anzi (McMullin et al. 2017)
nobilis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
oligocarpa Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
pausiaca Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
pontica Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003)
printzenii Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2002)
pycnidiata Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 2004)
rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
sphaeroidiza (Vainio) Printzen & Holien (Dillman et al. 2012)
subduplex (Nyl.) Printzen (Printzen 1995) Syns.: Lecidea subduplex, L.apochroeiza, L. internectens
terrae-novae Printzen & J. W. McCarthy (Printzen et al. 2017)
toensbergii Holien & Printzen (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
troendelagica Holien & Printzen (Tønsberg & Printzen 2018)
vernalis (L.) Fr. Syn.: Lecidea vernalis
akompsa Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Pentagenella akompsa (Perlmutter et al. 2020)
albohyalina (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia = Mycobilimbia albohyalina (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
albidula Willey (Tuckerman 1888) = Myrionora albidula (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
alnetorum S. Ekman & Tønsberg (Ekman & Tőnsberg 2019, Spribille et al. 2020) = Bacidia alnetorum (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)

amaurospoda Anzi = Frutidella furfuracea
anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner = Carbonicola anthracophila
artyta Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain, acc. to Zahlbruckner, not the same as Lecidea artyta Ach.
atrogrisea Delise (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia laurocerasi
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Hepp = Catinaria atropurpurea
atrorufa (Dickson) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidoma demissum
austinii Tuck.
(“augustinii,” Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia austinii
botryosa Fr. (Printzen 1995) = Hertelidea botryosa
calcivora (Schaerer) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Clauzadea immersa
caloosensis Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia hostheleoides
campestris Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Sarcosagium campestre
carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.)
Coppins = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida
carnulenta Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea carnulenta
chlorantha Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Ropalospora chlorantha
chlorosticta (Tuck.) Tuck) (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea chlorosticta
cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Ramboldia cinnabarina
cladoniscum Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
coarctata (Turner) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Trapelia coarctata
coarctata var. brujeriana (Schaerer) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Ainoa mooreana (but a misidentification for N.A. acc. to Brodo & Lendemer 2015)
crenata (Taylor) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psora crenata
crenata f. dealbata Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psora crenata
cupreorosella (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecania cuprea
cyphalea Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Strangospora cyphalea
cyrtella (Ach.) W. Mann = Lecania cyrtella
decipiens (Ehrh.) Fr. = Psora decipiens
declinis Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Catillaria nigroclavata
decolorans (Hoffm.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Trapeliopsis granulosa
denigrata Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea denigrata
diapensiae (Th. Fr.) Arnold (Tuckerman 1888) = Bryobilimbia diapensiae
difformis (Fr.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Sarea difformis
dryina (Ach.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bactrospora dryina
effusa Hepp (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidina assulata for N.A. records
effusa var. arceutina Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia arceutina
ementiens (Nyl.) Printzen (Printzen 2014) = Myrionora ementiens (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich = Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
exigua (Chaub.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea varians for N.A. records
fendleri Mont. & Tuck (Tuckerman 1888) = Phyllopsora parvifolia
flavens Willey (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia flavens
flavidolivens Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea flavidolivens
flavopunctata (Tønsberg) Hinter. & Printzen = Myrionora flavopunctata (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
floridana Tuck. = Fellhanera floridana
fossarum (Dufour) Mont. (Tuckerman 1888) =  Biatorella hemisphaerica for N.A. records
franciscana Tuck. = Lecania franciscana
friesii (Ach.) Tuck. = Xylopsora friesii
furfurosa (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Malmidea furfurosa
furvonigrans Tuck. ex Willey =Lecidea furvonigrans
fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Tuck. = Bacidia polychroa
fuscescens (Sommerf.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecanora fuscescens
geophana (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Steinia geophana
glauconigrans Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Catillaria glauconigrans
globifera (Ach.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psora globifera
globifera var. rubiformis (Wahlenb. Ex Ach.) Torss. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psora rubiformis
globulosa (Flörke) Fr. = Myrionora globulosa (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
granulosa (Hoffm.) Flotow (Tuckerman 1888) =  Trapeliopsis granulosa
granulosa var. flexuosa (Fr.) Flotow (Tuckerman 1888) = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
griffithii (Sm.) Hepp (Tuckerman 1888) = Cliostomum griffithii
*heerii Hepp (Tuckerman 1888) = Scutula heerii
hemipolia (Nyl.) S. Ekman & Printzen = Myrionora hemipolia (Printzen 2014, Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
holopolia Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea holopolia
hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Lönnr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bilimbia sabuletorum
hypomela “Nyl.” (Mohr 1901) = Lecidea hypomela?
hypophaea Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999) = Ivanpisutia hypophaea (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
icterica Mont. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psora icterica
incompta Hepp (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia incompta, an apparent misidentification for N.A.
inundata Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidina inundata
ocelliformis (Nyl.) Arnold (Printzen & Otte 2005) = Ivanpisutia occelliformis (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
jacobi Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia jacobi
laureri Hepp (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidella laureri
leucophaea Flörke ex Rabenh. (Tuckerman 1888) = Miriquidica leucophaea
leucophaea var. griseoatra (Hoffm.) Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Miriquidica subplumbea
ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille et al. 2009) = Myrionora ligni-mollis (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
lucida (Ach.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psilolechia lucida
lurida (Sw.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Romjularia lurida
luridella Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) =  Psora luridella
meadii Tuck. ex Willey = Byssoloma meadii
medialis (Tuck) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) =
Bacidina medialis
melaena (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea melaena
micrococca Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea micrococca
milliaria (Fr.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea lignaria
mixta Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Cliostomum griffithii
molybditis Tuck. =
Bacidina medialis
moriformis (Ach.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Strangospora moriformis
muscorum (Ach.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia bagliettoana
mutabilis (Fée) Mont. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea mutabilis
myriocarpella G. Merr. = Lecidea enalla (Printzen 1995)
myriocarpoides (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea plebeja
naegelii Hepp. (Tuckerman 1888) =
Lecaniella naegelii
nylanderi Anzi (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea nylanderi
ostreata (Hoffm.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Hypocenomyce scalaris
ostreata var. cladonioides Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Carbonicola anthracophila
*oxyspora (Tul.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) =
Nesolechia oxyspora
paddensis Tuck. = Lecanora paddensis (McCune et al. 2014b)
pallens (Kullhem) Printzen (Printzen & Otte 2005) = Coppinsidea pallens (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
panaeola (Ach.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Amygdalaria panaeola
papillariae Willey (see note under Nesolechia cladoniscum)
parvifolia (Pers.) Tuck. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
parvifolia var. corallina Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Phyllopsora parvifolia
parvifolia var. subgranulosa Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Phyllopsora parvifolia
peliaspis Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea peliaspis
petri Tuck. = Romjularia lurida
porphyrospoda Anzi = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
prasina (Fr.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Micaria prasina
punctella Willey (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea rhabdogena
pullata Norman = Frutidella furfuracea
pullula Tuck. = Lecanora anopta
quernea (Dickson) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Pyrrhospora quernea
+resinae (Fr.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Sarea resinae
rivulosa (Ach.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Fuscidea cyathoides, but an apparent misidentification for N.A.
rivulosa var. mollis (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Fuscida mollis
rubella (Hoffm.) Rabenh. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia rubella
rufofusca Anzi = Myochroidea rufofusca
rufonigra Tuck. = Psorula rufonigra
russula (Ach.) Mont. = Ramboldia russula
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
sanguineoatra (Wulfen) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra, but uncertain for N.A.
scotopholis Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Miriquidica scotopholis
schweinitzii Fr. ex Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia schweinitzii
scrupulosa Eckfeldt = Fuscidea scrupolosa
sibiriensis Willey ex Rothr. = Lecania subfuscula (Ekman 1996, Dillman et al. 2012)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber = Mycobilimbia pilularis
stenospora Hepp (Tuckerman 1888) =  Biatora beckhausii
stigmatella Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecania stigmatella
suffusa Fr. = Bacidia suffusa
tornoënsis (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Japewia tornoënsis
trachona (Ach.) Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia trachona, but a misidentification for N.A. (Llop & Ekman 2004)
tricholoma Mont. (Tuckerman 1888) =  Byssoloma tricholomum
turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. = Lecidea turgidula
uliginosa (Schrader) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Placynthiella uliginosa
umbrina (Ach.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Scoliciosporum umbrinum
vacciniicola (Tønsberg) Printzen (Printzen 1995) = Myrionora vacciniicola (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
varians (Ach.) Eschw. = Lecidea varians
verecundula (Th. Fr.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) =  Bacidia verecundula, but a misidentification for N.A. (Ekman 1996)
viridescens (Schrader) W. Mann = Trapeliopsis viridescens
viridescens var. gelatinosa (Flörke) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
wallrothii (Flörke ex Sprengel) Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Trapeliopsis wallrothii, but a misidentificatrion for N.A.

camptocarpa (Tuck.) Fink (Tuckerman 1888, Fink 1935, Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
conspurcans Norman (Dillman et al. 2012)
contigua N. S. Golubk. & Piin (Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
floridensis H. Magn.
fossarum (Dufour) Th. Fr. (Morse & Lendemer 2019)
hemisphaerica Anzi
albidula (Willey) Zahlbr. =
Myrionora albidula
campestris (Fr.) Almq. = Sarcosagium campestre
clauzadeana Llimona & Vězda = Acarospora clauzadeana
clavus (DC.) Th.
Fr. = Sarcogyne clavus
conspersa (Fèe) Vainio = Piccolia conspersa

cyphalea (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Strangospora cyphalea (Morse & Lendemer 2019)

geophana (Nyl.) Rehm (Fink 1935) = Steinia geophana
hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = Sarcogyne hypophaea
kulshanensis Herre = Sporastatia testudinea (Ketzner 2010)
leucampyx Tuck. = Bacidia schweinitzii (Lendemer & Harris 2012)
microhaema Norman = Strangospora microhaema
moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Strangospora moriformis
nannaria (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Fink 1935) = Piccolia nannaria
ochrophora (Nyl.) Arnold = Piccolia ochrophora
plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr. = Sarcogyne plicata (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
pruinosa "(Körber) Mudd" = Sarcogyne regularis

rappii Zahlbr. = Ramonia microspora (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)

resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Sarea resinae
revertens (Tuck.) Herre (Tuckerman 1882, Fink 1935) =
Acarospora privigna (Knudsen et al. 2021b)
simplex (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup =
Acarospora privigna (Knudsen et al. 2021b)
terrena Hasse = Sarcogyne crustacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a)
testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. = Sporastatia testudinea

delitescens (Arnold) Hafellner (Ekman 1996)
lasiothecium C. A. Morse & Lendemer (Morse & Lendemer 2019)
monasteriense J. Lahm ex K
örber (McCune & Rosentreter 2014)

*minuta Millanes, Diederich, M. Westb. & Wedin (Millanes et al. 2016)
*usnearum Räsänen

BIAZROVIA Zhurb. & Etayo
*stereocaulicola Zhurb. & Etayo (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)

BIBBYA J. H. Willis
bullata (Meyen & Flotow) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman  Syn.: Toninia bullata (Kistenich et al. 2018)
(Ach.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman  Syns.: (?)Catillaria crystallifera, Tonina lutosa (Kistenich et al. 2018)
(Tuck.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman subsp. ruginosa Syns.: Lecidea ruginosa, Toninia ruginosa subsp. ruginosa (Kistenich et al. 2018)
subsp. pacifica (Timdal) Timdal Syn.: Toninia ruginosa susp. pacifica (Kistenich et al. 2018)
vermifera (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman (Kistenich et al. 2018) Syns.: Bacidia vermifera, Lecidea
hegetschweileri auct. (Ekman 1996)

accedens Arnold  Syns.: Mycobilimbia accedens, Myxobilimbia accedens (Spribille et al. 2010)
lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner & Coppins  Syns.: Mycobiolimbia lobulata, Toninia lobulata (Veldkamp 2004), Toninia syncomista
microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.  Syns.: Bacidia microcarpa, Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Veldkamp 2004)
sabuletorum (Schreber) Arnold  Syns.: Bacidia sabuletorum, B. hypnophila, Biatora hypnophila, Mycobilimbia sabuletorum, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Veldkamp 2004)
acclinis (A. Massal.) Trevisan (Fink 1935) =
Toninia populorum (Ekman 1996)
bacidioides Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Biatora cuprea
caloosensis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia hostheleoides (Ekman 1996)
caudata (Nyl.) Fink = Ropalospora lugubris
coprodes Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia coprodes
cupreorosella (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Bausch (Fink 1935) = Lecania cuprea (Ekman 1996)
declinis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Catillaria nigroclavata (Ekman 1996)
floridana (Tuck.) Riddle (Fink 1935) = Fellhanera floridana (Ekman 1996)
granosa (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
gyalectiformis Zahlbr. = Ramonia gyalectiformis
gyalizella (Nyl.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
lignaria (Ach.) A. Massal. (Fink 1935) = Micarea lignaria
meadii (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Byssoloma meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996)
melaena (Nyl.) Arnold (Fink 1935) = Micarea melaena
molybditis (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) =
Bacidina medialis
naegelii (Hepp) Kremp. (Fink 1935) =
Lecaniella naegelii
pammellii Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia ravenelii (Ekman 1996)
rubidofusca (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) = Bacidia rubidofusca (Ekman 1996)
rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides (Dickson) Körber (Fink 1935) =  Mycobilimbia pilularis (Ekman 1996)
sphaeroides auct. = Mycobilimbia carneoalbida (Ekman 1996)
trachona (Ach.) Trevisan (Fink 1935)   North American reports are Bacidia coprodes (Llop & Ekman 2004)
trisepta (Nägeli) Arnold = Micarea peliocarpa (Santesson et al. 2004)
tricholoma (Mont.) Fink = Byssoloma tricholomum

*christiansenii D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998) = Intralichen christiansenii
*lichenum Diederich (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Intralichen lichenum

BLASTENIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syns. Caloplaca ammiospila, C. cinnamomea, C. discoidalis
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Caloplaca ferruginea, Placodium ferrugineum
furfuracea (H. Magn.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca furfuracea
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) Fink (Fink 1935) = Caloplaca atrosanguinea
crenularia (With.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
diphasia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca diphasia
festiva (Ach.) A. Massal. = Caloplaca crenularia, but North American records incorrect according to Wetmore (1996)
floridana (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca floridana
fraudans (Th. Fr.) B. de Lesd. = Caloplaca fraudans
luteominia (Tuck.) Hasse = Polycauliona luteominea
novomexicana Fink = a Caloplaca sp.?
rubrofusca B. de Lesd. = a Caloplaca sp.?
sinapisperma (DC.) A. Massal. = Bryoplaca sinapisperma

BLENNOTHALLIA Trevisan (Otálora et al. 2014)
crispa (Hudson) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema cheilum, C. crispum
fecunda (Degel.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema fecundum

+apposita (Nyl.) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2016) Syn.: Mycomicrothelia apposita (Seavey et al. 2017)
#captiosa (Kremp.) Aptroot & Lücking Syn.: Mycomicrothelia captiosa (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
+decipiens (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2016) Syn.: Mycomicrothelia decipiens (Seavey et al. 2017)
#hemisphaerica (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot & Lücking Syn.: Mycomicrothelia hemisphaerica (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
socialis (Zahlbr.) Aptroot & Lücking Syn.: Mycomicrothelia socialis (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
#subfallens (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot & Lücking Syn.: Mycomicrothelia subfallens (Aptroot and Lücking 2016)

domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis
pachycheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora pachycheila
porphyritis (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Megalospora porphyritis
tuberculosa (Fée) De Not. = Megalospora tuberculosa
vulpina (Nyl.) J. M. Burgess = nom. inval. = Letrouitia vulpina

BORRERA Ach. = Teloschistes
tenella (Scop.) Ach. = Physcia tenella

botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia umbellifera
luteovitellina (Pilát & Nannf.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia alpina
velutina (Quélet) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia velutina
viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana
vulgaris Bréb. sens. str. = Lichenomphalia umbellifera

BOTRYOLEPRARIA Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona
lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona Syn.: Lepraria lesdainii (Canals et al. 1997)

BOTTARIA A. Massal. = MYCOPORUM Flotow ex Nyl.
cruentata Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula cruentata

*lunkei Zhurb. (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)

BRIANARIA S. Ekman & M. Svensson  (Ekman & Svensson 2014)
bauschiana (Körber) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syns.: Lecidea dilutiuscula, L. lynceola auct. N. Am., Micarea bauschiana
lutulata (Nyl.) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syns.: Lecidea lutulata, Micarea lutulata
sylvicola (Flotow ex Körber) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syns.: Lecidea sylvicola, Micarea sylvicola
tuberculata (Sommerf.) S. Ekman & M. Svensson  Syn.: Micarea tuberculata

BRIANCOPPINSIA Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (Diederich et al. 2012)
*cytospora (Vouaux) Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (Diederich et al. 2012, Kocourková et al. 2012) Syn.: Phoma cytospora

fuscolutea (Dickson) R. Sant. Syn.: Lopadium fuscoluteum
leucoxantha (Sprengel) R. Sant. & Hafellner Syn.: Lopadium leucoxanthum, Heterothecium leucoxanthum
praetermissa Hafellner & St. Clair (Hafellner 1997)
purpurata (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Bellem. (Goward et al. 1996) = B. praetermissa (Hafellner 1997)

oroarctica (Krog) Goward Syn.: Hypogymnia oroarctica.
atrofusca (Schaerer) Goward  Syns.: Hypogymnia atrofusca, Parmelia atrofusca. North American reports are probably misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica
intestiniformis (Vill.)
Goward  Syns.: Hypogymnia intestiniformis, H. encausta, Parmelia intestiniformis, P. encausta. North American reports are misidentifications of Brodoa oroarctica

BRUCEA Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b) = BRUCEOMYCES Rikkinen (Tuovila et al. 2012)
+castoris Rikkinen = Bruceomyces castoris

BRUCEOMYCES Rikkinen (Tuovila et al. 2012)
+castoris Rikkinen

BRYOBILIMBIA Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman (Fryday et al. 2014)
ahlesii (Körber) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea ahlesii, L. delincta, L. virginiensis
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea ahlesii var. nemoralis, L. nemoralis
diapensiae (Th. Fr.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syn.: Lecidea diapensiae
hypnorum (Lib.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman  Syns.: Lecidea hypnorum, L. fusca, L. templetonii, L. atrofusca, L. sanguineoatra sens. Nyl., Mycobilimbia hypnorum

divergens (Ach.) Kärnefelt Syns.: Alectoria divergens, Cornicularia divergens, Coelocaulon divergens
pseudosatoanum (Asahina) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cornicularia pseudosatoana

BRYODINA Hafellner
(Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk (Zhurbenko 2013)

castanea (Hepp) Poelt Syn.: Lecanora castanea
curvescens (Mudd) Poelt Syn.: Lecania curvescens
pruinosa (Th. Fr.) Holtan-Hartwig
septentrionalis Holtan-Hartwig

BRYOPHAGUS Nitschke ex Arnold
gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold (fide J. Hafellner, see Appendix) = Cryptodiscus gloeocapsa

BRYOPLACA Søchting, Frödén & Arup (Arup et al. 2013)
(Vahl) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Caloplaca jungermanniae, Placodium jungermanniae
(Lam. & DC.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Blastenia sinapisperma, Caloplaca leucoraea, C. sinapisperma, Placodium sinapispermum
(Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca tetraspora

negativus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens
pacificus Gyelnik = Bryoria fuscescens

BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
alaskana Myllys & Goward (Myllys et al. 2016)
ambigua (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski  Syn.: Alectoria ambigua (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
americana (Motyka) Holien  Syn.: Alectoria americana (Holien 1994, Myllys et al. 2011)
bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria bicolor 
carlottae Brodo & D. Hawksw.
cervinula Motyka ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria cervinula
fabiszewskiana Bystr. (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fremontii, A. corneliae, A. tenerrima, A. tortuosa
furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nidulifera, Cornicularia fibrillosa
furcellata subsp. hawksworthiana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria fuscescens, A. positiva, Bryopogon pacificus
glabra (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria glabra irwinii Goward & Myllys (Myllys et al. 2016)
kockiana Velmala, Myllys & Goward (Velmala et al. 2014)
nadvornikiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nadvornikiana, A. altaica
nitidula (Th. Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria nitidula, A. irvingii, A. lanea auct.
pseudofuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria achariana, A. norstictica nom. inval., A. subtilis nom. inval. (Velmala et al. 2014)
salazinica Brodo & D. Hawksw.
simplicior (Vainio) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syns.: Alectoria simplicior, A. nana nom. nudum
tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Alectoria tenuis
trichodes (Michaux) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. trichodes Syns.: Alectoria canadensis, A. delicata nom. nudum
trichodes subsp. brodoana Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
trichodes subsp. canadensis (Motyka) Bystr. & Fabiszewski (Bystrek & Fabiszewski 1998)
abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria abbreviata
capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018); many N.A. reports are B. pseudofuscescens
chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Velmala et al. 2014) = B. pseudofuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018)
implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.= B. fuscescens; many North American records are B.kockiana
inactiva Goward, Velmala & Myllys (Velmala et al. 2014) = B. pseudofuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018)
lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014; Boluda et al. 2018)
oregana (Tuck. ex Willey) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria oregana
pikei Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. pseudofuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018)
pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Sulcaria spiralifera (Myllys et al. 2014)
setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Not in North America.
spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Sulcaria spiralifera (Myllys et al. 2014)
subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fuscescens (Velmala et al. 2014)
subdivergens (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = Nodobryoria subdivergens
tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. fremontii (Velmala et al. 2009)
trichodes subsp. americana (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. = B. americana (Myllys et al. 2011)
vrangiana (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Velmala et al. 2014) = B. fuscescens (Boluda et al. 2018)

*lichenicola Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

BRYOSTIGMA Poelt & Döbbeler
muscigenum (Th. Fr.) Frisch & G. Thor  Syn.: Arthonia muscigena, A. leucodontis (Frisch et al. 2014)
leucodontis Poelt & Döbbeler = Bryostigma muscigenum

De Not.
abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Giralt et al. 2011, Knudsen & Kocourková 2010c)
aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.
arborea Coppins & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & McCune 2001)
arnoldii Serv
ít  Syn.:  Hafellia arnoldii
bahiana Malme  Syn.: Hafellia bahiana
bolacina Tuck.
calcariaecola B. de Lesd.
callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner  Syn.:  Hafellia callispora
capitis-regum W. A. Weber
cedricola Werner (Nordin 1999)
christophii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004a)
circumpallida H. Magn.  Syn.: Endohyalina circumpallida
concinna Th. Fr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
conspirans (Nyl.) Vainio (Bungartz 2004)
crystallifera (Vainio) Hav. (Goward et al. 1996)
curatellae Malme  Syn.:  Hafellia curatellae
(Fr.) Mudd  Syn.:  Hafellia disciformis
A. Massal.
dives (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. (Haldeman 2018)
eganii Bungartz (Bungartz & Nash. 2004a)
elegans Poelt
elizae (Tuck.) Tuck.  Syn.: Gassicurtia elizae (Lendemer et al. 2013)
epigaea (Hoffm.) Tuck.
erubescens Arnold
fosteri (Imshaug & Sheard) Perlmutter & Rivas Plata Syn.: Hafellia fosteri (Perlmutter & Rivas Plata 2018)
georgei Trinkaus, H. Mayrhofer & Elix (Bungartz et al. 2007)
gibstoneorum Brodo & Sheard (Brodo & Sheard 2020)
griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb.
halonia (Ach.) Tuck.
immersa Lynge
#imshaugii Hafellner
jugorum (Arnold) Arnold
lacteoidea B. de Lesd.
lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck.  Syn.: Lecidea lepidastra
leptocline (Flotow) A. Massal.
maculata Bungartz (Bungartz 2004a)
mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber  Syns.: Rinodina mamillana, R. thomae
maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl. (Bungartz et al. 2007)
mexicana J. Steiner (Nordin 2000)
microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina microbola
#miriquidica Scheid. (Fryday 2006)
muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg (Nordin 1999)
nantiana B. de Lesd.
nashii Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
navajoensis Bungartz (Bungartz 2004)
nigra (Fink) Sheard Syn.: Rinodina nigra
occidentalis Lynge (Lepage 1972)
ocellata (Flotow) Körber
oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. Syn.: Rhizocarpon oidaleum
parastata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Hafellia parastata
pleiotera Malme  Syns.: Hafellia pleiotera, Hafellia bahiana var pleiotera, Hafellia bahiana var. “pleiotropa” (Perlmutter & Rivas Plata 2018)
prospersa (Nyl.) Riddle (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
pullata Tuck. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
ryanii Bungartz (Bungartz et al. 2004b)
schaereri De Not.
sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Bungartz et al. 2004b)  Many previous reports are B. abstracta (Giralt et al. 2011)
sharpiana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2013a)
silicicola B. de Lesd.
smaragdula B. de Lesd.
spuria (Schaerer) Anzi
stellulata (Taylor) Mudd
stigmatea Körber
subaethalea B. de Lesd. (Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
subdispersa Mig. (Nordin 1999)
tesserata Körber (Rico et al. 2003)
triseptata A. Nordin (Nordin 1999)
tyrolensis Körber (Bungartz 2004)
uberior Anzi
vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck. Syn. : Gassicurtia vernicoma
vilis Th. Fr.
*adjuncta Th. Fr. (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Amandinea adjuncta
aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier = B. aethalea
alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum
alboatra var. saxicola (Fr.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Diplotomma alboatrum
alpicola (Wahlenb.) Anzi (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon alpicola
ambigua (Ach.) Malme = Diplotomma ambiguum
amphidexia Imshaug ex R. C. Harris = Buellia circumpallida
atrata (Sm.) Anzi = Orphniospora moriopsis
atroalba auct. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
#badia (Fr.) A. Massal. = Monerolechia badia (Diederich et al. 2018)
badioatra (Flörke ex Sprengel) Körber = Rhizocarpon badioatrum
bahiana var. pleiotropa Malme = Buellia pleiotera (Perlmutter & Rivas Plata 2018)
blasteniospora Zahlbr. = B. parastata
blumeri Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
bolanderi Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon bolanderi
bolanderi var. sulphurosa Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon sulphurosum  
caloosensis Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
canescens (Dickson) De Not. = Diploicia canescens
catasema (Tuck.) Tuck. = Gassicurtia catasema
catawbensis Willey (Tuckerman 1888) = Dermiscellum oulocheilum
chloroleuca Körber (Bungartz et al. 2007, Spribille & Björk 2008) = Tetramelas chloroleucus
chlorophaea (Hepp ex Leighton) Lettau = Diplotomma chlorophaeum
coccinea (Fée) Aptroot = Gassicurtia coccinea
colludens (Nyl.) Arnold = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
coniops (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. = Amandinea coniops
contermina Arnold = B. uberior
coracina (Nyl.) Körber = Orphniospora moriopsis
curtisii (Tuck.) Imshaug = Baculifera curtisii
dakotensis (H. Magn.) Bungartz = Amandinea dakotensis
dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. = Chrismofulvea dialyta
epipolia sensu auct. = Diplotomma venustum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
epipolia (Ach.) Mong. = Diplotomma alboatrum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
fimbriata (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. tesserata
geographica (L.) Tuck. = Rhizocarpon geographicum
geographica var. lecanorina (Körber) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon lecanorinum
geophila (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Lynge = Tetramelas geophila, but North American reports are T. terricolus
glaucomaria (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Phacographa glaucomaria
*glaucomarioides Willey ex Tuck. =
Sclerococcum glaucomarioides
glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = B. mamillana
hassei Imshaug = B. griseovirens
imshaugiana R. C. Harris = Baculifera imshaugiana
*inquilina Tuck. =
Sclerococcum inquilinum
insignis (Nägeli ex Hepp) Th. Fr. = Tetramelas insignis
isidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = excluded as doubtful
japonica (Tuck.) Tuck. (Sheard et al. 2008) = Sculptolumina japonica
langloisii Imshaug = Amandinea langloisii (Marbach 2000)

lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria lauricassiae
lecanoroides H. Magn. = Diplotomma venusta (Bungartz et al. 2007)
lepidastroidea Imshaug ex Bungartz (Bungartz 2004) = B. sequax (Giralt et al. 2011)
leucomela Imshaug = Amandinea leucomela
malmei Lynge = B. aethalea
melanochlora (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Cratiria melanochlora
*minimula Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Buelliella minimula
modesta (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.= Cratiria americana
moriopsis (A. Massal.) Th. Fr. = Orphniospora moriopsis
myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. = Amandinea punctata
myriocarpa var. polyspora Willey (Tuckerman 1888) = Amandinea polyspora
nivalis (Bagl. & Carestia) Hertel ex Hafellner = Diplotomma nivalis
notabilis Lynge = Rinodina notabilis
novomexicana B. de Lesd.
= B. tyrolensis
oederi (Hoffm.) Rostrup (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon oederi
oidalea (Tuck.) Tuck. var. penichra Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Diplotomma penichrum

pachnidisca R. C. Harris = Gassicurtia subpulcella
papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. = Tetramelas papillatus
papillata var. albocincta Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Tetramelas papillatus
parasema (Ach.) De Not. = B. disciformis
parasema var. triphragmia Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Buellia disciformis

*parasitica (Flörke ex Sprengel) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Sclerococcum parasiticum

*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold (Tuckerman 1888) = Abrothallus parmeliarum
penichra (Tuck.) Hasse = Diplotomma penichrum
*pertusariicola Willey ex Tuck. = Dactylospora pertusariicola
petraea (Wulfen) Branth & Rostrup (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon petraeum

petraea var. albinea Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon obscuratum, but a misidentification for N.A.

petraea var. grandis (Flöerke ex Flotow) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon grande

petraea var. montagnei Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon disporum
pinastri Erichsen (Erichsen 1940) = Chrismofulvea pinastri
placodiomorpha Vainio = Orcularia placodiomorpha
polyspora (Willey) Vainio = Amandinea polyspora
pruinella Imshaug = B. tesserata
pueblae B. de Lesd. = B. dispersa
pulchella (Schrader) Tuck. = Catolechia wahlenbergii
*pulverulenta (Anzi) Jatta = Tetramelas pulverulentus
punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Amandinea punctata
punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink = Amandinea polyspora
radiata Tuck. = Dimelaena radiata
rappii Imshaug ex R.C. Harris = Endohyalina rappii
retrovertens Tuck. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2002)
rinodinoides Anzi = misidentification for North America
rinodinospora Riddle = B. parastata

rittokensis Hellb. (Tuckerman 1888) = Rhizocarpon rittokense

rubifaciens R.C. Harris = Chrismofulvea rubifaciens
saurina W. A. Weber = Rhizocarpon saurinum
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Körber (Tuckerman 1888) = Sclerococcum saxatile
saxicola B. de Lesd. = B. sequax
scabrosa (Ach.) A. Massal. = Epilichen scabrosus
semitensis Tuck. = B. concinna
stigmaea Tuck. = B. maculata
stillingiana J. Steiner = B. erubescens (Bungartz et al. 2007)
subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.  North American reports are B. maritima (Bungartz et al. 2007)
subdisciformis (Leighton) Jatta (Mohr 1901) = B. disciformis
subpostumum Nyl. (Mohr 1901) = Rhizocarpon subpostumum, but a misidentification for North America
subpulcella Vainio = Gassicurtia subpulcella
tergestina J. Steiner & Zahlbr. = B. dispersa
terricola A. Nordin (Nordin 1999) = Tetramelas terricolus
thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug = B. mamillana
tolucae B. de Lesd. (Nordin 1999) = B. mexicana (Bungartz et al. 2007)
triphragmioides Anzi = Tetramelas triphragmioides
*trypethelii Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Buelliella trypethelii
tucsonensis Zahlbr. = B. dispersa (Bungartz et al. 2007)
#turgescens Tuck. =
Monerolechia badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c, Diederich et al. 2018)
#turgescentoides Fink =
Monerolechia badia (Bungartz & Nash 2004c, Diederich et al. 2018))
*urceolata Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Sclerococcum urceolatum
venusta (Körber) Lettau = Diplotomma venustum
verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea
verruculosa auct. = B. ocellata
wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard = Catolechia wahlenbergii
wheeleri R. C. Harris = Ciposia wheeleri
zahlbruckneri J. Steiner = B. erubescens
zahlbruckneri sensu Imshaug = mostly Tetramelas chloroleucus (Bungartz et al. 2007)

*inops (Triebel & Rambold) Hafellner  Syn.:  Karschia inops (Hafellner 2004a)
*minimula (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Buellia minimula
*physciicola Poelt & Hafellner (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*poetschii Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2008)
*trypethelii (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Buellia trypethelii
*inquilina (Tuck.) Fink =
Sclerococcum inquilinum
*nuttallii (Calk. & Nyl.) Fink =
Sclerococcum lobariellum
*parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink = Abrothallus parmeliarum
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Fink =
Sclerococcum saxatile
*usneae (Rabenh.)
Fink = misidentification for North America

papillata (Sommerf.) Fink = Tetramelas papillata
vernicoma (Tuck.) A. Schneider = Buellia vernicoma

confoederata (W. L. Culb.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia confoederata
coronata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia coronata
isidiza (Nyl.) Hale
laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigatula
scortella (Nyl.) Hale (Benatti & Elix 2012) Syn.: Parmelia njalensis, P. scortella
goebelii (Zenker) Hale  North American reports are B. scortella (Benatti & Elix 2012)

BULLATINA Vězda & Poelt
aspidota (Vainio) Vězda & Poelt = Calenia aspidotum

melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin Syn.: Sphaerophorus melanocarpus

BURGELLA Diederich & Lawrey (Diederich & Lawrey 2007)
*flavoparmeliae Diederich & Lawrey

absconditum Farkas & Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
chlorinum (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vainio Syn.: Lecidea leucoblephara
maderense Breuss (Breuss 2016)
marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.
meadii (Tuck. ex Willey) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia meadii, Biatora meadii, Bilimbia meadii
subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James
tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr. Syns.: Biatora tricholoma, Bilimbia tricholoma
pubescens Vězda ex R.C. Harris (Harris 1995a) = B. meadii (Brodo et al. 2001)
rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. = B. subdiscordans

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

*ochrolechiae Zhurb. & Diederich (Haldeman 2018)

CAERULEUM K. Knudsen & Arcadia (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
heppii (Nägeli ex Körber) K. Knudsen & Arcadia  Syns.: Acarospora aeruginosa, A. heppii, Myriospora heppii
immersum (Fink) K. Knudsen & Arcadia  Syns.: Acarospora immersa, Myriospora immersa

Müll. Arg.
aspidotum (Vainio) Vězda  Syn.: Bullatina aspidota (Lücking et al. 2007)

CALICIELLA Vainio = non-lichenized fungi

abietinum Pers.
adspersum Pers.
brachysporum (Nádv.) K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & Lendemer  Syn.: Cyphelium brachysporum (Knudsen et al. 2020 (2019))
carolinianum (Tuck.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syns.: Acolium carolinianum, Cyphelium carolinianum, Thelomma carolinianum (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
chlorosporum F. Wilson
*corynellum (Ach.) Ach.
denigratum (Vainio) Tibell (McMullin et al. 2012)
glaucellum Ach.
hyperelloides Nyl.
lenticulare Ach.
leucochlorum Tuck.
lucidum (Th. Fr.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium lucidum (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
montanum Tibell (Kolb & Spribille 2001)
notarisii (Tul.) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium notarisii (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
parvum Tibell
pinastri Tibell  (Selva 2013)
pinicola (Tibell) M. Prieto & Wedin Syn.: Cyphelium pinicola (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
quercinum Pers.
salicinum Pers.
sequoiae C. Williams & Tibell (Williams & Tibell 2008)
tigillare (Ach.) Pers. Syns.: Cyphelium tigillare, C. notarisii subsp. tigillare (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
(Ach.) Ach.
trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostrup) Prieto & Wedin  Syn.: Cyphelium trachylioides
viride Pers.
adaequatum Nyl. = Allocalicium adaequatum (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
albonigrum Nyl. = Mycocalicium albonigrum
#asikkalense Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
curtisii Tuck. = Phaeocalicium curtisii
curtisii var. splendidulum G. Merr. (Merrill 1909) = Phaeocalicium curtisii (Selva & McMullin 2020)
*disseminatum Ach. = Microcalicium disseminatum
#floerkei Zahlbr. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
fuscipes Tuck. = Mycocalicium fuscipes
hemisphaericum Howard = Allocalicium adaequatum
hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. = C. viride
lentigerellum Tuck. = C. lenticulare
lichenoides (L.) Schumacher = C. salicinum
melanophaeum Sommerf. (Mohr 1901) = Mycocalicium albonigrum
microcephalum (Sm.) Ach. = Sphinctrina anglica
minutissimum G. Merr. (Merrill 1909) = Phaeocalicium minutissimum
obscura G. Merr. (Merrill 1909) = Chaenotheca obscura (Selva & McMullin 2020)
+parietinum Ach. (Claassen 1912) = Mycocalicium subtile
+populneum Brond. ex Duby = Phaeocalicium populneum
#pusillum auct. = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
pusiolum Ach. = Chaenothecopsis pusiola
queenslandiae (F. Wilson) Tibell = C. chlorosporum
ravenelii Tuck. = Mycocalicium ravenelii
roscidum (Ach.) Ach. nom. superfl. = C. adspersum
roscidum var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaerer = C. trabinellum for North American records
sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach. = (?) C. lichenoides
#subpusillum Vainio = Chaenothecopsis pusilla
subquercinum Asahina = C. lenticulare
+subtile Pers. = Mycocalicium subtile
trachelinum Ach. = C. salicinum
turbinatum Pers. = Sphinctrina turbinata

CALLOME Otálora & Wedin (Otálora et al. 2014)
multipartita (Sm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema multipartitum

CALOGAYA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
arnoldii (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syns.: Caloplaca arnoldii, C. arnoldii subsp. obliterata
biatorina (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca biatorina
bryochrysion (Poelt) Vondrák  Syns.: Caloplaca alaskensis, C. bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)
(Arnold) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca decipiens
lobulata (Flörke) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca lobulata
pusilla (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca pusilla
saxicola (Hoffm.) Vondrák  Syns.: Caloplaca saxicola, Placodiium murorum (Vondrák et al. 2016)
alaskensis (Wetmore) Arup, Frödén & Søchting = C. bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)

editae Vězda ex Chaves & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
floridana Hodges & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Müll Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium fuscum
imshaugii Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Nyl.) Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
perpallida (Nyl.) Vězda (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Müll. Arg.) Vězda Syn.: Lopadium puiggarii
schomerae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
subcoerulescens (Zahlbr.) Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

adnexa Vězda
ahtii Søchting
albovariegata (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore  Syn.: Pyrenodesmia albovariegata
alcarum Poelt
approximata (Lynge) H. Magn.
atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.:  Lecania perproxima (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
atrocyanescens (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier  (Spribille et al. 2010)
atroflava (Turner) Mong.
atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) I. M. Lamb  Syns.: Blastenia atrosanguinea, Lecanora atrosanguinea
borealis (Vainio) Poelt
brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. (Nash et al. 1998)
brunneola Wetmore
californica Zahlbr.
camptidia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Placodium camptidia
carolinae H. Magn.
cascadensis H. Magn.
catalinae H. Magn.
celata Th. Fr.
cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedwig) Th. Fr. (Laundon 2005)
chlorina (Flotow) Sandst.
cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.
conversa (Kremp.) Jatta
dakotensis Wetmore
demissa (Körber) Arup & Grube Syns.: Lecanora demissa, L. incusa, L. subolivascens (Arup & Grube 1999)
diphasia (Tuck.) Wetmore Syns.: Blastenia diphasia, Lecanora diphasia, Placodium diphasium
diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta Syn.: Lecania arctica
dispersa B. de Lesd.
durietzii H. Magn.
edwardiana J. R. Hoffm. & Lendemer (Hoffman & Lendemer 2020)
epiphora (Taylor) C. W. Dodge (Wetmore 2004a)
#epithallina Lynge
erichansenii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, Kärnefelt & Elix  (Vondrák et al. 2011)
erythrantha (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2007b)
(Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Placodium eugyrum
exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
ferrugineofusca (Vainio) H. Magn.
floridana (Tuck.) S. Tucker Syns.:  Blastenia floridana, Lecanora floridana, Placodium floridanum
fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier  Syn.:  Blastenia fraudans
fraxinea I. M. Lamb
fulvolutea (Arnold) Jatta (Thomson 1997)
fuscorufa H. Magn. (McCune et al. 2018)
granularis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2004b)
#grimmiae (Nyl.) H. Olivier
groenlandica Lynge
#insularis Poelt
#isidiigera Vězda (Šoun et al. 2011)
kamczatica (Savicz) Savicz  (Søchting 2004)
#lecanorae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
lecanoroides Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2010)
lignicola Wetmore (Wetmore 2009)
lithophila H. Magn.
litoricola Brodo
livida (Hepp) Jatta
microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse  Syn.: Placodium microphyllinum
[Pyrenodesmia montana B. de Lesd.]
neonii B. de Lesd.
neotropica Wetmore
nivalis (Körber) Th. Fr. Syn.: Placodium nivale
[Blastenia novomexicana Fink]
obamae K. Knudsen (Knudsen 2009)
obesimarginata Søchting  (Søchting 2004)
oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore Syns.: Apatoplaca oblongula, Lecidea oblongula
obscurella (J. Lahm) Th. Fr.
oleicola (J. Steiner) van den Boom & Breuss (Goward et al. 1996)
oregona H. Magn.
parvula Wetmore
peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
#pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse  Syn.: Pyrenodesmia elaeodes
phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
phyllidizans Wetmore (Wetmore 2003)
pinicola H. Magn.
pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta Syn.: Placodium ferrugineum var. pollinii
pratensis Wetmore (Wetmore 2009)
pygmaea Wetmore (Wetmore 2007a)
quercicola H. Magn.
reptans Lendemer & Hodkinson (Hodkinson & Lendemer 2012)
rubelliana (Ach.) Lojka
[Blastenia rubrofusca B. de Lesd.]
schaereri (Flörke) Zahlbr.
schoeferi Poelt (Wetmore 2007a)
sibirica H. Magn. (Søchting & Olech 1995)
sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Placodium cerinum var. sideritis
sipeana H. Magn.
sonorae Wetmore (Wetmore 1996)
soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek (Wetmore 2009)
sorocarpa (Vainio) Zahlbr.
spaldingii Zahlbr.
spitsbergensis H. Magn.
stanfordensis H. Magn.
stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge  (Šoun et al. 2011, Arup et al. 2013)
subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr.
subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
tornoënsis H. Magn.
turkuensis (Vainio) Zahlbr. (Šoun et al. 2011)
ulcerosa Coppins & P. James (Wetmore 2004b)
ulmorum (Fink) Fink  (Šoun et al. 2011)  But see also Wetmore 2007b
urceolata B. de Lesd.
verrucosa Hasse
wetmorei Nimis, Poelt & Tretiach
wrightii (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Placodium ferrugineum var. wrightii
yuchiorum Lendemer & C. A. Morse (Lendemer & Morse 2010)
alaskensis Wetmore (Wetmore 2004b) = Calogaya bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)
alboatra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. (Flowers 1953/1954)  Misspelling of C. atroalba
allochroa Y. Joshi, Vondrák & Hur (Spribille et al. 2020) = Gyalolechia allochroa
amabilis (Fink) Zahlbr. = C. pellodella
ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier = Blastenia ammiospila
arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg. = Rufoplaca arenaria
arizonica H. Magn. = Gyalolechia epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)
arizonica E. Rudolph non H. Magn. = C. pellodella
arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. obliterata (Pers.) Gaya (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya arnoldii
aurantia (Pers.) Hellbom = Variospora aurantia
aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = Gyalolechia flavorubescens
austrocitrina Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010e) = Flavoplaca austrocitrina
biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya biatorina
bolacina (Tuck.) Herre = Polycauliona bolacina
bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. = Polycauliona luteominea var. bolanderi
bracteata (Hoffm.) Jatta = Gyalolechia bracteata
brattiae W. A. Weber = Polycauliona brattiae
bryochrysion Poelt = Gyalolechia bryochrysion (Vondrák et al. 2016)
caesiorufa (Wibel) Flagey = removed as a nomen confusum (Wetmore 1996)
caesiorufella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. phaeocarpella
callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Variospora aurantia
castellana (Räsänen) Poelt  If treated as separate from C. invadens (=Pachypeltis invadens) as done by e.g. Alstrup (1991), this species has not yet been reported for North America
cerinelloides (Erichsen) Poelt (Qian & Klinka 1998) = Athallia cerinelloides
chrysodeta (Vainio) Dombr. = Leproplaca chrysodeta
chrysophthalma Degel. = Solitaria chrysophthalma
cinnamomea (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Blastenia ammiospila
cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Leproplaca cirrochroa
citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Flavoplaca citrina
cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Pachypeltis cladodes
constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Edrudia constipans
coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting = Polycauliona coralloides
crenularia (With.) J. R. Laundon = Blastenia crenularia, but a misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Knudsen & La Doux 2005) = Xanthocarpia crenulatella
decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forssell = Calogaya decipiens
diplacia (Ach.) Riddle = doesn't occur N of Mexico (Wetmore 1994)
discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. saxicola
discoidalis (Vainio) Lynge = Blastenia ammiospila
discolor (Willey) Fink = Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea (Wetmore 2001, Arup et al. 2013)
elegans (Link) Th. Fr. = Rusavskia elegans
epiphyta Lynge (Søchting & Tønsberg 1997) = Gyalolechia epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)
erythrella (Ach.) Kieffer = Gyalolechia flavovirescens
feracissima H. Magn. = Xanthocarpia feracissima
ferruginea (Hudson) Th. Fr. = Blastenia ferruginea
festiva (Ach.) Zwackh = Caloplaca crenularia, but North American records incorrect according to Wetmore (1996)
flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier (Arup 2006) = Flavoplaca flavocitrina
flavogranulosa Arup = Polycauliona flavogranulosa
flavorubescens (Hudson) J. R. Laundon = Gyalolechia flavorubescens
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = Gyalolechia flavovirescens
fulgens (Sw.) Körber = Gyalolechia fulgens
furfuracea H. Magn. (Wetmore 2004a) = Blastenia furfuracea
galactophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Squamulea galactophylla
gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. = C. cerina
gloriae sensu Aptroot (1996) non Werner & Llimona = Polycauliona verruculifera (Arup 1997)
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Jatta = Flavoplaca granulosa
herbidella (Hue) H. Magn. = Blastenia herbidella, but a misidentification for North America (Wetmore 2004a)
herrei Hasse = C. atrosanguinea
holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A. E. Wade = Athallia holocarpa
ignea Arup = Polycauliona ignea
impolita Arup = Polycauliona impolita
inconspecta Arup = Polycauliona inconspecta
intermedia (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1999)
invadens Lynge (Thomson 1997) = Pachypeltis invadens
irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Squamulea subsoluta
jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr. = Bryoplaca jungermanniae
lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = Xanthocarpia lactea
laeta H. Magn. = Polycauliona luteominia var. luteominia
lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey = Rufoplaca arenaria
leucoraea (Ach. ex Flörke) Branth = Bryoplaca sinapisperma
lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Calogaya lobulata
ludificans Arup = Polycauliona ludificans
luteoalba (Turner) Th. Fr. = Cerothallia luteoalba
luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. luteominia = Polycauliona luteominia var. luteominia
luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup = Polycauliona luteominia var. bolanderi
marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup = Flavoplaca marina
marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta  (Knudsen & La Doux 2005) = Xanthocarpia marmorata
microthallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. = Flavoplaca microthallina
modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink = Squamulea subsoluta
murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola
nashii Nav.-Ros., Gaya & Hladun (Kudsen & La Doux 2005) = Polycauliona nashii
obliterans (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = Leproplaca obliterans
oxfordensis Fink = Rufoplaca oxfordensis
parviloba Wetmore (Wetmore 2003) = Squamulea parviloba
paulsenii (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
persimilis Wetmore (Wetmore 2004b) = Gyalolechia persimilis
phlogina (Ach.) Flagey (Richardson et al. 2009, Vondrák et al. 2010) = Polycauliona phlogina
pusilla (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. (Gaya 2009) = Calogaya pusilla
pyracea (Ach.) Zwackh (Arup 2009) = Athallia pyracea
rosei Hasse = Polycauliona rosei
sarcopisioides (Körber) Zahlbr. = C. obscurella
saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin = Calogaya saxicola
saxifragarum Poelt = Athallia saxifragarum
scopularis (Nyl.) Lettau = Athallia scopularis
scotoplaca (Nyl.) H. Magn. = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Maheu & A. Gillet = Bryoplaca sinapisperma
sorediata (Vainio) Du Rietz = Rusavskia sorediata
splendens (Darb.) Zahlbr. = Rusavskia elegans
squamosa (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Squamulea squamosa
W. A. Weber ex Arup = Gyalolechia stantonii
stellata Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998) = Polycauliona stellata
stipitata Wetmore (Wetmore 1999) = Gyalolechia stipitata
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Candelina submexicana
subnigricans H. Magn. = C. atrosanguinea
subolivacea (Th. Fr.) Lynge = Parvoplaca tiroliensis
subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Wetmore 2003) = Squamulea subsoluta
teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner = misidentification for North America (Wetmore 1996)
tetraspora (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Bryoplaca tetraspora
texana Wetmore & Kärnefelt (Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998) = Wetmoreana texana
thallincola (Wedd.) Du Rietz  Not in North America
tiroliensis Zahlbr. = Parvoplaca tiroliensis
tominii (Savicz) Ahlner (Wetmore 2001) = Xanthocarpia tominii
trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Xanthomendoza trachyphylla
variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenodesmia variabilis
velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz = Variospora velana
verruculifera (Vainio) Zahlbr. = Polycauliona verruculifera
vicaria H. Magn. = C. kamczatica
(Nyl.) H. Olivier = Athallia vitellinula
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr. = Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea

submexicana (B. de Lesd.) B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana

CALVITIMELA Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
(Sommerf.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea aglaea, L. aglaeida (Hertel & Andreev 2003), L. shushanii,Tephromela aglaea, T. aglaeida
armeniaca (DC.) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea armeniaca, Tephromela armeniaca
cuprea Haugan & Timdal (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
melaleuca (Sommerf.) R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2011, Dillman et al. 2012)
perlata (Haugan & Timdal) R. Sant. (Bendiksby et al. 2015)
talayana (Haugan & Timdal) Andreev (Hodkinson et al. 2009)
testaceoatra (Vainio) Hafellner Syn.: Lecidea testaceoatra, L. arctogena, Tephromela testaceoatra

amylosporum (Vainio) R. C. Harris = Dictyomeridium amylosporum
nitidum Zahlbr. = Astrothelium megaspermum

concolor (Dickson) Stein Syn.: Teloschistes concolor var. effusa
fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg.
pacifica M. Westb. & Arup (Westberg & Arup 2011)
var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham = C. concolor (Lendemer & Westberg 2010)

aggregata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
antennaria Räsänen
arctica (Körber) R. Sant. Syn.: Placodium crenulatum
aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Placodium vitellinum var. aurellum
biatorina M. Westb. (Westberg 2007c)
blastidiata Yakovchenko (Yakovchenko et al. 2017)
borealis M. Westb. (Westberg 2007b)
californica M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
canadensis H. Magn.
citrina B. de Lesd.
clarkiae E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp & Lendemer 2015)
complanata M. Westb.
(Westberg 2007a)
coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.
corviniscalensis C. A. Morse & M. Westb. (Westberg et al. 2011b)
deppeanae M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck
granuliformis M. Westb.  (Westberg et al. 2011b)
immarginata M. Westb. (Westberg 2007a)
kansuensis H. Magn. (Westberg 2007a)
lutella (Vainio) Räsänen
minuta Reichert & Galun (Weber & Wittman 2000)
placodizans (Nyl.) H. Magn.
rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Placodium spraguei
subdeflexa (Nyl.) Lettau
vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.
xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau
xanthostigmoides (Müll. Arg.) R. W. Rogers (Lendemer & Westberg 2010)
athallina (Wedd.) Du Rietz  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. (2011b)
cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. = C. aurella
corallizoides M. Westb.
 Erroneously listed here; reported only from Mexico (Westberg 2007a)
crenulata (Wahlenb.) Zahlbr. = C. arctica
deflexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = C. aurella, but N. American reports are mostly C. antennaria (Westberg 2007a)
dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
epixantha auct. = C. aurella
epixantha (Ach.) Sandst. = Candelariella aurella
holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. = Solenopsora holophaea
hudsonica Hakul. = C. canadensis
kuusamoensis Räsänen var. areolata Hakul.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
luteoalba (Turner) Lettau = Cerothallia luteoalba
medians (Nyl.) Sm. North American reports probably refer to Candelina submexicana
plumbea Poelt & Vězda  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau   = misidentification for North America (Westberg et al. 2007)
stenospora B. de Lesd.  Excluded from North America (Westberg et al. 2011b)
submexicana B. de Lesd. = Candelina submexicana
terrigena Räsänen = C. citrina (Westberg 2007a, Westberg 2009)

mexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt
submexicana (B. de Lesd.) Poelt Syns.: Caloplacopsis submexicana, Candelariella submexicana, Caloplaca submexicana. North American reports of Candelariella medians (Nyl.) Sm. probably belong here.

CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale = PARMOTREMA  (Blanco et al. 2005)
conferenda (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema conferendum

haitiensis (Hale) Elix = Parmotrema haitiensis
neotropica (Kurok.) Elix = Parmotrema neotropicum
subsumpta (Nyl.) Elix = Parmotrema subsumptum
subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Elix = Parmotrema subtinctorium

alabamensis (Hale & McCull.) Elix (Elix 2001) Syns: Paraparmelia alabamensis, Parmelia alabamensis, Pseudoparmelia alabamensis
caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia caroliniana, Pseudoparmelia caroliniana
cryptochlorophaea (Hale) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia cryptochlorophaea, Pseudoparmelia cryptochlorophaea
martinicana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia martinicana, Pseudoparmelia martinicana
texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale Syns.: Parmelia texana, Pseudoparmelia texana
amabilis Heiman & Elix (Heiman & Elix 1999) = Canoparmelia caroliniana (Lendemer & Ruiz 2015)

amazonica (Nyl.) Elix & Hale = Parmelinella amazonica (Rodrigues et al. 2021)

crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale  = Crespoa crozalsiana
salacinifera (Hale) Elix & Hale = Parmelinella salacinifera (Rodrigues et al. 2021)

*harrisiana Hollinger & Lendemer (Hollinger & Lendemer 2021)
*thamnoliae Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko 2012)
*peltigerae (Fuckel) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Laursen 2003) = Knufia peltigerae (Réblová et al. 2013)

CARBACANTHOGRAPHIS Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)
candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb  Syn.: Graphis candidata (Staiger 2002)
marcescens (Fée) Staiger & Kalb  Syn.: Graphina marcescens, G. plittii, Graphis marcescens (Staiger 2002)
muriformis E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp et al. 2010)

CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel
*aggregantula (Müll. Arg.) Diederich & Triebel (Goward et al. 1996)
#assimilis (Körber) Hafellner & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea assimilis
#atronivea (Arnold) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea atronivea
*intrudens (H. Magn.) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)  Syn.: Lecidea intrudens
latypizodes (Nyl.) Knoph & Rambold (Knoph et al. 2004) Syns.:  Lecidea austrocalifornica, L. subplebeia (Knudsen et al. 2008b),  L. subcontinuior, L. amabilis, Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica
*supersparsa (Nyl.)
Hertel (Diederich 2003)
*vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vitellinaria, Nesolechia vitellinaria
#vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea vorticosa
intrusa (Th. Fr.) Rambold & Triebel (Hinds et al. 2002) = Scoliciosporum intrusum

CARBONICOLA Bendiksby & Timdal (Bendiksby & Timdal 2013)
anthracophila (Nyl.) Bendiksby & Timdal Syns.: Biatora anthracophila, B. ostreata var. cladonioides, Hypocenomyce anthracophila, Lecidea anthracophila, Psora anthracophila
myrmecina (Ach.) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea

CARNEOTHELE Fryday, T. Sprib. & M. Svenss. (Spribille et al. 2020)
sphagnicola Fryday, M. Svenss. & Holien (Spribille et al. 2020)

CATAPYRENIUM Flotow (Breuss 1996)
cinereum (Pers.) Körber Syns.: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein  Syn.: Dermatocarpon daedaleum
globosum J. W. Thomson
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson Syns.: Endopyrenium crustaceum, E. granulosum, Dermatocarpon granulosum
psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant.
squamellum (Nyl. ex Hasse) J. W. Thomson  Syn.: Dermatocarpon squamellum
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides
andicolum Breuss = Placidium andicola
caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum
chilense (Räsänen) Breuss = Placidium chilense
#compactum (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Heteroplacidium compacta
congestum Breuss & McCune = Heteroplacidium congestum
heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. = Placidium lachneum
lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss = Clavascidium lacinulatum
michelii (A. Massal.) R. Sant. = Placidium michelii
norvegicum Breuss = Placidium norvegicum
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson (p.p.)
= Verrucaria inficiens (Breuss 1998)
podolepis Breuss = Placidium podolepis
rufescens (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium rufescens
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant. = Placopyrenium coloradoense for North American reports
squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss = Placidium squamulosum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) J. W. Thomson = Placidium arboreum
umbrinum Breuss = Clavascidium umbrinum
waltheri (Kremp.) Körber = Involucropyrenium waltheri
zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thomson = Placopyrenium stanfordii

atomarioides (Müll. Arg.) H. Kilias (Kocourková et al. 2010)
chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.
contristans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Miller et al. 2005)
cupressi Zahlbr.
erysiboides (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Arthonia carneorufa (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
flavens (Willey) Fink
glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse Syn.: Biatora glauconigrans
lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
*lobariicola (Alstrup) Coppins & Aptroot (Spribillle et al. 2010)
Syn. : Phoma lobariicola
muscicola Lynge
nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler Syns.: Bacidia declinis, Biatora declinis, Bilimbia declinis, Lecidea declinis
patteeana D. P. Waters & Lendemer (Waters & Lendemer 2019)
picila (A. Massal.) Coppins (McCune & Rosentreter 2014)
*stereocaulorum (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier (Zhurbenko 2010)
(Nyl.) Boistel
subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
terrena (Willey) Zahlbr.

arctica Lynge =
Kiliasia philippea
athallina (Hepp) Hellbom =
Kiliasia athallina
atropurpurea (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Catinaria atropurpurea
bahusiensis (Blomb.) Th. Fr. = Tylothallia biformigera
biformigera (Leighton) H. Magn. = Tylothallia biformigera
bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei
columbiana (G. Merr.) W. Noble = Megalaria columbiana
crystallifera R. Kilias =
Bibbya lutosa
endochroma(Fée) Zahlbr. = Catillochroma endochroma
franciscana (Tuck.) Herre = Lecania franciscana
globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. =
Myrionora globulosa
graniformis (K. G. Hagen) Vainio = Cliostomum corrugatum
griffithii (Sm.)
Malme = Cliostomum griffithii
groenlandica Lynge = a Lecania sp.
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Körber = Megalaria grossa
*heerii (Hepp) H. Olivier = Scutula heerii
*herrii (Hepp) Fink (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant for C. heerii
jemtlandica Th.
Fr. & Almq. = Megalaria jemtlandica
kansuensis H. Magn. =
Kiliasia philippea
laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Megalaria laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Riddle = Megalaria leptocheila
micrococca (Körber) Th. Fr. = Micarea micrococca (Fryday & Coppins 2007)
philippea (Mont.) A. Massal. =
Kiliasia philippea (Thomson 1997)
prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Micarea prasina
pulverea (Borrer) Lettau = Megalaria pulverea
schaereri (Fr.) R. Sant. = Placocarpus schaereri, but a misidentification for N.A. (McCune et al. 2014b)
sculpturata H. Magn. = Kiliasia sculpturata
sphaeroides (A. Massal.) Schuler = Mycobilimbia pilularis
subnitida Hellbom = Toninia subnitida
subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell = a European species
superflua (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = ?Megalaria grossa (Printzen 1995)
tricolor auct. = Cliostomum griffithii
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Arnold = Toninia subnitida

CATILLOCHROMA Kalb (Kalb 2007)
endochromum (Fée) Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.: Catillaria endochroma
albocinctum (Degel.) Kalb = Megalaria albocincta  (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
leptocheilum (Tuck.) Kalb = Megalaria leptocheila  (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)

atropurpurea (Schaerer) Vězda & Poelt Syns.: Biatora atropurpurea, Catillaria atropurpurea, Lecidea intermixta, L. intermixta var. lignaria
brodoana R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck (Lendemer et al. 2016a)
neuschildii (Körber) P. James (Waters & Lendemer 2019)
radulae R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck (Lendemer et al. 2016a)
subcorallina (Zahlbr.) Brako Syn.: Phyllopsora subcorallina
albocincta Degel. = Megalaria albocincta
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.) Vainio = Megalaria grossa
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Degel. = Megalaria laureri
leucoplaca auct. = Megalaria grossa
versicolor (Fée) Sipman = Megalaria versicolor

wahlenbergii (Ach.)
Körber  Syns.: Buellia wahlenbergii, B. pulchella

CAVERNULARIA Degel. = HYPOGYMNIA (Miądlikowska et al. 2011)
hultenii Degel. = Hypogymnia hultenii
lophyrea (Ach.) Degel. = Hypogymnia lophyrea

CECIDONIA Triebel & Rambold
*umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold  Syn.: Lecidea umbonella
*xenophana (Körber) Triebel & Rambold (Hinds et al. 2002)  Syn.: Lecidea columnata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)

*varians Arnold = Arthonia varians (Hawksworth 2003)

CELOTHELIUM A. Massal. (Harris 1995a)
aciculiferum (Nyl.) Vainio (Harris 1995a)

CEPHALOPHYSIS (Hertel) H. Kilias
leucospila (Anzi) H. Kilias & Scheid. Syn.: Lecidea ultima

*caudata Kernst.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*cecidiiformans Grube & Hafellner (Hafellner et al. 2002, Spribille et al. 2010)
*cephalodiorum Triebel & Grube (Spribille et al 2020)
*cladoniicola Alstrup (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
#decolorella (Nyl.) O. E. Erikss. & J. Z. Yue
*epicarphinea (Nyl.) Grube & Hafellner
*epipolytropa (Mudd) Arnold
*exiguella (Nyl.) Arnold (Spribille et al. 2010)
*lobothalliae Nav.-Ros. & Calat.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)

*macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*ochrolechiae Zhurb.  (Zhurbenko 2013)
*parva Hafellner & Ihlen (Zhurbenko 2020)
*punctillata (Nyl.) R. Sant.  (Zhurbenko 2013)
*soror Obermayer & Triebel  (McCune & Ponzetti 2005)
*stereocaulorum (Arnold) Hafellner (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*thamnoliae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*trypetheliza (Nyl.) Haffellner & Obermayer  Syn.: Neonorrlinia trypetheliza (McCune & Ponzetti 2005, Weber & Wittmann 2000)
*verrucosaria (Lindsay) Arnold  (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*xanthoriae (Wedd.) R. Sant. (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006)
*ulothii Körber = C. macrospora  (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 2004)

CEROTHALLIA Arup, Frödén & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013)
luteoalba (Turner) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca luteoalba

CETRADONIA J.-C. Wei & Ahti (Wei & Ahti 2002)
linearis (Evans) J.-C. Wei & Ahti Syn.: Gymnoderma linearis, Cladonia linearis

aculeata (Schreber) Fr. Syns.: Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata
arenaria Kärnefelt
ericetorum Opiz subsp. ericetorum
ericetorum subsp. reticulata (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica (L.) Ach. subsp. islandica
islandica subsp. crispiformis (Räsänen) Kärnefelt
islandica subsp. orientalis (Asahina) Kärnefelt
kamczatica Savicz
laevigata Rass.
muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt Syn.: Coelocaulon muricatum
nigricans Nyl.
odontella (Ach.) Ach. Syns.: Cornicularia odontella, Coelocaulon odontellum
agnata (Nyl.) Kristinsson = Melanelia agnata
alaskana C. F. Culb. & W. L. Culb. = Cetrelia alaskana
aleurites (Ach.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) = Imshaugia aleurites

aleurites var. placorodia (Ach.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Imshaugia placorodia
andrejevii Oxner = Arctocetraria andrejevii
arborialis (Zahlbr. ) Howard = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
arctica (Hooker f.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Dactylina arctica
atlantica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Platismatia tuckermanii
aurescens Tuck. = Ahtiana aurescens
californica Tuck. = Kaernefeltia californica
canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen = Vulpicida canadensis
chicitae W. L. Culb. = Cetrelia chicitae
chlorophylla (Willd.) Vainio = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
chrysantha Tuck. = Asahinea chrysantha
ciliaris Ach. = Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
ciliaris Ach. var. halei (W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.) Ahti = Tuckermannopsis americana
commixta (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella commixta
coralligera (W. A. Weber) Hale = Tuckermanella coralligera
crispa (Ach.) Nyl. = C. ericetorum subsp. ericetorum
cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. = Flavocetraria cucullata
culbersonii Hale = Melanelia culbersonii
delisei (Bory ex Schaerer) Nyl. = Cetrariella delisei
elenkinii Krog = Arctocetraria nigricascens
fahlunensis (L.) Schreber = Cetrariella commixta
fastigiata (Delise ex Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Cetrariella fastigiata
fendleri (Nyl.) Tuck. = Tuckermanella fendleri
glauca (L.) Ach. = Platismatia glauca
halei W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Tuckermannopsis americana
hepatizon (Ach.) Vainio = Melanelia hepatizon
herrei Imshaug = Platismatia herrei
hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Cetrariella delisei
idahoensis Essl. = Esslingeriana idahoensis
inermis (Nyl.) Krog = Masonhalea inermis
juniperina (L.) Ach. = Old North American records are Vulpicida canadensis or V. viridis
juniperina var. jerseyi Gyelnik (Gyelnik 1931) = V. viridis
juniperina var. terrestris Schaerer (Tuckerman 1882) = misidentification for N.A., possibly Vulpicida canadensis
lacunosa Ach. = Platismatia lacunosa
lacunosa Ach. var. atlantica Tuck. = Platismatia tuckermanii
madreporeformis (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Tuckerman 1882) = Allocetraria madreporeformis
merrillii Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia merrillii
nigricascens (Nyl.) Elenkin = Arctocetraria nigricascens
nivalis (L.) Ach. = Flavocetraria nivalis
norvegica (Lynge) Du Rietz = Platismatia norvegica
oakesiana Tuck. = Usnocetraria oakesiana
orbata (Nyl.) Fink = Tuckermannopsis orbata
pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle = Ahtiana pallidula
pinastri (Scop.) Gray = Vulpicida pinastri
platyphylla Tuck. = Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
polyschiza (Nyl.) Jatta = Melanelia hepatizon
ramulosa (Hooker f.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Dactylina ramulosa
richardsonii Hooker = Masonhalea richardsonii
scholanderi Llano = Asahinea scholanderi
scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
scutata auct. = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. = Tuckermannopsis sepincola
sibirica H. Magn. = Arctocetraria nigricascens
simmonsii Krog = Arctocetraria andrejevii
stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. = Platismatia stenophylla
subalpina Imshaug = Tuckermannopsis subalpina
tilesii Ach. = Vulpicida juniperina (Saag et al. 2014)
tristis (Weber ex F. H. Wigg.) Fr. = Cornicularia normoerica (Santesson et al. 2004)
tuckermanii Oakes non Herre = Platismatia tuckermanii
tuckermanii Herre non Oakes = Platismatia herrei
viridis Schwein. = Vulpicida viridis
weberi Essl. = Tuckermanella weberi

CETRARIASTRUM Sipman = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
catawbiense (Degel.)
W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis

CETRARIELLA Kärnefelt & A. Thell
commixta (Nyl.) A. Thell & Kärnefelt (Thell et al. 2009)  Syns.:  Cetraria commixta, C. fahlunensis, Melanelia commixta
(Schaerer) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria delisei, C. hiascens
fastigiata (Nyl.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria fastigiata

CETRELIA W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
alaskana (C. F. Culb. & W. L. Culb.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria alaskana
cetrarioides (Duby) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
chicitae (W. L. Culb.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. Syn.: Cetraria chicitae
monachorum (Zahlbr.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Syns.: Parmelia olivetorum, P. olivaria

brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe sulphurea
brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.  Syn.: Coniocybe gracilescens
cinerea (Pers.) Tibell
erkahomattiorum Selva  (Selva 2013)
ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
floridana R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
furfuracea (L.) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe furfuracea
gracilenta (Ach.) Mattsson & Middelb.  Syn.:  Cybebe gracilenta (Tibell 2001)
gracillima (Vainio) Tibell Syn.: Coniocybe gracillima
hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hygrophila Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
laevigata Nádv.
longispora Reese Naesborg & Tibell (Reese Naesborg et al. 2019)
nitidula Tibell (Tibell & Koffman 2002)
olivaceorufa Vainio (Rikkinen 1998)
obscura (G. Merr.) Nádv.  Syn.: Calicium obscurum (Selva & McMullin 2020)
phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
selvae Maloles & McMullin (McMullin et al. 2018)
servitii Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
sphaerocephala Nádv. (Selva & Tibell 1999)
stemonea (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr.
trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
xyloxena Nádv.
balsamconensis J. L. Allen & McMullin (Allen & McMullin 2015) = C. obscura (Selva & McMullin 2020)
carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau = C. chlorella
melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh = C. ferruginea
savonica (Räsänen) Tibell = Chaenothecopsis savonica
schaereri (De Not.) Zahlbr. = C. cinerea
sulphurea (Retz.) Middleb. & Mattsson = C. brachypoda
trichialis var. cinerea (Pers.) Blomb. & Forssell = C. cinerea

+aeruginosa Goward & E. B. Peterson (Peterson & Goward 2016)
amurensis Titov  (Selva 2013)
*arthoniae Tibell (Dillman et al. 2012)
+asperopoda Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*australis Tibell (Selva 2014)
*brevipes Tibell
+claydenii Selva & Tuovila (Selva & Tuovila 2016)
*consociata (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt
+debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell
+diabolica Rikkinen & Tuovila (Tuovila et al. 2011, 2012)
*dibbleandersoniarum Selva  (Selva 2013)
+dolichocephala Titov (Selva 2010)
+edbergii Selva & Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
*epithallina Tibell
+eugenia Titov (Selva & Tuovila 2016)
+exilis Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+fennica (Laurila) Tibell (Selva 2014)
+haematopus Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+irregularis Titov (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+jordaniana Gockman & Selva (Gockman et al. 2020)
*kalbii Tibell & K. Ryman (Lendemer et al. 2008c)
*lecanactidis Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
+marcineae Selva  (Selva 2013)
+montana Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b)
+nana Tibell
*nigra Tibell (Harris & Lendemer 2005, Spribille & Björk 2008)
+nigripunctata Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003a)
+nivea (F. Wilson) Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
+norstictica R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+oregana Rikkinen (Rikkinen 2003b, Tuovila et al., 2011, 2012)
*ochroleuca (Körber) Tibell & K. Ryman (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+penningtonensis Gockman & Selva (Gockman et al. 2020)
+perforata Rikkinen & Tuovila (Gockman et al. 2019)
*pilosa Tibell & Kalb (Harris 1995a)
#pusilla (Ach.) A.F.W. Schmidt Syns.: Calicium pusillum, C. floerkei, C. subpusillum, C. asikkalense
#pusiola (Ach.) Vainio Syns.: Calicium pusiolum, Mycocalicium pusiolum
+rappii (Nádv.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)  Syn.: Mycocalicium rappii
+resinicola Tibell & Titov (Selva 2010)
+rubescens Vainio
*rubina Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+savonica (Räsänen) Tibell Syns.: Mycocalicium savonicum, Chaenotheca savonica
+sitchensis Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
*subparoica (Nyl.) Tibell (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+tasmanica Tibell (Selva & Tibell 1999)
+tsugae Rikkinen (Rikkinen 1999)
+ussuriensis Titov (Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
+vainioana (Nádv.) Tibell (Hardman et al. 2016)
*viridialba (Kremp.) A.F.W. Schmidt
#viridireagens (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt
#lignicola (Nádv.) A.F.W. Schmidt = C. pusiola
#subpusilla (Vainio) Tibell = C. pusilla
+thujae Rikkinen (Selva & Tibell 1999) = C. tsugae (Selva 2010)
+zebrina Rikkinen & Tuovila (Tuovila et al. 2011) = C. oregana (Tuovila et al. 2012)

CHALARA (Corda) P. A. Saccardo
*lobariae Etayo (Zhurbenko & Dillman 2010)

CHAPSA A. Massal. (Frisch 2006)
alborosella (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Ocellularia alborosella, Thelotrema alborosellum (Frisch 2006)
boninensis (Tat. Matsumoto) Rivas Plata & Mangold (Seavey et al. 2017)
chionostoma (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Mangold  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Graphina leptocarpa, Thelotrema leptocarpum (Frisch 2006)
paralbida (Riddle) Rivas Plata & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2017)
phlyctidioides (Müll. Arg.) Mangold (Seavey et al. 2017)
platycarpa (Tuck.) A. Frisch  Syns.: Thelotrema platycarpoides, T. platycarpum (Frisch 2006)
platycarpoides (Tuck.) Breuss & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subpatens (Hale) Mangold  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

flabelliformis B. Sutton (Tønsberg 2002)
petri D. Hawksw. & Poelt (McCune et al. 2018, Printzen 2007, Spribille et al. 2020)

malmei Thor
ochroleucum Zahlbr. = Paraschismatomma ochroleucum (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
californicum Tuck. = Schizopelte crustosa (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
inscriptum (Nyl.) Fink = Sclerophyton inscriptum
montagnaei auct. N.A. = Cryptothecia striata
perplexum Nyl. = Syncesia graphica (Tehler 1996)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Nyl. = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
sanguineum (Sw.) Vainio = Herpothallon rubrocinctum
sphaerale Ach.  = misidentification for North America (Harris 1995a)
subochroleucum Fink = Dendrographa franciscana (Kocourková et al. 2010; Ertz & Tehler 2011)

*apobasidialis Cox (According to Diederich [1996, and pers. comm.], only non-lichenicolous specimens are known for North America, and the lichenicolous specimens from Europe may represent a distinct species.)

dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia dialyta (Marbach 2000)
pinastri (Erichsen) Marbach Syn.: Buellia pinastri (Marbach 2000)
rubifaciens (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia rubifaciens (Marbach 2000)

CHROMATOCHLAMYS Trevisan (Nelsen et al. 2017)
muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt var. muscorum  Syn.: Thelenella muscorum
muscorum var. octospora (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt  Syn.: Thelenella muscorum var. octosporum

testacea (Hoffm.) M. Choisy = Psora testacea, but not in North American flora.

bergeri LaGreca (LaGreca 2020)
caesia (Flotow) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syns.: Allarthonia caesia, Arthonia caesia, A. lecideella
candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon Syns.: Lepraria candelaris, L. flava, L. citrina sens. lat.
chamaecyparicola Lendemer (Lendemer & Elix 2010)
chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laundon Syn.: Lepraria chlorina
chrysophthalma (P. James) P. James & J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 2002)
G. Thor  (Tønsberg 2004a)
insulizans R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
onokoensis (Wolle) R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Ladd 2008)
susquehannensis Lendemer & Elix (Lendemer & Elix 2010)
xanthina (Vainio) Kalb (Harris & Ladd 2008)
flavovirens Tønsberg (Harris & Lendemer 2005) North American report is C. chamaecyparicola

wheeleri (R. C. Harris) Marbach Syn.: Buellia wheeleri (Marbach 2000)

CIRCINARIA Link (Nordin et al. 2010)
arida Owe-Larsson, A. Nordin & Tibell (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)  Syns.: Aspicilia desertorum, Lecanora desertorum (American reports only)
caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia caesiocinerea, Lecanora caesiocinerea
calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia calcarea, Lecanora calcarea
contorta (Hoffm.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia contorta, Lecanora calcarea var. contorta, L. contorta, L. albopruinosa
elmorei (E. D. Rudolph) Owe-Larsson, A. Nordin & M. Sohrabi (Owe-Larsson et al. 2011)  Syn.: Lecanora elmorei
gibbosa (Ach.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Aspicilia gibbosa, Lecanora gibbosa, L. gibbosula
hispida (Mereschk.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syns.: Agrestia hispida, A. cyphellata, Aspicilia hispida
leprosescens (Sandst.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell  Syn.: Aspicilia leprosescens
rogeri (Sohrabi) Sohrabi (Sohrabi et al. 2013b)  Syn.: Aspicilia rogeri

CIRRENALIA Meyers & R. T. Moore
*lichenicola Pérez-Ort. (Spribille et al. 2020)

bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan Syns: Lecanora thamnitis, L. bolanderi
thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner = C. bolanderi

CLADINA Nyl. = CLADONIA (Ahti & DePriest 2001)
aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia stellaris
alpestris (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia stellaris
arbuscula (Wallr.)
Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Burgaz = Cladonia mitis
beringiana (Ahti) Trass = Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
ciliata (Stirton) Trass var. ciliata = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M. J. Lai = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
conspicua Ahti = Cladonia conspicua
evansii (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb.
= Cladonia evansii
impexa B. de Lesd. = Cladonia portentosa
leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
mitis (Sandst.) Mong. =
Cladonia mitis
pacifica (Ahti) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa (Dufour) Follmann = Cladonia portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
pseudoëvansii (Asahina) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia pseudoëvansii
rangiferina (L.) Nyl. = Cladonia rangiferina
sandstedei (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia sandstedei
stellaris (Opiz) Brodo = Cladonia stellaris
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) Ahti = Cladonia stellaris
stygia (Fr.) Ahti = Cladonia stygia
submitis (A. Evans) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia submitis
subtenuis (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea (Ahti) Ahti = Cladonia subtenuis f. cinerea
tenuis (Flörke) B. de Lesd. = Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis
terrae-novae (Ahti) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Cladonia terrae-novae

abbreviatula G. Merr.
acuminans R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
acuminata (Ach.) Norrlin
alaskana A. Evans
albonigra Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
alinii Trass (Ahti 1980)
amaurocraea (Flörke) Schaerer
andereggii S. Hammer
anitae W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
apodocarpa Robbins
appalachensis Yoshim. & Sharp ex Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2013b)
arbuscula (Wallr.) Flotow subsp. arbuscula  Syn.: Cladina arbuscula
arbuscula subsp. beringiana Ahti  Syn.: Cladina arbuscula subsp. beringiana
artuata S. Hammer
asahinae J. W. Thomson
atlantica A. Evans
bacilliformis (Nyl.) Sarnth.
beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio
bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaerer
borealis S. Stenroos
boryi Tuck.
botryocarpa G. Merr.
botrytes (K. G. Hagen) Willd.
brevis (Sandst.) Sandst.
buckii R. C. Harris
caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke
cariosa (Ach.) Sprengel
carneola (Fr.) Fr.
caroliniana Tuck.  Syn.: Pycnothelia cladinoides
cenotea (Ach.) Schaerer
cervicornis (Ach.) Flotow subsp. cervicornis
chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel
ciliata Stirton Syn.: Cladina ciliata
ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti Syn.: Cladina ciliata var. tenuis
cinerella Ahti (Ahti  2000, Seavey 2010[2011])
coccifera (L.) Willd.
concinna Ahti & Goward (Ahti 2007)
coniocraea (Flörke) Sprengel
conista (Nyl.) Robbins (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012)
conspicua (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina conspicua
cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. cornuta
cornuta subsp. groenlandica (E. Dahl) Ahti
crispata (Ach.)
Flotow var. crispata
crispata var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vainio
cristatella Tuck.
cryptochlorophaea Asahina
cyanipes (Sommerf.) Nyl.
cylindrica (A. Evans) A. Evans
dactylota Tuck.
dahliana Kristinsson
decorticata (Flörke) Sprengel
deformis (L.) Hoffm.
didyma (Fée) Vainio
didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vainio
digitata (L.) Hoffm.
dimorpha S. Hammer
dimorphoclada Robbins
ecmocyna Leighton subsp. ecmocyna
ecmocyna subsp. intermedia (Robbins) Ahti
ecmocyna subsp. occidentalis Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
evansii Abbayes Syn.: Cladina evansii
extracorticata S. Hammer
farinacea (Vainio) A. Evans
fimbriata (L.) Fr.
firma (Nyl.) Nyl.
floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
floridana Vainio
furcata (Hudson) Schrader
glauca Flörke
gracilis (L.) Willd. subsp. gracilis
gracilis subsp. elongata (Jacq.) Vainio
gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti
gracilis subsp. vulnerata Ahti
granulans Vainio
grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst.
homosekikaica Nuno
humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon
hypoxantha Tuck.
ignatii Ahti, Pino-Bodas & J. W. McCarthy (Ahti et al. 2018)
imbricarica Kristinsson
incrassata Flörke
islandica Kristinsson & Ahti (Pino-Bodas et al. 2015)
jakutica Ahti (McCune et al. 2009)
jaliscana Ahti & Guzm.-Dáv. (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
kanewskii Oxner
krogiana Løfall & Timdal (Clayden et al. 2021)
labradorica Ahti & Brodo
lacryma S. Hammer (Hammer 2001)
leporina Fr.
libifera Savicz  (McCune et al. 2009; Hansen & Ahti 2011)
luteoalba Wheldon & A. Wilson
macilenta Hoffm.
macilenta var. bacillaris (Ach.) Schaerer
macroceras (Delise) Ahti
macrophylla (Schaerer) Stenh.
macrophyllodes Nyl.
magyarica Vainio
maritima K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a)
mateocyatha Robbins
maxima (Asahina) Ahti
merochlorophaea Asahina
mitis Sandst.  Syns.: Cladina mitis, Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis (Stenroos et al. 2016)
monomorpha Aptroot, Sipman & van Herk (Kowalewska et al. 2008)
multiformis G. Merr.
nana Vainio
nashii Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
nipponica Asahina
nitens Ahti (Ahti 2007)
norvegica Tønsberg & Holien
novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti (Brodo & Ahti 1996)
ochrochlora Flörke
oricola Ahti & S. Stenroos (Ahti & Stenroos 2008)
pachycladodes Vainio
parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.
perforata A. Evans
perlomera Kristinsson
petrophila R. C. Harris
peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon
phyllophora Hoffm.
piedmontensis G. Merr.
pleurota (Flörke) Schaerer
pocillum (Ach.) O. J. Rich.
poroscypha S. Hammer
portentosa (Dufour) Coem. Syn.: Cladina portentosa
portentosa subsp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica
portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans Ahti Syn.: Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans
prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer
prostrata A. Evans
pseudalcicornis Asahina (Ahti 2007)
pseudoëvansii Asahina  Syn.: Cladina pseudoëvansii
pulvinella S. Hammer
pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laundon
rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. Syn.: Cladina rangiferina
rangiformis Hoffm. (Clayden et al. 2021)
rappii A. Evans
ravenelii Tuck.
rei Schaerer  (Syrek & Kukwa 2008, Dolnik et al. 2010, Pino-Bodas et al. 2010)
robbinsii A. Evans
sandstedei Abbayes Syn.: Cladina sandstedei
santensis Tuck.
scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
scotteri Ahti & E. S. Hansen (Hansen & Ahti 2011)
simulata Robbins
singularis S. Hammer
squamosa Hoffm.
squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Vainio
stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda Syn.: Cladina stellaris
stipitata Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2009)
(Sommerf.) Flörke (Timdal & Tønsberg 2012)
stricta (Nyl.) Nyl.
stygia (Fr.) Ruoss Syn.: Cladina stygia
subcariosa Nyl. (Ahti 2000)
subfimbriata Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002)
subfurcata (Nyl.) Arnold
submitis A. Evans Syn.: Cladina submitis
subradiata (Vainio) Sandst.
subsetacea Robbins ex A. Evans
subsquamosa Kremp.
subtenuis (Abbayes) Mattick Syn.: Cladina subtenuis
subtenuis f. cinerea Ahti Syn.: Cladina subtenuis f. cinerea
subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg.
sulphurina (Michaux) Fr.
symphycarpa (Flörke) Fr. (Ahti 2000, Hansen & Ahti 2011)
terrae-novae Ahti Syn.: Cladina terrae-novae
thiersii S. Hammer
thomsonii Ahti
transcendens (Vainio) Vainio
trassii Ahti (Ahti 1998)
turgida Ehrh. ex Hoffm.
uliginosa (Ahti) Ahti (Ahti 1998)
umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti
uncialis (L.) F. H. Wigg. subsp. uncialis (Stenroos et al. 2015)
uncialis subsp. biuncialis (Hoffm.) M. Choisy (Stenroos et al. 2015)
verruculosa (Vainio) Ahti
verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaerer (Ahti, in litt.)
wainioi Savicz
aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb.
= Cladonia stellaris
acuminata var. norrlinii (Vainio) Lynge = C. acuminata
alcicornis (Lightf.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia foliacea, but a misidentification for N.A.
alpestris (L.) Rabenh. = C. stellaris
alpestris f. aberrans Abbayes = C. stellaris
alpicola (Flotow) Vainio = C. macrophylla
anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James = C. ramulosa
arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Ruoss (Piercey-Normore et al. 2010) = Cladonia mitis (Stenroos et al. 2016)
bacillaris (Ach.) Genth = C. macilenta var. bacillaris
balfourii auct. = C. subradiata
balfourii Crombie = C. macilenta
blakei Robbins = C. coccifera
borbonica (Delise) Nyl.  North American reports are C. cylindrica (Evans 1950)
botryoides (Tuck.) Vainio = C. squamosa (Ahti et al. 2016)
calycantha Delise ex Nyl. = C. rappii for North American records.
capitata (Michaux) Sprengel = C. peziziformis
carassensis Vainio = misidentification for North America
carneola (Fr.) Fr. var. cyanipes Sommerf. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia cyanipes
cenotea (Ach.) Schaerer var. furcellata Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.

cerasphora Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. stricta (Ahti 1998)
cerasphora auct. = C. trassii (Ahti, in litt.)
cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti = Cladonia verticillata (Ahti, in litt.)
cetrarioides Schwein. ex Tuck. (Fink 1935) = C. leporina (Lendemer & Hewitt 2002)
cladinoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Cladonia caroliniana
clavulifera Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
conistea auct. = C. humilis
conoidea Ahti = C. humilis
cornucopioides auct. (Mohr 1901) = C. coccifera
cornutoradiata (Leighton) Sandst. = C. subulata
corymbosula Nyl. (Fink 1935)  Apparent misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
crinita Bertol. = C. evansii (Ahti et al. 2016)
cristatella Tuck. var. ramosa Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = C. cristatella
cyathomorpha «(Evans) Evans» (Qian & Klinka 1998) = misidentification for North America
degenerans (Flörke) Sprengel = C. phyllophora
delessertii Vainio = C. subfurcata
delicata auct.
= C. parasitica
diversa Asperges (Lendemer 2006) = misidentification for North America (Ahti, in litt.)

elongata auct. non (Jacq.) Hoffm. = misidentification for North America, possibly C. macroceras or C. maxima,
elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. = C. gracilis var. elongata
endoxantha Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. hypoxantha (Thomson 1967)
exasperatula G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = C. beaumontii (Tuck.) Vainio (Thomson 1967)
fimbriata (L.) Fr. var. radiata (Willd.) Cromb. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia subulata
fimbriata var. tubaeformis (Hoffm.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.
flabelliformis Vainio = C. polydactyla
flavescens Vainio = misidentification for North America
foliacea (Hudson) Willd. = misidentification for North America
furcata (Hudson) Schrader var. crispata (Ach.) Flörke (Tuckerman 1882)= Cladonia crispata
furcata var. pungens Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia scabriuscula
furcata var. racemosa (Hoffm.) Flörke (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia furcata
furcata subsp. subrangiformis auct. N. Am. = C. furcata (Ahti, in litt.)
furcata var. subulata Flotow (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.
gonecha (Ach.) Asahina = C. sulphurina
gracilescens auct. = C. stricta
graciliformis Zahlbr.  North American reports are errors, mostly representing C. bellidiflora (Dillman et al. 2012)
gracilis (L.) Nyl. f. cervicornis Flörke (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia cervicornis

gracilis var. elongata Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia gracilis subsp. elongata

gracilis var. hybrida Schaerer (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia gracilis
gracilis subsp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti = C. gracilis subsp. elongata
gracilis f. symphycarpia Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia gracilis

gracilis var. verticillata Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia verticillata
hammeri Ahti (Ahti & Hammer 2002) = C. pulvinella (Pino-Bodas et al. 2013)
herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick = C. furcata
heteromorpha G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = Pycnothelia papillaria (Laundon 1986)
hookeri Tuck. = C. bellidiflora
hookeri sensu J. W. Thomson = C. graciliformis
humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer = C. conista
innominata Lendemer (Lendemer 2008) = C. conista (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012)
invisa Robbins = C. ochrochlora
japonica Vainio = C. crispata
lepidota auct. = C. trassii (Ahti, in litt.)
leptothallina G. Merr. = C. peziziformis
linearis A. Evans = Cetradonia linearis
macroptera Räsänen = C. scabriuscula (fide T. Ahti)
major (K. G. Hagen) Sandst. = C. fimbriata
merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea Sipman = C. novochlorophaea
metacorallifera Asahina = C. straminea (Timdal & Tønsberg 2012)
microphylliza G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = C. beaumontii (Thomson 1967)
mitrula Tuck. = C. peziziformis
nanodes Robbins ex Sandst. = nom. invalid., identity uncertain
nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold = C. rei
norrlinii Vainio = C. acuminata var. acuminata
palamaea (Ach.) Fink (Fink 1935) = C. furcata (Thomson 1967)
paludicola (Tuck.) G. Merr. (Fink 1935) = incrassata (Thomson 1967)
papillaria (Ehrh.) Hoffm. = Pycnothelia papillaria
pityrea (Flörke) Fr.
= C. ramulosa
polycarpia G. Merr. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polycarpoides Nyl. = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
polydactyla (Flörke) Sprengel = misidentification for North America, mostly refers to C. umbricola (fide T. Ahti)
pseudodigitata Gyelnik = C. coccifera
pseudohondoensis Asahina = misidentification for North America
pseudomacilenta Asahina = misidentification for North America
pseudorangiformis Asahina = C. wainioi
pseudostellata Asahina (Spribille et al. 2010) = C. uncialis subsp. uncialis (Stenroos et al. 2015)
psoromica J. P. Dey = C. dimorphoclada Robbins (Ahti 2000)
pulchella Schwein. (Mohr 1901) = C. didyma
pycnoclada (Gaudich.) Nyl.  = misidentification for North America (Ahti 1961)
pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. var. pocillum (Ach.) Flotow (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia pocillum

rangiferina (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. var. alpestris Schrader (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia alpestris

rangiferina var. sylvatica L. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia portentosa
rappii var. exilior (Abbayes) Ahti = C. rappii var. rappii
reticulata (Russell) Vainio (Fink 1935) = C. boryi (Thomson 1967)
santensis Tuck. var. beaumontii Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia beaumontii
schofieldii Ahti & Brodo (Brodo & Ahti 1996) = C. pseudalcicornis
sobolescens Nyl. ex Vainio = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) ined. = C. stellaris (Ahti, in litt.)
stenophyllodes Vainio (Fink 1935)  = misidentification for North America
stricta var. uliginosa Ahti = C. uliginosa
subapodocarpa Harris, nomen nudum (Hale 1979) = Cladonia petrophila
subcervicornis (Vainio) Kernst.
= misidentification for North America
subclavulifera Asahina = C. subcariosa (Ahti 2000)
subrangiformis auct.
N. Am. = C. furcata
subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leighton) Crombie nom. illeg.
= C. squamosa var. subsquamosa
subsubulata Nyl. = misidentification for North America
sylvatica nom. utique rej. s. auct. = C. arbuscula subsp. arbuscula (Ahti, in litt., Stenroos et al. 2016)
symphycarpa (Flörke) Fr. var. epiphylla (Ach.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.
theiophila Asahina = C. vulcani, but not present in North America
turgida (Ehrh.) Hoffm. var. conspicua (Schaerer) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia turgida
uncialis (L.) Fr. var. caroliniana (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cladonia caroliniana

vulcani Savicz = misidentification for North America
vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi = C. didyma var. vulcanica
yunnana (Vainio) Abbayes ex J. C. Wei & Y. M. Jiang = misidentification for North America

CLADOPHIALOPHORA Borelli (Diederich et al. 2013)
*megalosporae Diederich (Diederich et al. 2013)
*parmeliae (Etayo & Diederich) Diederich & Unter. (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d) Syn.: Sclerococcum parmeliae

isidiifera R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
subpungens (Malme) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
tetracerae (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+amygdalina sensu Fink = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a).
confinis Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)
diphloea Zahlbr. = Astrothelium megaspermum
+exiguella Zahlbr. = Julella sublactea (Harris 1995a)
nuculastrum Müll. Arg. = Porina nuculastrum (Harris 1995a)

chalybeioides (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. (Fyday 2010)

CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellem.
chondrodes (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux (Lendemer et al. 2013)
immersa (Hoffm.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Biatora calcivora, Lecidea calcivora
metzleri (Körber) Clauzade & Cl. Roux ex D. Hawksw. (Hansen 2003)
monticola (Ach.) Hafellner & Bellem.  Syns.: Lecidea monticola, L. fuscorubens, Protoblastenia monticola

macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold (Hertel 1991) Syn.: Lecanora morioides

CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
lacinulatum (Ach.) M. Prieto var. lacinulatum (Prieto et al. 2012) Syns.: Catapyrenium lacinulatum, Placidium lacinulatum
lacinulatum var. atrans (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012)
lacinulatum var. erythrostrum (Breuss) M. Prieto (Prieto et al. 2012)
(Breuss) Breuss  Syn.: Placidium umbrinum (Prieto et al. 2012)

corrugatum (Ach.: Fr.) Fr. Syn.: Catillaria graniformis
flavidulum Hafellner & Kalb (Tønsberg 1997)
griffithii (Sm.) Coppins Syns.: Biatora griffithii, B. mixta, Catillaria griffithii, C. tricolor auct., Lecidea tricolor
leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg
spribillei Goward & Tønsberg (Tønsberg & Goward 2016)
tenerum (Nyl.) Coppins & S. Ekman (Ekman 1997)  Syns.: Lecania tenera, Lecanora tenera
vitellinum Gowan
graniforme (K. G. Hagen) Coppins = C. corrugatum
luteolum Gowan = C. leprosum
pallens (Kullhem) S. Ekman =
Coppinsidea pallens (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)

*bisporum Zhurb.
(Zhurbenko 2009b)
*grossum (Körber) D. Hawksw.
*hypocenomycis D. Hawksw.
*placopsiiphilum Øvstedal & D. Hawksw. (Spribille et al. 2020)
*epicrassum (H. Olivier) Hafellner & Nav..-Ros.  According to Hawkworth (1986), our records probably based on Polycoccum squamarioides

domingensis Vainio
erythroxyli (Sprengel) Swinscow & Krog
filiformis Arv.  (Kaminsky et al. 2013)
palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D. J. Galloway Syn.: Pannaria molybdaea
var. cronia
pellita (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Kaminsky et al. 2013)
prostrata Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Lücking et al. 2007)
stellata Tuck. Syns.: Pannaria stellata, Parmeliella stellata
asterella (Nyl.)
Vainio = C. stellata
cronia (Tuck.) Vainio = C. palmicola
incisa Pers. =
Fuscopannaria incisa
parmelioides (Hooker) Tuck. ex M. A. Curtis = C. erythroxyli

Müll. Arg.
hahriae T. Sprib. & Tønsberg (Spribille et al. 2010)
maritimum Brodo
pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo Syn.: Ochrolechia pacifica
minutum (Degel.) R. Sant. (Spribille et al. 2010) = Ochrolechia minuta (Spribille et al. 2020)

aculeatum (Schreber) Link = Cetraria aculeata
divergens (Ach.) R. Howe = Bryocaulon divergens
muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon = Cetraria muricata
odontellum (Ach.) R. Howe = Cetraria odontella

congensis C. W. Dodge  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
disjunctum Nyl.
geralense (P. Henn) Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
implexum Nyl.
interplexum Nyl.
interpositum Nyl.
isidiatum (G. Thor & Vězda) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman
(Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
isidiiferum (
Lücking) Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
isidiigerum (Vězda & Osorio) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
isidiosum (Breuss) Rivas Plata, Lücking, Umaña & Chavez (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
luteocitrinum Rivas Plata, Lücking & Umaña  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lutescens (Vězda & Malcolm) Malcolm (Seavey et al. 2014)
luteum (Dickson) Kalb & Lücking  Syns.: Dimerella lutea (Lücking & Kalb 2000), Gyalecta lutea, Microphiale lutea
maritimum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
missouriense J. Davis
moniliforme Tuck.
nepalense (G. Thor & Vězda) Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
pineti (Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch (Lücking, Stuart & Lumbsch 2004)  Syns. Dimerella pineti, D. diluta, Microphiale diluta
pusillum (Mont.) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey et al. 2014)
pyrophthalmum (Mont.) Lücking (Seavey et al. 2017)
roumeguerianum (Müll. Arg.) Kalb (Seavey et al. 2014)
stenosporum (Malme) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey et al. 2014)
subdentatum (Vězda & G. Thor) Rivas Plata, Lücking, Umaña & Chavez  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subdilutum (Malme) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
subfallaciosum (Vězda & Farkas) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

F. H. Wigg.
coniophilum Goward (Spribille et al. 2009)
curtisporum Degel.
flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Synechoblastus rupestris
furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz
furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel.
glebulentum (Nyl. ex Crombie) Degel.
leptaleum Tuck.  Syns.:  Synechoblastus leptaleus, S. microptychius
nigrescens (Hudson) DC.  Syn.:  Synechoblastus nigrescens
pulchellum Ach.  Syn.: Leptogium pulchellum
pulchellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel.
pulchellum var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel.
pustulatum Ach.
ryssoleum (Tuck.) A. Schneider  Syn.:  Synechoblastus ryssoleus
subflaccidum Degel.
subnigrescens Degel.
subparvum Degel.
texanum Tuck. Syns.: Synechoblastus texanus, S. laciniatus
thamnodes Riddle
apalachense Tuck. = Scytinium apalachense (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
arcticum Lynge = Rostania ceranisca
aggregatum (Ach.) Röhl = Gabura fasciculare
auriculatum Hoffm. = Lathagrium auriforme
auriforme (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon = Lathagrium auriforme (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. = Enchylium bachmanianum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
bermudanum Tuck. ex Riddle = C. pustulatum (Degelius 1974)
bermudiana Tuck. ex Riddle (Fink 1935)  Orthographic variant of C. bermudanum
callibotrys Tuck. = Rostania callibotrys (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
callopismum A. Massal. = Scytinium callopismum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
callopismum var. rhyparodes (Nyl.) Degel. = Scytinium callopismum
ceraniscum Nyl. = Rostania ceranisca (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
chalazanum Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lempholemma chalazanum
cheileum (Ach.) Ach. = Blennothallia crispa
cladodes Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lempholemma cladodes
coccophorum Tuck. = Enchylium coccophorum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
conglomeratum Hoffm. = Enchylium conglomeratum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
conglomeratum var. corynesporum (Malme) Degel. = Enchylium conglomeratum
conglomeratum var. crassiusculum (Malme) Degel. = Enchylium conglomeratum 
crispum (Hudson) Weber ex F. H. Wigg. = Blennothallia crispa (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
cristatellum Tuck. = Enchylium tenax
cristatum (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg. = Lathagrium cristatum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
cristatum var. marginale (Hudson) Degel. = Lathagrium cristatum
cyrtaspis Tuck. = Enchylium conglomeratum
dichotomum (With.) Coppins & J. R. Laundon =Lathagrium dichotomum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
dubium B. de Lesd. = Enchylium coccophorum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. = Gabura fascicularis (Jørgensen 2014)
fayettense Fink = C. pustulatum
fecundum Degel. = Blennothallia fecunda (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
fluviatile (Hudson) Steudel = Lathagrium. dichotomum
fragrans (Sm.) Ach. = Scytinium fragrans (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
furvum (Ach.) Ach. = Lathagrium fuscovirens (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laundon = Lathagrium fuscovirens (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
glaucescens Hoffm. = Enchylium limosum
granosum auct. = C. auriforme
kauaiense H. Magn. = Scytinium kauaiense (Otálora et al. 2014)
laciniatum Nyl. = C. texanum
leucocarpum Hooker & Taylor = misidentification for North America
leucopeplum (Tuck.) A. Schneider = C. pulchellum var. leucopeplum
limosum (Ach.) Ach. = Enchylium limosum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
melaenum (Ach.) Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lathagrium cristatum
melaenum var. polycarpon (Hoffm.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Enchylium polycarpum
microphyllum Ach.
= Scytinium fragrans
microptychium Tuck. = C. leptaleum
multipartitum Sm. = Callome multipartita (Otálora et al. 2014)
myriococcum (Ach.) Ach. = Lempholemma polyanthes
nigrescens (Hudson) DC. var. leucopeplum Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Collema pulchellum var. leucopeplum
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Enchylium coccophorum
nylanderianum Zahlbr. = C. texanum
occultatum Bagl. = Rostania occultata (Otálora et al. 2014)
occultatum var. populinum (Th. Fr.) Degel. = Rostania occultata
ohioense (Fink) Zahlbr. = Enchylium conglomeratum
plicatile (Ach.) Ach. = Scytinium plicatile
(Otálora et al. 2014)
polycarpon Hoffm. = Enchylium polycarpon (Otálora et al. 2014)
pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. = Enchylium tenax
pycnocarpum Nyl. = Enchylium conglomeratum

quadrifidum D. F. Stone & McCune (Stone & McCune 2010) =
Scytinium quadrifidum (Koŝuthová et al. 2019)
rugosum Kremp.  Not known from North America.
stenophyllum Nyl. = Lathagrium dichotomum
subfurfuraceum Degel. = C. furfuraceum var. luzonense
subfurvum sensu Degelius = C. subflaccidum Degel.
subfurvum (Müll. Arg.)
Degel. = C. rugosum, but this taxon is not known from North America.
tenax (Sw.) Ach. = Enchylium tenax (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tenax var. crustaceum (Kremp.) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tenax var. expansum Degel. = Enchylium expansum (
Jørgensen & Goward 2014b)
tenax var. substellatum (H. Magn.) Degel. = Enchylium tenax
tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. = Lathagrium fuscovirens
undulatum Laurer ex Flotow = Lathagrium undulatum (Ot
álora et al. 2014)
undulatum var. granulosum Degel. = Lathagrium undulatum var. granulosum
verruciforme auct. = excluded as doubtful

bachmanianum Fink = Enchylium bachmanianum

angermannicum (Degel.) A. Nordin Syn.: Pyrenocollema strontianense (Nordin 2002)
bryospilum (Nyl.)
Coppins Syn.: Arthopyrenia bryospilum (Fryday 2004a)
elegans (R. Sant.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syn.: Pyrenocollema elegans
foveolatum (A. L. Sm.) F. Mohr (Dillman et al. 2012)
halodytes (Nyl.) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syns.: Arthopyrenia halodytes, Pyrenocollema halodytes
sublitorale (Leighton) Grube & B. D. Ryan (Grube & Ryan 2002) Syns.: Arthopyrenia sublitoralis, A. litoralis auct., Pyrenocollema sublitorale

COLLEMOPSIS Nyl. ex Crombie
segregata Nyl. ex Hasse = Lempholemma chalazanum

californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer = Schizopelte californica

CONIAMBIGUA Etayo & Diederich
*phaeographidis Etayo & Diederich (Diederich 2003)

gregarina (Willey) Grube (Grube 2001) Syns: Arthonia gregarina, Arthothelium gregarinum
pyrrhula (Nyl.) Grube (Grube 2001) Syn.: Arthonia pyrrhula

CONIOCARPON DC. (Van den Broeck et al. 2018)
tuckermanianum (Willey) Van den Broeck & Ertz Syn.: Arthonia tuckermaniana

furfuracea (L.) Ach. = Chaenotheca furfuracea
gracilescens Willey = Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Selva 2004)
gracillima Vainio = Chaenotheca gracillima
nivea (Hoffm.)
Arnold non Tuck. & Mont. = Sclerophora nivea
pallida (Pers.) Fr. = Sclerophora nivea
sulphurea (Retz.) Nyl. = Chaenotheca brachypoda

arenaria (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Vainio = Microcalicium arenarium

albonigrum Zahlbr.
= Trinathotrema stictideum
urceolatum (Ach.) Tuck. = Stictis urceolatum

CONSTRICTOLUMINA Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot
cinchonae (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syns: Arthopyrenia cinchonae, Pyrenula cinchonae (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
leucostoma (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia confluens (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
lyrata (R. C. Harris) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia lyrata (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
majuscula (Nyl.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia majuscula (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
malaccitula (Nyl.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Apttroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia malaccitula (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
planorbis (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot  Syn.: Arthopyrenia planorbis (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

COPPINSIDEA S.Y. Kondr., E. Farkas & L. Lőkös (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
croatica (Zahlbr.) S.Y. Kondr., E. Farkas & L. Lőkös  Syn.: Lecania croatica
pallens (Kullhem) S.Y. Kondr., E. Farkas & L. Lőkös  Syns.: Bacidia pallens, Biatora pallens, Cliostomum pallens
sphaerella (Hedl.) S.Y. Kondr., E. Farkas & L. Lőkös  Syn.: Lecidea sphaerella
vainioana S.Y. Kondr., E. Farkas & L. Lőkös  Syns.: Biatora sphaeroidiza, Lecidea sphaeroidiza

CORA Fr. (Lawrey et al. 2009)
timucua Dal Forno, Kaminsky & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2020)
glabrata (Sprengel) Fr. =
Cora timucua, for North American reports
pavonia (Sw.) Fr. =
Cora timucua, for North American reports

viride (Ach.) Vainio = Lichenomphalia hudsoniana

CORNICULARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
normoerica (Gunn.)
Du Rietz
aculeata (Schreber) Ach. = Cetraria aculeata
californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz = Kaernefeltia californica
divergens Ach. = Bryocaulon divergens
fibrillosa (Ach.) Halsey = Bryoria furcellata
muricata (Ach.) Ach. = Cetraria muricata
odontella (Ach.) Westend. = Cetraria odontella
pseudosatoana Asahina = Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum

*ciliata Kalb (Cole & Hawksw. 2001)
*intermedia Punith & D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*lichenicola D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (Kalb et al. 1995)
*pyramidalis Etayo (McMullin et al. 2017, Seaward et al. 2017) = Spirographa pyramidalis (Flakus et al. 2019)

CORTICIFRAGA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*chugachiana Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*fuckelii (Rehm) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. Syn.: Phragmonaevia fuckelii
*nephromatis Pérez-Ort. (Spribille et al. 2020)
*peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii Zhurb. & Zavarzin (Zhurbenko 2007a)
*scrobiculatae Pérez-Ortega (Spribille et al. 2010)

laevistipitata (M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.) Heuchert & U. Braun  Syn.: Taeniolella laevistipitata (Heuchert & Braun 2006)

CRATIRIA Marbach (Marbach 2000)

americana (Fée) Kalb & Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia modesta

lauricassiae (Fée) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia lauricassiae
melanochlora (Kremp.) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia melanochlora

CRESPOA (D. Hawksw.) Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2012)
crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson  2012) Syns.: Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Parmelia crozalsiana, Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana

Egea & Torrente
chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis chloroconia, L. premnea var. chloroconia
flava (Vainio) Egea & Torrente (Harris 1995a)
leprieurii (Mont.) Egea & Torrente
premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis premnea
premnea var. saxicola (Leighton) Egea & Torrente
proximata (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente

CROCODIA Link (Galloway & Elix 2013)
aurata (Ach.) Link  Syns.: Pseudocyphellaria aurata, Sticta aurata

CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
aliciae Hue = Lepraria finkii (fide J. Lendemer)
alpina B. de Lesd. = Leparia neglecta
americana B. de Lesd. = Lepraria finkii (fide J. Lendemer)
finkii B. de Lesd. = Lepraria finkii
gossypina (Sw.) A. Massal. = Phyllopsora gossypina (Kistenich et al. 2018)
membranacea (Dickson) Zahlbr. = Lepraria membranacea
moxleyi Plitt = non-lichenized Septobasidium sp.
neglecta (Nyl.) Hue = Lepraria neglecta
pyxinoides Nyl. = Phyllopsora pyxinoides (Kistenich et al. 2018)

*cladoniicola (D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.) Pino-Botas, Zhurb. & S. Stenroos  Syn.: Lettauia cladoniicola (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)
*epicladonia Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)
*galaninae Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017)
gloeocapsa (Nitschke ex Arnold) Baloch, Gilenstam & Wedin  Syn.: Bryophagus gloeocapsa (Baloch et al. 2009)

CRYPTOLECHIA A. Massal. = GYALECTA (Lücking et al. 2019)
carneolutea (Turner) A. Massal. = Gyalecta carneolutea (Lücking et al. 2019)
nana (Tuck.) D. Hawksw. & Dibben  (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Gyalecta nana (Lücking et al. 2019)

calusarum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
effusa (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
Seavey (Seavey 2009)
F. Seavey & J. Seavey (
Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
Vainio ex Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
punctosorediata Sparrius  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
randallii F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
G. Thor  Syn.: Chiodecton montagnei sensu auct. N.A. (Thor 1991)
submacrocephala F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
rubrocincta (Ehrenb. : Fr.) G. Thor = Herpothallon rubrocinctum

Th. Fr.
granuliforme (Nyl.) Henssen Syn.: Pyrenopsidium granuliforme, Pyrenopsis granuliformis
neglecta Henssen (Spribille et al. 2020)
permiscens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Pyrenopsis phylliscina

CULBERSONIA Essl. (Esslinger 2000a)
nubila (Moberg) Essl. (Esslinger 2002b)
americana Essl. = C. nubila

epiflavoides Gyelnik (Gyelnik 1931) = Pseudocyphellaria epiflavoides

CYBEBE Tibell = CHAENOTHECA (Tibell 2001)
gracilenta (Ach.) Tibell = Chaenotheca gracilenta (Tibell 2001)

CYCLOHYMENIA McCune & M. J. Curtis (McCune et al. 2017)
epilithica McCune & M. J. Curtis

bolanderi (Tuck.) Vainio = Thelomma mammosum

CYPHELIUM Ach. = CALICIUM (Prieto & Wedin 2017)
brachysporum Nádv. = Calicium brachysporum (Knudsen et al. 2020 (2019))
andersonii Herre = Thelomma californicum
brunneum W. A. Weber = Thelomma brunneum
caliciforme (Flotow) Zahlbr. = Pseudothelomma occidentale for most North American records
californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelomma californicum
carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Calicium carolinianum
chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Acolium chloroconium
farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre = Thelomma californicum
inquinans (Sm.) Trevisan = Acolium inquinans
karelicum (Vainio) Räsänen = Acolium karelicum
lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. = Calicium lucidum
notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forssell = Calicium notarisii
occidentale Herre = Pseudothelomma occidentale
ocellatum (Körber) Trevisan = Pseudothelomma ocellatum
pinicola Tibell = Calicium pinicola
sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Texosporium sancti-jacobi
*sessile (Pers.) Trevisan
= Acolium sessile
tigillare (Ach.) Ach. = Calicium tigillare
tigillare subsp. notarisii (Tul.) W. A. Weber = Calicum notarisii
trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostrup) Erichsen = Calicium trachylioides
ventricosulum (Müll. Arg.)
Zahlbr. = Acolium inquinans

georgianum Dal Forno, McMullin & Lücking (Dal Forno et al. 2019)
jamesianum Dal Forno & Kaminsky (Dal Forno et al. 2019)
phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Dal Forno & Lawrey  Syn.: Dictyonema phyllogenum (Lücking et al. 2013b)

CYPHOBASIDIUM Millanes, Diederich & Wedin
*hypogymniicola (Diederich & Ahti) Millanes, Diederich & Wedin  Syn.: Cystobasidium hypogymniicola (Millanes et al. 2016)
*usneicola (Diederich & Alstrup) Millanes, Diederich & Wedin  Syn.: Cystobasidium usneicola (Millanes et al. 2016)

CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff
*hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti (Diederich 1996) = Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola (Millanes et al. 2016)
*usneicola Diederich & Alstrup (Diederich 1996) = Cyphobasidium usneicola (Millanes et al. 2016)

ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites
rupestris (Pers.) Rabenh. (Tuckerman 1882) = Racodium rupestre

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

*engeliana (Sauter) A. Massal. (Henssen 1995)
+hookeri (Borrer) A. Massal.
*lecaniae Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourkova & Knudsen 2010)
*rufescentis (Vouaux) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

arctica (Hooker f.) Nyl. Syn.: Cetraria arctica
beringica C. D. Bird & J. W. Thomson (Treated as subsp. of D. arctica by Kärnefelt & Thell 1996)
ramulosa (Hooker f.) Tuck. Syn.: Cetraria ramulosa
madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck = Allocetraria madreporiformis

DACTYLOSPORA Körber = SCLEROCOCCUM (Diederich et al. 2018)
*aeruginosa Holien & Ihlen (Ihlen et al. 2004a) = Sclerococcum aeruginosum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*ahtii Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas (Pino-Bodas et al. 2017) = Sclerococcum ahtii (Diederich et al. 2018)
*amygdalariae Triebel = Sclerococcum amygdalariae (Diederich et al. 2018)
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner
= Sclerococcum athallinum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*attendenda (Nyl.) Arnold = Sclerococcum attendendum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*borealis Holien & Ihlen  (Ihlen et al. 2004a) = Sclerococcum boreale (Diederich et al. 2018)

*deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel = Sclerococcum deminutum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*frigida Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012) = Sclerococcum frigidum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*glaucomarioides (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner = Sclerococcum glaucomarioides (Diederich et al. 2018)

*inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner = Sclerococcum inquilinum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*lobariella (Nyl.) Hafellner = Sclerococcum lobariellum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*lurida Hafellner (Harris & Lendemer 2005) = Sclerococcum luridum
*parasitica (Flörke ex Sprengel) Zopf  = Sclerococcum parasiticum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*parellaria (Nyl.) Arnold = Sclerococcum parellarium (Diederich et al. 2018)
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner = Sclerococcum pertusariicola (Diederich et al. 2018)

*pleiosperma Triebel  (Hafellner et al. 2002) = Sclerococcum pleiospermum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*porphyrea Hafellner & Kalb (Etayo & Breuss 1998) = Sclerococcum porphyreum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*purpurascens Triebel = Sclerococcum purpurascens (Diederich et al. 2018)

*rhyparizae Arnold (Zhurbenko 2013) = Sclerococcum rhyparizae (Diederich et al. 2018)
*saxatilis (Schaerer) Hafellner var. saxatilis = Sclerococcum saxatile (Diederich et al 2018)
*suburceolata Coppins & Fryday (McMullin et al. 2017) = Sclerococcum suburceolatum (Diederich et al. 2018)
*urceolata (Th. Fr.) Arnold  = Sclerococcum urceolatum (Diederich et al. 2018)

DEGELIA Arv. & D. J. Galloway
plumbea (Lightf.)
P. M. Jørg. & P. James = Pectenia plumbea (Ekman et al. 2014)

intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen Syns.: Leptogidium intricatulum, Polychidium intricatulum
umhausense (Auersw.) Degel. Syn.: Polychidium umhausense

DENDRISCOSTICTA B. Moncada & Lücking (Moncada et al. 2013)
oroborealis (Goward & Tønsberg) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Sticta oroborealis (Moncada et al. 2013)
wrightii (Tuck.) B. Moncada & Lücking  Syn.: Sticta wrightii (Moncada et al. 2013)

*subeffusum Ellis & Everh.

alectoroides Sundin & Tehler (Sundin & Tehler 1996)
conformis (Tehler) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
(Tuck.) Darb. Syn.: Roccella leucophaea
minor Darb. = D. leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. (Sundin & Tehler 1996)

"pyrenocarpa" (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Mycoporum compositum

catawbense (Willey) Nyl. = Dermiscellum oulocheila

americanum Vainio  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)
arenosaxi Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
arnoldianum Degel.
atrogranulosum Breuss (Breuss 2003)
bachmannii Anders  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)
dolomiticum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
intestiniforme (Körber) Hasse
leptophyllodes (Nyl.) Vainio ex Hav. (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004, Heiđmarsson 2017)
linkolae Räsänen (Goward et al. 1996)
lorenzianum Anders
luridum (With.) J. R. Laundon
luridum var. xerophilum Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
meiophyllizum Vainio  (Glavich & Geiser 2004)
miniatum (L.) W. Mann  Syn.: Endocarpon miniatum
moulinsii (Mont.)
muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Amtoft et al. 2008)
multifolium Amtoft (Amtoft et al. 2008)
Blomb. & Forssell  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)
reticulatum H. Magn.
rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
[Entosthelia saxicola B. de Lesd.]
schaechtelinii Werner  (Heiđmarsson & Breuss 2004)

taminium Heiđmarsson (Heiđmarsson 2003)
tenue (Müll. Arg.) Heiđmarsson  (Heiđmarsson 2003)
tomentulosum Amtoft (Amtoft 2006)
vellereum Zschacke
acarosporoides Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. = D. luridum
arboreum (Schwein.) Fink = Placidium arboreum
cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
#compactum (A. Massal.) Lettau = Heteroplacidium compactum
daedaleum (Kremp.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium daedaleum
fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. = D. luridum
granulosum (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Catapyrenium granulosum
hepaticum auct. = Placidium squamulosum
hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Catapyrenium cinereum
heppioides Zahlbr. = Placopyrenium heppioides
lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. = Placidium lachneum
lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse = Placopyrenium lecideoides
leptophyllum (Ach.) Lång = D. miniatum
lyngei Servít  Reported from Greenland and Iceland but not U. S. or Canada
michelii (A. Massal.) Zwackh = Placidium michelii
miniatum (L.) W. Mann var. complicatum (Lightf.) Th. Fr. = D. miniatum (Heiđmarsson 2003)
novomexicanum ( B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Placidium acarosporoides
peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr. = a sterile psoroid lichen; a misidentification for North America
plumbeum (B. de Lesd.)
Zahlbr. = Verrucaria inficiens
polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. intestiniforme
rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Placidium rufescens
rupicola (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Verrucaria othmarii (Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
squamellum (Nyl.) Herre = Catapyrenium squamellum
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.)
Zahlbr. = Placidium arboreum
vagans Imshaug = D. reticulatum H. Magn.
waltheri (Kremp.) Blomb. & Forssell = Involucropyrenidium waltheri
weberi (Ach.) W. Mann = D. luridum
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Placopyrenium stanfordii

DERMISCELLUM Hafellner, H. Mayrhofer & Poelt
oulocheila (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Buellia catawbensis, Dermatiscum catawbense, Opegrapha oulocheila (Lendemer 2003)
catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt = D. oulocheila

cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla cephalota
ceruchis (Ach.)
Trevisan = Niebla ceruchis , but absent from North America (Spjut 1996)
combeoides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla combeoides
evernioides (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina lacera
homalea (Ach.) Mont. = Niebla homalea
peruviana (Ach.) Follmann & Huneck = Ramalina peruviana
testudinaria (Nyl.) Follmann & Huneck = Niebla homalea

absoluta (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl Syn.: Baeomyces absolutus
baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel Syn.: Baeomyces roseus
fungoides (Sw.) Kalb & Gierl = A tropical species, not in North America
rosea (Pers.) Clem. = D. baeomyces

alba Finley & E. F. Morris  (Lendemer & Harris 2004)

DICTYOMERIDIUM Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking
amylosporum (Vainio) Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking  Syns.: Campylothelium amylosporum, Polyblastiopsis dealbens (Aptroot & Lücking 2016)
proponens (Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking) Aptroot, M. P. Nelsen & Lücking  Syn.: Polymeridium proponens
(Aptroot & Lücking 2016)

C. Agardh
lawreyi Dal Forno, Kaminsky & Lücking (Dal Forno et al. 2019)
moorei (Nyl.) Henssen
sericeum (Sw.) Berk.
glabratum (Sprengel) D. Hawksw. =
Cora timucua, for North American reports (Lücking et al. 2020)
guadalupense (Rabenh.) Zahlbr. = D. sericeum
irpicinum Mont. = misidentification for North America
pavonium (Sw.) Parmasto =
Cora timucua, for North American reports (Lücking et al. 2020)
phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.  (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Cyphellostereum phyllogenum

DIDYMELLOPSIS (P. A. Saccardo) Clem. & Shear
*latitans (Nyl.) Clem. & Shear (Zhurbenko 2009a)
*pulposi (Zopf) Grube & Hafellner (Zhurbenko 2013)

*bryonthae (Arnold) Hafellner  Syn.:  Polycoccum bryonthae (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*cladoniicola (Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phoma cladoniicola (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*consimilis Vainio (Ertz et al. 2015a)
Syn.: Phoma caloplacae (Diederich et al. 2018)
*epiphyscia Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phoma physciicola (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*grumantiana (Zhurb. & Diederich) Zhurb. & Diederich  Syn.: Phoma grumantiana (Diederich et al. 2018)
*melanelixiae (Brackel) Diederich, Harris & Etayo (Ertz et al. 2015a)
*xanthomendozae (Diederich & Freebury) Diederich & Freebury  Syn.: Phoma xanthomendozae (Ertz et al. 2015a)

*epicrassa (H. Olivier) Vouaux = Clypeococcum epicrassum, but see note there

DIGITOTHYREA P. P. Moreno & Egea
divergens (Henssen) Moreno & Egea (Sweat et al. 2004)
polyglossa (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2002b)

#lichenicola K. Knudsen, Sheard, Kocourk. & H. Mayrhofer  (Knudsen et al. 2013b)
oreina (Ach.) Norman Syns.: Rinodina oreina, R. hueana, R. novomexicana, R. suboreina
radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. (Matzer et al. 1996) Syns.: Buellia radiata, Rinodina radiata
tenuis (Müll. Arg.) H. Mayrhofer & Wippel (Beeching 2007)
thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb. Syn.: Rinodina thysanota
weberi Sheard
angelica (Stizenb.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Mobergia angelica
#californica (H. Magn.) Sheard = Monerolechia californica (Diederich et al. 2018)
chrysomelaena (Ach.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = Rinodina chrysomelaena
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = D. oreina
suboreina (B. de Lesd.) Hale & W. L. Culb. = D. oreina

DIMERELLA Trevisan = COENOGONIUM (Lücking & Kalb 2000)
diluta (Pers.) Trevisan = Coenogonium pineti
lutea (Dickson) Trevisan = Coenogonium luteum
pineti (Ach.) Vězda = Coenogonium pineti

DIMIDIOGRAPHA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
longissima (Müll. Arg.) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011) Syn.: Graphis, atrorubens, Opegrapha longissima

*strigosum (Fr.) Sacc. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

antillarum (Vainio) Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Nelsen et al. 2012) Syn.: Herpothallon antillarum
basinigrum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (
Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
junghuhnii (Mont. & Bosch) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Tripp et al. 2010)
microsporum M. Cáceres & Lücking (Lumbsch et al. 2011; Lücking et al. 2011b)
poitaei (Fée) Kalb, Staiger & Elix (Kalb et al. 2004) Syn.: Graphina virginea
pruinosum (Ehrh.) Kalb  Syn.: Graphina platyleuca (Tripp et al. 2010)
reniforme (Fée) Kalb, Staiger, & Elix (Tripp et al. 2010)

A. Massal.
canescens (Dickson) A. Massal. Syn.: Buellia canescens

*ranula Giralt & D. Hawksw.  (Diederich 2003)


athalloides (Nyl.) Lücking, Knudsen & Fryday (Lücking et al. 2007)  Syn.: Rhizocarpon athalloides

actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Urceolaria actinostoma
aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch
arabiensis Lumbsch
badius Lumbsch & Elix
#caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vainio (Lumbsch 2002)
candidissimus (Kremp.) Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch Syn.: Urceolaria albissima
gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr.
hypoleucus Zahlbr.
#muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman Syn.: Urceolaria scruposa
albissimus (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. = D. diacapsis
bisporus (Bagl.) J. Steiner = Ingvariella bisporus
bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
canadensis Räsänen = D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
scruposus (Schreber) Norman var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = D. muscorum
straminescens Zahlbr. = D. hypoleucus

alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flotow Syns.: Buellia alboatra, B. alboatra var. saxicola, Rhizocarpon alboatrum
ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey Syn.: Buellia ambigua
chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leighton) Kr. P. Singh & S. R. Singh Syns.: Rhizocarpon chlorophaeum, Buellia chlorophaea
nivale (Bagl. & Carestia) Hafellner (Hafellner & Türk 1995) Syn.: Buellia nivalis
penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala Syns.: Buellia oidalia var. penichra, B. penichra, Rhizocarpon penichrum
venustum (Körber) Körber Syns.: Buellia epipolia, B. venusta, B. lecanoroides, Rhizocarpon cumulatum
epipolium sensu auct. = D. venustum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
(Ach.) Arnold = D. alboatrum (Nordin 1996, McCune 2017)
*pulverulentum (Anzi) D. Hawksw. (Molina et al. 2002) = Tetramelas pulverulentus

catalinariae Hasse
massiliensis Durieu & Mont. (Harris & Ladd 2005; reported as f. sorediata)
paradoxa (Fée) Tehler
approximata Zahlbr. subsp. hioramii (B. de Lesd.) Tehler = D. paradoxa
calcicola Sparrius  (Sparrius 2004a) = Fulvophyton calcicola (Tehler et al. 2013)
californica Tuck. = Sigridea californica
franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre = Dendrographa franciscana
hassei Zahlbr. = Sigridea californica
rediunta Hasse = Schismatomma rediunta

DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
aegialita (Afz.) B. J. Moore Syn.: Physcia aspera, P. aegialita
applanata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi
confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi
confusa D. D. Awasthi
confusa var. saxicola (Räsänen) D. D. Awasthi
frostii (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb. Syns.: Physcia frostii, Pyxine frostii
leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi
neotropica Kalb  (Kalb 2004a)
papillulifera (Nyl.) D. D. Awasthi
picta (Sw.) Clem. & Shear Syns.: Physcia picta, Pyxine picta, P. picta var. erythrocardia
purpurascens (Vainio) B. J. Moore  Syn.: Physcia purpurascens
aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi = D. aegialita

*gemmiferum Vouaux = an uncertain species of Endococcus

americana Aptroot
pachyospora Aptroot (Harris 1995a)
quercicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
submuriformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

albiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium albisedum
ambigua (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium ambiguum
anisoloba (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium anisolobum
biformis (Borrer) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium biforme
carinthiaca (Steiner) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium carinthiacum
distans (Willey) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium distans
finkii R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium finkii
leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium leucochlorum
macrospora R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium aureopunctatum
nyssigena (Ellis & Everh.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium polypori
quaternaria R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium quaternarium
sanfordensis (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium excaecariae
subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium subprostans
tamarindii (Fée) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tamarindii
terminata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium terminatum
tuckerae (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris = Anisomeridium tuckerae

DOLICHOUSNEA (Y. Ohmura) Articus (Articus 2004)
diffracta (Vainio) Articus Syn.: Usnea diffracta
(Ach.) Articus Syn.: Usnea longissima

madreporiformis (Ach.) Ach. = Allocetraria madreporiformis

afzelii (Ach.) A. Massal. Syn.: Graphis afzelii (Staiger 2002)

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

*lesdainii (Vouaux) Etayo & Diederich (Kocourková et al. 2010) = Neoechinodiscus lesdainii
(Sierra & Molinari-Novoa 2020)

areolata Lücking & W. R. Buck  (Lücking et al. 2007)
basalis W. B. Sanders & Lücking (Sanders & Lücking 2015)
furcata Sérus. subsp. neotropica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2007)
intercedens Vězda
leucotrichoides (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
lucernifera Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)
pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.
similis Kalb & Vězda  (Lücking et al. 2007)
tetraplaca (Zahlbr.) Lücking  (Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2007)

*aerophilum Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*reticulatum Zopf = Sphaerellothecium reticulatum

EDRUDIA W. P. Jordan
constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jordan Syn.: Caloplaca constipans, Lecanora constipans

EIGLERA Hafellner
flavida (Hepp) Hafellner Syns.: Lecanora flavida, Aspicilia flavida

ELIXIA Lumbsch
flexella (Ach.) Lumbsch (Spribille & Björk 2008)

*lichenicola Heuchert & U. Braun (Heuchert & Braun 2006)

EMMANUELIA Ant. Simon, Lücking & Goffinet
erosa (Eschw.) Lücking, M. Cáceres & Ant. Simon  Syns.: Lobaria erosa, Sticta erosa (Simon et al. 2020)
lobulifera (B. Moore) Ant. Simon & Goffinet  Syn.: Lobaria lobulifera (Simon et al. 2020)
ornata (Malme) Lücking, Moncada & Bungartz (Simon et al. 2020)
ravenelii (Tuck.) Ant. Simon & Goffinet  Syns.: Lobaria ravenelii, Sticta ravenelii (Simon et al. 2020)

ENCHYLIUM (Ach.) Gray (Otálora et al. 2014)
bachmanianum (Fink) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin Syns.: Collema bachmanianum, Collemodes bachmanianum
bachmanianum var. millegranum (Degel.) M. Schultz & McCune (McCune et al. 2018)
coccophorum (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema coccophorum, C. dubium, C. novomexicanum, Synechoblastus coccophorus
conglomeratum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema conglomeratum, C. pycnocarpum, Synechoblastus ohioense, S. cyrtaspis, S. pycnocarpus
expansum (Degel.)
P. M. Jørg.  Syn.: Collema tenax var. expansum (Jørgensen & Goward 2015)
limosum (Ach.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema glaucescens, C. limosum
polycarpon (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema melaenum var. polycarpon, Collema polycarpon, Synechoblastus polycarpus, S. wyomingensis
substellatum (H. Magn.) P. M. Jørg.  (
Jørgensen & Goward 2015)
tenax (Sw.) Gray  Syn.: Collema tenax


bolanderi (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Peltula bolanderi

guepinii (Delise) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Peltula euploca

adscendens (Anzi) Müll. Arg.
adsurgens Vainio
lepidallum Nyl.
loscosii Müll. Arg. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
pallidum Ach.
petrolepideum (Nyl.) Nyl.
pseudosubnitescens Breuss  (Knudsen 2005b)
pusillum Hedwig
schisticola B. de Lesd. (Breuss 2002a)
simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl. (Breuss 2002a)
subnitescens Nyl.
arboreum Schwein.  (Mohr 1901) = Placidium arboreum
diffractellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Gueidan et al. 2007) = Willeya diffractella (Gueidan & Lendemer 2015)
drummondii (Tuck.) M. Choisy = Staurothele drummondii
miniatum (L.) Schaerer (Mohr 1901) = Dermatocarpon miniatum
moenium Vainio = Acarospora moenium
monicae Zahlbr. = Staurothele monicae
*ochroleucum Tuck. = Heterocarpon ochroleucum
pulvinatum Th. Fr. = Staurothele pulvinata (Heiðmarsson et al. 2017) Syns.: Endocarpon pulvinatum, Pyrenothamnia brandegei, P. spraguei, Staurothele brandegei
tenuissimum (Degel.) Lendemer & E. Tripp =Willeya diffractella (Gueidan & Lendemer 2015)
tortuosum Herre = Staurothele pulvinatum (Heiðmarsson et al. 2017)
tuckermanii Rav. ex Mont. = Placidium arboreum (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
wilmsoides Zahlbr. = Staurothele drummondii

*apiciicola (J. Steiner) R. Sant. (Diederich 2003)
*incrassatus Etayo & Breuss (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b)
*macrosporus (Arnold) Nyl.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*matzeri D. Hawksw. & Iturr. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*nanellus Ohlert (Diederich 2003)

*oreinae Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*peltigericola Zhurb. & Stapanchikova (Zhurbenko 2021)
*perpusillus Nyl.
*propinquus (Körber) D. Hawksw.

*rugulosus Nyl. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010b)
*stigma (Körber) Stizenb.  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*thelommatis Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2011)

*verrucosus Hafellner  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Ticothecium zahlbrucknerella
*buelliae (C. W. Dodge) Matzer (Matzer et al. 1996) = E. matzeri for North American reports

ericina Giralt, van den Boom & Elix var. ericina  (Giralt et al. 2010)
*insularis (Arnold) Giralt, van den Boom & Elix  Syn.: Rinodina insularis (Nadyeina et al. 2010)
rappii (Imshaug ex R. C. Harris) Marbach  Syn.:  Buellia rappii (Marbach 2000)

circumpallida (H. Magn.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) =  Buellia circumpallida (Giralt et al. 2010)

americanum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria americana
bajadanae B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
crustaceum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
granulosum B. de Lesd. = Catapyrenium granulosum
novomexicanum B. de Lesd. = Placidium acarosporoides
plumbeum B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria inficiens
rupicola B. de Lesd. = Verrucaria othmarii
tuckermanii (Rav. ex Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Placidium arboreum

*bagliettoae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
bradleyana F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
caudata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
hutchinsiae (Leighton) A. Massal.  (Sparrius 2004b)
johnsoniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
keylargoensis F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
murrayana F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
nitidula F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2014b)
oregonensis Sparrius & Björk (Sparrius & Björk 2008)
*osagensis C. A. Morse  (Morse 2013)
pallidella (Nyl.) Redinger (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
quassiicola Fée
subserialis (Nyl.) Redinger (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
zonata (Körber) Källsten  Syn.: Opegrapha zonata (Ertz et al. 2009)
anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger (Sparrius 2004b) = Opegrapha anguinella
carnea (Eckfeldt) R. C. Harris = Mazosia ocellata
elegans (Eschw.) Tuck. = Sclerophyton elegans
R. C. Harris = Opegrapha anguinella 

montagnaei (Tuck) Fink (Fink 1935) = Cryptothecia striata (Thor 1991)

saxicola B. de Lesd. = unknown Dermatocarpon sp.

intermedia Coppins Syn.: Pyrenula leucoplaca var. pluriloculata
parvispora R. C. Harris & Aptroot
leucoplaca (Wallr.)
R. C. Harris = misidentification for North America (fide R. Harris)

EPAPHROCONIDIA Calat. & V. Atienza
*hawksworthii Calat. & V. Atienza (Diederich 2003)

americana Henssen
hispidula (Ach.) Horw.  Syn.: Ephebeia hispidula
lanata (L.)
ocellata Henssen
perspinulosa Nyl.
solida Bornet
lesquereuxii Bornet (Tuckerman 1882) = E. solida
mamillosum (Lyngb.) E. Fr.
(Fink 1935)  Possibly Stigonema mamillosum, a cyanobacterium
pubescens (Ach.) Fr. = Pseudephebe pubescens

hispidula (Ach.) Nyl. = Ephebe hispidula

*sandstedei (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (Scholz 1998)
*simplex D. Hawksw.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*stenospora (Harm) D. Hawksw. (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017, Seaward et al. 2017)

*nigrum Link (Diederich et al. 2018)
*purpurascens Schltdl. (Diederich 2003) = E. nigrum

#diversispora McCune (McCune 2020a)
intermedia Döbbeler (Lendemer & Harris 2004)
medioincrassata (Grummann) Döbbeler (Fryday 2004a)
pleiospora Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)
renitens (Grummann) Döbbeler (Spribille et al. 2010)
soleiformis Döbbeler (Buck & Harris 2002)
urosperma Döbbeler (Spribille et al. 2020)

#glauconigellus (Nyl.) Hafellner (Zhurbenko 2009a)
#scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. Syn.: Buellia scabrosa
*stellatus Triebel

EPITHAMNOLIA Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2012)
*karatyginii Zhurb.

ERINACELLUS T. Sprib., Muggia & Tønsberg (Spribille et al.2014b)
dendroides (Henssen) T. Sprib., Muggia & Tønsberg  Syn.: Spilonema dendroides

mollissimum (Samp.) Du Rietz
pedicellatum (Hue) P. M. Jørg.
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.
boreale Ahlner = E. pedicellatum

ERYTHRICIUM J. Erikss. & Hjortstam (Hawksworth & Helcini 2015)
*aurantiacum (Lasch) D. Hawksw. & A. Henrici  Syn.: Marchandiobasidium aurantiacum (Hawksworth & Helcini 2015)

prolifera (Mont.) R. Sant. (Seavey et al. 2014)

idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai Syn.: Cetraria idahoensis

ETAYOA Diederich & Ertz (Ertz et al. 2014)
*trypethelii (Flakus & Kukwa) Diederich & Ertz

EUGENIELLA Lücking, Sérus. & Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leucocheila (Tuck.) Lücking, Sérus. & Kalb  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syns.: Pyrenopsis granatina, Lecanora granatina, Pannaria granatina
pulvinata (Schaerer) Nyl. Syn.: Pyrenopsis pulvinata

divaricata (L.) Ach.
mesomorpha Nyl.
perfragilis Llano
prunastri (L.) Ach.
ceratea (Ach.) Zopf (Fink 1935) = Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, but a misidentification for North America
esorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz = misidentification for North America (Bird 1974)
furfuracea (L.) W. Mann = Pseudevernia consocians and P. intensa for North American records
furfuracea var. cladonia Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Pseudevernia cladonia
thamnodes (Flotow) Arnold = E. mesomorpha
vulpina (L.) Ach. = Letharia vulpina

EVERNIASTRUM Hale ex Sipman = HYPOTRACHYNA (Divakar et al. 2013)
catawbiense (Degel.) Hale ex Sipman = Hypotrachyna catawbiensis
sorocheilum (Vainio) Hale ex Sipman = Hypotrachyna sorocheila, but reports apparently based on H. catawbiense

*flexispora D. Hawksw.

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

hypocrita (A. Massal.) Fröberg Syns.: Lecidea hypocrita, L. lithospersa, L. ypocrita
jurana (Schaerer) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea jurana, L. albosuffusa, Tremolecia jurana, Melanolecia jurana
micropsis (A. Massal.) Hertel Syns.: Lecidea rhaetica, Melanolecia micropsis, Tremolecia nivalis, T. micropsis

*leucophylla (Gillet) M. T. Lange = Gamundia leucophylla (Bigelow 1983)
*striatula (Kühner) Singer = Gamundia striatula (Raitelhuber 1983)

FELIPES Frisch & G. Thor (Frisch et al. 2014)
leucopellaeus (Ach.) Frisch & G. Thor Syn.: Arthonia leucopellaea

aurantiaca (Vězda) Vězda Syn.: Bacidia aurantiaca
bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda Syn.: Catillaria bouteillei
crucitignorum C. A. Morse & Ladd (Morse & Ladd 2013)
eriniae R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
fallax R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
floridana (Tuck.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia floridana, Biatora floridana, Bilimbia floridana
granulosa R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
hybrida R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
minnisinkorum R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
montesfumosi R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
rhapidophylli (Rehm)Vězda (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
silicis R. C. Harris & Ladd (Harris & Lendemer 2009)
subtilis (Vězda) Diederich & Sérus. (Goward et al. 1996)

myrtillicola (Erichsen) Sérus. & Coppins (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
vezdae (Coppins & P. James) Sérus. & Coppins (Tønsberg 1997)

*mongolicus Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2020)

FIBRILLITHECIS  A. Frisch  (Frisch 2006)
confusa Lücking, Kalb & Rivas Plata (Rivas Plata et al. 2010)
halei (Tuck. & Mont.) Mangold  Syns.: Myriotrema halei, Thelotrema halei (Lücking et al. 2016)
insignis (Zahlbr.) A. Frisch (Frisch 2006) = F. confusa (Rivas Plata et al. 2010)

aggregatula Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
albolabiata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
alligatorensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
americana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
analphabetica Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cingalina (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Tuck.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina columbina, G. virginalis, Graphis columbina, Phaeographina columbina (Staiger 2002)
confusa Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
crassilabra Mont. & Bosch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina cypressi (Lendemer 2007a)
dumastioides (Fink) Staiger  Syns.: Graphina dumastioides, Graphis dumastioides (Staiger 2002)
egena (Nyl.) Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Vainio) Staiger  (Staiger & Kalb 2004)
ilicicola Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014a)
illiterata (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphis illiterata (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
incisura F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
incrustans Fée Syns.: Graphina incrustans, G. glaucoderma, Graphis incrustans, G. glaucoderma (Staiger 2002)
insidiosa C. Knight & Mitten  Syns.: Graphis beaumontii, G. insidiosa (Staiger 2002)
inspersa Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
Mont.  Syns.:  Graphina babingtonii, Graphis babingtonii (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
Nyl.  Syns.:  Graphina leuconephela, Graphis leuconephela (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
mexicana (Zahlbr.) Lücking & Rivas Plata  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
nitida (Eschw.) Mont.  Syns.: Graphis nitida, Medusulina nitida (Miranda-González et al. 2020, Staiger 2002)
(Nyl.) Nyl. Syns.: Graphina nitidescens, Graphis nitidescens (Staiger 2002)
pseudostromatica Lücking & Rivas Plata  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
radiata Mont.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Mont.) Staiger Syn.:  Graphis rufula (Staiger 2002)
scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer  Syns.: Graphina scolecitis, Graphis scolecitis (Lendemer 2007a)  North American records of Graphina adscribens belong here
subcomparimuralis Common & Lücking (Lumbsch et al. 2011; Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
subnitidula (Nyl.) Staiger Syns.: Graphina subnitidiula, Graphis subnitidula (Staiger 2002)
tachygrapha (Nyl.) Staiger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
tuckermaniana Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
varieseptata Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
subcontexta (Nyl.) Nyl. = F. rufula  (Lücking et al. 2011b)

almquistii (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina almquistii
dilacerata (Hoffm.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
geniculata (Hooker f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina geniculata
inflata (Hooker f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina inflata
minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina dilacerata
roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaerer) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina roesleri
scoparia (Vainio) Bowler & Rundel = Ramalina scoparia

FLAKEA O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)
papillata O. E. Erikss. (Hansen 2003; Perlmutter 2006)

FLAVOCETRARIA Kärnefelt & A. Thell
cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria cucullata, Allocetraria cucullata
minuscula (Elenkin & Savicz) Ahti, Poryadina & Zhurb.
(Zhurbenko et al. 2005)
nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria nivalis, Allocetraria nivalis

baltimorensis (Gyelnik & Fóriss) Hale Syns.: Parmelia baltimorensis, Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis
caperata (L.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia caperata, P. cylisphora, P. flavicans, P. herreana, P. negativa, Pseudoparmelia caperata
rutidota (Hooker f. & Taylor) Hale Syns.: Parmelia rutidota, Pseudoparmelia rutidota, and P. conspersa var. subconspersa and Xanthoparmelia subconspersa for North American records.
subcapitata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hale ex DePriest & B. Hale (Knudsen et al. 2005)  Syn.:  Parmelia subcapitata
[Parmelia concreta Stizenb.] This name was apparently never effectively published; identified as an uncertain species of Flavoparmelia by Hale & DePriest (1999), although an apparent ‘type’ specimen in FH was annotated by Mason Hale as an Aspicilia sp.

Arup, Søchting & Frödén (Arup et al. 2013)
austrocitrina (Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting) Arup, Søchting & Frödén  Syn.: Caloplaca austrocitrina

citrina (Hoffm.)
Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syns.: Caloplaca citrina, Placodium citrinum
flavocitrina (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca flavocitrina
granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca granulosa
marina (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca marina
microthallina (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca microthallina

darrowi (J. W. Thomson) Hale Syns.: Parmelia darrowi, Punctelia darrowi
flaventior (Stirton) Hale Syns.: Parmelia flaventior, P. andreana, P. kernstockii, Punctelia flaventior
praesignis (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia praesignis, P. incorrupta, P. caperata var. incorrupta, Punctelia praesignis
soredica (Nyl.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia soredica, P. ulophyllodes, P. manshurica, Punctelia soredica


minnesotensis (Fink) Fink = Lichinella minnesotensis
neglecta Erichsen = Pterygiopsis neglecta

FOURAGEA Trevisan  (Frisch et al. 2014)
filicina (Mont.) Trevisan  Syn.: Opegrapha filicina (Frisch et al. 2014)

FRUTIDELLA Kalb (Kalb 1994)
caesioatra (Schaerer) Kalb (Kalb 1994) Syn.: Lecidea caesioatra, L. arctica
furfuracea (Anzi) M. Westb. & M. Svensson (Svensson et al. 2017) Syns.:  Biatora pullata, Lecidea pullata
pullata (Norman) Schmull (Schmull et al. 2011) = F. furfuracea (Svensson et al. 2017)

FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not. = GYALOLECHIA (Arup et al. 2013)
bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen subsp. bracteata = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) Poelt = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina
bracteata subsp. deformis Poelt  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Gyalolechia bracteata subsp. deformis
desertorum (Tomin) Poelt = Gyalolechia desertorum
fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin = Gyalolechia fulgens
subbracteata (Nyl.)
Poelt (Brodo et al. 2001, Kasalicky 2004) = Gyalolechia subbracteata

FULGIDEA Bendiksby & Timdal  (Bendiksby & Timdal 2013)
oligospora (Timdal) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce oligospora
sierrae (Timdal) Bendiksby & Timdal  Syn.: Hypocenomyce sierrae

(Sparrius) Tehler & Ertz  Syn.: Dirina calcicola (Tehler et al. 2013)

*peltigerae Westend. (Spribille et al. 2010)

FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vězda
aleutica (Degel.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
appalachensis Fryday (Fryday 2008)
arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg
gothoburgensis (H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda (Fryday 2006)
intercincta (Nyl.) Poelt
lowensis (H. Magn.) R. A. Anderson & Hertel  Syn.: Lecidea lowensis
mollis (Wahlenb.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syns.: Biatora rivulosa var. mollis, Lecidea mollis
muskeg Tønsberg & M. Zahradn. (Spribille et al. 2020)
praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H. Magn.) V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea praeruptorum
pusilla Tønsberg
recensa (Stirton) Hertel, V. Wirth & Vězda Syn.: Lecidea recensa
recensa var arcuatula (Arnold) Fryday  Syns. Lecidea arcuatula, L. gyrodes (Fryday 2008)
scrupulosa (Eckfeldt) Fryday (Fryday 2008)  Syns.: Biatora scrupulosa, Lecidea scrupulosa, L. kochiana var. subreagens
Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
thomsonii Brodo & V. Wirth (Brodo & Wirth 1998)
cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda  = misidentification for North America (Fryday 2008)
kochiana (Hepp) V. Wirth & Vězda   = misidentification for North America (Fryday 2008)
lightfootii (Sm.)
Coppins & P. James (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Tønsberg 2002, Fryday 2008)
placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Brako = Lecidea subfilamentosa (Fryday 2008)
subreagens (H. Magn.) Oberholl. & V. Wirth = Fuscidea scrupulosa (Fryday 2008)

ahlneri (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria ahlneri
alaskana P. M. Jørg.
& Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
aurita P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cheiroloba (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg.
(Jørgensen 2000c) Syn.: Parmeliella cheiroloba
confusa (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
convexa P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005)
coralloidea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
crustacea P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b) Syns.: Pannaria lepidiota var. cyanolepra, P. cyanolepra, Parmeliella cyanolepra
dillmaniae T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2020)
frullaniae (Maass) E. Tripp & Lendemer  Syn. : Moelleropsis nubulosa subsp. frullaniae (Tripp & Lendemer 2020)

incisa (
Pers.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)  Syns.: Coccocarpia incisa, Pannaria molybdaea var. incisa
leprosa P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucosticta
leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria leucostictoides
maritima (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. Synyonym: Pannaria maritima
mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria mediterranea
pacifica P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. Syns.: Pannaria lepidiota var. corallophora, P. praetermissa, Parmeliella praetermissa, P. lepidiota
pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. Syn.: Pannaria pulveracea
ramulina P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen 2000c)
sorediata P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000b)
thiersii P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c)
viridescens P. M. Jørg. & Zhurb. (Jørgensen & Zhurbenko 2002)
californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella californica
globigera Fryday & P. M. Jørg. (Fryday 2004a) = Vahliella globigera
hookerioides P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2000c) = Vahliella hookerioides
labrata P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2005) = Vahliella labrata
laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. = Steineropsis laceratula (Spribille et al. 2020)
leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg.
= Vahliella leucophaea
saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. = Vahliella saubinetii

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

GABURA Adanson
fascicularis (L.) P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen 2014)  Syns.: Collema fasciculare, Synechoblastus aggregatus, S. fascicularis
insignis (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Magain & Serusiaux (Magain et al. 2020)  Syn.: Leptogium insigne

GAMUNDIA Raithelh.
*leucophylla (Gillet) H. E. Bigelow  Syn.: Fayodia leucophylla (Bigelow 1983)
*striatula (Kühner) Raitelh.  Syn.: Fayodia striatula (Raitelhuber 1983)


catasema (Tuck.) Marbach Syn.: Buellia catasema, B. caloosensis (Marbach 2000)
coccinea Fée  Syn.:  Buellia coccinea (Marbach 2000)
subpulcella (Vainio) Marbach Syns.: Buellia subpulcella, B. pachnidisca (Marbach 2000)
elizae (Tuck.) Marbach (Marbach 2000) = Buellia elizae (Lendemer et al. 2013)
vernicoma (Tuck.) Marbach = Buellia vernicoma (Lendemer et al. 2013)

GEISLERIA Nitschke (Aptroot et al. 2014)
sychnogonioides Nitschke  Syn.: Strigula sychnogonioides

GELATINOPSIS Rambold & Triebel
#geoglossi (Ellis & Everh.) Rambold & Triebel (Diederich et al. 2010)
*acarosporicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009a) = Llimoniella acarosporicola

GELTINGIA Alstrup & D. Hawksw.
*associata (Th. Fr.) Alstrup & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Lecidea associata

rupicola (L.) M. Choisy = Lecanora rupicola
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = Lecanora rupicola

GLAUCOTREMA Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Rivas Plata et al. 2012)
glaucophaenum (Kremp.) Rivas Plata & Lumbsch  Syns.: Myriotrema glaucophaenum, Ocellularia glaucophaena  Presence in N.A. is doubtful

*jamesii D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

polyspora Henssen (Schultz 2002c)
rugosa Henssen (Knudsen et al. 2017)
squamulosa (Zahlbr.) M. Schultz  Syn.: Psorotichia squamulosa (Schultz 2007b)

atrofusca (Müll. Arg.)
Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syn.: Graphis ferrugineodisca (Lücking & Kalb 2018)
cicatricosa Ach.
scyphulifera (Ach.) Staiger  Syn.: Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Staiger 2002, Lücking et al. 2011b)
substriatula (Nyl.) Staiger  Syn.:  Graphina substriatula (Staiger 2002, Tripp et al. 2010)
achariana Tuck. = G. cicatricosa
confluens Zenker = G. cicatricosa
favulosa Ach. = G. cicatricosa

scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg. Syns.: Acarospora rhagadiosa, A. scabra, A. saxicola

americanus Essl.
calycioides (Duby) Nyl. (Buck 1998)

muscorum Zschacke (North American only) = Protothelenella pluriseptata (Fryday 2004b)
nadvornikii Servít = Segestria mammillosa, but a misidentification for North America (Fryday 2004b)

cribellifera (Nyl.) Henssen = Lichinella cribellifera
melamphylla (Tuck.) Henssen = Lichinella melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Henssen = Lichinella minnesotensis
nigritella (Lettau) Henssen = Lichinella nigritella

GOWARDIA P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen (Halonen et al. 2009, Myllys et al. 2014)
arctica P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen  Syn.:  Alectoria gowardii
nigricans (Ach.) P. Halonen, L. Myllys, S. Velmala, & H. Hyvärinen  Syn.: Alectoria nigricans
zebrina Goward & Myllys (Goward & Myllys 2020)

hymnothora (Ach.) Aptroot Syns.: Verrucaria hymnothora, Microthelia hymnothora, Sphaeria bignoniae

GRAPHINA Müll. Arg. = GRAPHIS (Lücking et al. 2007; Tripp et al. 2010)
abaphoides (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis leucopepla 
acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Allographa acharii
acrophaea Müll. Arg. = Graphis parilis
adscribens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina scolecitis for North American records
anguina (Mont.)
Müll. Arg. = Thalloloma anguinum
antillarum (Vainio) Zahlbr. = Graphis antillarum
babingtonii (Mont.) Zahlbr.
= Fissurina insculpta
colliculosa (Mont.) Hale = Platythecium colliculosum
columbina (Tuck.) M. Wirth & Hale = Fissurina columbina
cypressi Müll. Arg. = Fissurina cypressi
dimidiata (Vainio) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
dumastioides (Fink) ined. = Fissurina dumastioides
floridana (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Platythecium floridanum
glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
incrustans (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina incrustans
intertexta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
leprocarpa (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. = Chapsa leprocarpa
marcescens (Fée) Müll. Arg. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mendax (Nyl.)
Müll. Arg. = misidentification for North America
nitidescens (Nyl.) Riddle = Fissurina nitidescens
leuconephela (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina leuconephela
parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. = Graphis parilis
peplophora M. Wirth & Hale = Acanthothecis peplophora
platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America
platyleuca (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris 1995a) = Diorygma pruinosum
plittii Zahlbr. = Carbacanthographis marcescens
(Tuck.) Fink = Fissurina scolecitis
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Graphis sophisticascens
subnitida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitida
subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Fissurina subnitidula
substriatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Glyphis substriatula
subvirginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis mosquitensis
virginalis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina columbina
virginea (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.= Diorygma poitaei
xylophaga R. C. Harris = Graphis xylophaga

analoga Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
antillarum Vainio  Syn.: Graphina antillarum
aperiens Müll. Arg.
appendiculata Common & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
assimilis Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
brittoniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
bungartzii Barcenas-Peña, Lücking, Herrera-Campos & R. Miranda (Seavey et al. 2017)
caesiella Vainio
caesiocarpa Redinger  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
caribica Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
chlorotica A. Massal. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
chromothecia R. C. Harris
cincta (Pers.) Aptroot (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
conferta Zenker  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
crebra Vainio (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
cupei Vainio ex Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
dendrogramma Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
desquamescens (Fée) Zahlbr. 
disserpens Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach.
elevata F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
endoxantha Nyl. (Lücking 2009)
Tuck. Syn.: Phaeographis eulectra
filiformis Adaw. & Makhija (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
furcata Fée (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
glaucescens Fée
haleana R. C. Harris
handelii Zahlbr. (Lücking et al. 2011b)
hinnulea F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
hodgesiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2010b)
hyphosa Staiger (Lendemer 2010b)
intermedians Vainio (Lendemer 2010b)
intricata Fée
inversa R. C. Harris
koltermaniae F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
leptocarpa Fée
leptoclada Müll. Arg
librata C. Knight
lineola Ach.
lucifica R. C. Harris
modesta Zahlbr. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
neoelongata Lücking (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
oshioi M. Nakan.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
oxyclada Müll. Arg.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
paralleloides M. Cáceres & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2014)
parilis Kremp.  Syn.: Graphina parilis (Lücking et al. 2008)
(Zahlbr.) Lücking & A. W. Archer (Lücking & McCune 2012)
perstriatula Nyl. (Seavey et al. 2017)
pinicola Zahlbr. (Lendemer 2010b)
platycarpella Müll. Arg.
proserpens Vainio (Tucker 1981)
pseudoserpens Chaves, Lücking & Umaña (Seavey et al. 2017)
pyrrhocheiloides Zahlbr. (Seavey et al. 2014)
renschiana (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb. (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
sauroidea Leighton  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
schiffneri Zahlbr. (Seavey et al. 2014)
scripta (L.) Ach.
sophisticascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Harris & Ladd 2005; Tripp et al. 2010)
M. Cáceres & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
(Ach.) Sprengel
supracola A. W. Archer (Seavey & Seavey 2011)
xylophaga (R. C. Harris) Lendemer  Syn.: Graphina xylophaga (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
acharii F
ée = Allographa acharii
afzelii Ach. = Dyplolabia afzelii
amicta Nyl. (1935) = Carbacanthographis amicta (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb (Staiger 2002)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
anguilliformis Taylor (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain; probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
argentata Lücking & Umaña  (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Allographa argentata
atrorubens Tuck. ex Fink = Dimidiographa longissima
babingtonii Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Fissurina insculpta
balbisina Nyl. (Fink 1935) = G. implicata F
ée  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
beaumontii Tuck. = Fissurina insidiosa
candidata Nyl. = Carbacanthographis candidata
celtidis Müll. Arg. = G. librata
cinerea F
ée (Fink 1935)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
columbina Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Fissurina columbina
dendritica (Ach.) Ach. (Mohr 1901) = Phaeographis dendritica
diversa Nyl. (Fink 1935) =  Leiorreuma exaltata (Zahlbruckner 1924, Staiger 2002)
dumastii (F
ée) Sprengel (Fink 1935) = Fissurina dumastii Fée  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
dumastioides Fink = Fissurina dumastioides
elongata Zenker (Seavey et al. 2017) = Allographa elongata
ferrugineodisca F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017) = Glyphis atrofusca
floridana Tuck. = Platythecium floridanum
glaucoderma Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Fissurina incrustans
grammatis Fée = Platythecium grammitis
illiterata R. C. Harris = Fissurina illiterata
incrustans  = Fissurina incrustans
insidiosa (C. Knight & Mitten) Hooker f. = Fissurina insidiosa
intertexta Müll. Arg. = Acanthothecis aurantiaca
inustula Stirton (Stirton 1875) = Thalloloma anguinum
lactea (F
ée) Sprengel (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
leuconephela Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Fissurina leuconephela
leucopepla Tuck.
= Acanthothecis leucopepla
longula Kremp.  (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Allographa longula
lumbricina Vainio = Allographa lumbricina

marcescens  = Carbacanthographis marcescens
mosquitensis Tuck. = Acanthothecis mosquitensis
nitida (Eschw.) Tuck. =
Fissurina nitida
nitidescens Nyl. = Fissurina nitidescens
pavoniana Fée =  Allographa pavoniana
poitaeoides Nyl. =Acanthothecis poitaeoides

pseudocinerea Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Allographa pseudocinerea

radiata (Mont.) Nyl.
(Fink 1935)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
rigidula Müll. Arg.  (Lendemer & Yahr 2004) = G. leptoclada (Lücking 2009)
ramificans Nyl. (Fink 1935)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
rimulosa (Mont.) Trevisan = Allographa rimulosa
rufula Mont. = Fissurina rufula
saxorum Egea & Torrente (Egea & Torrente 1997) = Redonographa saxorum (Lücking et al. 2013a)
scalpturata Ach. (Mohr 1901) = Phaeographis scalpturata
scolecitis Tuck. = Fissurina scolecitis
scripta var. varia Ach. (Fink 1935) = G. scripta
sterlingiana E. Tripp & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013) = Allographa sterlingiana

subamylacea Zahlbr. = Allographa subamylacea
subdiversa Nyl. (Fink 1935)  a nomen nudum; identity uncertain
subelegans Nyl. = G. endoxantha (Lücking 2009)
subflexibilis Lücking & Chaves (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Allographa sublexilis
subnitidula Nyl. = Fissurina subnitidula
subparilis Nyl. = Fissurina rufula
tamiamiensis Lendemer (Lendemer 2010b) = Allographa tamiamiensis
turbulenta Nyl. = Anomomorpha turbulenta
xanthospora Müll. Arg.  (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Allographa xanthospora

*aphthosae Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (Esslinger & Egan 1995)

GREGORELLA Lumbsch (McCune & Stone 2020)
humida (Kullh.) Lumbsch (McCune & Stone 2020)

erythrozona Lettau
carneola (Ach.) Hellbom  Syn. Pachyphiale carneola (Baloch et al. 2013a)
carneolutea (Turner) H. Olivier  Syns.: Cryptolechia carneolutea (Lücking et al. 2019), Gyalectina carneolutea
fagicola (Hepp ex Arnold) Kremp.  Syn.: Pachyphiale fagicola (Baloch et al. 2013a)
foveolaris (Ach.) Schaerer
friesii Flotow ex Körber
geoica (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Secoliga geoica
gyalizella (Nyl.) Baloch & Lücking  Syn.: Pachyphiale gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
herrei Vězda
*hypoleuca (Ach.) Zahlbr. (McMullin et al. 2017)
jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr.
kukriensis (Räsänen) Räsänen
nana Tuck.  Syn.: Cryptolechia nana (Lücking et al. 2019)
obesispora R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013a)
peziza (Mont.) Anzi
russula (Körber ex Nyl.) Baloch, Lumbsch & Wedin  Syns.: Belonia fennica, B. russula (Baloch et al. 2013a)
truncigena (Ach.) Hepp
cupularis (Hedwig) Schaerer  = G. jenensis
farlowii Tuck. ex Nyl. = Petractis farlowii
geoica (Wahlenb. Ex Ach.) Ach. var. trivialis Willey ex Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Absconditella trivialis
lamprospora Nyl. = Bactrospora
metabola (Joseph et al. 2021)
lutea (Dickson) Tuck. = Coenogonium luteum
odora Ach. (Fink 1935) = Ionaspis odora
pineti (Ach.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Coenogonium pineti
radiatilis Tuck. = Skyttea radiatilis
rhexoblephara (Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Rhexophiale rhexoblephara
valenzueliana (Mont.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Ramonia valenzueliana

GYALECTARIA Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch (Schmitt et al. 2010)
diluta (Björk, G. Thor & T. B. Wheeler) Schmitt, T. Sprib. & Lumbsch (Schmitt et al. 2010)

appendiculatum Lücking, Lendemer & E. Tripp (Lücking et al. 2007, Lendemer & Tripp 2008)
catenulatum (Cavalc. & A. A. Silva) L. I. Ferraro, Lücking & Sérus.  (Lücking et al. 2007)
filicinum Müll. Arg.
floridense Safranek & Lücking  (Safranek & Lücking 2005)
imperfectum Vězda (Ferraro, Lücking & S
érusiaux 2001)
paolae Herrera-Campos & Lücking (Sanders & de los Ríos 2015)
tuckerae Lücking & Lendemer (Lücking et al. 2007)
ulloae Herrera-Campos & Lücking  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
viride Lücking, W. R. Buck & Rivas Plata (Lücking et al. 2007)
yahriae W. R. Buck & Sérus. (Buck & Sérusiaux 2000)
rotuliforme Müll. Arg. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

carneolutea (Turner) Vězda =
Gyalecta carneolutea

GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vězda
asteriscus (Anzi) Aptroot & Lücking (Aptroot & Lücking 2003) Syn.: Solorinella asteriscus
fritzei (Stein) Vězda (Hutten et al. 2013)
hyalinescens (Nyl.) Vězda
lecideopsis (A. Massal.) Lettau ex Vězda
lecideopsis var. eucarpa (Servít) Vězda
lecideopsis var. kurdistanica (J. Steiner) Vězda
roseola (Arnold) Lettau (Brodo 1995)
subscutellaris (Vězda) Vězda (Spribille et al. 2020)
dodgei Vězda = G. hyalinescens
lecideopsis var. convarians (Nyl.) Vězda = G. lecideopsis var. eucarpa

africana Kalb & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007)
americana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
bartramiorum Lendemer (Lendemer 2017b)
berenice (Ellis & Everh.) Lücking & W. R. Buck
buckii Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Tricharia vezdae
epicorticis (A. Funk) Tønsberg & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Microlychnus epicorticis
floridae Etayo & Diederich (Etayo & Diederich 2001)
helvetica van den Boom & Vězda (Spribille & Björk 2008)
lambinonii Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) 
macarthurii Lücking, Umaña & Aptroot (Lücking et al. 2007)
mexicana Tretiach, Giralt & Vězda (Lendemer 2011a, Lendemer & Tripp 2014)
moodyae Lendemer & Lücking (Lendemer & Lücking 2004)
muscicola P. James & Vězda (Spribille et al. 2020)
ozarkensis Lücking, W. R. Buck & R. C. Harris (Lücking et al. 2007)
piceicola (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt
pusilla Lücking & Tønsberg (Lücking & Tønsberg 2016)
sessile W. B. Sanders & Lücking (Sanders & Lücking 2015)
subaequatoriana Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
submonospora Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. semicirculata Lücking & W. R. Buck (Lücking et al. 2007)
vainioi Kalb & Vězda var. vainioi
Lücking, Sipman & Chaves (Lücking et al. 2007)
alnicola W. Noble & Vězda = G. piceicola
anastomosans P. James & Vězda = Jamesiella anastomosans
athalloides (Nyl.) Vězda = Diploschistella athalloides
muscicola P. James & Vězda (Tønsberg 1997) = misidentification of G. moodyae (Lücking et al. 2007)

GYALOLECHIA A. Massal. (Arup et al. 2013)
allochroa (Y. Joshi, Vondrák & Hur) Søchting, Frödén & Arup (Spribille et al. 2020)
bracteata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. subsp. bracteata  Syn.: Caloplaca bracteata, Fulgensia bracteata
bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina (Th. Fr.) ined.  Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata subsp. bracteata var. alpina
bracteata subsp. deformis (Poelt) Hafellner & Türk  Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata subsp. deformis
desertorum (Tomin) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Fulgensia desertorum
epiphyta (Lynge) Vondrák  Syns.: Caloplaca arizonica, C. epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)
flavorubescens (Hudson) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Caloplaca aurantiaca, C. flavorubescens
flavovirescens (Wulfen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Caloplaca erythrella, C. flavovirescens
fulgens (Sw.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: Caloplaca fulgens, Fulgensia fulgens, Placodium fulgens
persimilis (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca persimilis
stantonii (W. A. Weber ex Arup) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca stantonii
stipitata (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Caloplaca stipitata
subbracteata (Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syn.: Fulgensia subbracteata
xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup  Syns.: C. discolor, C. xanthostigmoidea, Placodium ferrugineum var. discolor
arizonica (H. Magn.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup = G. epiphyta (Vondrák et al. 2016)

lineare (A. Evans) Yoshim. & Sharp = Cetradonia linearis

macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal
rosulata H. X. Shi, Li S.Wang and Timdal (Shi et al. 2018)

GYROGRAPHA Ertz & Tehler (Ertz et al. 2015b)
gyrocarpa (Flotow) Ertz & Tehler  Syn.: Opegrapha gyrocarpa (Ertz et al. 2015b)

angulata (Tuck.) Herre = Umbilicaria angulata
anthracina (Wulfen) Körber = Umbilicaria rigida
arctica Ach. = Umbilicaria arctica
cylindrica (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria cylindrica
decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. = Umbilicaria decussata
deusta (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria deusta
dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. = Umbilicaria mammulata
erosa (G. Weber) Ach. = Umbilicaria torrefacta
flocculosa (Wulfen) Turner & Borrer =  Umbilicaria deusta
grisea Swartz (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria grisea Hoffm.  = misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
hyperborea Ach. = Umbilicaria hyperborea var. hyperborea
muhlenbergii Ach. = Umbilicaria muhlenbergii
phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. = Umbilicaria phaea
polyphylla (L.) Funck = Umbilicaria polyphylla
polyrrhiza (L.) Körber = Umbilicaria polyrrhiza
proboscidea (L.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria proboscidea
rugifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria virginis (Llano 1950)
torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb. (Fink 1935) = Umbilicaria torrefacta
vellea (L.) Ach. = Umbilicaria vellea

GYROPHTHORUS Hafellner & Sancho (McCune 2020b)
*perforans Hafellner & Sancho (McCune 2020b)

curtisii Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Baculifera curtisii
scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl. = Glyphis scyphuliferum

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

accolens (Stirton) Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
americanum Kalb & Staiger (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
fenzlianum A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
flexuosum Hillm. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
guyanense Kalb & Staiger (Brodo et al. 2008)
leprarioides (Vainio) Vainio (Brodo et al. 2008)
ochroleucum (Necker) J. R. Laundon var. ochroleucum 
(Necker) J. R. Laundon var. porphyrium (Pers.) J. R. Laundon  Syn.: H. porphyrium
persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
rufidulum (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)
caesium Coppins & P. James = Mycoblastus caesius
californicum Sigal & D. Toren = Ophioparma rubricosa (Ekman1996)
cismonicum Beltr.
= Loxospora cismonica
coccineum (Dickson) Körber = misidentification for North America
elatinum (Ach.) A. Massal. = Loxospora elatina
lapponicum Räsänen = Ophioparma lapponica
ochrophaeum (Tuck.) A. Massal. = Loxospora ochrophaea
pacificum Hasse = Ophioparma rubricosa (Staiger & Kalb 1995, Ekman 1996)
porphyrium (Pers.) Zopf = H. ochroleucum var. porphyrium
puniceum (Sw.) A. Massal.  North Amrican records are H. persoonii
pustulatum Brodo & W. L. Culb. = Lepra pustulata
rappii Zahlbr. = Schismatomma rappii
subpuniceum (Fée) B. de Lesd. = H. fenzlianum
ventosum (L.) A. Massal. = Ophioparma ventosa

HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. = Buellia (Nordin & Tibell 2005)
arnoldii (Servít) Hafellner & Türk = Buellia arnoldii
bahiana (Malme) Sheard = Buellia bahiana
bahiana var. pleiotera (Malme) Sheard = Buellia pleiotera (Perlmutter & Rivas Plata 2018)
bahiana var. pleiotropa (Malme) Sheard = Buellia pleiotera (Perlmutter & Rivas Plata 2018)
callispora (C. Knight) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard = Buellia callispora
curatellae (Malme) Marbach  (Marbach 2000) = Buellia curatellae
disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer = Buellia disciformis
fosteri Imshaug & Sheard = a species of Buellia
parastata (Nyl.)
Kalb = Buellia parastata
pleiotera (Malme) Marbach (Hansen et al. 2008) = Buellia pleiotera

HAFELLNERA Houmeau & Cl. Roux
parasemella (Nyl.) Houmeau & Cl.
Roux = Schaereria parasemella

HALECANIA M. Mayrhofer
#alpivaga (Th. Fr.) M. Mayrhofer Syns.: Lecania alpivaga, L. disceptans, L. thallophila, Lecanora disceptans
athallina Fryday (Spribille et al. 2020)
australis Lumbsch  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004a)
pepegospora (H. Magn.) van den Boom (van den Boom & Elix 2005)  Syn.: Lecania pepegospora
viridescens Coppins & P. James

HALEGRAPHA Rivas Plata & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011a, 2011b)
floridana Common & Lücking

HALOSPORA (Zschacke) Tomas. & Cif.
*discrepans (J. Lahm ex Arnold) Hafellner (Dillman et al. 2012)

nashii Scheid. (Schultz et al. 2000)
glaucophanum (Hasse) Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana

HASSEA Zahlbr.
*bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Sarcopyrenia bacillosa

HAZSLINSZKYA Körber (Ertz & Diederich 2015)
gibberulosa (Ach.) Körber  Misidentifications for North America (Perlmutter et al. 2015)

*peltigericola (D. Hawks.) U. Braun

HEIOMASIA Nelsen, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Nelsen & Lücking 2010 [2011])
seaveyorum Nelsen & Lücking

leprevostii Fée

crassipes Th. Fr. Syns.: Lecidea crassipes, Micarea crassipes
lesdainii (Zahlbr.) Breuss (Breuss 2001)
corticola Breuss (Etayo 1998) = H. lesdainii

HEMIGRAPHA (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. ex D. Hawksw.
*graphidicola Diederich & Common (Diederich et al. 2019)

HENRICA B. de Lesd.
americana Breuss (Breuss 2002c)
melaspora (Taylor) Savić & Tibell  Syn.: Polyblastia melaspora  (Savić & Tibell 2008)
theleodes (Sommerf.) Savić, Tibell & Nav.-Ros.  Syn.: Polyblastia theleodes (Savić & Tibell 2008)

adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.
conchiloba Zahlbr.
despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. (Büdel et al. 2002)  Syns.:  Anema dodgei, Solorinaria despreauxii (Schultz 2007b)
lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.
alumenensis Herre Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
bolanderi (Tuck.)
Vainio = Peltula bolanderi
deserticola Zahlbr. = Peltula obscurans var. deserticola
euploca (Ach.) Vainio = Peltula euploca
guepinii (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca
hassei Zahlbr. =
Peltula hassei
leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
macrospora B. de Lesd.
= H. conchiloba
placodizans Zahlbr. = Peltula placodizans.
planescens Nyl. Excluded from North American flora; type not found.
polyphylla B. de Lesd. = Peltula euploca
polyspora Tuck. = Peltula patellata
psammophila Nyl. = misidentification for North America
richardsii Herre = Peltula richardsii
terrena Nyl. ex Hasse = Peltula patellata
tortuosa (Nees) Vainio = Peltula tortuosa
virescens (Despr.) Nyl. = H. lutosa
zahlbruckneri Hasse = Peltula zahlbruckneri

HERPOTHALLON Tobler (Aptroot et al. 2009)
echinatum Aptroot, Lücking & Will-Wolf  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
hyposticticum F. Seavey & J. Seavey (
Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor  Syns. Cryptothecia rubrocincta, C. sanguineum
rubroechinatum Frisch & G. Thor (Frisch et al. 2010)
antillarum (Vainio) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor (Lücking et al. 2011b) = Diorygma antillarum

alaskensis (Nyl.) S. Ekman Syns.: Bacidia alaskensis, Lecidea alaskensis (Ekman 1996)
schuyleriana Lendemer (Lendemer 2016c)

HERTELIDEA Printzen & Kantvilas (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
botryosa (Fr.) Printzen & Kantvilas  Syns.:  Biatora botryosa, Lecidea botryosa (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)
pseudobotryosa R. C. Harris, Ladd & Printzen (Printzen & Kantvilas 2004)

*ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. Syn.: Endocarpon ochroleucum

*bachmannii (Diederich & M. S. Christ.) Millanes & Wedin (McMullin et al. 2017, Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017) Syn.: Syzygospora bachmannii
*physciacearum (Diederich) Millanes & Wedin (Diederich et al. 2018)  Syn.: Syzygospora physciacearum

leucampyx (Tuck.)

albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog Syns.: Anaptychia domingensis, A. ravenelii, Physcia ravenelii
appalachensis (Kurok.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia appalachensis
boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh Syns.: Anaptychia boryi, A. neoleucomelaena
casarettiana (A. Massal.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia casarettiana
chondroidea W. A. Weber & D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia chondroidea
comosa (Eschw.) Follm. & Redón (Harris 1995b)  Syn.: Physcia comosa
crocea R. C. Harris North American reports of H. corallophora belong here
dendritica (Pers.) Poelt Syn.: Anaptychia dendritica
diademata (Taylor) D. D. Awasthi Syn.: Anaptychia diademata
echinata (Taylor) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia echinata
erecta Lendemer (Lendemer 2009a)
erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber Syns.: Anaptychia erinacea, Physcia erinacea
galactophylla (Tuck.) W. L. Culb. Syns.: Anaptychia comosa (for North American records), A. galactophylla
granulifera (Ach.) W. L. Culb. Syns.: Anaptychia granulifera, Physcia granulifera
hypoleuca (Muhl.) Trevisan Syn.: Anaptychia hypoleuca
japonica (M. Sat
ô) Swinscow & Krog
langdoniana Lendemer & E. Tripp (Tripp & Lendemer 2019)
leucomela (L.) Poelt Syns.: Anaptychia "leucomelaena", Physcia leucomela
microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa  Questionable for N. America (Lendemer 2009a)
namaquana Brusse (Esslinger & Bratt 1998)
neglecta Lendemer, R. C. Harris & E. Tripp (Lendemer et al. 2007)
obscurata (Nyl.) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia heterochroa, A. hypoleuca var. colorata, A. obscurata, A. sorediifera
palpebrata (Taylor) Vainio  (Moberg 2011)
podocarpa (Bél.) Awasthi (Moberg & Nash 1999)
pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa
rugulosa (Kurok.) Wetmore
sitchensis Goward & W. Noble
speciosa (Wulfen) Trevisan Syns.: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans, A. speciosa
squamulosa (Degel.) W. L. Culb. Syn.: Anaptychia squamulosa
tropica (Kurok.) Sipman Syn.: Anaptychia tropica (Marcano et al. 1996)
barbifera (Nyl.) K. P. Singh = misidentification for N.A. (Lendemer 2009a)
corallophora (Taylor) Skorepa = H. crocea for North American reports
domingensis (Ach.) Trevisan = H. albicans
leucomelaena (L.) Poelt = H. leucomela
neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón = H. boryi
propagulifera (Vainio) J. P. Dey  = misidentification for North America, mostly H. neglecta (Lendemer et al. 2007)
tremulans (Müll. Arg.) W. L. Culb. = H. speciosa

HETEROPLACIDIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
#compactum (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux (Prieto et al. 2012) Syns.: Catapyrenium compactum, Dermatocarpon compactum, Verrucaria compacta
congestum (Breuss & McCune) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium congestum
#transmutans K. Knudsen, Breuss & Kocourk. (Knudsen et al. 2014a)
#zamenhofianum (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux (Kocourková et al. 2012) Syn.: Verrucaria zamenhofiana
acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides
podolepis (Breuss) Breuss = Placidium podolepis

augustinii (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lopadium augustinii
conspersum (Fée) Flotow = Piccolia conspersa
domingense (Pers.) Flowtow = Letrouitia domingense
grossum (Pers. ex Nyl.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Megalaria grossa
leptocheilum Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Megalaria leptocheila
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) A. Massal. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
nannarium Tuck. = Piccolia nannaria
pachycheilum Tuck. = Megalospora pachycheila
pezizoideum (Ach.) Stizenb. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lopadium pezizoideum
porphyrites (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Megalospora porphyritis

sanguinarium (L.) Flotow (Tuckerman 1888) = Mycoblastus sanguinarius

tuberculosum (Fée) Flotow = Megalospora tuberculosa
versicolor Flotow (Tuckerman 1888) = Megalaria versicolor

vulpinum (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Letrouitia vulpina


*christiansenii B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw. = Illosporiopsis christiansenii

HOBSONIOPSIS D. Hawksw. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)
*santessonii (Lowen & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)

*dermatocarpi Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*hertelii D. Hawksw., V. Atienza & M. Cole  (Hawksworth et al. 2004)
*piggotii (Berk. & Broome) P. Karsten  (Esslinger & Egan 1995)
*parmeliana (Jacz.) Vouaux (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) Erroneous report based on H. hertelii (Hawksworth et al. 2004)

HUBBSIA W. A. Weber (Tehler et al. 1997)
californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber Syn.: Reinkella californica
lumbricoides W. A. Weber = Schizopelte lumbricoides (Ertz & Tehler 2011), but not known north of Mexico
parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Loht., Myllys & Sundin = Schizopelte parishii (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel = Porpidia albocaerulescens
cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia cinereoatra
crustulata (Ach.) Hertel = Porpidia crustulata
elegantior ( H. Magn.) Hertel = Amygdalaria elegantior
flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Hertel = Porpidia flavicunda
glaucophaea (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia rugosa
macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
melinodes (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia melinodes
nigrocruenta (Anzi) Hertel = Porpidia macrocarpa
panaeola (Ach.) Hertel = Amygdalaria panaeola
platycarpoides (Bagl.) Hertel = Porpidia platycarpoides
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Hertel = Porpidia soredizodes
superba (Körber) Hertel = Porpidia superba
tuberculosa (Sm.) P. James = Porpidia tuberculosa

*rapax Huhtinen (Huhtinen et al. 2008)

HYDROPUNCTARIA Keller, Gueidan & Thüs (Gueidan et al. 2009)
alaskana Thüs & Pérez-Ort. (Spribille et al. 2020)
amphibia (Clemente) Orange  (Orange 2012)  Syn.: Verrucaria amphibia
maura (Wahlenb.) C. Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  Syn.:  Verrucaria maura
rheitrophila (Zschacke) C. Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  Syns.:  Verrucaria kernstockii, V. rheitrophila
scabra (Vězda) C. Keller, Gueidan & Thüs  (McCune et al. 2014b)

venosa J. L. Russell = Peltigera hydrothyria

arctica (Lynge) Lutzoni Syn.: Ionaspis arctica, I. epulotica var. arctica
ceracea (Arnold ) M. Choisy
cyanocarpa (Anzi) Lutzoni (Miller et al. 2005)
epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis epulotica, Lecanora epulotica, L. epulotica var. subepulotica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis heteromorpha, I. annularis, I. ochracella, I. reducta, I. schismatopis
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold Syn.: Ionaspis melanocarpa
parva Fryday & J. W. McCarthy (Fryday & McCarthy 2018)
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Lutzoni Syns.: Ionaspis ochromicra, I. rhodopis
lacustris (With.) M. Choisy = Ionaspis lacustris
ochrolemma (Vainio) Gowan & Ahti = Porpidia ochrolemma
prevostii (Duby) Kremp. = H. epulotica

adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt Syns.: Parmelia obscura var. adglutinata, Physcia adglutinata, P. elaeina, Physciopsis adglutinata, P. elaeina
confusa Essl., C. A. Morse & S. Leavitt (Esslinger et al. 2012)
minor (Fée) D. D. Awasthi Syns.: Physcia minor, Physciopsis minor
pyrithrocardia (Müll. Arg.) Moberg & Aptroot (Esslinger et al. 2012) Syn.: Physcia adglutinata f. pyrithrocardia
syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb Syns.: Physcia syncolla, Physciopsis syncolla

scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) M. Choisy Syns.: Biatora ostreata, Lecidea scalaris, L. ostreata, Psora scalaris, P. ostreata
anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider (Timdal 2002a) = Carbonicola anthracophila
castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal = Carbonicola myrmecina
friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Xylopsora friesii
leucococca R. Sant. = Toensbergia leucococca
oligospora Timdal (Timdal 2001) = Fulgidea oligospora
praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal = Pycnora praestabilis
sierrae Timdal (Timdal 2001) = Fulgidea sierrae
sorophora (Vainio) P. James & Poelt = Pycnora sorophora
xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneider = Pycnora xanthococca

apinnata Goward & McCune
austerodes (Nyl.) Räsänen Syn.: Parmelia austerodes
beringiana (Krog) McCune (McCune 2008)
bitteri (Lynge) Ahti Syn.: Parmelia bitteri
canadensis Goward & McCune (Goward & McCune 2007)
castanea McCune & Krog (McCune 2008)
dichroma Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
duplicata (Ach.) Rass. Syn.: Parmelia elongata (Spribille et al. 2010)
enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl. Syn.: Parmelia physodes var. enteromorpha
farinacea Zopf  Uncertain for North America (Goward et al. 2012)
fistulosa McCune & Krog (McCune 2008)
gracilis McCune (McCune 2002)
heterophylla L. Pike

hultenii (Degel.) Krog  Syn.: Cavernularia hultenii (Miądlikowska et al. 2011)
imshaugii Krog
inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson
incurvoides  Rass.  (McCune et al. 2006)
krogiae Ohlsson
lophyrea (Ach.) Krog  Syns.: Cavernularia lophyrea, Parmelia lophyrea (Miądlikowska et al. 2011), P. cribellata
lugubris (Pers.) Krog
minilobata McCune & Schoch (McCune & Schoch 2009)
mollis L. Pike & Hale
occidentalis L. Pike
oceanica Goward
physodes (L.) Nyl. Syns.: Parmelia duplicata var. douglasicola, P. physodes, P. physodes var. obscurata, P. oregana
protea Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti (Goward et al. 2012)
pulverata (Nyl. ex Crombie) Elix
recurva Goward, Bj
örk, & Hollinger (Goward et al. 2010)
rugosa (G. Merr.) L. Pike
salsa Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
schizidiata McCune (McCune 2002)
subcapitata (Nyl.) Rass.
subobscura (Vainio) Poelt Syn.: Parmelia subobscura
subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson (McCune & Rosentreter 1997)
tubulosa (Schaerer) Hav. Syn.: Parmelia tubulosa
verruculosa Goward (Goward et al. 2012)
vittata (Ach.) Parrique Syn.: Parmelia physodes var. vittata, P. vittata
wilfiana Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti (Goward et al. 2010)
amplexa Goward, Björk & T. B. Wheeler (Lumbsch et al. 2011) = H. imshaugii (McCune et al. 2011)
atrofusca (Schaerer) Räsänen = Brodoa atrofusca, but North American reports are misidentifications
bitteriana (Zahlbr.) Räsänen = H. farinacea
elongata (Hillm.) Rass. = H. duplicata
encausta (Sm.) Walter Watson = Brodoa intestiniformis (but see below)
intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen = Brodoa intestiniformis, but North American records are misidentifications of, e.g., Brodoa oroarctica
metaphysodes (Asahina) Rass. = misidentification for North America (Goward et al. 2010)
oroarctica Krog = Brodoa oroarctica
pseudophysodes (Asahina) Rass. North American reports are H. oceanica

afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
appalachensis Lendemer & J. L. Allen (Lendemer & Allen 2020)
britannica (D. Hawksw. & P. James) Coppins (Lendemer & Allen 2020)

catawbiensis (Degel.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch  Syns.: Cetrariastrum catawbiense, Everniastrum catawbiense, Parmelia sorocheila var. catawbiensis
consimilis (Vainio) Hale (Lendemer & Harris 2016)
costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale
croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia croceopustulata
cryptochlora (Vainio) D. Hawksw. & A. Crespo  Syns.: Parmelinopsis cryptochlora (Divakar et al. 2013)
dactylifera (Vainio) Hale (Nash et al. 1998)
densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia densirhizinata
dentella (Hale & Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia dentella
ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia ensifolia, P. lobulifera var. insensitiva
gondylophora (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia gondylophora
horrescens (Taylor) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia horrescens, Parmelina horrescens, Parmelinopsis horrescens (Divakar 2013)
imbricatula (Zahlbr.)
Hale Syns.: Parmelia imbricatula, P. lobulifera, P. lobulifera var. luteoreagens
kauffmaniana Lendemer & J. L. Allen (Lendemer & Allen 2020)
laevigata (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia laevigata
livida (Taylor) Hale Syn.: Parmelia livida
lividescens (Kurok.) Hale (Hodkinson 2010)
meridensis Hale & López (Nash et al. 2002)
mcmulliniana Lendemer & J. L. Allen (Lendemer & Allen 2020)
minarum (Vainio) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia dissecta, P. hubrichtii, Parmelina dissecta, P. minarum, Parmelinopsis minarum (Divakar 2013)
oprah Lendemer & J. L. Allen (Lendemer & Allen 2019)
oostingii (J. P. Dey) Hale Syn.: Parmelia oostingii
osseoalba (Vainio) Park & Hale Syns.: Parmelia formosana
polydactyla (Krog & Swinscow) T. H. Nash
producta Hale Syn.: Parmelia producta
prolongata (Kurok.) Hale Syns.: Parmelia prolongata, P. lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens, P. rachista
pseudosinuosa (Asahina) Hale
pulvinata (Fée) Hale Syn.: Parmelia pulvinata
punoensis Kurok. & K. H. Moon (Nash et al. 2002)
pustulifera (Hale) Skorepa Syn.: Parmelia pustulifera
revoluta (Flörke) Hale Syn.: Parmelia revoluta
riparia McCune (McCune 1998a)
rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia rockii
showmanii Hale
sinuosa (Sm.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia sinuosa
spumosa (Asahina) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia spumosa, Parmelina spumosa, Parmelinopsis spumosa (Divakar et al. 2013)
subsaxatilis (B. de Lesd.) Hale
swinscowii (Hale) Krog & Swinscow  Syns.: Parmelia swinscowii, Parmelina swinscowii, Parmelinopsis swinscowii (Divakar et al. 2013)
taylorensis (M. E. Mitch.) Hale (Groner & Dietrich 1996)
thysanota (Kurok.) Hale Syn.: Parmelia thysanota
virginica (Hale) Hale Syn.: Parmelia virginica
formosana (Zahlbr.)
Hale = H. osseoalba
rachista (Hale) Hale = H. prolongata
sorocheila (Vainio) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch  Reports apparently based on H. catawbiensis (Egan 1987)

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ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Baeomyces aeruginosa

*christiansenii (B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawks. (Sikaroodi et al. 2001)

*carneum Fr.
*corallinum Roberge = Marchandiomyces corallinus

IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschm.
#athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.
carbonoidea (J. W. Thomson) Esnault & Cl. Roux Syn.: Lecidea carbonoidea

aleurites (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syns.: Cetraria aleurites, Parmelia aleurites, P. ambigua var. albescens, Parmeliopsis aleurites
placorodia (Ach.) S. F. Meyer Syns.: Cetraria aleurites var. placorodia, Parmeliopsis placorodia

INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch
bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch  (Lumbsch 2004)


INODERMA (Ach.) Gray
byssaceum (Weigel) Gray Syn.: Arthonia byssacea (Frisch et al. 2015)

INTRALICHEN D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole
*baccisporus Hawksworth & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole Syn.: Bispora christiansenii (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)
*lichenicola (M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole (Kocourková et al. 2012)
*lichenum (Diederich) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole (Hawksworth & Cole 2002)  Syn.: Bispora lichenum

INVOLUCROPYRENIUM Breuss (Breuss 1996)
waltheri (Kremp.) Breuss Syn.: Catapyrenium waltheri, Dermatocarpon waltheri

alba Lutzoni
lacustris (With.) Lutzoni  Syns.: Hymenelia lacustris, Aspicilia lacustris, Lecanora lacustris, L. deplanans
lavata H. Magn. Syn.: Lecanora lavata
obtecta (Vainio) R. Sant.  (McCune et al. 2014b)
odora (Ach.) Th. Fr. ex Stein  Syns.:  Gyalecta odora, Lecanora odora
suaveolens (Fr.) Th. Fr. ex Stein
annularis H. Magn. (Thomson 1997) = Hymenelia heteromorpha
arctica Lynge = Hymenelia arctica
chrysophana (Körber) Stein = I. suaveolens
epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia epulotica
epulotica var. arctica (Lynge) H. Magn. = Hymenelia arctica
heteromorpha (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia heteromorpha
melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold = Hymenelia melanocarpa
ochracella (Nyl.) H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
ochromicra (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia rhodopis
reducta H. Magn. = Hymenelia heteromorpha
rhodopis (Sommerf.) Blomb. & Forssell = Hymenelia rhodopis
schismatopis (Nyl.) Hue = Hymenelia heteromorpha
spitsbergensis H. Magn. = nom. Invalidum

IVANPISUTIA S.Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur (Kondratyuk et al. 2020)
hypophaea (Printzen & Tønsberg) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Biatora hypophaea
ocelliformis (Nyl.) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Biatora ocelliformis

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Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda
anastomosans (P. James & Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Lücking et al. 2007) Syn.: Gyalideopsis anastomosans
dacryoidea Fryday (Fryday & Dillman 2021)
scotica (P. James) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda (Tønsberg 2016)

subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg
tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg Syns.: Biatora tornoënsis, Lecidea tornoënsis, Mycoblastus tornoënsis
carrollii (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg (Aptroot 1996) = misidentification for North America (Printzen 1999)

J. L. Allen & Lendemer (Allen & Lendemer 2015)

JARXIA D. Hawksw. (Harris 1995a)
ilicicola R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
thelenula R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)

JOCATOA R. Miranda
(Miranda-González et al. 2020)
agminalis (Nyl.) Lücking, Herrera-Camp. & R. Miranda  Syn.: Medusulina texana

+asema R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+dispora (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis dispora
+fallaciosa (Arnold) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa
+geminella (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis rappii
+lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a) Syn.: Polyblastiopsis lactea
+sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins (Aptroot 2002b)
+sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a) Syns.: Clathroporina exiguella, C. amygdalina, Polyblastiopsis sublactaea
+taxodii R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+variiformis R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
+vitrispora (Cooke & Harkness) M. E. Barr (Harris 1995a)

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KAERNEFELTIA A. Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996)
californica (Tuck.) A. Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.: Alectoria californica, A. cetrariza, Cetraria californica,Cornicularia californica, Tuckermannopsis californica
merrillii (Du Rietz) A. Thell & Goward (Thell & Goward 1996) Syns.:Cetraria merrillii, Tuckermannopsis merrillii

KALCHBRENNERIELLA Diederich & M. S. Christ.
*cyanescens (Kalchbr.) Diederich & M. S. Christ. (Diederich 2002)

*talcophila (Ach.) Körber  (Hafellner et al. 2002)
*athallina (Müll. Arg.) Vouaux
= Sclerococcum athallinum
*inops Triebel & Rambold = Buelliella inops

*peltigerae (P. Karsten) D. Hawksw. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)

KEPHARTIA R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
crystalligera R. C. Harris & Lendemer
spinadiaboli R. C. Harris & Lendemer

KILIASIA Hafellner (Kistenich et al. 2018)
athallina (Hepp) Hafellner  Syns.: Catillaria athallina, Toninia athallina
pennina (Schaerer) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S. Ekman Syn.: Toninia pennina
philippea (Mont.)
Hafellner  Syns.: Catillaria arctica, C. kansuensis, C. philippea, Toninia philippea
sculpturata (H. Magn.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendksby & S. Ekman (Kistenich et al. 2018) Syns.: Catillaria sculpturata, Toninia sculpturata
superioris (Timdal) Timdal (Kistenich et al. 2018) Syn.: Toninia superioris
tristis (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner  Syn.: Toninia subnitida

KIRSCHSTEINIOTHELIA D. Hawksw. Omitted as a totally saprophytic genus

KNUFIA L. J. Hutchinson & Unter.
*peltigerae (Fuckel) Réblová & Unter.  Syn.: Capronia peltigerae (Réblová et al. 2013)

biformis A. Massal.
sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen = Tingiopsidium sonomense (Hafellner & Spribille 2016)

wimmeriana (Körber) Stein

complicatula (Nyl.) Schatz = Mastodia tesselata (Kohlmeyer et al. 2004)

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LABROCARPON Etayo & Pérez-Ortega
*canariense (D. Hawksw.) Etayo & Pérez-Ortega (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)

*buckii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad  Syn.: Marchandiomyces buckii (Diederich et al. 2018)

*lecanoricola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2001) = Lichenodiplis lecanoricola
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. = Lichenodiplis pertusariicola

fueistingii Körber = Arthrorhaphis grisea

aliphatica T. Sprib. & Resl (Spribille et al. 2020)
arenosa McCune & Lumbsch (McCune & Lumbsch 2017)
(J. Lowe) Resl & T. Sprib.  Syns.: Lecidea caeca, Rimularia caeca (Resl et al. 2015)
#furvella (Nyl. ex Mudd) M. Westb. & Resl  Syns.: Lecidea furvella, Rimularia furvella (Resl et al. 2015)
gyrizans (Nyl.) M. Westb. & Resl  Syn.: Rimularia gyrizans (Resl et al. 2015)
impavida (Th. Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl.  Syns.: Lecidea impavida, Rimularia impavida (Resl. et al. 2015)
#insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib.  (Spribille et al. 2014a)  Syns.:  Lecidea insularis, Rimularia insularis
(Th. Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl  Syns.: Lecidea sphacelata, Rimularia sphacelata (Resl et al. 2015)
fuscosora (Muhr & Tønsberg) M. Westb. & Resl (Seaward et al. 2017)  N.A. report is Japewiella dollypartoniana (Lendemer & Brodo 2018)

caroliniana (Tuck.) Davydov, Peršoh & Rambold  Syn.: Umbilicaria caroliniana (Davydov et al. 2010)
papulosa (Ach.) Llano Syns.: Umbilicaria pustulata var. papulosa, U. papulosa
pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano Syn.: Umbilicaria pensylvanica
pustulata (L.) Mérat Syn.: Umbilicaria pustulata
pustulata subsp. papulosa (Ach.) W. A. Weber = L. papulosa

*lecanorae Pérez-Ort. & Halici (Spribille et al. 2020)
*stereocaulicola (Lindsay) O. E. Eriksson & R. Sant. (Zhurbenko & Daniëls 2003)

LATHAGRIUM (Ach.) Gray (Otálora et al. 2014)
auriforme (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema auriculatum, C. auriforme, C. granosum auct.
cristatum (L.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema melaenum, C. cristatum, C. cristatum var. marginale
dichotomum (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema dichotomum C. fluviatile, C. stenophyllum
fuscovirens (With.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syns.: Collema furvum, C. fuscovirens, C. tuniforme
undulatum (Flotow) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin  Syn.: Collema undulatum
undulatum var. granulosum (Degel.) M. Schulz & McCune (McCune et al. 2018)

LAUDERLINDSAYA J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a) = Normandina (Muggia et al. 2010)
*borreri (Tul.) J. C. David & D. Hawksw. (McCune 1997a) = Normandina pulchella

madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle = Bathelium madreporiforme (Harris 1995a)
megasperma (Mont.) Riddle = Astrothelium megaspermum
subdisjuncta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris = Astrothelium subdisjunctum
varia (Fée) Zahlbr. = misidentification for North America

*lecanorae Diederich (Haldeman 2020)

LAWREYA Ertz, Common, Diederich & U. Braun
*glyphidiphila U. Braun, Common, Diederich & Ertz (Diederich et al. 2019)

abietina (Ach.) Körber
[Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Fink]
californica Tuck.
dubia G. Merr.
epileuca (Nyl.) Tehler Syns.: Platygrapha subattingens, Schismatomma subattingens
salicina Zahlbr.
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Arnold = Lecanographa amylacea
chloroconia Tuck. = Cresponea chloroconia
dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa dimelaenoides
*grumulosa (Dufour) Fr. =
Paralecanographa grumulosa
illicebrosa (Dufour) Fr. = Lecanographa amylacea
megaspora (G. Merr.) Brodo = L. abietina
nashii Egea & Torrente = Lecanographa hypothallina
patellarioides (Nyl.) Vainio = Bactrospora patellarioides
premnea (Ach.) Arnold = Cresponea premnea
premnea var. chloroconia (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Cresponea chloroconia
ravenelii (Tuck.) R. C. Harris = Opegrapha ravenelii
subattingens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = L. epileuca
subdryophila Follmann & Vězda = Lecanographa subdryophila
zahlbruckneri Herre (Fink 1935) = L. californica (Ryan & Tehler 2004)

LECANIA A. Massal.
aipospila (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. (McCune 2017)  Syn.: Lecanora spodophaeiza
arizonica B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
brunonis (Tuck.) Herre Syn.: Lecanora brunonis
#caloplacicola B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
chalcophila B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
coeruleorubella (Mudd) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
constricta W. A. Weber
cuprea (A. Massal.) van den Boom & Coppins Syns.: Bacidia cuprea, B. cupreorosella, Biatora cupreorosella, Bilimbia cupreorosella
cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr. Syn.: Biatora cyrtella, Lecidea cyrtella
dudleyi Herre
flavescens Lynge (Thomson 1997)
franciscana (Tuck.) K. Knudsen & Lendemer Syns.: Biatora franciscana, Catillaria franciscana (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
fructigena Zahlbr.
fuscella (Schaerer) Körber
fuscelloides B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
[Catillaria groenlandica Lynge]
hassei (Zahlbr.) W. Noble Syn.: Solenopsora hassei
hydrophobica T. Sprib. & Fryday (Spribille et al. 2020)
inundata (Hepp ex Körber) M. Mayrhofer  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
koerberiana J. Lahm (McCune 2017)
madida Reese Naesb. & Björk  (Reese Naesborg 2008)
nylanderiana A. Massal.
pacifica Zahlbr. ex B. D. Ryan & van den Boom  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
polycycla (Anzi) Lettau (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold  (van den Boom & B. D. Ryan 2004b)
ryaniana van den Boom  (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
shastensis Herre
stigmatella (Tuck.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syns.: Bacidia stigmatella, Biatora stigmatella
subcaesia (Nyl.) B. de Lesd.
subfuscula (Nyl.) S. Ekman (Ekman 1996) Syns.: Bacidia sibiriensis, B. subfuscula
toninioides Zahlbr.
turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg.
albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = L. turicensis
alpivaga Th. Fr. = Halecania alpivaga
arctica Lynge = Caloplaca diphyodes
brattiae B. D. Ryan & van den Boom (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b) = L. hassei (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007)
californica (Zahlbr.)
Fink = L. turicensis (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
croatica (Zahlbr.) Kotlov (Harris & Lendemer 2010) = Coppinsidea croatica (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
cyathiformis Szatala (Tavares et al. 1997) = Solenopsora cyathiformis
cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. =
Lecaniella cyrtellina
curvescens (Mudd) A. L. Sm. = Bryonora curvescens
dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = L. dubitans
disceptans (Nyl.) Lynge = Halecania alpivaga (Dillman et al. 2011)
dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. = Lecaniella dubitans
erysibe (Ach.) Mudd = Lecaniella erysibe (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
hutchinsiae (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. (Spribille et al. 2010) =Lecaniella hutchinsiae (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & van den Boom = Lecaniella naegelii (Ekman 1996; Kondratyuk et al. 2019)

pepegospora H. Magn. = Halecania pepegospora
perproxima auct. = uncertain species of Lecania, perhaps L. chalcophila (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
perproxima (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca atroalba (van den Boom & Ryan 2004b)
prasinoides Elenkin  (Reese Naesborg 2008) = Lecaniella prasinoides (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
subdispersa B. D. Ryan [non (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse] = L. franciscana
(Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. fuscella
tenera (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Cliostomum tenera
thallophila H. Magn. = Halecania alpivaga

LECANIELLA Jatta (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
cyrtellina (Nyl.) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Lecania cyrtellina
dubitans (Nyl.) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Lecania dubitans
erysibe (Ach.) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Lecania erysibe
hutchinsiae (Nyl.) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Lecania hutchinsiae
naegelii (Hepp) S. Y. Kondr.  Syns.: Bacidia naegelii, Biatora naegelii, Bilimbia naegelii, Lecania naegelii
prasinoides (Elenkin) S. Y. Kondr.  Syn.: Lecania prasinoides

LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
aggregata Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b, as Lecanographa “aff.” aggregata)
amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Lecanactis amylacea, L. illecebrosa, Opegrapha illecebrosa
brattiae (Egea & Ertz) Ertz & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011)  Syn.: Opegrapha brattiae
dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis dimelaenoides
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente Syns.: Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum, Opegrapha hypothallina, O. hassei, Lecanactis nashii
insolita Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2010) 
lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al.  2004b)
(Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente  (Egea et al. 2004b)
(Follmann & Vězda) Egea & Torrente Syn.: Lecanactis subdryophila
*grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente = Paralecanographa grumulosa (Diederich et al. 2018)

achroa Nyl.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
achroides Vainio
actophila Wedd.
aitema (Ach.) Hepp  Syn.: Lecidea aitema
alaskensis H. Magn.
albella (Pers.) Ach. var. albella
albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch
albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)
albocaesiella B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
albula (Nyl.)
aleutica H. Magn.
allophana (Ach.) Nyl.
anakeestiicola Lendemer & E. Tripp (Lendemer & Tripp 2015)
annularis Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Knudsen et al. 2014c)
anopta Nyl.  Syns.: Biatora pullula, Lecidea pullula (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010)
anoptiza Nyl.
apochroeoides Vainio
appalachensis Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
arenisaxicola B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
argentata (Ach.) Malme
argentea Oxner & Volkova
argopholis (Ach.) Ach.
atromarginata (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm. (Brinker 2020)
atrosulphurea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
austrocalifornica Lendemer & K. Knudsen (Lendemer & Knudsen 2009)
bicincta Ramond
boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl.
brandegeei (Tuck.) Davydov, Yakovczenko & Printzen (Davydov et al. 2021a, 2021b)  Syns. : Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei, Lecidea brandegeei
brattiae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004)
brodoana Lumbsch & T. H. Nash
[Parmularia brouardii B. de Lesd.]
bryopsora (Doppelb. & Poelt) Hafellner & Türk (Dillman et al. 2012)
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. Syns.: Lecidea cadubriae, L. ramulicola
caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
caesiorubella subsp. glaucomodes (Nyl.) Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo
caesiorubella subsp. saximontana Imshaug & Brodo
caesiosora Poelt (Miller et al. 2005)
californica Brodo
campestris (Schaerer) Hue
canadensis Lynge & H. Magn.

caperatica O. Asher & Lendemer (Asher & Lendemer 2018)
carneolutescens Nyl. (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
carpinea (L.) Vainio
cateilea (Ach.) A. Massal.
[Lecidea caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
cavicola Creveld (Nash et al. 1998)
cenisia Ach.
chlarotera Nyl.
chloroleprosa (Vainio) H. Magn. (Spribille et al. 2010)
chlorophaeodes Nyl.
cinereofusca H. Magn.
circumborealis Brodo & Vitik.
cladonioides Lynge
collatolica J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash
comonduensis T. H. Nash & Hertel (Nash & Hertel 1997)
confusa Almb.
congesta Lynge
coniferarum Printzen (Printzen 2001)
conizaeoides Nyl. ex Crombie
cupressi Tuck.
darlingiae Lendemer & E. Tripp (Tripp & Lendemer 2019)
Lumbsch & Messuti (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
densa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
discoënsis Lynge
ecorticata J. R. Laundon (Spribille et al. 2020)
elapheia Stizenb.  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
epanora (Ach.) Ach.
epibryon (Ach.) Ach.
excludens Malme (Brodo et al. 2020)
expallens Ach.
farinaria Borrer
floridula Lumbsch
frustulosa (Dickson) Ach. (Spribille et al. 2010)
fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. Syns.: Biatora fuscescens, Lecidea fuscescens
fuscidula Degel.
gangaleoides Nyl.
(Th. Fr.) Poelt
*gisleriana Müll. Arg. (Brinker 2020)
glabrata (Ach.) Malme
groenlandica Lynge
gypsicola St. Clair & Newberry (Rajvanshi et al. 1998)
helicopis (Wahlenb.)
Ach. (identification uncertain)
horiza (Ach.) Lindsay
hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo
hypocrocina Nyl. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
hypopta (Ach.) Vainio Syn.: Lecidea hypopta
hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
impudens Degel.  In eastern N.A. at least, a misapplied name (Lendemer et al. 2013)

imshaugii Brodo
inaurata C. A. Morse & Ladd (Morse & Ladd 2016)
insignis Degel.
intricata (Ach.) Ach.
intumescens (Rebent.) Rabenh.
(Brodo et al. 2020)
iowensis Fink
jamesii J. R. Laundon (Tønsberg 1997)
kariana Räsänen
latens Printzen (Printzen 2001)
laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen (Printzen 2001)
layana Lendemer (Lendemer 2015)
lendemeri E. Tripp & C. A. Morse (Tripp et al. 2019)
leprosa Fée
leptacina Sommerf.
leptacinella Nyl.
leucococca Sommerf. (McCune et al. 2018)
lividolutea Räsänen
louisianae B. de Lesd.
luteovernalis Brodo
marginata (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea marginata, L. elata, L. purissima. See note under "Lecidea amylacea."
markjohnstonii And. Stewart, E. Tripp & Lendemer (Anderson Stewart et al. 2018)
masana Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer et al. 2013)
maxima Lynge
melaena (Hedl.) Fink
mellea W. A. Weber
meridionalis H. Magn.
microbola I. M. Lamb
microfusca Lynge
miculata Ach.
minutella Nyl.
monticola H. Magn.
mughicola Nyl.
munzii K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c)
nashii B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al.  2004)
neoalbomarginata Gyelnik
neodegelii B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  Syn.:  Squamarina degelii (Ryan et al. 2004)
nordenskioeldii Vainio
nothocaesiella R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2013)
ochraceorubescens Arnold (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
orae-frigidae R. Sant.
oreinoides (Körber) Hertel & Rambold Syns.: Lecidea oreinodes, L. tennessensis, L. tesselina
orizabana Vainio (Lumbsch et al. 2003)
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea orosthea
pacifica Tuck. Syn.: L. tetraspora
paddensis (Tuck.) T. Sprib.  Syns.: Biatora paddensis, Lecidea paddensis (McCune et al. 2014b)
pallidochlorina T. H. Nash, B. D. Ryan & Lumbsch (Ladd & Morse 2012)
pannonica Szatala (McCune 2017)
peninsularis K. Knudsen, Lendemer & Elix (Knudsen et al. 2011a)
perplexa Brodo
phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. Syns.: Lecidea phaeophora, Biatora phaeophora
phaeostigma (Körber) Almb. (Spribille et al. 2020)
phryganitis Tuck.
placidensis (Magnusson) Knoph, Leuckert & Rambold (Knoph & Leuckert 1994) Syns.: Lecidea placidensis, Lecidella placidensis, Fuscidea placidensis
plumosa Müll. Arg. (Nash et al. 1998)
poliophaea (Wahlenb.) Ach.
poluninii Lynge
polytropa (Ehrh.) Rabenh.
populicola (DC.) Duby
proserpens Nyl. (Barrett & Thomson 1975)
protervula Stirton (Stirton 1876)
pseudargentata Lumbsch (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
pseudistera Nyl.
pseudolivacea Zahlbr.  (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
pseudomellea B. D. Ryan
pseudosarcopidoides M. Brand & van den Boom (Hutten et al. 2013)
pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.
reagens Norman
remota K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2017)
rhodi Szatala (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
rubicunda Bagl.
rupicola (L.)
Zahlbr. Syns.: Glaucomaria rupicola, G. sordida
sachsiana E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp & Lendemer 2019)

salicicola H. Magn.
saligna (Schrader) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lecanoropsis saligna
sarcopidoides (A. Massal.) Hedl. (Hutten et al. 2013)
saxigena Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2014d)
scrobiculata (Th. Fr.) Øvstedal & Elix  Syn.:  Lecidea scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash
simeonensis K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Lendemer & Knudsen 2009)
sophodopsella Nyl.
soralifera (Suza) Räsänen (McCune 2017)
Guzow-Krzemińska, Łubek, Malíček & Kukwa (Guzow-Krzemińska et al. 2017)
stenotropa Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)
stramineoalbida Vainio (Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
strobilina (Sprengel) Kieffer
subaurea Zahlbr. (missing from ver. 21 & 22)
subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach. (missing from ver. 21 & 22)
subcavicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004)
subimmergens Vainio
subintricata (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
subpallens Zahlbr.  (Lumbsch et al. 1997, Lendemer 2004e)
subravida Nyl. (Hutten et al. 2013)
subrugosa Nyl.
subsaligna M. Brand & van den Boom (van den Boom & Brand 2008)
substrobilina Printzen (Printzen 2001)
sulphurea (Hoffm.)
Ach. Syn.: Lecidea sulphurea
swartzii (Ach.) Ach. (Nash et al. 1998)
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. Syn.: Lecidea symmicta
texana W. A. Weber
#thallophila H. Magn.
thysanophora R. C. Harris (Harris et al. 2000)
tristiuscula H. Magn.
tropica Zahlbr. (Seavey & Seavey 2012)
umbrosa Degel.
urceolaria (Fr.) Wetm.
utahensis H. Magn. (Knudsen 2012)
valesiaca (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.
varia (Hoffm.) Ach.
vegae Malme
viridipruinosa M. Svenss. & T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2020)
viriduloflava B. de Lesd.
willeyi Tuck.
wisconsinensis H. Magn.
xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt
xylophila Hue
zeroensis Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2011b)
agardhiana Ach. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis agardhiana
albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostrup (Śliwa 2007b, Laundon 2010) = Myriolecis albescens
albomarginata (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia albomarginata
albopruinosa Looman = Circinaria contorta (McCune et al. 2014b,
Perlmutter & Rivas Plata 2020)
alboradiata H. Magn. = Aspicilia alboradiata
aliena Zahlbr. = Aspicilia aliena
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.)
Ach. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
alpina Sommerf. = Bellemerea alpina
americana (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia americana

andrewii B. de Lesd. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis andrewii
annulata Lynge = Aspicilia annulata
anseris Lynge = Aspicilia anseris
applegatei Herre = Bellemerea alpina (Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2007)
aquatica (Körber) Hepp = Aspicilia aquatica
arctica Lynge = Aspicilia arctica
arizonica (Tuck. ex Willey) W. A. Weber = Omphalora arizonica
athroocarpa Duby (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.
atra (Hudson) Ach. = Tephromela atra
atriseda (Fr.) Nyl. = Protoparmelia atriseda
atrosanguinea G. Merr. = Caloplaca atrosanguinea
atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. = Lecanora cenisia
badia (Hoffm.) Ach. = Protoparmelia badia
barkmaniana Aptroot & Herk (Kaminsky et al. 2013) = misidentification of L. floridula (Lendemer & Harris 2014b)
basaltica Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
beringii Nyl. ("behringii") = L. zosterae var. beringii (Śliwa 2007b)
bipruinosa Fink = Protoparmeliopsis bipruinosa
bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. = Rimularia gibbosa
bolanderi Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
brunonis Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecania brunonis
caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr. = Circinaria caesiocinerea
caesiopruinosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia caesiopruinosa
caesiorubella subsp. lathamii Imshaug & Brodo = L. subpallens
caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (Fink) R. C. Harris = L. subpallens
calcarea (L.) Sommerf. = Circinaria calcarea
calcarea var. contorta (Hoffm.) Hepp (Tuckerman 1882) = Circinaria contorta
calcarea var.? hoffmannii Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain, a later homonym of L. calcarea var. hoffmannii (Ach.) Sommerf.
cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vainio = L. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. caesiorubella
candida (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia candida
candida (Anzi) Nyl. var. nikrapensis (Darb.) Oxner (Barrett & Thomson 1975) = Aspicilia candida

carlottiana Lewis & Śliwa (Lewis & Śliwa 2012) = Myriolecis carlottiana

cascadensis H. Magn. = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii
castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. = Bryonora castanea
cervina (Pers.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora cervina, but not known for N.A. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2020c)

cervina var. thamnina Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora thamnina
chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
chlorophana (Wahlenb.) Ach. = Pleopsidium chlorophanum
chloropolia (Erichsen) Almb. = L. impudens for most North American records
chonion Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Psora crenata
christoi W. A. Weber = Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma
chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea
cinerea (L.) Sommerf. var. gibbosa Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.

cinerea var. laevata (Ach.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Aspicilia laevata
cinereofusca var. appalachensis Brodo = L. saxigena (Lendemer & Harris 2014d)
cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp = Bellemerea cinereorufescens
cingulata Zahlbr. = Aspicilia cingulata
circinata (Pers.) Ach. = Lobothallia radiosa
coilocarpa auct. = L. circumborealis
coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris
composita Lynge = Aspicilia composita
concinna J. W. Thomson = Aspicilia concinna
conizaea auct.
= L. strobilina
conizaea (Ach.) Nyl. ex Crombie = L. expallens
constipans (Nyl.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Edrudia constipans
contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner = Circinaria contorta
contractula Nyl. = Myriolecis contractula
crenulata Hooker  (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis crenulata
crustacea (Savicz) Zahlbr. (Ryan & Nash 1997b) = Protoparmeliopsis crustacea
degelii T. Schauer & Brodo = L. cinereofusca var. cinereofusca
demissa (Körber) Zahlbr. = Caloplaca demissa
deplanans Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris (Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
desertorum Kremp.  North American reports are Circinaria arida
diffracta Ach.
= Protoparmeliopsis muralis
diphasia Tuck. = Caloplaca diphasia
disceptans Nyl. = Halecania alpivaga (Dillman et al. 2011)

dispersa (Pers. ) Sommerf. = Myriolecis dispersa
dispersoareolata (Schaerer) Lamy = Protoparmeliopsis dispersoareolata

disserpens (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.
= Aspicilia disserpens
distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. = L. populicola
effusa (Hoffm.) Ach. = L. saligna
elevata Lynge = Aspicilia elevata
elatina Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Loxospora elatina

elatina var. minor Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain.

elatina var. ochrophaea (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Loxospora ochrophaea

elmorei E. D. Rudolph = Circinaria elmorei
epulotica (Ach.) Nyl ex Crombie = Hymenelia epulotica
epulotica var. subepulotica Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Hymenelia epulotica
erythrantha Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Caloplaca erythrantha (Wetmore 2007b)
exigua f. pruinosa Merrill = Rinodina hallii  (Sheard 2010)
eyerdamii Herre = L. xylophila
filamentosa (Stirton) Elix & Palice (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010; Palice et al. 2011) = Palicella filamentosa (Rodriguez Flakus & Printzen 2014)
fimbriata H. Magn. = Aspicilia fimbriata
flavida Hepp = Eiglera flavida
flavopunctata Tønsberg =
Myrionora flavopunctata
floridana Tuck.
= Caloplaca floridana
flotoviana Sprengel  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Myriolecis semipallida for North American reports (Śliwa 2007a, Zhao et al. 2016)

flowersiana H. Magn. = Myriolecis flowersiana

frustulosa auct. N.A. in part = L. argopholis  (Vänska 1984)

fugiens Nyl. (Ryan et al. 2004, as  Lecanora “aff.” fugiens, Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis fugiens

fuliginosa Brodo = L. argentea
fulva Schwein. (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Harris 2004)
fuscata (Ach.) Röhl var. oligocarpa Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain, possible misspelling of var. oligospora?
fuscata var. rufescens (Ach.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain

fuscata var. sinopica (Wahlenb.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora sinopica
fuscidula Degelius = L. minutella Nyl. (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001)

galactina (Ach.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Myriolecis albescens (Scholz 2000, Zhao et al. 2016))
galactinula Vainio = L. pseudistera

garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr. subsp. garovaglii = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii
garovaglii subsp. cascadensis (H. Magn.) B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii
geiserae B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004) =  Protoparmeliopsis geiserae

gelida (L.) Ach. = Placopsis gelida
gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. = Circinaria gibbosa
gibbosula H. Magn. = Circinaria gibbosa
glaucocarpa (Wahl.) Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora glaucocarpa

glaucocarpa var. verrucosa Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora glaucocarpa
glaucomela Tuck. = Pertusaria glaucomela
glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse = Rhizoplaca glaucophana
glaucopsina Nyl.
= Aspicilia glaucopsina
granatina Sommerf. = Euopsis granatina
granifera Ach. = Malmidea granifera
granulifera (Ach.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) non (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.  Identity uncertain; cited basionym is Parmelia granulifera Ach., which is Heterodermia granulifera
grandis H. Magn. = Protoparmelia badia
grantii H. Magn. = L. xylophila
gyalectodes Nyl. = Topelia gyalectodes
gyrophorica Lendemer (Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c) = Protoparmeliopsis gyrophorica
hagenii (Ach.) Ach. = Myriolecis hagenii
hagenii var. sambuci (Pers.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Myriolecis sambuci
haydenii Tuck. = Rhizoplaca haydenii
heteroplaca Zahlbr. = Aspicilia heteroplaca
holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. = Solenopsora holophaea
hypospilota Vainio = L. oreinoides

incusa (Fr.) Vainio = Caloplaca demissa
intrudens H. Magn. = Miriquidica intrudens
invadens H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis invadens
juniperina Śliwa (Ryan et al. 2004) = Myriolecis juniperina
kofae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash = Protoparmeliopsis kofae
laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt = Protoparmeliopsis laatokkaensis
lacustris (With.) Nyl. = Ionaspis lacustris
laevata (Ach.) Nyl.
= Aspicilia laevata
laevis Poelt = L. horiza, but N. American records are L. xylophila
lavata (H. Magn.) Fink = Ionaspis lavata
lentigera (Weber) Ach. = Squamarina lentigera
lesleyana (Darb.) Paulson = Aspicilia lesleyana
limitata H. Magn. = Aspicilia limitata
marginalis Hasse = Rhizoplaca marginalis
mastoidea Lynge = Aspicilia berntii
mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Ach. (Wetmore 1967) = Sagedia mastrucata
mazatzalensis B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash = Protoparmeliopsis mazatzalensis
melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. = Lobothallia melanaspis
melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond = Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
mniaroeiza Nyl. = Rinodina mniaroeiza
molybdina Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora molybdina
molybdina var. ereutica (Wahlenb.) Schaerer (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain

molybdina var. microcyclos (Ach.) Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain
morioides (Blomb. ex Arnold) Blomb. = Clauzadeana macula
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
muralis var. brunneola (Mereschk.) Ryan & T. H. Nash (Nash et al. 1998) = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. var. diffracta (Ach.) Rabenh. (Tuckerman 1882) = Protoparmeliopsis muralis

muralis var. saxicola (Pollich) Hepp (Tuckerman 1882) = Protoparmeliopsis muralis

muralis var. garovaglii (Körber) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii

muralis var. semitensis (Tuck.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora semitensis
muralis var. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
mutabilis Sommerf. = L. intricata
mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. = Megaspora verrucosa
myrina F
ée (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain; possible orthographic error for L. myrinii (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
myrinii (Fr.) Tuck. = Aspilidea myrinii
narssaquensis Lynge = Aspicilia narssaquensis
nephaea Sommerf. = Protoparmelia nephaea

nevadensis H. Magn. = Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii

nigromarginata H. Magn. = Rhizoplaca nigromarginata
nikrapensis (Darb.)
Zahlbr. = Aspicilia nikrapensis
novae-semliae Zahlbr. = Aspicilia novae-semliae
novomexicana H. Magn. = Rhizoplaca novomexicana
novomexicana B. de Lesd. = identity uncertain
obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse = Acarospora obpallens
occidentalis (Lynge) Lynge = L. argopholis
ochrococca (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = Protoparmelia ochrococca
oculata (Dickson) Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Pertusaria oculat
odora (Ach.) Tuck. (Fink 1935) = Ionaspis odora
olivacea (Bagl. & Carestia) J. Steiner (Herre 1911, Fink 1935) = Lecanora pseudolivacea
olivaceopallida H. Magn. = Aspicilia olivaceopallida
opiniconensis Brodo = Rhizoplaca opiniconensis
oregana Tuck. = L. argopholis
pachythallina Lynge = L. geophila
palanderi Vainio = L. zosterae
pallescens (L.) Röhl = Ochrolechia pallescens (L.) A. Massal., but misidentification for North America
pallescens var. rosella Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Ochrolechia trochophora
pallescens var. upsaliensis (L.) Flotow = Ochrolechia upsaliensis
pallida (Schreber) Rabenh. var. pallida = L. albella var. albella
pallida (Schreber) Rabenh. var. angulosa Hoffm. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora carpinea

pallida var. cancriformis Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora caesiorubella var. caesiorubella
pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo = L. albella var. rubescens
parisiensis Nyl. = L. horiza
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Sommerf. = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
peltata (Ramond) Steudel = Protoparmeliopsis peltata
peltastictoides Hasse (Knudsen 2003) = Aspicilia peltastictoides (Knudsen & Kocourková 2013)
percrenata H. Magn. (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis percrenata
pergibbosa H. Magn. = Aspicilia pergibbosa
permutata Zahlbr. = Oxneriaria permutata
perpruinosa Fröberg (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis perpruinosa
perradiata Nyl. = Aspicilia perradiata
persimilis (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Myriolecis persimilis
pertusa Lynge = Aspicilia pertusa
phaedrophthalma Poelt var. phaedrophthalma = Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma
phaedrophthalma var. christoi (W. A. Weber) B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma
phaeobola Tuck. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
pinastri (Schaerer) H. Magn. = L. pulicaris
pinguis Tuck. = Protoparmeliopsis pinguis
piniperda Körber = L. albellula Nyl. (Printzen 2001)

pleiospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
pleistospora Nyl. = Acarospora thelococcoides
plicigera Zahlbr. = Aspicilia plicigera
polychroma (Anzi) Nyl. = Aspicilia polychroma
praecrenata Nyl. = Aspicilia praecrenata
praeradiosa Nyl. = Lobothallia praeradiosa
pringlei (Tuck.) I. M. Lamb subsp. pringlei = Pulvinora pringlei (Davydov et al. 2021a)
pringlei subsp. brandegei (Tuck.) Ryan (Ryan et al. 2004) = Lecanora brandegeei (Davydov et al. 2021a, 2021b)

privigna (Ach.) Nyl. =
Acarospora privigna (Knudsen et al. 2021b)

privigna (Ach.) Nyl. var. clavus (DC.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Sarcogyne clavus

privigna var. pruinosa auct. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain
privigna var. revertens Tuck. =
Acarospora privigna (Knudsen et al. 2021b)
pruinosa Chaub.  Not in North America
pseudochlarotera Brodo = L. hybocarpa
punicea (Sw.) Ach.  North American records are Haematomma persoonii
radiosa (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Lobothallia radiosa
ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. May (Printzen & May 2002) = L. filamentosa
reptans Looman = Aspicilia reptans
riparia G. Merr. non (Flotow) M. Steiner = L. xylophila
rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia rolleana
rosulata (Körber) Stizenb. = Aspicilia rosulata
rubina (Vill.) Ach. = Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
rubina var. heteromorpha Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Protoparmeliopsis peltata ?
rubina var. opaca Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain
rugosa auct. (Fink 1935) = L. chlarotera (Brodo 1984)
rugosella Zahlbr. = L. chlarotera (Ryan et al. 2004)
ryrkaipiae H. Magn. = Aspicilia ryrkaipiae
salina H. Magn. = Myriolecis salina
sambuci (Pers.) Nyl. = Myriolecis sambuci
sanguinea (Kremp.)
Mig. = Bellemerea sanguinea
saxicola (Pollich) Ach. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis

schizochromatica Pérez-Ortega, T. Sprib.
& Printzen  (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2010) = Palicella schizochromatica (Rodriguez Flakus & Printzen 2014)
schleicheri (Ach.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Acarospora schleicheri

schofieldii Brodo  (Brodo 2010) = Myriolecis schofieldii
scotopholis (Tuck.) Timdal = Miriquidica scotopholis
semipallida H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a) = Myriolecis semipallida
sipeana H. Magn. = Aspicilia sipeana
sophodopsis Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain
sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. = L. rupicola
spodophaeiza Nyl. (Fink 1935, Ryan et al. 2004) = Lecania aipospila
stenospora Stizenb. = Pleopsidium flavum
straminea Ach. = Myriolecis straminea
stygioplaca Nyl.
= Aspicilia subradians
subdispersa Nyl. ex Hasse = Toninia subdispersa
subfusca (L.) Ach. = nom. rej. prop. = L. allophana
subfusca (L.) Ach. var. allophana Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora allophana

subfusca var. argentata (Ach.) Boistel (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora argentata

subfusca var. campestris (Schaerer) Rabenh. = Lecanora campestris

subfusca var. coilocarpa Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = L. pulicaris

subfusca var. distans (Pers.) D. Dietr. (Tuckerman 1882)= L. populicola

subfusca var. hypnorum (Schaerer) Rabenh. (Tuckerman 1882) = identity uncertain
subfuscata H. Magn. = L. argentata
sublapponica Zahlbr. = Aspicilia sublapponica
subolivascens Nyl. = Caloplaca demissa
subpallida G. Merr. non C. Knight = L. subpallens
subradians Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
subradiascens Nyl. = Aspicilia subradians
superfluens H. Magn. = L. geophila
supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia supertegens
sylvestris (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = L. rubicunda
symmictera Nyl. = L. symmicta
tartarea (L.) Ach. = Ochrolechia tartarea
tenera (Nyl.) Crombie = Cliostomum tenerum
tenuis H. Magn. = Aspicilia tenuis
tesselina (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = L. oreinoides
tetraspora H. Magn. = L. pacifica
thamnitis Tuck. = Cladidium bolanderi
thamnoplaca Tuck. = Lobothallia alphoplaca
thelococcoides Nyl.
= Acarospora thelococcoides (Lendemer 2004a)
thomsonii H. Magn. = Rhizoplaca novomexicana (Ryan & Nash 1991, Zhao et al. 2016)
torrida Vainio = Myriolecis torrida
turbinata Poelt & Leuckert = L. zosterae var. beringii (Sliwa 2007b)
umbrina (Ach.) A. Massal. = L. hagenii (Śliwa 2007b)
urceolaria (Fr.) Wetmore = Megaspora verrucosa
varia subsp. densa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. densa
varia (Hoffm.) Ach. var. intricata (Ach.) Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora intricata
varia subsp. laxa Śliwa & Wetmore (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000) = L. laxa
varia var. polytropa (Ehrh.) D. Dietr. (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora alpigena (Ach.) Cl. Roux, but this European taxon not confirmed for N.A.

varia var. sepincola (Ach.) Link (Tuckerman 1882) = Lecanora aitema

varia var. symmicta Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Palicella filamentosa

variolascens auct. = L. impudens for North American records
ventosa (L.) Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Ophioparma ventosa

#verrucariicola B. D. Ryan  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Miriquidica verrucariicola (Knudsen et al. 2015)
verrucigera (Hue) Zahlbr. = Aspicilia verrucigera
verrucosa (Ach.)
Laurer = Megaspora verrucosa
verrucosa f. mutabilis Ach. (Tuckerman 1882) = Megaspora verrucosa

versicolor (Pers.) Ach. = Protoparmeliopsis muralis
victoriae (F. Wilson) “Tibell”  Erroneous creation by typographic error (in ver. 10), should be Mycocalicium victoriae
weberi B. D. Ryan = Rhizoplaca weberi
wetmorei Śliwa  (Ryan et al. 2004) = Myriolecis wetmorei
xanthophaea Nyl. (Nylander 1891) = Rinodina xanthophaea, a Japanese species, not known for North America
xanthophana Nyl. = Acarospora xanthophana, but a misidentification for North America
xanthophana f. dealbata Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain
zosterae (Ach.) Nyl. var. zosterae = Myriolecis zosterae

zosterae var. beringii (Nyl.) Śliwa (Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis zosterae

zosterae var. palanderi (Vainio) Śliwa 2007b) = Myriolecis zosterae

saligna (Schrader) M. Choisy = Lecanora saligna

albofuscescens Nyl.
amniculensis J. Lowe  Possibly a syn. of Brianaria lutulata (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
atomaria Th. Fr.
atrobrunnea (Ramond ex Lam. & DC.) Schaerer subsp. atrobrunnea
atrobrunnea subsp. planaica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Leuckert 2011)

atromarginata H. Magn.
atroviridis (Arnold) Th. Fr.
auriculata Th. Fr. subsp. auriculata (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
auriculata subsp. brachyspora Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
baffiniana H. Magn.
berengeriana (A. Massal) Th. Fr. (Spribille et al. 2020)
betulicola (Kullh.) H. Magn. f. endamylea (Hedl.) Hinter. (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
brachyspora (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
brodoana Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
brunneofusca H. Magn.
californica Zahlbr.
carneoalbens Nyl.
carnulenta (Tuck.) Fink Syn.: Biatora carnulenta
cascadensis H. Magn.
cellularis Lowe
cerviniicola B. de Lesd. (Fryday 2020)
cinerata Zahlbr.
commaculans Nyl. (Fryday 2006)
confluens (Weber) Ach.
confluentula Müll. Arg. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2014b)
congesta Fink
coriacea Holien & Palice (Holien et al. 2016)
crassilabra Müll. Arg.
crisima Nyl.
cruciaria Tuck.
cyrtidia Tuck.
(Harris 1997)
deplanaica (Hertel & Leuckert) McCune  Syn.: L. atroburnnea ssp. deplanaica (McCune et al. 2017)
despecta Th. Fr.
diducens Nyl.
eckfeldtii Zahlbr.
ecrustacea (Anzi ex Arnold) Arnold
enalla Nyl. (Printzen 1995)
enterophaea Vainio
epiphaea Nyl. 
(Spribille et al. 2010)
erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf.
extenuata Vainio
flavidolivens (Tuck.)
Fink Syn.: Biatora flavidolivens
formosa (Bagl. & Carestia) Knoph & Leuckert (Knudsen et al. 2017)
fuliginosa Taylor
furvonigrans (Tuck. ex Willey) Zahlbr. (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
fuscatoatra Nyl.
fuscoatra (L.) Ach.
globulispora Nyl. (Spribille et al. 2020)
goniophiloides B. de Lesd.
griseomarginata Fryday (Spribille et al. 2020)
haerjedalica H. Magn. (Fryday 2004a)
hassei Zahlbr.
herteliana Fryday & Coppins (Fryday & Coppins 2012)
hoganii E. Tripp & Lendemer (Tripp & Lendemer 2015)
holopolia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Biatora holopolia
homosema Nyl.
hypomela Nyl.
intropallida Fink
katahdinensis Degel.
kingmanii (Hasse) Hertel & S. Ekman  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
laboriosa Müll. Arg. (Hertel 1995)
labradorica Arnold
lactea Flörke ex Schaerer  (McCune et al. 2014b)
lapicida (Ach.) Ach. (Coppins 2002; Hertel & Andreev 2003)
leprarioides Tønsberg
leucothallina Arnold
lithophila (Ach.) Ach.
louisianae B. de Lesd.
lyngei Degel.
magnussonii Lynge (Dix 1956)
malmeana Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
mamillana Tuck.
mannii Tuck.
meiocarpa Nyl. var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg (Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
melaphanoides Nyl.
merrillii H. Magn.
microps Tuck. (Fink 1935, Perlmutter & Greene 2005)
micytho Tuck. ex Willey (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
moreliiensis B. de Lesd.
mutabilis Fée Syn.: Biatora mutabilis
nearingii H. Magn.
nylanderi (Anzi) Th. Fr. Syn.: Biatora nylanderi
occidentalis Lynge
olivascens Th. Fr
oreophila K. Knudsen & Kocourk.  (Knudsen & Kocourková 2014a)
pacifica Herre
paupercula Th. Fr. (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
peliaspis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Biatora peliaspis
perlatolica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
phaeopelidna Vainio
phaeops Nyl.
picea Lynge
plana (J. Lahm) Nyl.
plebeja Nyl. Syn.: Biatora myriocarpoides
polaris Lynge
polycocca Sommerf.
populina Müll. Arg. ex Nyl. Syn.: Micarea populina
praenubila Nyl.
praetermissa Tønsberg
promiscens Nyl.
promiscua Nyl. (Fryday 2020)
protabacina Nyl.
pseudaglaea Hertel  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
pulla Lowe
pumicicola H. Magn.
ramulosa Th. Fr.
rivulorum H. Magn.
roseotincta Coppins & Tønsberg
rubrocastanea T. Sprib. & Printzen (Spribille & Printzen 2007)
sarcogynoides Körber (McMullin & Lendemer 2013)
sauteri Körber  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
scabridula Hedl. nom. illeg. (Spribille & Björk 2008)
silacea Ach.
somphoterella Vainio
steineri Hertel
strasseri Zahlbr.  (Spribille et al. 2010)
stratura K. Knudsen & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2017)
streveleri T. Sprib. (Spribille et al. 2020)
subaglaea B. de Lesd.
subcandida H. Magn.
subfilamentosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday  (Fryday 2008)
subrhagadiella Lynge
swartzioidea Nyl.
syncarpa Zahlbr. (McCune 1998b)
tenayucae B. de Lesd.
tenuissima Lynge
tessellata Flörke
tessellata var. caesia (Anzi) Arnold
theodori Lynge
torquens Müll. Arg. = a species of Lecanora? (Printzen 1995)
trapelioides Printzen  (Hertel & Printzen 2004)
truckeei Herre
turgidula Fr.  Syn.: Biatora turgidula
umbonata (Hepp) Mudd
uniformis McCune (McCune et al. 2017)
varians Ach.  Syns.: Biatora varians, Pyrrhospora varians (Hertel & Printzen 2004), Lecidea subtilis (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
versicolor Schwein. (Printzen 1995)
xanthococcoides Zahlbr.
ablephora Nyl. = Ramonia ablephora
acclinis Flotow (Tuckerman 1888) =
Toninia populorum
acrocyanea (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. = Lecidella patavina
adirondackii H. Magn. = Psilolechia clavulifera
admiscens Nyl. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
aenea (Fr.) Nyl. = Miriquidica garovaglioi
aeruginosa Borrer = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
aglaea Sommerf. = Calvitimela aglaea
aglaeida Nyl. = Calvitimela aglaea
ahlesii (Hepp) Nyl. (Harris 1995b) = Bryobilimbia ahlesii
ahlesii var. nemoralis (J. Lowe) Fryday & Coppins (Coppins & Fryday 2006b) = Bryobilimbia ahlesii var. nemoralis
aitema Ach. = Lecanora aitema
alaiensis Vainio = Lecidella patavina
alaskensis Nyl. = Herteliana alaskensis
albidocinerella (Vainio) Vainio = Lecidella effugiens
albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Ach. = Porpidia albocaerulescens
albocaerulescens var. flavocaerulescens (Hornem.) Schaerer = Porpidia flavicunda
albohyalina (Nyl.) Th. Fr. = Mycobilimbia albohyalina
albonigra H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
albosuffusa Th. Fr. = Farnoldia jurana
aleutica Degel. = Fuscidea aleutica
alpestris Sommerf. = Protomicarea alpestris
amabilis B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
amaurospoda (Anzi) Vainio = Frutidella furfuracea
"amylacea Ach. 1810" nom. illeg. Probably refers to Lecanora marginata
aniptiza Stirton = Micarea denigrata
anthracophila Nyl. = Carbonicola anthracophila
antoniensis H. Magn. = L. hassei
apochroeiza Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
arctica Sommerf. = Frutidella caesioatra
arctogena (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier = Calvitimela testaceoatra
arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
armeniaca (DC.) Fr. = Calvitimela armeniaca
aromatica (Turner) Turner (Tuckerman 1888) =
Toniniopsis aromatica
assimilata Nyl. = Micarea assimilata
assimilis (Körber) Th. Fr. = Carbonea assimilis
associata Th. Fr. = Geltingia associata
atrata (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Tremolecia atrata
atrobrunnea subsp. deplanaica Hertel & Leuckert (Hertel & Leuckert 2011) = L. deplanaica (McCune et al. 2017)

atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. syncarpa (McCune et al. 2014b)
atrobrunnea subsp. stictica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. protabacina (McCune et al. 2014b)
atrofulva Sommerf. = Miriquidica atrofulva
atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
atrolutescens Nyl. = L. mannii
atronivea Arnold = Carbonea atronivea
austrocalifornica Zahlbr. = Carbonea latypizodes
berengeriana (A. Massal.) Nyl. (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = Mycobilimbia berengeriana
botryosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. = Hertelidea botryosa
brandegei Tuck. =
Lecanora brandegeei (Davydov et al. 2021a, 2021b)
breviuscula Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Phyllopsora breviuscula

brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. = Psorula rufonigra
brujeriana (Schaerer) Leighton = Ainoa mooreana, but a misidentification for North America
cadubriae (A. Massal.) Nyl. = Lecanora cadubriae
caeca J. Lowe = Lambiella caeca
caesioatra Schaerer = Frutidella caesioatra
caesiocoronata J. Lowe  = Lecidea olivascens (Degelius 1957); belongs to Lecanora according to Printzen (1995)
calcivora (Ehrh.) Nyl. = Clauzadea immersa
candida (Weber) Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Toninia candida
carbonoidea J. W. Thomson = Immersaria carbonoidea
carpathica (Körber) Szatala = Lecidella carpathica
catalinaria Stizenb. = Lecidella asema
caudata Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Ropalospora lugubris
caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = a Lecanora sp.
chalybeiza Nyl.= Leimonis erratica
cinereoatra Ach. = Porpidia cinereoatra
cinereorufa Schaerer = Schaereria cinereorufa
cinnabarina Sommerf. = Ramboldia cinnabarina
circumnigrata H. Magn. = Miriquidica pulvinatula
circumnigrata var. reagens H. Magn. = Miriquidica lulensis
cladonioides Th. Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Carbonicola anthracophila

coarctata (Turner ex Sm.) Nyl. = Trapelia coarctata
coeruleonigricans auct. (Tuckerman 1888) =
Thalloidima sedifolia
cohibilis Nyl. (Nylander 1891) = Buellia mamillana (Bungartz et al. 2004a)

colludens Nyl. = Rhizocarpon hochstetteri
columbiana H. Magn. = L. tessellata
columnata J. Lowe = Cecidonia xenophana
conferenda Nyl. = Adelolecia kolaensis
contigua Fr. = Porpidia macrocarpa
contigua var. convexella (Wainio) Fink (Claassen 1917) = Porpidia macrocarpa
contigua var. hydrophila (Fr.) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Porpidia hydrophila (Fr.) Hertel & A. J. Schwab, but not confirmed for N.A.
coroniformis Kremp. = Psora crenata
crassipes (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Helocarpon crassipes
crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata
crustulata (Ach.) Sprengel = Porpidia crustulata
cuprea Sommerf. = Biatora cuprea
cuprea var. berengeriana (A. Massal.) Leighton (Tuckerman 1888) = Mycobilimbia berengeriana
cyanea (Ach.) Rohl. = L. tessellata
cyanescens Lynge = L. lapicida
cyathoides (Ach.) Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but a misidentification for North America
cyrtella Ach. = Lecania cyrtella
decipiens (Hedwig) Ach. = Psora decipiens
degelii H. Magn. = Porpidia degelii (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
delincta Nyl. = Bryobilimbia ahlesii  (Arup 2004, Fryday et al. 2014)
declinis Tuck. = Catillaria nigroclavata (Ekman 1996)
deminutula H. Magn. = Lecidella enteroleucella (Lendemer et al. 2019a)
demissa (Rutstr.) Ach. = Lecidoma demissum
destituta Nyl. (Nylander 1891) = Rinodina moziana (Sheard 2018)
deustata Zahlbr. = Miriquidica deusta
diapensiae Th. Fr. = Bryobilimbia diapensiae
dicksonii auct. = Tremolecia atrata
dicksonii (Gmelin) Ach. = nomen dubium
dilutiuscula Nyl. = Brianaria bauschiana
diversa J. Lowe = Porpidia contraponenda
dolodes Nyl. = Schaeraria dolodes
efflorescens (Hedl.) Erichsen = Biatora efflorescens
elabens Fr. = Ramboldia elabens
elaeochroma (Ach.) Ach. = Lecidella elaeochroma
elata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
elegantior H. Magn. = Amygdalaria elegantior
ementiens Nyl. =
Myrionora ementiens (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
endolithea Lynge = Lecidella patavina
enteroleuca auct. = Lecidella spp.
enteroleuca Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Melaspilea enteroleuca (Ach.) Ertz & Diederich, but not confirmed for N.A.
enteroleuca var. achrista (Sommerf.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain

enteroleuca var. aequata (Flörke) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain

enteroleuca var. ambigua “Anzi” (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain

enteroleuca var. flavida Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain

enteroleuca var. theioplaca Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain
epiiodiza Nyl. = Schaereria endocyanea
epixanthoidiza Nyl. nom. rej. prop. = Biatora efflorescens
erratica Körber = Leimonis erratica
euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. = Lecidella euphorea
evansii H. Magn. = Lecidella carpathica
fissuriseda Poelt = Mycobilimbia fissuriseda
flavocaerulescens Hornem. = Porpidia flavicunda
#Lecidea flavovirescens Borrer (Tuckerman 1888) = #Arthrorhaphis citrinella
flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. = Trapeliopsis flexuosa
floridensis Nyl. = Malmidea floridensis (Cáceres et al. 2017)
friesii Ach. = Xylopsora friesii
fumosa (Hoffm.) Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea fuscoatra
furfuracea Pers. = Phyllopsora furfuracea
furfurosa Tuck. ex Nyl. = Malmidea furfurosa
furva J. Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
furvella Nyl. ex Mudd = Lambiella furvella
fusca (Schaerer) Th. Fr. = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
fuscescens Sommerf. = Lecanora fuscescens
fuscoatrina Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004) = L. cascadensis (Hutten et al. 2013)
fuscocinerea Nyl. = Schaereria fuscocinerea
fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Clauzadea monticola (Scholz 2000)
garovaglioi Schaerer = Miriquidica garovaglioi
gelatinosa Flörke = Trapeliopsis gelatinosa
geophana Nyl. = Steinia geophana
glaucophaea Körber = Porpidia rugosa (Fryday 2005)
glaucopholis Nyl. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
glebulosa (Fr.) Clem. = Trapeliopsis wallrothii, but misidentifications for North America
globulosa Flörke =
Myrionora globulosa
globifera Ach. = Psora globifera
glomerulosa (DC.) Steudel = Lecidella euphorea
goniophila auct. = Lecidella anomaloides
granosa Tuck. = Bacidia granosa (Ekman 2014)
granulata H. Magn. = Lecidella granulata
granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa
granulosa var. phyllizans Zahlbr. = Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
gregaria G. Merr. = Trapelia glebulosa
grisella Flörke ex Schaerer = L. fuscoatra
griseoatra (Flotow) Schaerer (Fink 1935) = Miriquidica subplumbea
gyrodes H. Magn. = Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula
gyalizella Nyl. = Gyalecta gyalizella (Baloch et al. 2013a)
gyrophoroides Sprengel (Fink 1935)  Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Nyl. = Porpidia albocaerulescens (Lendemer 2004a)
helvola (Körber) Th. Fr. = Biatora helvola
helvola var. longispora Degel. = Biatora longispora
heppii R. A. Anderson & W. A. Weber = Lecidella wulfenii
homalodes Nyl. = L. tessellata Flörke (Hertel 1991)
humilis J. Lowe = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
humosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. = Placynthiella uliginosa
hypnorum Lib. = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
hypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
hypopta Ach. = Lecanora hypopta
icterica (Mont.) Taylor = Psora icterica
impavida Th.
Fr. = Lambiella impavida
insidians Nyl. (Nylander 1891) = Buellia insidians, but identity uncertain
instrata Nyl. = Miriquidica instrata
insularis Nyl. = Lambiella insularis
intermediella Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) N.A. report is Phyllopsora parvifolia
intermixta Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Catinaria atropurpurea
intermixta var. lignaria Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Catinaria purpurea

internectens Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
interponens Nyl. (Nylander 1891)  Illegitimate later homonym; identity uncertain
intrudens H. Magn. = Carbonia intrudens (Dillman et al. 2012)
intumescens (Flotow) Nyl.
= Lambiella insularis
jurana Schaerer = Farnoldia jurana
kochiana Hepp = Fuscidea kochiana, but apparently a misidentification for N.A. (Fryday 2008)
kochiana var. subreagens H. Magn.
= Fuscidea scrupulosa
lacus-crateris H. Magn. = Lecidella stigmatea
lapicida Fr. var. oxydata Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain
lapicida var. pantherina Ach. (Hertel & Andreev 2003) = L. lactea (Coppins 2002)
latypea auct. non Ach. = Lecidella carpathica
latypea Ach. = L. plana
latypiza Nyl. = Lecidella carpathica
laureri (Hepp) Anzi = Lecidella laureri
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Leighton = Megalaria laureri

lepidastra Tuck. = Buellia lepidastra

leptoboloides Nyl. = L. laboriosa
leucoblephara Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Byssoloma leucoblepharum
leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaea
leucophaeoides Nyl. = Miriquidica leucophaeoides
limborina (Nyl.) Lamy = Rimularia limborina
limitata auct. = Lecidella elaeochroma
limosa Ach.
= Protomicarea limosa
lithospersa Zahlbr. = Farnoldia hypocrita
lividula Nyl. (Nylander 1891) Identity uncertain; a later homonym of L. lividula Müll. Arg.
longiuscula Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) N.A. report is Phyllopsora parvifolia
lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann = Ainoa mooreana, but a misidentification for North America
lowensis H. Magn. = Fuscidea lowensis
lucida (Ach.) Ach. = Psilolechia lucida
lugubris Sommerf. = Ropalospora lugubris
lulensis (Hellbom) Stizenb. = Miriquidica lulensis
lurida (Ach.) DC. = Romjularia lurida
luridella Tuck. = Psora luridella
luteola (Schrader) Ach. var. arceutina Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia arceutina
lynceola Th. Fr. = Micarea lynceola, but a misidentification for N. America (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lynceola auct. N. Am. = Brinaria bauschiana (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
lyngeana Zahlbr. = Adelolecia pilati
macrocarpa (DC.) Steudel = Porpidia macrocarpa
macrocarpa var. trullisata (Arnold) Mig. = Porpidia zeoroides
mamillaria Tuck. (Mohr 1901)  Apparent typographical error for L. mamillana
manni Tuck. (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)  Orthographic variant of L. mannii
marciensis J. Lowe = Miriquidica pycnocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
marginata Schaerer = Lecanora marginata
marylandensis H. Magn. = Miriquidica leucophaea  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
massata Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) =
Thalloidima massatum
medialis Tuck. ex Nyl. =
Bacidina medialis
meiocarpa Nyl.
= Biatora meiocarpa
meiocarpa var. tacomensis Printzen & Tønsberg = Biatora meiocarpa var. tacomensis
melancheima Tuck. = Ramboldia elabens
melinodes (Körber) H. Magn. ex Lynge = Porpidia melinodes
micacea Körber = Lecidella stigmatea
michenerii (Tuck.)   Identity uncertain (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
minuta (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora meiocarpa
misella (Nyl.) Nyl. = Micarea misella
mollis (Wahlenb.) Nyl. = Fuscidea mollis
monticola Ach.
= Clauzadea monticola
morio (Duby) Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain
morio var. coracina Schaerer (Tuckerman 1888) Identity uncertain
mundula M
üll. Arg. = Lecanora oreinodes (Rambold 1989)
myriocarpella (G. Merr.) Zahlbr., nom. illeg., probable synonym of Lecidea enalla (Printzen 1995)
myriocarpoides Nyl. = L. plebeja
myrmecina Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Xylopsora friesii
neglecta Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Lepraria neglecta
nemoralis J. Lowe = Bryobilimbia ahlesii var. nemoralis
nivalis Anzi = Farnoldia micropsis
novomexicana (B. de Lesd.) W. A. Weber ex R. A. Anderson = Psora nipponica
oblongula H. Magn. = Caloplaca oblongula
obtegens Th. Fr. = Trapelia obtegens
occidentalis Lynge = L. tessellata (Hertel 1991)
ochrococca Nyl. = Protoparmelia ochrococca
ochrophora Nyl. = Piccolia ochrophora
oligotropha J. R. Laundon = Placynthiella oligotropha
olivacea (Hoffm.) A. Massal. = Lecidella elaeochroma
olivacea var. inspersa Degel. = Lecidella elaeochroma (Lendemer et al. 2019a)
oreinodes (Körber) W. A. Weber & Hertel = Lecanora oreinoides
ornata (Sommerf.) Hue = Trapelia glebulosa
orosthea (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora orosthea
ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaerer = Hypocenomyce scalaris
*oxyspora (Tul.) Nyl. =
Nesolechia oxyspora
paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora paddensis (McCune et al. 2014b)
pallida Th. Fr. = Pilophorus dovrensis
panaeola (Ach.) Ach. = Amygdalaria panaeola
pantherina (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. lactea
parasema (Ach.) Ach. (Fink 1935) = Lecidella elaeochroma (Scholz 2000)
parasemella Nyl. = Schaereria parasemella
parvifolia Pers. = Phyllopsora parvifolia
parvifoliella Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Phyllopsora parvifoliella
patellarioides Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bactrospora patellarioides
"pelobotrion" = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
pelobotrya (Wahlenb.) Leighton = Amygdalaria pelobotryon
petri (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Romjularia lurida
phaeophora Stizenb. = Lecanora phaeophora
phylliscina Nyl. = Porpidia macrocarpa
pilati (Hepp) Körber = Adelolecia pilati
placidensis H. Magn. = Lecanora placidensis
planetica Tuck. ex Willey = Leimonis erratica
platycarpa Ach. = Porpidia macrocarpa
plumbeoatra Vainio = Miriquidica plumbeoatra
polycarpa Fl
örke (Fink 1935) = L. lapicida (Santesson et al. 2004)
porphyrospoda (Anzi) Th. Fr. = Myochroidea porphyrospoda
praeruptorum Du Rietz & H. Magn. = Fuscidea praeruptorum
prasinula (Wedd.) B. de Lesd. = Lecidella scabra
pringlei Tuck. =
Pulvinora pringlei (Davydov et al. 2021a)
pruinosa Ach. = L. lithophila
pulcherrima Vainio = Anamylopsora pulcherrima
pullata (Norman) Th. Fr. (Jørgensen et al. 2002) = Frutidella furfuracea
pullula (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora anopta
punctella (Willey) Zahlbr. = Micarea rhabdogena
purissima Darb. = Lecanora marginata
pycnocarpa (Körber) Ohlert = Miriquidica pycnocarpa
quadricolor (Dickson) Borrer = Trapeliopsis granulosa
quernea (Dickson) Ach. = Pyrrhospora quernea
ramulicola H. Magn. = Lecanora cadubriae
recedens Nyl. = a non-lichenized fungus
recensa Stirton = Fuscidea recensa
rhaetica Hepp ex Th. Fr. = Farnoldia micropsis
rivulosa Ach. = Fuscidea cyathoides, but a misidentification for North America
rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb. = Psora rubiformis
rufofusca (Anzi) Nyl. = Myochroidea rufofusca
rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl. = Psorula rufonigra
ruginosa Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) =
Bibbya ruginosa
rugosa J. Lowe = Schaereria cinereorufa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
russellii Tuck. = Psora russellii
russula Ach. = Ramboldia russula
salweyi Borrer (Tuckerman 1888) = Trapeliopsis wallrothii, a misidentification for N.A. (McCune et al. 2002)
sanguineoatra sens. Nyl. = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
santae-monicae H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
santensis Tuck.
= Phyllopsora santens
saxosa R. A. Anderson = L. syncarpa (Hertel 1995, Leuckert & Hertel 2003)
scabra Taylor = Lecidella scabra
scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach. = Hypocenomyce scalaris
schizopeltica Hertel & Leuckert  (Hertel & Printzen 2004, Hertel & Leuckert 2011) = L. truckeei (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007)
scholanderi Lynge =
Kiliasia tristis
scotopholis (Tuck.) Herre = Miriquidica scotopholis
scrobiculata Th. Fr. = Lecanora scrobiculata (Elix & Øvstedal 2004)
scrupulosa (Eckfeldt) H. Magn. = Fuscidea scrupulosa
shushanii J. W. Thomson = Lecidea aglaeida (Haugan & Timdal 1994) = Calvitimela aglaea (Hertel & Andreev 2003)
sordidescens Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Micarea prasina

soredifera J. Lowe = Porpidia macrocarpa  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
sorediza Nyl. = Porpidia tuberculosa
soredizodes (Lamy ex Nyl.) Vainio = Porpidia soredizodes
spadicea Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Bacidia
suffusa (Ekman 1996)

speirea (Ach.) Ach. = Porpidia speirea
sphacelata Th. Fr. = Lambiella sphacelata
sphaerella Hedl. = Coppinsidea sphaerella (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
squalida Ach. (Tuckerman 1888) = Tonina squalida
squalida var. caulescens (Anzi) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Tonina squalida
stenotera (Nyl.) Nyl. = L. alpestris
steriza (Ach.) Vainio = Porpidia macrocarpa
stigmatea Ach. = Lecidella stigmatea
suballinita Nyl. = Micarea ternaria (Nyl.)
Vězda (Printzen 1995)
subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge = Lecidella spp.
subauriculata Lynge non B. de Lesd. = Adelolecia pilati
subcinnabarina Tønsberg = Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina 
subcontinuior B. de Lesd. = Carbonea latypizodes
subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl. = Biatora subduplex
suberratica J. Lowe = Micarea erratica
sublimosa Nyl. = Megalaria jemtlandica
subplebeia Nyl. = Carbonea latypizodes
subplebeja Vainio  This name (a corticolous Brazilian taxon) was first added to the North American checklist in the 1960 Hale & Culberson version, apparently erroneously replacing L. subplebeia Nyl. (a saxicolous California taxon) which had been in the 1956 version.
subplumbea Anzi = Miriquidica subplumbea
subramosa J. Lowe = Toninia squalescens  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
subsimplex H. Magn. = Porpidia subsimplex
subsorediza Lynge = Bellemerea subsorediza
subspadicea Nyl. (Nylander 1891) = Bacidia polychroa (Ekman 1996)s
subtilis Degel. = Lecidea varians (Lendemer & Harris 2014c)
sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb. = Lecanora sulphurea
sylvana (Körber) Th.
Fr. = Myrionora globulosa
sylvicola Flotow = Brianaria sylvicola
symmicta (Ach.) Ach. = Lecanora symmicta
symmictella Nyl. (Spribille & Björk 2008) = Puttea caesia (Dillman et al. 2012)
templetonii Taylor = Bryobilimbia hypnorum
tenebrosa Flotow = Schaereria fuscocinerea
tennessensis Nyl. = Lecanora oreinoides
tesselina Tuck. = Lecanora oreinoides
testacea (Hoffm.) Ach. = Psora testacea, but not included in the North American flora.
texana W. A. Weber = Xanthopsorella texana
tornoënsis Nyl. = Japewia tornoënsis
tricolor (With.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Cliostomum griffithii
trochodes (Taylor ex Leighton) Crombie = Rimularia limborina
tuckeii Herre (Fink 1935)  Apparent typographic error for L. truckeei
tumida A. Massal. = Porpidia tuberculosa
uliginosa (Schrader) Ach. = Placynthiella uliginosa
ultima Th. Fr. = Cephalophysis leucospila
umbonella Nyl. = Cecidonia umbonella
vacciniicola Tønsberg =
Myrionora vacciniicola (Kondratyuk et al. 2019)
variegata Fr. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea lactea
vernalis (L.) Ach. = Biatora vernalis
vernalis (L.) Ach. var. turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Lecidea turgidula
vernicoma Tuck. = Buellia vernicoma
violascens H. Magn. = L. laboriosa  (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005a)
virginiensis Calk. & Nyl. = Bryobilimbia ahlesii (Lendemer et al. 2019a)
viridans (Flotow) Lamy = Lecidella viridans
viridescens (Schrader) Ach. = Trapeliopsis viridescens
*vitellinaria Nyl. = Carbonea vitellinaria
vorticosa (Flörke) Körber = Carbonea vorticosa
vulgata Zahlbr. = Lecidella stigmatea
wallrothii Flörke ex Sprengel = Trapeliopsis wallrothii, but misidentifications for North America
washingtonensis H. Magn. = L. cascadensis
wulfenii (Hepp) Arnold = Lecidella wulfenii
xanthococca Sommerf. = Pycnora xanthococca
ypocrita A. Massal. = Farnoldia hypocrita
zahlbruckneri Fink = Lecidella latypiza (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)

anomaloides (A. Massal.) Hertel & H. Kilias Syn.: Lecidea goniophila auct.
asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea catalinaria
bullata Körber
carpathica Körber Syns.: Lecidea latypiza, L. carpathica, L. latypea auct., L. evansi, L. albonigra
chiricahuana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
#dimelaenophila Hertel
effugiens (Nilson) Knoph & Hertel Syn.: Lecidea albidocinerella
elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy  Syns.: Lecidea elaeochroma, L. olivacea, L. limitata auct.
enteroleucella (Nyl.) Hertel Syn.: Lecidea deminutula
euphorea (Flörke) Hertel  Syns.: Lecidea euphorea, L. glomerulosa
flavosorediata (Vězda) Hertel & Leuckert
granulata (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris Syn.: Lecidea granulata
granulosula (Nyl.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
latypiza (Nyl.) M. Choisy
laureri (Hepp) Körber (Goward et al. 1996) Syns.: Biatora laureri, Lecidea laureri
meiococca (Nyl.)
Leuckert & Hertel
nashiana Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
patavina (A. Massal.)
Knoph & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea acrocyanea, L. alaiensis, L. endolithea
pulveracea (Flörke ex Th. Fr.) P. Sydow  (Laundon 2005)
scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Lecidea scabra, L. prasinula
stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert Syns.: Bacidia arthoniza, Lecidea micacea, L. stigmatea, L. vulgata, L. lacus-crateris
[Lecidea subauriculata B. de Lesd. non Lynge]
subviridis Tønsberg  (Coppins & Fryday 2006b)
tumidula (A. Massal.) Knoph & Leuckert  (Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
viridans (Flotow) Körber Syn.: Lecidea viridans
wulfenii (Hepp) Körber Syns.: Lecidea heppii, L. wulfenii
alaiensis (Vainio) Hertel = L. patavina
chodatii (Samp.) Knoph & Leuckert = L. granulosula
elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel = L. asema
enteroleuca auct. = various Lecidella spp.
glomerulosa (DC.) M. Choisy = L. euphorea
goniophila auct. = L. anomaloides
inamoena (Müll. Arg.) Hertel = L. patavina
incongruella (Vainio) Hertel & Leuckert = L. effugiens placidensis (H. Magn.) R. C. Harris = Lecanora placidensis (Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
prasinula (Wedd.) Hertel = L. scabra
pycnocarpa Körber = Miriquidica pycnocarpa
spitsbergensis (Lynge) Hertel & Leuckert = L. patavina
subincongrua (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.)
Hertel & Leuckert = L. asema

LECIDOMA Gotth. Schneider & Hertel
demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel Syns.: Biatora atrorufa, Lecidea demissa, Lepidoma demissum, Psora demissa

*glaucomaria (Nyl.) H. Olivier = Phacographa glaucomaria
*glaucomarioidea (Willey) Fink (Fink 1935) =
Sclerococcum glaucomarioides
*inspersa (Tul.) Rehm = possibly
Sclerococcum parasiticum
*lamyi (O. J. Rich. ex Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc. = Opegrapha lamyi
*parasitica A. Massal. = Opegrapha rupestris
*pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Fink =
Sclerococcum pertusariicola
*urceolata (Fr.) Körber =
Sclerococcum urceolatum

finmarkicum Th. Fr.
furfurascens (Nyl.) Gyelnik
saximontanum (T. Sprib., P. M. Jørg. & M. Schultz) P. M. Jørg., Wedin & S. Ekman  Syn.: Santessoniella saximontana (Ekman et al. 2014)

LEIGHTONIOMYCES D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton
#phillipsii (Berk. & Leighton) D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton (McCune & Stone 2009)

LEIMONIS R. C. Harris (Harris 2009)
erratica (Körber) R. C. Harris & Lendemer  Syns.: Lecidea chalybeiformis, L. erratica, L. suberratica, Micarea erratica

cherokeense P. M. Jørg.  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2005)
sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.

erodens F. Seavey & J. Seavey (Seavey et al. 2017)
exaltatum (Mont. & Bosch) Staiger Syn.: Graphis diversa, Phaeographis exaltata (Staiger 2002)
explicans (Fink) Lendemer  Syn.:  Phaeographina explicans (Lendemer & Knudsen 2008b)
patellulum (F
ée) Staiger  Syn.:  Phaeographis patellula (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
sericeum (Eschw.) Staiger  Syn.: Phaeographis sericea (Staiger 2002)

LEMMOPSIS (Vainio) Zahlbr.
arnoldiana (Hepp) Zahlbr.
(Schultz 2002d)

chalazanum (Ach.) B. de Lesd. 
Syns.: Collema chalazanum, Collemopsis segregata, Psorotichia segregata (Schultz 2007b)
cladodes (Tuck.)
Zahlbr. Syn.: Collema cladodes
intricatum (Arnold) Zahlbr.
isidiodes (Nyl. ex Arnold) H. Magn.
minutulum (Bornet) Zahlbr. (Spribille et al. 2020)
oblique-peltatum (Eschw.) C. W. Dodge
polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme  Syn.: Collema myriococcum
radiatum (Sommerf.) Henssen
syreniarum C. J. Lewis & M. Schultz (Lewis & Schultz 2020)
umbella (Tuck.) Zahlbr.  Syn.: Omphalaria umbella
vesiculiferum Henssen
albonigrum H. Magn. = L. cladodes
fennicum (Räsänen) Degel. (Goward 1999) = L. intricatum
myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr. = L. polyanthes

marianum (Fr.) P. M. Jørg.  Syns.: Pannaria mariana, Parmeliella mariana  (Ekman et al. 2014)  Uncertain for North America (Jørgensen 2000c)
stylophorum (Vainio) P. M. Jørg.  Syns.: Pannaria stylophora, Parmeliella stylophorum (Ekman et al. 2014)

LEPIDOMA (Ach.) Gray
demissum (Rutstr.) M. Choisy = Lecidoma demissum

LEPRA Scop. (Hafellner & Türk 2016, Lendemer & Harris 2017)
albescens (Hudson) Hafellner  Syns.: Pertusaria albescens, P. globulifera, P. scutellaris
amara (Ach.) Hafellner  Syns.: Pertusaria amara, Variolaria amara
andersoniae (Lendemer) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria andersonii
commutata (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Pertusaria commutata, P. copiosa
dactylina (Ach.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria dactylina
excludens (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria excludens
floridana (Dibben) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria floridana
hypothamnolica (Dibben) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria hypothamnolica
multipunctoides (Dibben) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Pertusaria multipunctoides, Variolaria multipunctoides
ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Hafellner  Syns.: Pertusaria lecanina subsp. nigra, P. ophthalmiza, Variolaria ophthalmiza
panyrga (Ach.) Hafellner  Syn.: Pertusaria panyrga
pustulata (Brodo & W. Culb.) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Haematomma pustulatum, Loxospora pustulata, Variolaria pustulata
subdactylina (Nyl.) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria subdactylina
subvelata (G. K. Merr.) T. Sprib.  Syn.: Pertusaria subvelata (Spribille et al. 2020)
trachythallina (Erichsen) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Pertusaria trachythallina, Variolaria trachythallina
ventosa (Malme) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syn.: Pertusaria ventosa
waghornei (Hulting) Lendemer & R. C. Harris  Syns.: Pertusaria waghornei, Variolaria waghornei

albicans (Th. Fr.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon albicans, Stereocaulon albicans  (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
arbuscula (Nyl.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon arbuscula, Stereocaulon arbuscula (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
aurescens Orange & Wolseley (Lendemer 2010a)
barbatica Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
brodoi Lendemer & Tønsberg (Lendemer & Tønsberg 2014)
R. C. Harris  (Lendemer 2005a)
cryophila Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa  Syn.: Leproloma diffusum (Kukwa 2002)
disjuncta Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
J. R. Laundon
elobataTønsberg (Tønsberg 1997)
finkii (B. de Lesd.) R. C. Harris (Lendemer 2013b)  Syns: Crocynia aliciae, C. americana
friabilis Lendemer, K. Knudsen & Elix (Lendemer et al. 2008b)
gracilescens (Nyl.) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Leprocaulon gracilescens (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
harrisiana Lendemer (Lendemer 2012a)
hodkinsoniana Lendemer (Lendemer 2011b)
humida Slav.-Bayr. & Orange (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
jackii Tønsberg (Kümmerling et al. 1995)
lanata Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007)
lecanorica Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
leprolomopsis Diederich & Sérus. (Lendemer 2013b)
membranacea (Dickson) Vainio Syns.: Amphiloma lanuginosum, Leproloma membranaceum (Kukwa 2002), Pannaria lanuginosa
neglecta (Nyl.)
Erichsen  Syn.: Crocynia neglecta
nivalis J. R. Laundon
normandinoides Lendemer & R. C. Harris (Lendemer & Harris 2007)
oxybapha Lendemer (Lendemer 2012b)
pacifica Lendemer (Lendemer 2011b)
rigidula (B. de Lesd.) Tønsberg
squamatica Elix (Lendemer 2008)
subalbicans (I. M. Lamb) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syns.: Leprocaulon subalbicans, Stereocaulon subalbicans (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
torii P
érez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009a)
vouauxii (Hue) R. C. Harris Syn.: Leproloma vouauxii (Kukwa 2002)
xanthonica Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a)
xerophila Tønsberg  (Tønsberg 2004b)
adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen et al. 2007) = Leprocaulon adhaerens
aeruginosa auct. = misidentification for North America
aeruginosa (Weiss) Sm. = not a lichen-forming fungus
alpina (B. de Lesd.)
Tretiach & Baruffo (Knudsen & Elix 2007a) = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
arctica (Lynge) Wetmore = L. vouauxii
borealis Loht. & Tønsberg = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013b)
cacuminum sensu J. R. Laundon = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
cacuminum sensu Loht. = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
(B. de Lesd.) J. R. Laundon = L. neglecta (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)

candelaris (L.) Fr. = Chrysothrix candelaris
chlorina (Ach.) Ach. = Chrysothrix chlorina
citrina (Schaerer) Rabenh.
= Chrysothrix candelaris
crassissima (Hue) Lettau = misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
crassissima var. isidiata Llimona = misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
(J. R. Laundon) Kukwa var. chrysodetoides (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa = L. diffusa (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
flava (Schreber) Sm. = Chrysothrix candelaris
frigida J. R. Laundon = L. eburnea (Tønsberg 2004b)
gelida Tønsberg & Zhurb. (Kukwa & Zhurbenko 2010) = Lepraria neglecta (Lendemer 2013b)
incana (L.) Ach. = misidentification for North America (Lendemer 2011b)
lesdainii (Hue) R. C. Harris = Botryolepraria lesdainii

auct. N.A. non Nyl. = L. finkii  (Lendemer 2013b)
moroziana Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a) = Andreiomyces morozianus

salazinica Tønsberg (Tønsberg 2007) = L. elobata (Lendemer 2013a, 2013b)
santamonicae K. Knudsen & Elix (Knudsen & Elix 2007b) = Leprocaulon santamonicae
terricola Lendemer (Lendemer 2010a) = Leprocaulon terricola
texta K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer (Knudsen & Elix 2007a) = Leprocaulon textum
zonata Brodo = L. neglecta

adhaerens (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria adhaerens (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
americanum Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
beechingii Lendemer (Lendemer 2020b)
knudsenii Lendemer & Hodkinson (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
nicholsiae Lendemer & E. Tripp (Tripp & Lendemer 2019)
santamonicae (K. Knudsen & Elix) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepararia santamonicae (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
terricola (Lendemer) Lendemr & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria terricola (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
textum (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & Hodkinson  Syn.: Lepraria texta (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl. = Lepraria albicans
arbuscula (Nyl.) Nyl. = Lepraria arbuscula
gracilescens (Nyl.) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria gracilescens
microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. = L. quisquiliare, but North American records are L. americanum (Lendemer & Hodkinson 2013)
pseudoarbuscula (Asahina) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward =
Lepraria subalbicans for North American records
quisquiliare (Leers) M. Choisy = misidentification for North America

(I. M. Lamb) I. M. Lamb & A. Ward = Lepraria subalbicans

americanum Vainio   Apparently absent from N.A. north of Mexico (Schultz 2007a)

LEPROLOMA Nyl. ex Crombie = LEPRARIA  (Kukwa 2002)
angardianum (Øvstedal) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria neglecta
cacuminum (A. Massal.) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria neglecta
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. diffusum = Lepraria diffusa
diffusum J. R. Laundon var. chrysodetoides J. R. Laundon (Goward et al. 1996) = Lepraria diffusa
membranaceum (Dickson) Vainio = Lepraria membranacea
"membranaceum var. chrysodetoides" Removed as a typographical error here
vouauxii (Hue) J. R. Laundon = Lepraria vouauxii

LEPROPLACA (Nyl.) Hue (Arup et al. 2013)
cirrochroa (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syns.: Caloplaca cirrochroa, Placodium cirrochroum
chrysodeta (Vainio) J. R. Laundon ex Ahti  Syn.: Caloplaca chrysodeta
obliterans (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting  Syn.: Caloplaca obliterans

albociliatum (Desm.) M. Choisy Syns.: Polychidium albociliatum, Leptogium albociliatum, L. pilosellum
crenatulum (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen 2006)

LEPTOGIDIUM Nyl. (Muggia et al. 2011)
contortum (Henssen) T. Sprib. & Muggia (Muggia et al. 2011)
dendriscum (Nyl.) Nyl.  Syns.: Leptogium dendriscum, Polychidium dendriscum
intricatulum Nyl. = Dendriscocaulon intricatulum

acadiense J. W. Hinds, F. L. Anderson & Lendemer (Stone et al. 2016)
adpressum Nyl.
arcticum P. M. Jørg.
arsenei Sierk
austroamericanum (Malme) C. W. Dodge
azureum (Sw. ex Ach.)
brebissonii Mont.
burgessii (L.) Mont.
byssinum (Hoffm.) Zwackh ex Nyl. Syn.: Pannaria byssina
chloromelum (Ach.) Nyl.
compactum D. F. Stone, F. L. Anderson & J. W. Hinds (Stone et al. 2016)
cookii D. F. Stone & Lendemer (Stone et al. 2016)
coralloideum (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)  Syn.: Parmelia coralloideum
corticola (Taylor) Tuck.
crenatulum (Nyl.) Vainio
cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körber
digitatum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.
floridanum Sierk
fusisporum (Tuck.) C. W. Dodge
hibernicum M. E. Mitch. ex P. M. Jørg.  (Nealy & Anderson 2010)
hirsutum Sierk
hypotrachynum Müll. Arg.
isidiosellum (Riddle) Sierk
joergensenii Marcelli & Kitaura (Kitaura et al. 2015)
juressianum Tav.
(Lendemer et al. 2008c)
laceroides B. de Lesd.
marginellum (Sw.) Gray
microstictum Vainio
milligranum Sierk
nanum Herre (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge  (Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.
pseudofurfuraceum P. M. Jørg. & Wallace (Jørgensen 1997)
resupinans Nyl. (
Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
rivulare (Ach.) Mont.
rugosum Sierk
saturninum (Dickson) Nyl.
sessile Vainio
stipitatum Vainio
albociliatum Desm. = Leptochidium albociliatum
americanum Degel. = L. laceroides
amphineum Ach. ex Nyl. = L. byssinum
apalachense (Tuck.) Nyl. = Scytinium apalachense (Otálora et al. 2014)
aquale (Arnold) P. M. Jørg. (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium aquale (Otálora et al. 2014)
aragonii Otálora (Otálora et al. 2008) = Scytinium aragonii (Otálora et al. 2014)
arizonicum Zahlbr. = Scytinium juniperinum
biatorinum (Nyl.) Leighton (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = L. nanum, for North American report (McCune & Rosentreter 2007)
bolacinum (Ach.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1888) = Ricasolia amplissima growth form
bullatum (Sw. in Ach.) Nyl.
(Fink 1935)  Probable misidentification for North America (Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
bullatum (Sw.) Mont. var. phyllocarpum (Pers.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888) = Leptogium phyllocarpum
burnetiae C. W. Dodge  Misidentifications for North America (Stone et al. 2016)
burnetiae C. W. Dodge var. hirsutum (Sierk) P. M. Jørg. = L. hirsutum
caesiellum Tuck. = L. byssinum
caesium (Ach.) Vainio = L. cyanescens
californicum Tuck. = Scytinium californicum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
cellulosum P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium cellulosum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
chloromelum (Sw.) Nyl. var. conchatum Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain

chloromelum var. stellans Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) Identity uncertain
contortum Sierk = Scytinium contortum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks = Scytinium palmatum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
crenatellum (Nyl.) Tuck. = L. rivulare
dactylinum Tuck. = Scytinium dactylinum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
dendriscum Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Leptogidium dendriscum
denticulatum Nyl. = misidentification for North America (Kitaura et al. 2015)
denticulatum sensu Sierk (1964) = L. joergensenii (Kitaura et al. 2015)
erectum Sierk = Scytinium erectum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
fragile (Tayl.) Nyl (Fink 1935) = Scytinium fragile Taylor, but a likely misidentification for North America (Degelius 1954)
furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk = L. pseudofurfuraceum (for North American reports; Jørgensen 1997)
gelatinosum (With.) J. R. Laundon = Scytinium gelatinosum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
hildenbrandii (Garov.) Nyl. = a European species, a misidentification for North America (Sierk 1964)
imbricatum P. M. Jørg. = Scytinium imbricatum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
inflexum Nyl. = L. burgessii (fide Jørgensen)
insigne P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg  (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 2010) = Gabura insignis
intermedium (Arnold) Arnold = Scytinium intermedium
(Otálora et al. 2014)
intricatulum Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Scytinium teretiusculum (Sierk 1964)
juniperinum Tuck. = Scytinium juniperinum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
lacerum (Sw.) Gray = Scytinium lichenoides
lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr. = Scytinium lichenoides (Otálora et al. 2014)
lividofuscum (Florke ex Schlecht.) Flotow = Scytinium tenuissimum
microdium (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Scytinium plicatile (Sierk 1964)
minutissimum (Flörke) Fr.
= Scytinium subtile
minutissimum auct. = Scytinium intermedium
muscicola (Sw.) Fr. = Polychidium muscicola
myochroum (Ehrh.) Nyl. (Tuckerman 1882) = Leptogium saturninum
myochroum var. saturninum (Schaerer) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Leptogium saturninum

myochroum var. tomentosum (Hoffm.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1882) = Leptogium saturninum
palmatum (Hudson) Mont.  (Hoffman & Hafellner 2000; Santesson et al. 2004) = Scytinium palmatum (Otálora et al. 2014)
papillosum (B. de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge  North American reports refer to L. pseudofurfuraceum
parculum Nyl. = Scytinium parculum
(Otálora et al. 2014)
perminutum Hedr. = Scytinium subtile
pilosellum G. Merr. = Leptochidium albociliatum
platynum (Tuck.) Herre = Scytinium platynum (Otálora et al. 2014)
plectenchymum Fink = Scytinium juniperinum
plicatile (Ach.) Leighton = Scytinium plicatile (Otálora et al. 2014)
polycarpum P. M. Jørg. & Goward = Scytinium polycarpum (Otálora et al. 2014)
pulchellum (Ach.) Nyl. = Collema pulchellum
pulvillus Tuck. (Fink 1935)  Possible synonym of Scytinium lichenoides (Sierk 1964)
rhyparodes Nyl. (Fink 1935) = Scytinium callopismum
rivale Tuck. = Scytinium rivale (Otálora et al. 2014)
schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. = Scytinium schraderi (Otálora et al. 2014)
scotinum (Ach.) Fr. = Scytinium gelatinosum (Santesson et al. 2004)
sinuatum (Hudson) A. Massal. = Scytinium gelatinosum
siskiyouensis D. F. Stone & Ruchty (Stone & Ruchty 2008) = Scytinium siskiyouensis (Otálora et al. 2014)
subaridum P. M. Jørg. & Goward = Scytinium subaridum (Otálora et al. 2014)
subtile (Schrader) Torss. = Scytinium subtile (Otálora et al. 2014)
tacomae P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg (Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999) = Scytinium tacomae (McCune et al. 2014b)
tenuissimum (Dickson) Körber = Scytinium tenuissimum (Otálora et al. 2014)
teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold = Scytinium teretiusculum (Otálora et al. 2014)
tremelloides auct. = L. cyanescens
turgidum (Ach.) Crombie (McCune & Rosentreter 2007) = Scytinium turgidum (Otálora et al. 2014)

atomaria (Ach.) Szatala
#contorta Degel.
#epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
lucida Körber
+parameca (A. Massal.) Körber
quercus (Beltr.) Körber = identity uncertain

*arnoldii Rehm.  Syn. : Phaeospora peltigericola
(Alstrup & Ahti 2007)  

*peltigerae (Fuckel) Riedel

LEPTOTREMA Mont. & Bosch (Frisch 2006)
auberianum (Mont.) Fink = Stegobolus auberianus
glaucescens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Leucodecton glaucescens
heterosporum (C. Knight ex F. M. Bailey) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema santense
laeviusculum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Ocellularia laeviusculum
lepadodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Thelotrema monosporum
monosporum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Thelotrema monosporum
obturascens (Nyl.) Hale = Ocellularia bahiana
polycarpum Müll. Arg. = Leucodecton subcompunctum
ravenelii (Tuck.)
Fink = Sanguinotrema wightii
reclusum (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Leucodecton compunctellum
santense (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Reimnitzia santensis

wightii (Taylor) Müll. Arg. (Frisch 2006) = Sanguinotrema wightii (Lücking et al. 2015)

LETHARIA (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr.
columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson
gracilis Kroken ex McCune & Altermann (McCune & Altermann 2009)
lupina Altermann, Leavitt & Goward (Altermann et al. 2016)
vulpina (L.) Hue Syn.: Evernia vulpina
californica (Lév.) Hue = L. columbiana
vulpina (L.) Hue f. californica (Lév.) W. A. Weber = L. columbiana

LETHARIICOLA Grummann = SPHAEROPEZIA (Baloch et al. 2013b)
*cucularis (Norman) Lumbsch & D. Hawksw. = Sphaeropezia cuculuris
*sipei Grummann = Sphaeropezia sipei

LETROUITIA Hafellner & Bellem.
domingensis (Pers.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Bombyliospora domingensis, Lopadium domingense, Heterothecium domingense
parabola (Nyl.) R. Sant. & Hafellner
vulpina (Tuck.) Hafellner & Bellem. Syns.: Heterothecium vulpinum, Lopadium vulpinum, Bombyliospora vulpina

LETTAUIA D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.
*santessonii Ihlen & Tønsberg (Ihlen & Tønsberg 1996)
*cladoniicola D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) = Cryptodiscus cladoniicola

biatorella (Arnold) Vězda (Buck & Harris 2001) = Psoroglaena biatorella (Lücking 2008)
dictyospora (Orange) R. Sant.  (Alstrup 2004) = Psoroglaena dictyospora (Harada 2003)

LEUCODECTON Massal. (Frisch 2006)
compunctellum (Nyl.) Frisch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)  Syns.: Leptotrema reclusum, Myriotrema reclusum
compunctum (Ach.) A. Massal. (Seavey et al. 2017)
fissurinum (Hale) A. Frisch (Seavey et al. 2017)
glaucescens (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema glaucescens, Myriotrema glaucescens, Thelotrema glaucescens (Frisch 2006)
occultum (Eschw.) A. Frisch  Syn: Myriotrema compunctum (Frisch 2006)
phaeosporum (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2014)
subcompunctum (Nyl.) A. Frisch  Syns: Leptotrema polycarpum (Frisch 2006), Myriotrema subcompunctum
willeyi (Nyl.) R. C. Harris  Syn.: Phlyctis willeyi  (Lendemer & Harris 2014d)

*lichenicola Thorn, Malloch & Ginns (Thorn et al. 1998)

*malmedyensis Speg. & Roum. (Alstrup & Ahti 2007)

LICHENOBARYA Etayo, Diederich & Lawrey (Lawrey et al. 2015)
*usneae (Etayo) Etayo, Diederich & Lawrey (Lawrey et al. 2015)

*aipoliae Etayo, Nav.-Ros. & Coppins (Haldeman 2020)
*arctica Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*constrictella (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner (Etayo & Navarro-Rosinés 2008)
*galligena R. Sant. & Hafellner (Diederich 2003)
*haematommatum R. C. Harris & Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
*lepidiotae (Anzi) Etayo & Nav.-Ros. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*obscuroides (Lindsay) Triebel & Rambold (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*rinodinae Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2013)
*verrucicola (Wedd.) Nik. Hoffm. & Hafellner (Hoffmann & Hafellner 2000)
*weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant.
*xanthoriae Triebel & Rambold
*thallina (Cooke) Hafellner = L. obscuroides

*cargillianum (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. (Diederich 2003)
*christiansenii M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2004)
*edgewoodensis Alstrup & M. S. Cole (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*erodens M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.
*follmannii Kondratyuk & Galloway (Kondratyuk & Galloway 1995)
*laevisporum Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb et al. 1995)
*lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw.
*lichenicola (P. Karsten) Petrak & H. Sydow (Etayo et al. 2007)
*pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petrak & H. Sydow
*usneae (Anzi) D. Hawksw.
*xanthoriae M. S. Christ.

*anomala Etayo & Pérez-Vargas (Haldeman 2018)
*dendrographae Diederich & van den Boom (Diederich 2003)
*lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*lecanoricola (M. S. Cole & Hawksw.) Diederich Syn.: Laeviomyces lecanoricola (Diederich 2003)
*lichenicola Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*rinodinicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b)
*pertusariicola (Nyl.) Diederich 
Erroneously listed here (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOMPHALIA Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys (Redhead et al. 2002)
alpina (Britzelm.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina alpina, O. luteovitellina, Phytoconis luteovitellina, Botrydina luteovitellina (Redhead et al. 2002)
hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina hudsoniana, Botrydina viridis, Coriscium viride, Phytoconis viridis (Redhead et al. 2002)
oreades (Singer) Voitk, Thorn & I. Saar (Lücking et al. 2017b)
umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina umbellifera, O. ericetorum, Phytoconis ericetorum, Botrydina botryoides, B.vulgaris (Redhead et al. 2002)
velutina (Quél.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys Syns.: Omphalina velutina, Phytoconis velutina, Botrydina velutina (Redhead et al. 2002)

*arctomiae P
érez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*biatorae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib.
(Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*cladoniarum E. S. Hansen & Alstrup (Zhurbenko & Pino-Bodas 2017)
*heterodermiicola M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. (Cole & Hawksworth 2002)
*leprosulae Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega & Spribille 2009b)
*peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*santessonii (P. M. Kirk & Spooner) R. Sant. (Alstrup & Cole 1998)
*stereocaulorum Zhurb. (Zhurbenko 2010)
*thamnoliae R. Sant. 
Erroneously listed here; reported only from South America (Diederich 2003)

LICHENOPUCCINIA D. Hawksw. & Hafellner
*poeltii D. Hawksw. & Haffelner (Diederich 2003)

*alcicornaria (Lindsay) D. Hawksw.

*alpinum (R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phaeosporobolus alpinus (Ertz et al. 2014)
*amplum Calat. & Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*anatolicum Halici & Kocakaya (Lendemer et al. 2009b)
*bolacinae Nav.-Ros., Calat. & Hafellner (Kocourková & Knudsen 2008)
*chlaroterae (F. Berger & Brackel) Ertz & Diederich  (Ertz et al. 2014)
*cosmopolites Hafellner & Calat. (Hafellner & Calatayud 1999)
*elongatum Nav.-Ros. & Hafellner (Navarro-Rosines & Hafellner 1996)
*fellhanerae (R. C. Harris & Lendemer) Ertz & Diederich  Syn.: Phaeosporobolus fellhanerae (Ertz et al. 2014) 
*maureri Hafellner  (Esslinger & Egan 1995) Syns: Abrothallus usneae auct. non Rabenh., Phaeosporobolus usneae (Ertz et al. 2014)
*radicans Calat. & Barreno (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008)
*saxicola K. Knudsen & Kocourk. (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010d)
*semiimmersum Hafellner (Hafellner 1999)
*subradians Hafellner, Calat. & Nav.-Ros. (Calatayud et al. 2002)
*dimelaenae Calat. & Hafellner  (Calatayud et al. 2004) = Lichenothelia dimelaenae
*rugosum G. Thor = Lichenothelia rugosa (Diederich et al. 2018)

D. Hawksw.
#arida Muggia, Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Muggia et al. 2015)
#calcarea Henssen
#convexa Henssen
*dimelaenae (Catal. & Hafellner) Kocourk., K. Knudsen & Muggia  Syn.: Lichenostigma dimelaenae (Ametrano et al. 2019)
#intermixta Henssen
#metzleri (J. Lahm) D. Hawksw. Syn.: Microthelia metzleri
#muriformis Ametrano, K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & Muggia (Ametrano et al. 2019)
#papilliformis Ametrano, K. Knudsen Kocourk. & Muggia (Ametrano et al. 2019)
#renobalesiana D. Hawksw. & V. Atienza (Kocourková & Knudsen 2009d)
*rugosa (G. Thor) Ertz & Diederich  Syn. : Lichenostigma rugosum (Diederich et al. 2018)
#scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. Syns.: Microthelia aterrima, Rinodina aterrima
#tenuissima Henssen
#umbrophila Muggia, Kocourk. & K. Knudsen (Muggia et al. 2015)

riddlei Henssen = Pyrenothrix nigra

confinis (O. F. Müller) C. Agardh
willeyi (Tuck.) Henssen

americana Henssen
cribellifera (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea  Syns.: Gonohymenia cribellifera, Rechingeria cribellifera
flexa Henssen, Büdel & T. H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
granulosa M. Schultz (Schultz 2005)
intermedia Henssen (Schultz 2005)

iodopulchra (Croz.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
melamphylla (Tuck.) Essl. Syns.: Gonohymenia melamphylla, Pannaria melamphylla
minnesotensis (Fink) Essl. Syns.: Forsellia minnesotensis, Gonohymenia minnesotensis
myriospora (Zahlbr.) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
nigritella (Lettau) P. P. Moreno & Egea  Syns.: Gonohymenia nigritella, Thyrea nigritella

robustoides Henssen, Büdel & T.H. Nash (Schultz 2005)
sinaica (Marton & Galun) P. P. Moreno & Egea (Schultz 2005)
stipatula Nyl.

ahlneri Henssen (Spribille et al. 2010)
canadense Henssen
saxicola Henssen
#sirosiphoideum Nyl.

atroalba B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash  (Ryan 2004a)

tesserata (DC.) Nyl.

hyalosporum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syns.: Arthopyrenia hyalospora, Plagiocarpa hyalospora, Pleurotrema solivagum
illotum (Nyl.) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa illota, P. langloisii
macrosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa macrospora
microsporum R. C. Harris (Harris 1995a)
phaeosporum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa phaeosporum
septemseptatum (R. C. Harris) Aptroot Syn.: Plagiocarpa septemseptata

LLIMONAEA Egea & Torrente
californica (Tuck.) Sparrius (Sparrius 2004b) = Schizopelte crustosa (Ertz & Tehler 2011)
cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius (Sparrius 2004b) = Sparria cerebriformis (Ertz & Tehler 2011)

Hafellner & Nav.-Ros.
*acarosporicola (Kocourk. & K. Knudsen) Diederich & Ertz  Syn.: Gelatinopsis acarosporicola  (Diederich et al. 2010)
*catapyrenii Zhurb., Kukwa & Flakus (Zhurbenko 2013)
*cinnabarinae Pérez-Ortega, Etayo & T. Sprib. (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011)
*pertusariae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*phaeophysciae Diederich, Ertz & Etayo (Diederich et al. 2010)
*pyrenulae Diederich & Etayo (Diederich & Etayo 2000)
*neglecta (Vainio) Triebel & Rambold = Rhymbocarpus neglectus

LOBARIA (Schreber) Hoffm.
anomala (Brodo & Ahti) T. Sprib. & McCune  Syns.: Anomalobaria anomala, Pseudocyphellaria anomala (McCune et al. 2014b)
anthraspis (Ach.) T. Sprib. & McCune  Syns.: Anomalobaria anthraspis, Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis, Sticta anthraspis (McCune et al. 2014b)
hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Sticta hallii
kurokawae Yoshim.
linita (Ach.) Rabenh. Syns.: Sticta linita, Sticta pulmonaria var. linita
oregana (Tuck.)
Müll. Arg. Syn.: Sticta oregana
pseudopulmonaria Gyelnik
pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. Syns.: Sticta pulmonaria, Sticta pulmonaria var. hypomela
retigera (Bory) Trevisan
scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. Syns.: Sticta scrobiculata, S. verrucosa
silvae-veteris (Goward & Goffinet) Goward & Goffinet Syn.: Nephroma silvae-veteris (Goffinet & Goward 1998)
amplissima (Scop.) Forssell (Tønsberg & Goward 2001) = Ricasolia amplissima
erosa (Eschw.) Nyl. = Emmanuelia erosa (Simon et al. 2020)
isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vainio Not in North America.
laetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr. = Ricasolia virens (With.) H. H. Blom & Tønsberg, but not known from North America
lobulifera B. J. Moore = Emmanuelia lobulifera (Simon et al. 2020)
quercizans Michaux = Ricasolia quercizans
ravenelii (Tuck.) Yoshim. = Emmanuelia ravenelii (Simon et al. 2020)
submarginalis Michaux (Tuckerman 1888) = Parmotrema submarginale
tenuis Vainio  North American reports are Emmanuelia lobulifera (Simon et al. 2020)
verrucosa (Hudson) Hoffm. = L. scrobiculata

LOBOTHALLIA (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner
alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia alphoplaca, Lecanora alphoplaca, Lecanora thamnoplaca
melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia melanaspis, Lecanora melanaspis
praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia praeradiosa, Lecanora praeradiosa
radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner Syns.: Aspicilia radiosa, Lecanora radiosa, L. circinata

floridana Zahlbr. = Asterothyrium rotuliforme

augustini (Tuck.) Zahlbr. Syn.: Lopadium augustinii
coralloideum (Nyl.) Lynge
disciforme (Flotow) Kullhem
dodgei Herre
pezizoideum (Ach.) Körber Syn.: Heterothecium pezizoideum
alpinum (Körber) R. Sant. = Schadonia alpina
domingense (Pers.) Fink = Letrouitia domingensis
fecundum Th. Fr. = Schadonia fecunda
fuscum Müll. Arg. = Calopadia fusca
fuscoluteum (Dickson) Mudd = Brigantiaea fuscolutea
gemellum (Anzi) Stizenb. = Schadonia alpina
leucoxanthum (Sprengel) Zahlbr. = Brigantiaea leucoxantha
puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Calopadia puiggarii
phyllocharis (Mont.) Fink = Tapellaria epiphylla
vulpinum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia vulpina

LOPEZARIA Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) = MEGALARIA Hafellner (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
versicolor (Fée) Kalb & Hafellner (Kalb 1990) = Megalaria versicolor

assateaguensis Lendemer (Lendemer 2013c)
cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner Syn.: Haematomma cismonicum
confusa Lendemer (Lendemer 2013c)
elatina (Ach.) A. Massal. Syns.: Haematomma elatinum, Lecanora elatina
ochrophaea (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Haematomma ochrophaeum, Lecanora elatina var. ochrophaea
pustulata (Brodo & W. L. Culb.) R. C. Harris = Lepra pustulata

corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug

Return To Introduction or go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z References Cited

dictyospora Orange (Will-Wolf 1998) = Psoroglaena dictyospora (Harada 2003)

granifera (Ach.) Kalb & Lücking (Lendemer & Knudsen 2007) = Malmidea granifera

Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch  (Lücking et al. 2011b)
cineracea Breuss & Lücking (Seavey et al. 2017)
flavopustulosa (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb (Seavey & Seavey 2014a)
floridensis (Nyl.) M. Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking  Syn.: Lecidea floridensis (Cáceres et al. 2017)
furfurosa (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb & Lücking  Syns.: Biatora furfurosa, Lecidea furfurosa (Lücking et al. 2011b)
fuscella (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
granifera (Ach.) Kalb, Rivas Platas & Lumbsch  Syns.: Lecanora granifera, Malcolmiella granifera (Lücking et al. 2011b)
gyalectoides (Vainio) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
leptoloma (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking (Lücking et al. 2011b)
piperis (Sprengel) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
rhodopis (Tuck.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)
variabilis Kalb (Lücking et al. 2011b)
vinosa (Eschw.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch (Lücking et al. 2011b)

MARCHANDIOBASIDIUM Diederich & Schultheis (Diederich & Lawrey 2007) = ERYTHRICIUM
*aurantiacum (Lasch) Diederich & Schultheis = Erythricium aurantiacum (Hawksworth & Helcini 2015)

Diederich & D. Hawksw.
*corallinus (Roberge) Diederich & D. Hawksw. Syn.: Illosporium corallinum
#lignicola Lawrey & Diederich (DePriest et al. 2005)
*buckii Diederich & Lawrey (Diederich & Lawrey 2007) = Laetisaria buckii (Diederich et al. 2018)

MARONEA A. Massal.
constans (Nyl.) Hepp (Harris 2006b, Lendemer et al. 2013)
polyphaea H. Magn.
carolinae H. Magn. = M. polyphaea (Harris 2006b)
porinoidea Zahlbr. = Ramonia valenzueliana

inermis (Nyl.) Lumbsch, M. Nelsen & A. Thell  Syns.: Cetraria inermis, Tuckermannopsis inermis (Nelsen et al. 2013)
richardsonii (Hooker) Kärnefelt Syn.: Cetraria richardsonii

carnosa (Dickson) Körber Syn.: Pannaria carnosa
microphylliza (Nyl. ex Hasse) Henssen Syns.: Placynthium dubium, P. microphyllizum

staphyleae (Petr.) Aptroot = Pseudopyrenula staphyleae

MASTODIA Hooker f. & Harvey
tessellata (Hooker f. & Harvey) Hooker f. & Harvey  Syns.: Kohlmeyera complicatula, Turgidosculum complicatulum (Kohlmeyer et al. 2004)

MAZOSIA A. Massal.
carnea (Eckfeldt) Aptroot & M. Cáceres (Aptroot et al. 2014) Syns.: Enterographa carnea, Ocellularia carnea, Thelotrema carneum
viridescens (Fée) Aptroot & M. Cáceres (Seavey et al. 2017) Syns.: Platygrapha ocellata, Schismatomma ocellatum
ocellata (Nyl.) R. C. Harris = M. viridescens (Tehler 1993, Aptroot et al. 2014)

MEDUSULINA Müll. Arg. = FISSURINA (Miranda-González et al. 2020)
nitida (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. = Fissurina nitida (Miranda-González et al. 2020)
texana Müll. Arg. = Jocatoa agminalis (Miranda-González et al. 2020)

albocincta (Degel.) Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)  Syns.: Catillaria albocincta, Catillochroma albocinctum (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
allenae Lendemer & McMullin (McMullin & Lendemer 2016)
alligatorensis Lendemer (Lendemer et al. 2016c)
Lendemer (Lendemer 2007b)
brodoana S. Ekman & Tønsberg (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
columbiana (G. Merr.) S. Ekman (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996) Catillaria columbiana
grossa (Pers. ex Nyl.)
Hafellner Syns.: Catillaria grossa, Catinaria grossa, C. leucoplaca auct., Heterothecium grossum
jemtlandica (Th. Fr. & Almq.) Fryday  Syns.: Catillaria jemtlandica, Lecidea sublimosa (Fryday 2004a)
laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Hafellner (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)  Syns.: Catillaria laureri, Catinaria laureri
leptocheila (Tuck.) Fryday & Lendemer  Syns.: Catillaria leptocheila, Catillochroma leptocheilum, Heterothecium leptocheilum (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
pannosa (Zahlbr.) Fryday & Lendemer (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)
(Borrer) Hafellner & E. Schreiner  Syn.: Catillaria pulverea
versicolor (Flotow) Fryday & Lendemer  Syns.: Catillochroma versicolor, Heterothecium versicolor (Fryday & Lendemer 2010)

pachycheila (Tuck.) Sipman Syns.: Bombyliospora pachycheila, Heterothecium pachycheilum
porphyritis (Tuck.) R. C. Harris Syns.: Bombyliospora porphyritis, Heterothecium porphyrites
tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman Syns.: Bombyliospora tuberculosa, Heterothecium tuberculosum
sanguinaria (L.) A. Massal. = Mycoblastus sanguinaria
versicolor (Fée) Zahlbr. = Megalaria versicolor

MEGASPORA (Clauz. & Cl. Roux) Hafellner & V. Wirth
verrucosa (Ach.) Arcadia & A. Nordin (Arcadia & Nordin 2012)  Syns.: Pachyospora verrucosa, P. mutabilis, Lecanora verrucosa, L. verrucosa f. mutabilis, L. mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl.non Sommerf., L. urceolaria, Pertusaria freyi

macounii I. M. Lamb = Pertusaria macounii

agnata (Nyl.) A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria agnata
culbersonii (Hale) A. Thell Syn.: Cetraria culbersonii
hepatizon (Ach.) A. Thell Syns.: Cetraria hepatizon, C. polyschiza
stygia (L.) Essl. Syn.: Parmelia stygia
albertana (Ahti) Essl.  = Melanelixia albertana
commixta (Nyl.) A. Thell = Cetrariella commixta
(Erichsen) Essl. = Montanelia disjuncta 
elegantula (Zahlbr.) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula
exasperata (De Not.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperata

exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea exasperatula
fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. =  Melanelixia fuliginosa, but apparently absent from North America

glabra (Schaerer) Essl.  North American reports are Melanelixia californica

glabratula (Lamy) Essl. = Melanelixia glabratula

glabroides (Essl.) Essl. = Melanelixia glabroides

granulosa (Lynge) Essl. = Montanelia disjuncta

halei (Ahti) Essl. = Melanohalea halei
incolorata (Parrique) Essl. = Melanohalea elegantula

infumata (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanohalea infumata

multispora (A. Schneider) Essl. = Melanohalea multispora

olivacea (L.) Essl. = Melanohalea olivacea

olivaceoides (Krog) Essl. = Melanohalea olivaceoides
panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. = Montanelia panniformis

septentrionalis (Lynge) Essl. =  Melanohalea septentrionalis

sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti = Montanelia sorediata

sorediosa (Almb.) Essl. = Montanelia sorediata

subargentifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subargentifera

subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl. = Melanelixia subaurifera

subelegantula (Essl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subelegantula

subolivacea (Nyl.) Essl. =  Melanohalea subolivacea
substygia (Räsänen) Essl. = Montanelia tominii, but North American reports are M. saximontana or M. secwepemc
tominii (Oxner) Essl. = Montanelia tominii, but North American reports are M. saximontana or M. secwepemc

trabeculata (Ahti) Essl. = Melanohalea trabeculata

villosella (Essl.) Essl. (Esslinger 2002c) = Melanelixia villosella

MELANELIXIA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch (Blanco et al. 2004a)
ahtii S. Leavitt, Essl., Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch (Leavitt et al. 2016)

albertana (Ahti) O. Blanco et al.  Syns.:  Melanelia albertana, Parmelia albertana
californica A. Crespo & Divakar  (Divakar et al. 2010)
glabratula (Lamy) Sandler & Arup