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Over the years, specimens from collections used in this study have been submitted to a numbers specialists for verification. The early South Dakota material was sent by P. C. Truman to J. B. Smith for identification. More recent determinations from the North Dakota State Insect Reference Collection are as follows: micro-Lepidoptera are mostly by R. W. Hodges and D. Davis; Crambini by A. B. Klots, other Pyraloidea by W. T. M. Forbes, D. Davis, and R. W. Hodges; Tortricidae by D. Davis, W. D. Duckworth, W. E. Miller, and J. A. Powell; Geometridae by F. H. Rindge; Noctuoidea by A. E. Brower, J. D. Lafontaine, R. W. Poole, and E. L. Todd.  I have approximately doubled the number of records of North Dakota moths from previously undetermined material in the North Dakota State Insect Reference Collection (NDSIRC) and the Sevrin-McDaniel Insect Research Museum (SMIM), North/South Dakota State Universities, respectively, and also records from my personal collection-- being incorporated into the NDSIRC.. Any errors here-in ‘alight’ at my doorstep and I would appreciate any suggestions and criticisms.


In addition to the list of specialists who have determined specimens, the following people also, in varying capacities, were instrumental in the compilation of this web site. At South Dakota State University: Paul Johnson facilitated visits and specimen loans, his predecessor Buruss McDaniel provided the opportunity to begin this project. Jolene Christensen transcribed specimen data. At North Dakota State University: David Rider provided access to the research collection and granted time away from other duties to work on this project; his predecessor, E. U. Balsbaugh Jr. also encouraged work on this project. Philip Glogoza provided information and allocated time for his clerical help, to work on the project, see below.  In cases where photographic quality specimens were unavailable from university collections, specimens have been lent by other institutions.  I greatly appreciate the assistance of  Robert Barney, Associate Research Director, Kentucky State University and Michael Sharkey, Systematic Entomologist, University of Kentucky for the loan of specimens. I thank Jim Vargo for the use of a few important images of elusive moths.  The Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility has published on the web, for public non commercial use, images of most of the Macrolepidoptera of Canada.  Where specimens have been unavailable, and the turn around time for loans would have slowed production of this website, I have included these images with complete attribution.  Such images have been re-formatted to match the image style on the ndmoths website.  Forestry Images, Bugworld.org has been a source of  images of larvae.  Many of these images have been cropped to reduce file size as there is no reason to present a square image of a 'longitudinal' subject.  All information with each image has been preserved and every use of these images is cited under each image with the photographer and source.  In a few cases, I have disagreed with specimen determinations for these images, and in any case, throughout this website, any errors in either presentation or identification, associated with any images are, of course, mine. 
Collecting specimens is the groundwork upon which any faunistic project rests.  I have been fortunate in being accompanied in field work by a number of enthusiastic entomologists: Donald Hyder, David Cuthrell, Paul Tinerella, Patrick Beauzay (former and present graduate students at NDSU), Dave Rider, and Jan Knodel accompanied me on a number of field trips in which many additional species and much additional distributional information was collected. I am grateful to all of these people for their contributions. 
A number of people have furnished photographs of larvae and I am grateful to Loren Oslie, Jan Knodel, Mary J. Hatfield, John Weber and Chris Grondahl for their generosity. Living specimens of moths or their larvae were made available for photography by David Rider, Mark Boetel, Marion Harris, Justin Knott, and Loren Oslie. 
Two people deserve very special acknowledgments, without their contributions this web site would have taken additional years to develop. JAN KNODEL provided funding for the orignal digital equipment and so reduced a growing project expense down to the basic expense in any endeavor– time. In addition, she provided valuable research materials which make this web site a far better resource and that will enhance the education of future students in entomology at North Dakota State University. DIANE PENNINGTON deserves special acknowledgment and sincerest thanks for the accomplishment of the initial web pages, for her suggestions in web site design, her continuing help with the occasional computer glitch, and for enduring the tedium of creating the first couple thousand hyperlinks.





Last updated: 04/14/09

Good web citizens cite their sources. 

This resource is to be cited as: Fauske, G. M.  [date of cited page]. cited page
 in Moths of North Dakota: an online identification guide. 
< http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/ndsu/ndmoths/ >

Dr. Gerald M. Fauske
collection manager, NDSIRC
research specialist, NDSU
216 Hultz Hall
Fargo, ND 58105
E-Mail: Gerald.Fauske@ndsu.edu

Published by the Department of Entomology 

Prospective students may schedule a visit by calling 1-800-488-NDSU.