|Diagnosis: Pectinate antennae with a long divergent
seta apically on each ramus; ocelli and proboscis absent; f/hw venation
quadrifid; meta-thorax with tympanum.
Diversity: Worldwide 360 genera and 2,500 species; North America
has 6 genera and 31 species; four species (three resident) have been
found in the Dakotas.
Checklist numbers: 8290- 8321.
Biology: Larvae are arboreal foliage feeders possessing both hair
pencils (tussocks) and dorsal eversible glands on abdominal segment six.
Some species populations are cyclic, building up tremendous numbers and
defoliating large tracts of woodland. Females of many species are
flightless; the wings may be fully developed or vestigial. In the latter
case, females oviposit on the outside of their cocoon. Many economically
important species: Brown-tail moth, Satin moth, Gypsy moth, Douglas-fir
Douglas C. 1978. Fascicle 22.2 Noctuoidea Lymantriidae in Dominick et
al. The moths of America north of Mexico. E. W. Classey Ltd. London.
T. M. Family 47. Lymantriidae, pp. 237- 246 in, Ibid. 1923.
Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part II. Geometridae,
Notodontidae, Sphingidae, Lymantriidae. Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 274:
Kitching, Ian J.
and John E. Rawlins. Chapter 19 The Noctuoidea, pp. 355- 401 in
Kristensen, Neils P. ed. 1999. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. Part
35, Vol. 1 in Handbook of Zoology. Maximilian Fischer ed. Walter de
Gryter, New York. 491 pp.
J. 1992. The Higher Ditrysia, Chapter 12, pp. 290- 341 in The
Lepidoptera: form, function, and diversity. Oxford Univ. press. 1982. 404