Moths of North Dakota


Family Tortricidae: Leaf rollers/ Bell moths

Diagnosis: Ocelli present; proboscis without scales; frons with dorsal scales directed downward and ventral scales directed upward; fw rectangular, with Rs4 running to outer margin, CuA2 originating from cubital stem at about 1/3 distance from base of cell; thorax and abdomen without tympanal organs.

Diversity: Worldwide the three subfamilies are divided into 21 tribes, 685 genera, and 6,113+ species; North America has at least 10 tribes, 100 genera and 2,170 species; At present, 118 species have been identified from the Dakotas.

Checklist numbers: 2701- 3863.

Biology: Various groups are leaf tiers, needle miners, stem borers, flower, bud or seed feeders. Many species are of economic importance, consequently, more than 70 species have been given common names, including: Codling moth, Spruce budworm, Ugly nest caterpillar, and Banded sunflower moth.


moth image

moth image

moth image

Further reading:

Adamski, D and Michael Peters. 1986. Review of Nearctic Apotomis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutini). Can. Entomol. 118: 649-689.

Dang, P. T. 1984. A new species of Cochylis Trietschke (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) from Saskatchewan. Can. Entomol. 116: 253-256.

Forbes, William T. M. Superfamily Tortricoidea, pp. 375- 520 in, Ibid. 1923. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part I. Primitive forms, Microlepidoptera, Pyraloids, Bombyces. Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 68: 729 pp.

Heppner, John B. 1994. Epismus moths of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Holarctic Lepid. 1: 83-107.

Heinrich, Carl. 1923. Revision of the North American moths of the subfamily Eucosminae of the family Olethreutidae. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 123: 298 pp.

_____. 1926. Revision of the North American moths of the subfamilies Laspeyresiinae and Olethreutinae. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 132: 216 pp.

Horak, Marianna. Chapter 12. The Tortricoidea, pp. 199- 215 in Kristensen, Neils P. ed. 1999. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. Part 35, Vol. 1 in Handbook of Zoology. Maximilian Fischer ed. Walter de Gryter, New York. 491 pp.

McKnight, M. E. 1973. Parasitoids reared from collections of Rhyacionia bushnelli from the Great Plains (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46(2): 139- 143.

Powell, Jerry A. and John A. De Benedictis. Evolutionary interpretation, taxonomy, and nomenclature pp 219-275 in Powell, Jerry A. ed. 1995. Biosystematic studies of the conifer feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the western United States. Univ. Calif. publ. Entomol. 115: 275 pp.

Powell, Jerry A. and William E. Miller. 1978. Nearctic pine tip moths of the genus Rhyacionia: Biosystematic review (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Olethreutinae) U.S. Forest Serv. Agric. Handbk no. 514. 51 pp.

Powell, Jerry A., J. J. Kruse, and John A. De Benedictis. 2000. Alterations to MONA checklist. <http//>.

Scoble, Malcom J. 1992. The Lower Ditrysia, Chapter 11, pp. 225- 289 in The Lepidoptera: form, function, and diversity. Oxford Univ. press. 1982. 404 pp.

Van Deusen, James L. and Mary E. Dix. 1980. A survey of Petrova metallica (Busk) in a South Dakota Ponderosa pine povenance test plantation (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 53(3): 642- 648.



Last updated: 03/27/02

Gerald M. Fauske
Research Specialist
202 Hultz Hall
Fargo, ND 58105

Published by the Department of Entomology 

Prospective students may schedule a visit by calling 1-800-488-NDSU.