|Diagnosis: Ocelli absent; proboscis without scales;
fw with accessory cell; Rs4 ending at
outer margin; fw coloration either gaudy or white with black dots.
Diversity: Six subfamilies and about 600 species worldwide, three
subfamilies and more than 80 species in North America, two subfamilies
and three species in North Dakota.
Checklist numbers: 2401- 2414, 2416- 2484.
Biology: Life histories are diverse, many species spin communal
webs on host plants. Pupae are in a loose mesh cocoon.
Dougdale, John S. et al.,
Chapter 8. The Yponomeutoidea, pp. 119- 130 in Kristensen, Neils
P. ed. 1999. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. Part 35, Vol. 1 in Handbook
of Zoology. Maximilian Fischer ed. Walter de Gryter, New York. 491 pp.
Hoebeke, E. Richard. 1987. Yponomeuta
cagnagellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae); a Palearctic ermine moth
in the United States, with notes on its recognition, seasonal history,
and habits. Ann. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 80: 462-467.
Menken, S. B. J., W. M.
Herrebout, and J. B. Wiebes. 1992. Small ermine moths (Yponomeuta);
their host relations and evolution. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 37: 41- 66.
Scoble, Malcom J. 1992.
Chapter 11. Lower Ditrysia, pp. 225- 254 in The Lepidoptera:
form, function, and diversity. Oxford Univ. press. 1982. 404 pp.