General ethical systems.
Great Ethical Philosophies
Virtue through careful reflection.
"The good" as a standard for behavior discovered above all other.
Means do not justify ends. Strive for the middle ground, the "golden mean."
Treat people with equal respect and dignity, "love your neighbor as yourself."
"Categorical imperative." People should not be treated as means to an end. Duty to principle no matter what the consequences may be.
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill:
"Utilitarianism," greatest good for greatest number. Minimize harm as much as possible. What's important is the result.
( Egoism: "greatest good for me." Is this an ethical philosophy?)
"Original position." All people must be treated equally, no matter what their age, sex, race, wealth, or role in society may be, the "veil of ignorance." Must have morally defensible reason to discriminate.
"Prima facie" ("On first appearance") duties. Claims that govern your ability to make a decision. These claims arise from: