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COMM 421, History of Journalism (online section)

Instructor: Ross F. Collins, North Dakota State University, Fargo.


Note: Submit assignments as an attachment to an email:

Section One
Introduction; the media today; war and propaganda
1. Introduction: history as archeology.
2. Where we are today.
3. Wars, protest and propaganda.

In this section you'll get an overview of the instructor's approach to journalism history, beginning with most recent events, and working backwards. You'll learn how governments have approached media control and propaganda during wartime, and how the press responded to it.

Reading Assignments
1. Section One lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Instructor's readings, Section One:
a. Reading One.
b. Reading Two.
3. Sloan, Chapters 17, 23, 24, and 25.

Ask a parent or relative what they remember happening around the time you were born, in these categories: national/international news; local news; sports; popular culture. To jog their memories, you might first do some of your own research to come up with major events of the time. Ask them to comment and expand on them. Then compare their answers to research of your own in a newspaper or newsmagazine, either in the library or on line. Were their recollections accurate? Submit a short report (400 words or so), 25 pts.


Reflective Essay
Based on the text and readings, consider the influence of war and propaganda on contemporary society. Include in your discussion the historical context, that is, propaganda as it has been practiced during other wars, as well as the definition of propaganda over time. (Equivalent of 3-4 pages, about 1,000 words), 50 pts.

Show and tell
(Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674).
Berkeley Barb (hippie newspaper).

Section Two
Television; the media and contemporary political history
1. Television and the presidency
2. Watergate.

Politics and the press have always had fates intertwined, sometimes for each other's benefit, sometimes not. Here we look at contemporary press and politics through the watershed of Watergate, and through the unblinking eye of the television camera.

Reading assignments
1. Section Two lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Watergate information online: This is apparently produced by an Australian, but seems reliable and includes interesting actual taped comments by Nixon, Ford, and others. This site tells the story from the Washington Post's viewpoint, and includes dynamic web effects, but also some annoying advertising.
3. Sloan, chapters 15, 19.

Gather information on the Watergate scandal from the internet, either using the sites above, or from your own search. Based on a trustworthy source, prepare a general narrative covering the events leading to Nixon's resignation in August 1974. Now go to your public or university library to find local newspapers from July and August 1974. Based on front-page stories, compare the articles you find with the events as described in the websites. Prepare the assignment as noted below.

Based on the material you've collected in the activity above, submit a report (3-4 pages, 1,000 words) on the issue, using the internet material as introductory material, and the local material to illustrate how the news was covered locally (25 pts). Is it accurate? How does it differ from later material you collected, and why?

Note: you must use primary sources from the library (microfilm, microfiche, or actual newspapers) to complete this assignment, unless your local paper is archived on line.

Reflective Essay
How did the influence of Joseph McCarthy and Edward R. Murrow in the 1950s encourage the growth and popularity of television? Consider the historical context of media usage during the time to reflect on why television became so important. (About 500 words, two pages), 50 pts.

Show and tell
(Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674).
Fargo-Moorhead Forum (Nixon resigns).

Section Three
Radio and jazz journalism; development of “celebrity.”
1. Development and power of radio.
2. Changing philosophies.
3. Growth of entertainment industries and mass media.
4. Introduction: how to write a research paper

The 1920s sometimes is called the jazz age, but really should have been called the age of radio. Explosive growth of the internet in the 1990s mimicked similar growth of radio in the third decade of that century. The beginning of a new medium, a miracle of voices pulled from thin air, contributed to the phenomenon of celebrity so familiar today, as did movies and music.

Reading assignments
1. Section Three lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Reading Three.
3. Sloan, chapters 16, 18, 20.
4. “A day in early radio:” Review programming and/or listen to samples of a radio programming from Sept. 21, 1939. Sponsored and maintained as a part of the American Studies website at the University of Virginia. Programs included on the site include "Sunday with Arthur Godfrey," a show featuring the comedian Joe E. Brown, and several prominent radio dramas of the day, such as "The Romance of Helen Trent" (which ran for 27 years) and "Life Can Be Beautiful." Two of the presentations are particularly notable, "Amos n' Andy" and "Major Bowe's Original Amateur Hour." "Amos n' Andy" was a extremely popular and controversial radio show (and in the 1950s, a popular television show) that featured two white men playing African-Americans and speaking in a Southern dialect. The Major Bowes show was headquartered in New York, and, while the program "discovered" only a few who went on to great fame, there was one young man who got his start there: Frank Sinatra. (Commentary excerpted from Journalism Education Discussion List.)

It’s the year 2100, and you’re a graduate student in a history course writing a biography about…yourself! Well, actually, let’s pretend you’re writing as if a student in the future were researching your life for an article. Establish a bibliography of at least a half dozen sources you might use to gather information on this famous student from a century ago. Separate the list into primary and secondary sources (see “How to write a research paper,”). Remember that “oral history” of your parents and others won’t be available a hundred years from now!

So you will have to use your imagination here. What sources might you imagine would be available 100 years from now? To consider what might be available, you need to consider what is available now to research, say, your great great grandparents. How do you start? As well, you have to consider format of material easily accessible today. If you say "A video about me that my parents made," well, first, will any technology be able to play that sort of thing a century from now? People made home movies in the 50s. Can we play those home movies today? Not easily. Also, consider the question of permanence. How long does a videotape last before disintegrating? We don't know--but right now we think it will not last 50 years, say nothing of 100.

This isn't a big project, but it does give you the opportunity to think about how people will learn about you, and what will be available. And, perhaps, what you want to leave, and how you want to leave it. 10 pts.

After completing Reading Three, consider topics you might wish to pursue using historical research. Formulate a research question you’d like to answer. Submit to instructor. 5 pts.

Note: your topic must have a local or regional context, and must include at least one primary source. For example, if you are interested in the history of television, you can include that in your paper using secondary sources, but you also need to look at an aspect of local or regional broadcast history. See below (Section Six Assignments) for specific information on how to write the research paper.

Reflective essay
Consider the historical development of jazz journalism, radio, movies, music, and other early twentieth-century media phenomena as influences of the popular cult of celebrity so familiar to Americans today. (About 1,000 words, three pages, 50 pts.)

Alternative: actually write a biography for yourself, based on the sources you listed above. Assume you have no other information beyond those sources. (About 1,000 words, 3-4 pages, 50 pts.)

Show and tell
(Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674).
Stars and Stripes.

Section Four
Advertising and Public Relations
1. Development of public relations.
2. Origins and growth of advertising.

Advertising didn’t really become important to the United States economy until after the Civil War, when the burgeoning of industrial society gave manufacturers mass-produced products searching for a market. Public relations as a profession arrived even later, with Ivy Lee, Edward Bernays, and 20th century development of a pro-active relationship between private firms and their publics.

Reading assignments
1. Section Four lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Sloan, chapters 14, 21, and 22.

Reflective essay
Consider the possibility of advertising for your university or town. Fashion an appeal based on principles common in 1) early American advertising of the early 1700s; 2) Patent medicine advertising of the late 1800s. Discuss the similarities and contrasts of the two appeals. Use illustrations if you want. (About two pages, 600 words, 50 pts.)

Section Five
An eruption of change: the Civil War, new journalism, yellow journalism, and technology.
1. Journalism and control in the U.S. Civil War.
1. New journalism, 1870-1900.
2. Yellow journalism and New York City.
3. Technological revolution.

Many concepts we take for granted in the mass media today developed during the U.S. Civil War, and around the turn of the nineteenth century—accredited war correspondents, inverted pyramid style journalism articles, separation of fact and opinion, color comics, non-political news and modern design. During this great age of newspapers the United States supported more than 1,000 dailies, more than the country saw before or since. Powerful press barons in New York attracted circulations of a million, attention of politicians at the highest levels, and advertising revenue by the hogshead.

Reading assignments
1. Section Five lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Sloan, chapters 9-13.

Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World: the first day’s stories (1883):

Account of million-dollar storm damage in New Jersey.
Interview with condemned murderer.
Pittsburgh hanging.
Riot in Haiti.
Sad story of “wronged servant girl.”
Story of reckless speculation on Wall Street.

Which of the story topics above do you think would attract readers to your local or regional daily newspaper today? Why or why not? If you planned to establish a successful newspaper or news website for your home town, which of these stories would you use? What kind of stories would you want to add? How do news values today compare to news values of more than a century ago? Submit a short (300 words, one page) essay based on your decisions as virtual editor (25 pts).

Show and tell
Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674:
New York World; New York Journal; New York Times; early engraving of Fargo.

Section Six
Photography and photojournalism.
1. Development of photojournalism, 1925-present.
2. Beginnings of photography, 1839-1900.

The power of realism, the holy grail of western artists for centuries, saw its triumph thanks to developments in physics and chemistry. But while photographs as early as 1839 could reproduce fine detail far beyond capabilities of the brush and the pen, readers of published material could only enjoy these images by way of a copy produced by an engraver’s hand. Only with the turn of the last century did technological achievements make direct photo publication possible, and by World War I photographers became central to the power of modern journalism as a force for shock as well as for change.

Reading assignments
1. Section Six lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Reading Four, and the PBS American Photography website readings: See activity below.
(No textbook reading.)

Go to the PBS American Photography website. Read the seven feature articles at the site (you may also look at the “Image Lab” if you have a fast internet connection and required software). Choose from the photos accompanying the feature article one that particularly seems to give you a “sense of place and time.” Analyze what gives the image the power to evoke a certain time period in history, and a certain place in the world (one page). Alternative: analyze one of the instructor’s photos. (Length of analysis: about one page, 300 words; 25 pts.)

Begin work on your historical research paper. Settle on a “working” research question (open to change, if necessary). Based on that topic, gather a bibliographical list of about 10 sources. Include secondary sources as well as a few primary sources. Draw up the bibliographical list using standard academic reference style, either American Psychological Association (APA) or University of Chicago (more common for historical research). Include books, articles, and websites in your secondary source search, general ones, if necessary. Note: They may be useful for your own background, but Wikipedia and on-line or published encyclopedias are not considered credible sources for academic research.

Size: Consider that this research paper will be worth 150 pts. It should be equivalent of about 10-12 double-spaced pages (10-12 pt type), carefully edited and footnoted. If you are in doubt as to what's required, submit a draft before submitting the work for final grading.

Remember that your paper must include at least one primary source. For students at North Dakota State University, here's some advice on how to find topics of local or regional interest.

Show and tell
Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674:
Life magazine; Brady's studio.

Section Seven
From polemical to penny press: beginnings of a new nation.
1. Development of the Penny Press and the “common man.”
2. Antebellum press.
3. Importance of political/polemical press in early United States evolution.

The revolution of journalism saw a shift from the high-priced opinion sheets of the elite to the cheap news and sensationalism designed to attract the common folk. Even in the 1830s a penny couldn’t buy very much—but it could get you a copy of Benjamin Day’s New York Sun. Day could create a niche for news based on evolution of technology that made it possible to print more, faster, and evolution of society that grew a more literate population of newly-franchised voters. Also reaching these voters were the violently polemical anti-slavery press that helped to foment the U.S. Civil War. Such opinioned journalism saw widespread influence in George Washington’s time. These early post-Revolution newspapers relied on expensive issues sold only by subscription to serve mostly as opinion-pieces for partisan causes.

Reading Assignments
1. Section Seven lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Sloan, chapters 5-8.

Continue work on your historical paper. If you wish present introductory pages and bibliography to instructor for critique and suggestions (not required).

Show and tell
Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674:
New York Sun; Gazette of the United States; Massachusetts Spy; Journal de Paris.

Section Eight
Origins of colonial journalism: respect to revolt.
1. Influence of journalism in the American Revolution.
2. Origin of the press in colonial America.

Considering the power of the mass media in today’s society, it’s perhaps surprising to find out that journalism arrived late to the colonies. The first newspaper appeared in 1690, for a day, and no other appeared before 1704. By 1775, however, and the beginning of the American Revolution, journalism played a significant role in disseminating ideas and in building morale.

Reading Assignments
1. Section Eight lecture notes/topic overviews.
2. Reading Five.
3. Sloan, chapters 1-4.

Finish work on historical research paper. Submit for grading. Paper is DUE on the Friday of Week 15, the last week before finals week.

Show and tell
Illustrations of important and famous journalism from 1974-1674:
Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette; Rivington's New York Gazetteer; Zenger's New York Weekly Journal; London Gazette.

Final exam: The comprehensive final (150 pts) will cover all textbook readings, instructor's readings and notes, and assignments. You may use any of these resources to complete the exam. It is DUE 5 p.m. Friday, the last day of finals week. When you are ready, request the final exam. The instructor will mail you the exam as Word email attachment. Complete the final, email it back to the instructor as an email attachment.