Children, War and Propaganda.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

Scope and Approach xv

1. Children Meet Propaganda 1

World War I and After: The Beginning of Modern Propaganda 2

World War II: Propaganda Made Disreputable 6

Post-war America: Power of Propaganda in Question 11

Notes 15

2. How War Can Make Better Children 17

Militarization of Childhood: Death and Its Denial 21

War and Manly Values 27

Hiding the Hideous 32

War as a Way of Childhood 34

Patriotism to Build the Ideal Child 39

Healthy, Fit, and Ready to Fight 43

The Virtue of Sacrifice 45

War Work and Military Drill: Viable Alternatives to School? 47

How Children Can Make Better War 53

Notes 58

3. Education and Public Policy 63

Child Labor and School Attendance during World War 63

War and Juvenile Delinquency 69

American Education Faces Total War 72

Reaching the Homes: The Child as a Government Agent 78

Teaching and the Taint of Disloyalty 83

The Libraries 89

Fitness for War 92

The Virtue of Military Drills 100

Notes 106

4. Mobilizing Kids for the Home Front 113

Bringing in the Sheaves: Children and Wartime Food Production 114

Everything under One Roof: The High School Victory Corps 130

Scrapping for Uncle Sam 137

Pitching War Bonds—and Spying for Uncle Sam 143

Notes 153

5. Youth Groups and Business 159

Boy Scouts: A Battle for Martial Values 160

Red Cross Work 174

Contributions from Country Kids 178

God and Children Face War 180

Commercialism in War: Jobs for Juveniles and Toys for Tots 187

Advertising the War to Children 197

Notes 207

6. Militarizing Children's Magazines 215

American Militarism: A Children's Debate 219

Explaining War to Children 224

Duty and Duties 230

War Makes the Better Boy 241

The Enchanted World of War 247

Notes 249

7. War and the Mind of a Child 253

What Did the Children Think? 253

The Wake of World War: Savagery, Sacrifice, and Children 264

Children Become Warriors: Militarization and Brutalization 270

The Militarized Generation 275

Notes 279

Bibliography of Works Cited 283

Index 289