Biographical & Type Information - D
Dahlbom, Anders Gustav (b. Mar. 3,1806, Ostgothland; d. May 3, 1859, Lund) - Pupil of Zetterstedt. Collection was deposited in the Lund Museum; but some types can also be found in NHRS, Copenhagen, or ZMHB. Citations: Anonymous (1859a, b) and Ratzeburg (1874).
Dallas, William Sweetland (b. Jan. 31, 1824, London, England; d. May 28, 1890, London, England) - His should be deposited in the British Museum of Natural History (BMNH), but some are missing. Dallas indicated which sexes he had before him, but he did not indicate how many of each sex. He also gave measurements of length and sometimes width. If the measurements were given as a range for one or both of the sexes, then this would indicate more than one ST. He also, at the end of the description, would list individual collection sites (or different collections from same site) by letter. Once again, this gives an indication of how many specimens he had before him. If he listed only one sex, the measurements are not given as a range, and only one collection site is listed, he probably described the species from a single specimen, but in a couple cases such as this several STS have been located. Strictly speaking, none of his types should be considered HTS, and LTS should be designated for all species. Citations: Anonymous (1890a, b), Francis (1890), Hartwig (1890), McLachlin (1890), Wilderman (1890), and Musgrave (1932).
De Carlo, Jose Alejandro (b. 1896; d. June 19, 1983) - Worked primarily on Nepomorpha. Collection should be in Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Argentina (MACN). See Bachman (1983, 1985) for biographical information.
Distant, William Lucas (b. Nov. 12, 1845, Rotherhithe, SE London, England; d. Feb. 4, 1922, Wanstead, England) - Father was a whaling captain; in fact, described by Distant as the most eventful day of his life, on Aug. 5, 1867, he set out on a whaling mission to the Malay Peninsula. This trip sparked his interest in Natural History, and resulted in the publication of Rhopalocera Malayana (1882-1886), a description of the butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Distant became associated with the tanning business which led him to a 12 month trip to South Africa (1890-1891). He returned to South Africa a few years later. These trips resulted in publication of A Naturalist in the Transvaal (1892), and Insecta Transvaaliensia (1900-1911). He became a part-time Assistant at the British Museum (Natural History) in 1899, and during the next 21+ years, he re-arranged the National Collection, and described many new species found in this collection. Notable heteropteran publications include Volume I of the Heteroptera and part of Volume I of the Homoptera of the Biologia Centrali Americana (1880-1900), and the Hemiptera volumes of the Fauna of British India (1902-1918). Death came after a long battle with cancer. Distantís collection (some 50,000 specimens and over 2500 types) was brought to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1911; its purchase by the BMNH was completed by 1920. So, unless indicated otherwise, all of Distantís types are located in the BMNH. Some of his work from India indicates that some of the STS were deposited in the Calcutta Museum. These were in conjunction with work with Atkinson; Distantís later papers indicated that Atkinsonís specimens might now be in the BMNH. Specimens from Burma listed in the Fea collection are probably in MCSN. In the Biologia Centrali Americana work references to Mus. Berol. probably refer to ZMHB. In most cases, there is no way to tell how many specimens Distant had before him when he made his original descriptions. In some cases, it is obvious that he had more than one (measurements given as a range, more than one locality given, more than one museum depository listed, discusses a variety, etc.). If none of these conditions were present, he probably only had a single specimen. In many of these cases, someone has placed a "type" label on the specimen or one of the specimens, so many modern day workers have referred to this specimen as the HT. LT designations are probably still needed. Distant also did a curious thing when it came to generic type designations. In many cases, he designated a generic type that was not an original member of that genus; thus, most of these designations are now considered to be invalid. But, in most cases, the species designated as type is simply a senior synonym of an original member of the genus. When a candidate species for type had been placed as a junior synonym of another species, Distant, rather than citing the junior synonym as the type of the genus, would cite the senior synonym. Strict adherence to the rules of nomenclature would dictate that we consider these type designations invalid, but perhaps this should be revisited. Some of Distantís designations were better choices than some later designations. See Dolling (1991) for a bibliography and biographical information. Citations: Anonymous (1922a, b) and Campion (1922), Rothschild (1922), Musgrave (1932), and Osborn (1937).
Dohrn, Felix Antoin (b. 1840; d. 1909) - HN: via Stettin to Zoological Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland (ZMPA). Citations: Anonymous (1909a-c, 1910), Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1909), Smith (1910), and Winter (1910).
Donovan, Edward (b. 1768; d. 1837) - H&K: "Ins. der Welt 1818 via J.C. Stevens (London) verauktioniert." Citations: Musgrave (1932) and Lisney (1960). Much of his non-British collection was purchased by Alexander Macleay whose collection eventually formed the foundation of the Macleay Museum in Sydney, Australia (MAMU).
Douglas, John William (b. Nov. 15, 1814, Putney, England; d. Aug. 28, 1905, Harlesden, England) - Along with J. Scott, published The British Hemiptera 1. Heteroptera (1865), and they compiled a catalog of the British Heteroptera (1876). Most of his collection now contained in the Oxford University Museum (OXUM); perhaps a few specimens in BMNH. Citations: Anonymous (1905a, b), Merrifield (1905), Saunders (1905), and Dale (1906).
Drake, Carl John (b. July 28, 1885, Eaglesville, OH, USA; d. Oct. 2, 1965, Washington, DC, USA) - World authority on the Tingidae; published (with Ruhoff) World catalog of the Tingidae (1965). Collection and considerable estate donated to the National Museum of Natural History (USNM). Citations: Anonymous (1966), Arnaud (1966), Froeschner (1966), Gurney & Kramer (1966), Andre (1967), Ruhoff (1968), and Mallis (1971).
Dufour, Lťon Jean Marie (b. Apr. 11, 1780, St. Sever, France; d. Apr. 18, 1865, St. Sever, France) - Collection now conserved in the Musťum National díHistoire Naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN). See Laboulbťne (1865) for bibliography. Citations: Swainson (1840), Anonymous (1865a, b, 1888), Dubedont (1865), Pascoe (1865a, b), Hagen (1866), Mik (1899), Peyerimhoff (1932), and Bonnet (1945).
David A. Rider
updated: 22 Feb 2016
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