Biographical & Type Information - C
Sahlberg, Johan Reinhold (b. June 6, 1845, Helsinki, Finland; d. May 8, 1920, Helsinki, Finland) - Father was R. F. Sahlberg (see below). Types and synoptic collection in Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki, Finland (MZHF), rest of collection in the Zoological Museum, University of Turku, Finland (UZMT). Citations: Anonymous (1920a, b, 1921), BŲving (1920), O. Salaas (1920), and U. Salaas (1960).
Sahlberg, Reinhold Ferdinand (b. 1811; d. 1874) - Father of J. R. Sahlberg. Most of collection deposited in the Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki (MZHF); a few specimens may be in the Zoological Museum, University of Turku, Finland (USMT). Citations: U. Salaas (1958) and Papavero (1975).
Saunders, Edward (b. 1848; d. 1910) - Palearctic Hemiptera deposited in the Museum of Natural History, London (BMNH); British Hemiptera deposited via G. B. Longstaff and F. B. Poulton in the Oxford University Museum, Oxford, England (OXUM). Citations: Anonymous (1910), Alfeken (1910), Dixey (1910), M. (1910), Shanin (1910), South (1910), Stebbing (1910), Waterhouse (1910), Poulton (1920), and Musgrave (1932).
Say, Thomas (b. June 27, 1787, Philadelphia, PA, USA; d. Oct. 10, 1834, New Harmony, IN, USA) - Father was a physician, an apothecary, and served in the Pennsylvania legislature; mother died when Say was 6 years old. When 12, Say was sent to a "Friendsí Academy" where he did not enjoy his studies. Left school at 15 and worked with his father. Encouraged by his uncle, William Bartram, Say began to collect beetles and turn his attention towards Natural History. Say and several other notable scientists formed the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. At this time Say continued to work and even ran his fatherís drug business (with a partner), but business practices forced the company to close. From that point, Say devoted himself to Natural History, living at the Academy and subsisted on a very meager diet. He was offered, but refused, a professorship in natural history at a university. Some say his refusal to take this opportunity was due to a lack of self-confidence; others say he simply was uninterested in this pursuit, but desired to continue his studies of natural history on his own. He began to publish notes on not only insects but also shells and crustacea during the mid 1810's in the Journal of the Academy. In 1817, he traveled to the sea islands and coastal areas of Georgia and Florida, but this trip was cut short due to hostilities between the U.S. government and Florida Indians. He was appointed zoologist for military and scientific expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1819. Near the end of this trip, however, 3 mutinous soldiers robbed the expedition and fled; among the items they stole were Sayís five notebooks with descriptions of many new species. He was appointed curator of the American Philosophical Society from 1821-1827, during which time he continued to publish papers on insects and shells. He was also appointed Professor of Natural History in the University of Pennsylvania in 1922. He made another trip as expedition zoologist to the western U.S. in 1923. During the winter of 1825-1826, Say left Philadelphia permanently to live in a new altruistic, socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana. He was the Superintendent of Literature, Science, and Education for this community. The colony did not last long, but after a trip to Mexico with one of the founders in 1828, Say returned to New Harmony. Say published 4 important descriptive papers between 1830 and 1832 in the New Harmony Disseminator, a publication that despite its name was not widely disseminated; in fact, one of these papers on North American Heteroptera is extremely rare - the only known original copy being that in the Boston Society of Natural History from Harrisí collection (it has been reprinted several times). Say was already suffering from the poor dietary and sleep habits from his youth which continued to deteriorate until finally Say passed away at the age of 47. He was buried at New Harmony where there is a white marble monument erected in his honor. Upon Sayís death, his collection was given to the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia; it was then sent to T. W. Harris, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1836, but by the time Harris received it, most of the collection had been destroyed by dermestids and by the rough stagecoach ride. Some types were in the F. E. Melsheimer collection. HN: Mostly lost; some in T. W. Harris coll. at Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. (see Uhler, 1878). S&S: "Most of collections destroyed by dermestids." Most of Sayís publications were reprinted by Leconte (1859). Summers (1982) provides a bibliography. Bousquet (1993) provides information on the dates of publication of Sayís papers published in New Harmony, Indiana. Citations: Scudder (1899a, b), Essig (1931), Weiss & Ziegler (1931), Stroud (1992), and Mawdsley (1993). See also: http://cedar.evansville.edu/~ck6/bstud/say.html.
Schouteden, Henri (b. May 3, 1881, Brussels, Belgium; d. Nov. 15, 1972, Brussels, Belgium) - Most of Schoutedenís types are in the Musťe Royal de líAfrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium (MRAC), although some may be in the Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (ISNB). He occasionally referred to specimens in other museums which might be part of the type series. Most of the time he did not clearly delineate how many specimens he had nor what sex they were (he did so in a few papers, but interestingly these were from his mid-career - some of his later papers were more vague about the number and sex of types). In some cases, he would tell how many specimens he had, but not tell their sex. He did usually give good locality data for the types. In most cases, his types should be considered to be STS, except for when he gave more detailed information about the types. Citation: Basilewsky (1973).
Schumacher, Friedrich (b. 1888; d. 1934) - Most of collection should be in the Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt University, Berlin (ZMHB), but at least one type has been located in the Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (SMFD).
Scopoli, Johann Anton (b. 1723; d. 1788) - Collection is thought to have been lost in a shipwreck, but some specimens may possibly be in the Ljubljana Museum (teste Kormilev). Citations: Dumťril (1823), Swainson (1840), Anonymous (1850), Rose (1850), and Strecker (1878), Voss (1881), Ambrosi (1889), and Pavesi (1901).
Scott, John (b. Sept. 21, 1823, Morpeth, England; d. Aug. 30, 1888, Morpeth, England) - Collection is conserved in the Museum of Natural History, London (BMNH). Citations: Anonymous (1888a-c), Carrington (1888), Sharp (1888), and Dimmock (1889).
Scudder, Samuel Hubbard (b. Apr. 13, 1837, Boston, MA, USA; May 17, 1911, Cambridge, MA, USA) - Obtained B.A. degree from Williams College in 1857, and the B.S. degree from Harvard in 1862. Studied under Louis Agassiz. Secretary of the Boston Society of Natural History (1862-1870), president of same society (1880-1887). Appointed Assistant Librarian of Harvard University (1879-1882), and from 1886-1892, he was Paleontologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. Worked primarily on Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, and fossil insects. Notable publications: Nomenclator Zoologicus, The Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada with Special Reference to New England, and Pretertiary and Tertiary Fossil Insects of North America. Ill during last few years of his life, suffering from a paralysis of both hands and feet. Collection deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (MCZC). Citations: Dimmock (1878), Benjamin (1890), Anonymous (1893, 1911a-d, 1912, 1913, 1948), Smith (1910), Bethune (1911), Cockerell (1911a, b, 1942), Field (1911), Jacobson (1911), Kingsley (1911), Morice (1911), Morse (1911), Rehn (1911), Turner (1911), Holland & Bethune (1912), and Mayor (1924), Howard (1930), Essig (1931), Musgrave (1932), Osborn (1937), Remington (1947), Passos (1951), and Mallis (1971).
SeidenstŁcker, Gustav (b. June 1, 1912, Nuremburg, Germany; d. Nov. 18, 1989) - Most of his collection was purchased by the Zoologische Staatssammlung MŁnchen, Germany (ZSMC); most of his types had already been donated to (ZSMC). Some of his collection may be in the Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (SMFD), and some may be in the Staatliches Museum fŁr Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany (SMNS). See Heiss (1990, 1992) for bibliography.
Servadei, Antonio (b. Aug. 15, 1908, Bologna; d. Dec. 3, 1979, Padua). Worked at the Agricultural Entomology Station in Florence (1934-1947), then at the University of Sassari (1948-1951), and finally at the University of Padua (1952-1978). Collection was donated to the Civic Museum of Natural History in Verona. Notable work was the Catalog of Hemiptera of Italy (1967). See Zangheri (1985) for biographical information.
Serville, Jean-Guillaume Audinet (b. Nov. 11, 1775, Paris, France; d. Mar. 27, 1858, Gerte sous-Touarre, France) - Some of his heteroptera collection went to V. Signoret whose collection ended up in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria (NHMW). Citation: Amyot (1858).
Shafee, Sheikh Adam (b. Jun. 2, 1941, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India; d. May 26, 1992, Aligarh, India) - Citation: Varshney (1993). Early education obtained at Guntur; M.Sc. and Ph.D. obtained from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Joined Department of Zoology at Aligarh in 1973 as a lecturer; was promoted to reader in 1984. Although most of his work was on groups outside of the Heteroptera (Homoptera, Hymenoptera), he coauthered a number of heteropteran papers with M. N. Azim.
Signoret, Victor Antoine (b. Apr. 6, 1816, Paris, France; d. Apr. 3, 1889, Paris, France) - Primary occupation was as a pharmacologist and physician. Worked on both Homoptera and Heteroptera, and is considered to be one of the first great Coccidologists. Member of the Entomological Society of France, and an honory fellow of the Entomological Society of London. Published over 80 papers, including a Revision du groupe des Cydnides (1881-1884). Most of his collection was deposited in Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria (NHMW); a few specimens may have been placed in Napoli (now destroyed?) or at Firenze. Signoret often indicated which sexes he had when he made his descriptions, but he did not usually indicate how many specimens of each he had, and in some cases, he did not list the sexes. He usually gave at least length measurements. If he had both sexes, or if the measurements were in a range, then the types should definitely be considered STS; otherwise it cannot be assumed that he had only one specimen; they should still be considered STS. Citations: Anonymous (1889a, b), Distant (1889a, b), Fairmaire (1889), LaboulbPne (1889), Essig (1931), Musgrave (1932), and Osborn (1937).
SjŲstedt, Bror Yngve (b. 1866; d. 1948) - Specimens from his expeditions now conserved in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden (NHRS). Citations: Anonymous (1948), Pasteels (1948), Frey (1949), and Malaise (1952).
Spinola, Maxmilliano Marchese (b. July 1, 1780, Toulouse, France; d. Nov. 12, 1857, Tassorolo, Italy) - Came from a wealthy and powerful Genoa family. His father, General Ambrosio Spinola, held land in Spain and South America. Spinola received many insects from these areas. He also purchased insects, especially large showy specimens; he focused primarily on Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. He was a member of the Entomological Society of London. Collection deposited in the Museo Regionale dei Scienze Naturali, Torino (MRSN) (see Casale, 1981). It also appears that some of his specimens are located in the Paris Museum (MNHN). Spinola did not designate HTS, so all type material should be considered STS until LTS can be designated. Spinola did often give separate (although brief) descriptions of the males and females, so can often tell when more than one specimen was present. In a few cases, Spinola did indicate how many specimens he had and occasionally he indicated that he had a uniques specimen; these can be considered HTS. Citations: Swainson (1840), Saunders (1858), Gestro (1915), Musgrave (1932), Ekis (1975), Vidano & Arzone (1976), and Jansson (1992).
StDl, Carl (b. Mar. 21, 1833, Castle of Carlberg, Sweden; d. June 13, 1878, TrŲsundavik [near Stockholm], Sweden) - Also published on Orthoptera and Coleoptera; within the Heteroptera published on many groups, but some emphasis on the Reduviidae and the Pentatomomorpha. StDl is still considered one of the greatest and most influential hemipterists of all time. He passed the medico-philosophical exam at Uppsala University (1858), then studied anatomy and physiology at Stockholm, and finally received Ph.D. degree from Jena. Appointed assistant to C. H. Boheman, in the Entomological Section of the National Zoological Museum at Stockholm (1859). Upon Bohemanís death (1867), he was appointed professor and head of the section. StDl traveled extensively throughout Sweden and Europe to study specimens at other museums, most notable of which were his studies on the Fabrician types in Kiel, resulting in the publication of Hemiptera Fabriciana (1868-1869). Other notable heteroptera publications include Hemiptera Mexicana (1862), Hemiptera Africana (1865-1866), and Enumeratio Hemipterorum (1870-1876). Bergroth (1919) contains information on the publication dates of Hemiptera Africana. Most of StDlí collection was deposited in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm (NHRS), although he did describe some species from Signoretís collection which should now be in NHMW, and a few from Dohrnís collection which should now be in ZMPA. StDl did not designate types or paratypes. In some of his earliest papers, the only indication of how many specimens he had was by the measurements: if these were given in a range then it can be assumed that he had more than one specimen, but if these were given as a single number, it cannot be assumed that he only had a single specimen. There are many examples of a single measurement given, but several specimens appear to belong to the type series. Fairly early on, StDl began to report which sex (or both) he had before him; also occasionally he would list more than one museum of collection deposition, all indicators of multiple specimens. But once again, the listing of a single sex or a single museum does not necessarily mean he had a single specimen. In nearly all cases, LT and PLT designations are needed. Of greater concern is the fact that someone, probably a curator, has added a "type" label to one of the specimens of each type series. These have not been published upon, so they are not valid LT designations. Yet many present day workers occasionally refer to these specimens as the type or even holotype. Prior to 2000 (the new ICZN), these references can be interpreted as inadvertent LT designation. To further complicate the situation, sometimes this type label has been placed on a specimen of a sex not originally described by StDl, possible indication that the labeled specimen is not actually part of the original type series. Special care must be taken to compare the actual specimens with the data given in the original description, and in nearly all cases LT and PLT designations are needed. Citations: Anonymous (1878a, b), Bates (1878), Bolivar (1878), HorvŠth (1878), Reuter (1878, 1907), S. (1878), Signoret (1878), Distant (1879), SpDngberg (1879), and Distant (1907), Essig (1931), Musgrave (1932), and Osborn (1937).
I found the following excerpt, written by Carlos Carbonell on pages 4-5 of the September 2000 (vol. 20, no. 1) issue of Metaleptea, The Newsletter of the Orthopteristsí Society. I have not checked Heteroptera records to see if perhaps the same situation is true. I visited Vienna several times. Dr. Max Beier was still there in my first visits. I remember that in 1966 I looked for and found there the types of some species described by Carl Stal in 1878 (Observations Orthopterologiques, 3). They did not have Stalís labels. It seems that at some time, a careful curator had found Stalís labels unsatisfactory, and had replaced them by new ones in a beautiful if very small handwriting. In some of these labels, it was mentioned that the specimen had been identified by Stal. In some, it was mentioned that it was a Stal type. And some had none of these data. And none had the usual type-label of the Vienna Museum. With the help of Stalís paper, it was easy to identify and mark them. Carl Stal was one of the best taxonomists of his time, and usually his descriptions left no room for doubt. When I had marked every one of them I took them to Dr. Beier and told him that I had found and marked all of Stalís types in the museum collection. Dr. Beier looked at me with a puzzled expression in his face. "Stalís types?" óhe saidó "As far as I know Stal acridoid types are in Stockholm". Then I showed him Stalís paper where, at the end of his description of everyone of these species it was written "Coll. Brunner". Dr. Beier apparently was not entirely convinced that I was right and asked me to leave Stalís paper and the specimens with him for a while. But soon afterwards, he came to the place where I was working to tell me that I was right, that these were Stalís types, and thanked me for having studied and marked them. It seems that, after Brunner von Wattenwylís death, nobody in the Vienna Museum had studied these specimens, and their status of types was not apparent. As for my finding these types there, I must tell that when I reached Vienna I was coming straight from Stockholm where I had thought all the Stal types were. But I hadnít found some of them. Besides, my seeing under the description of these species the indication "Coll. Brunner" had told me that they should be in Vienna.
Stein, Johann Philip Emil Friedrich (b. 1816; d. 1882) - Collection deposited in the Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitšt, Berlin (ZMHB). Citations: Dohrn (1882), Kraatz (1882), and TŁrckheim (1882).
Stoll, Caspar (b. ?; d. 1795) - Dutchman. First entomologist to devote himself almost entirely to Hemiptera. Dolling et al. (1999) provided information on the Heteroptera contained in Stollís Natuurlyke en naarít Naauwkeurig Gekleurde Afbeeldungen en beschryvingen der Cicaden en Wanzen (1780-1788). See Swainson (1840) for biographical information.
Strobl, Gabriel (b. 1846; d. 1925) - Collection conserved in the Naturhistorisches Museum der Benediktiner-Abtei, Admont, Austria (NMBA). Citations: D.P. (1894), Castefrano (1896), Pigorini (1896), Dusmet y Alonso (1919), Czerny (1925), Hedicke (1925), Kiefer (1941), and Morge (1974).
David A. Rider
updated: 16 Nov 2010
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