Germanium-rich mineralization, northern Mexico.
Many rare metals play a nearly invisible but vital role in modern society. These "high-tech metals," e.g., germanium, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, tellurium and thallium, often exhibit unusual semiconductor properties, and thus are used for the production of electronic devices, coatings, fiber optics, polymerisation catalysts, and defense applications such as infrared sensors. They share common geochemical and economic features such as: low abundance in the average crust, lack of significant enrichment in ore deposits, low production capacities and high production costs.
The Tres Marias Mine in Chihuahua state, Mexico, has potential to become a germanium producer. The deposit contains two ore zones: a primary zone consisting of zinc and lead sulfides with germanium, and a so-called oxidized zone containing hemimorphite and willemite, some of which is germanium-bearing. My work on understanding the ore genesis and mineralogy of this deposit is being done in collaboration with Dr. Frank Melcher, formerly of the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, now at the University of Leoben, Austria, and with War Eagle Mining.
Past research interests have included:
- Silicic rocks in the Somoncura region of Argentina: Constraints from the Somoncura Magmatic Belt, Argentina
Extensive silicic magmatism exists in South America that is not directly attributed to subduction and arc formation. The Somoncura Magmatic Belt in northern Patagonia, Argentina, is an example of such an area with an equivocal genesis. It comprises a suite of intrusive and extrusive silicic units with an enigmatic tectonic origin. This project seeks to determine what the petrogenetic relationships and emplacement timings are between intrusive and extrusive units and host rocks of the Central Somoncura Magmatic Belt in the context of widespread Jurassic magmatism in South America.
This NSF-funded work has been carried out with Daniel Gregori, Ernesto Bjerg, and a graduate student at the Universidad Nacional del Sur in Bahia Blanca (Argentina), undergraduate students (Joy Turnbull, Cody Jacobs) at North Dakota State University (Fargo), in cooperation with Clark Johnson and Brian Beard at the Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Karl Wirth at the Department of Geology at Macalester College (St. Paul, Minnesota); George Gehrels at the University of Arizona; and Jeff Vervoort at Washington State University.
- Can active learning of geologic concepts be promoted using role-playing software? This question was addressed by development of the Geology Explorer, in cooperation with the NDSU Dept. of Computer Science and the World Wide Web Instructional Committee.
This multi-year project to study science learning in authentic, immersive, virtual environments involved 1) simulated environments for teaching science topics, each framed according to a theoretical approach, role-based learning, 2) an innovative, integrated, distributed software platform for developing and hosting virtual environments, 3) empirical studies using an innovative protocol, scenario-based assessment, for measuring student learning in virtual worlds, and 4) a graduate-level summer school course for in-service teachers who were trained to use virtual environments in their classrooms. This work produced a large, controlled study on the impact of the above methods on student learning.
- A project with Dr. Wei Lin of the Department of Civil Engineering at NDSU, and ECS graduate student Joe Super, on developing a TMDL model for the Upper Souris River, ND. The upper portion of the Souris River, from the border with Saskatchewan, Canada to Lake Darling, a total of 43.4 miles, has been on the North Dakota Section 303(d) list for water quality impairments since 1998. This river reach has been identified as "Fully Supporting but Threatened" for aquatic life and recreation purposes. This classification means that water quality and/or river conditions have not met the standards for designated uses on relatively low frequencies, but enough to raise concerns. This project's goals were to study the reach, and document any impairment that may exist.
- Platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry of igneous rocks as related to problems of magma evolution, tectonic setting and hydrothermal transport of PGE's (Duluth Complex, Minnesota and northern Finland - Russia)
- Investigation of a silver-rich massive sulfide deposit in the Lumby Lake region of Ontario
- The sedimentary petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of manganiferous iron formation from the perspective of developing the novel extraction method of in situ leaching for manganese
- The feasibility of pulsed power technology as a rock disaggegation method. For some examples of minerals and microfossils separated using pulsed power technology, click here.
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- Mineralogy: reflected light microscopy; various microprobes; various SEM/EDS systems; XRD.
- Geochemistry and petrology: XRF; ICP; NAA; fire assay analysis for precious metals; oxygen, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope analysis.
- Geophysics: HLEM, IP, ground magnetic, gravity.
- Danijela Ljepoja, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, M.S. 2015
- Jason Triplett, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, M.S. 2012
- Vijaya Jyoti, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, M.S. 2010
Awards and Honors
- 2016: NDSU "Inspiring Teacher"
- 2007: Fulbright Senior Scholar / Senior Researcher, Germany
- 2005: Walter F. and Verna Gehrts Endowed Professorship
- 2003: NDSU Development Foundation Grant Recipient
- 2001: Award for Innovative Excellence in Teaching, Learning and Technology
- 1999: NDSU College of Science and Mathematics Excellence in Teaching Award
- 1998: College of Science and Mathematics Distinguished Service Award (Co-recipient)
- 1998: Education Award, Fargo-Moorhead River Keepers (Co-recipient)
- 1990: Fulbright Full Grant, Leoben, Austria, under E. F. Stumpfl
- 1990: Sustained Superior Performance Award, U.S. Bureau of Mines
- 1989: S. Goldich Precambrian Geochemistry Research Fund Award, University of Minnesota
- 1988: Best Student Paper Award, 34th Annual Institute on Lake Superior Geology
- 1985: University of Minnesota Graduate School Tuition Scholarship
Links to Web Resources
Selected Publications, Reports, and Abstracts
- Saini-Eidukat, B, Marma, J. and Kassos, G. (2016) Preliminary characterization of gold occurrence in the Fire Creek epithermal deposit, North Central Nevada. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 48, No. 7. doi: 10.1130/abs/2016AM-285912
- Gautam, Dhan Prasad, Rahman, S., Fortuna, A.-M., Borhan Md., Saini-Eidukat, B. and Bezbaruah, A.N. (2016), Characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticle (nZnO) alginate beads in reducing gaseous emission from swine manure, Environmental Technology, p. 1-14. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2016.1217056
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Melcher, F., Goettlicher, J., and Steininger, R., (2016) Chemical environment of unusually Ge- and Pb- rich willemite, Tres Marias mine, Mexico , Minerals, 6(1), 20. doi:10.3390/min6010020
- Datta, S., Rahman, S., Borhan, Md., Saini-Eidukat, B., and Cihacek, L. (2016) Quantification and characterization of particulate matter generated from unpaved roads in the oil development area of western North Dakota. ASABE Yearly International Meeting, 2016, Orlando, Florida. July 17-20.
- Gregori, D.A., Saini-Eidukat, B., Benedini, L., Strazzere, L., Barros, M., and Kostadinoff, J. (2016) The Gondwana Orogeny in northern North Patagonian Massif: Evidences from the Caita Có granite, La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, Argentina. Geoscience Frontiers 7(4), 621-638. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2015.06.002
- Jyoti, V., Saini-Eidukat, B., Hopkins, D., and DeSutter, T. (2015) Naturally elevated metal contents of soils in northeastern North Dakota, USA with a focus on cadmium. Journal of Soils and Sediments. Volume 15, Issue 7, pp 1571-1583. doi: 10.1007/s11368-015-1122-6
- Laducer-Garrett, F., Kirk, E., Medeiros, J., Voigt, L., Ternes, S., Hartman, K., Saini-Eidukat, B., Rahman, S., and Borhan, M. (2015) Particulate Matter Exposure along Designated Traffic Routes on the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. [Abstr.] North Dakota INBRE Annual Symposium, Grand Forks, Oct. 23, p. 22.
- Medeiros, J., Laducer-Garrett, F., Kirk, E., Voigt, L., Ternes, S.A., Hartman, K., Saini-Eidukat, B., Rahman, S., and Borhan, Md. (2015) Particulate Matter Exposure along Designated Traffic Routes on the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota [abstr.], Fort Totten, ND, Candeska Cikana Community College, Tribal College Research Symposium, April 1.
- Wrage, J., Jacobs, C., Lewis, A., and Saini-Eidukat, B. (2015) Using geochemical analysis to identify local vs. exotic sources of glacial clasts, Friis Hills, Antarctica. Proc., 249 ACS Natl. Mtg., Denver, CO, Mar 22-26. Abstr. GEOC-67.
- Albert, A., Eagle-Bluestone, J., and Saini-Eidukat, B. (2015) Chemistry and Mineralogy of Nopeming metasiltstone at the Grandview Site, Duluth, Minnesota: Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, Part 1, Program and Abstracts, v. 61, p. 1-2.
- Ljepoja, D., Saini-Eidukat, B., Rahman, S. and Borhan, Md. (2015) Characterization of Road Dust in western North Dakota. Proc., American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) North Central Intersectional Conference, April 10-11, 2015.
- Saini-Eidukat, B. and Triplett, J. (2014) Erionite and offretite from the Killdeer Mountains, Dunn County, North Dakota, USA. American Mineralogist, v. 99, p. 8-15. doi: 10.2138/am.2014.4567
- Jacob, D., Yellick, A., Kissoon, L., Asgary, A., Wijeyaratne, D., Saini-Eidukat, B., and Otte, M.L. (2013) Cadmium and associated metals in soils and sediments of wetlands across the Northern Plains, USA. Environmental Pollution, v. 178, p. 211-219.
- Steffen, A.L., Lewis, A.R., Saini-Eidukat, B., Zamora, F.J., and Lepper, K. (2013) Past and present weathering environments in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica based on sediment chemistry. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 45, No. 7, p.768.
- Steffen, A.L, Hopkins, D.G., Saini-Eidukat, B., and Breker, J.S. (2013) Use of a GIS/stratigraphic model to predict zones of elevated trace element concentrations in soils derived from Cretaceous Pierre Shale on the Pembina Escarpment, Cavalier County, North Dakota. Proc., GAC-MAC annual meeting, Winnipeg, v. 36, p 182-183.
- Steffen, A.L., Lewis, A.R. Zamora, F., and Saini-Eidukat, B. (2013) Chemical weathering of sediments from the Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Proc., GAC-MAC annual meeting, Winnipeg, v. 36, p 182.
- Ostertag-Henning, C., Melcher, F., Saini-Eidukat, B. (2011) The alteration of oil during formation of the low-temperature MVT Zn-Pb sulfide ore deposit at Tres Marias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Abstract P-300, 25th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, IMOG 2011, 18 - 23 September, Interlaken, Switzerland.
- Triplett, J. and Saini-Eidukat, B. (2011) Characterization of fibrous zeolites from western North Dakota, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 43(5), p. 139. Minneapolis, October 9.
- Slator, B. M., Saini-Eidukat, B., Schwert, D.P., Borchert, O., Hokanson, G., Forness, S., Kariluoma, M. (2011). The eGEO Virtual World for Environmental Science Education. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 43, No. 5, p. 135. Minneapolis, October 9.
- Slator, B. M., Schwert, D.P. Hokanson, G., Borchert, O., Saini-Eidukat, B., Terpstra, J., Reber, J., Daniels, L., Forness, S., Kariluoma, M. (2011) A Virtual Environment for Geologic Education Integrating Mathematics and Chemistry. Proc., 27th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. Madison, WI, Aug. 3-5, pg. 422-426.
- Triplett, J., Saini-Eidukat, B., Feit, S., and Dolezal, D. (2010) Microprobe analysis of erionite, Killdeer Mountains, North Dakota. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 94.
- Jyoti, V., Saini-Eidukat, B., Hopkins, D. and DeSutter, T. (2010) Geochemical characteristics of cadmium-rich soils of the Pembina Escarpment, North Dakota: Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, 56th Annual Mtg., Intl. Falls, MN, v. 56, part 1, p. 33-34.
- Triplett, J., Saini-Eidukat, B., Feit, S., and Dolezal, D. (2010) Identification and Characterization of Fibrous Zeolites in Western North Dakota. Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, 56th Annual Mtg., Intl. Falls, MN, v. 56, part 1, p. 65-66.
- Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Pring, A., Skinner, W., Shimizu, M., Danyushevsky, L., Saini- Eidukat, B., Melcher, F. (2009) Trace and minor elements in sphalerite: a LA-ICPMS study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2009.05.045
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Melcher, F., and Lodziak, J., 2009, Zinc-germanium ores of the Tres Marias Mine, Chihuahua, Mexico. Mineralium Deposita v. 44, pp. 363-370. DOI 10.1007/s00126-008-0222-2
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Melcher, F., Ostertag-Henning, C., and Lodziak, J., 2007, The carbonate hosted Tres Marias Zn-Ge deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico: Characterization of Ge-hosting phases and of associated hydrocarbons. Geological Society of American Abstracts with Programs, Denver, October 27-31.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., and Melcher, F., 2007, Mineralogy and organic matter in the Tres Marias Zn-Ge deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico. Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Cambridge, England, June 26-28.
- Lin, W., Saini-Eidukat, B., and Super, J., 2006, Upper Souris River Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL): Report on Analysis of Existing Data. Submitted to: North Dakota Department of Health Division of Water Quality. 59 pp.
- Brandt, L., Borchert, O., Addicott, K., Cosmano, B., Hawley, J., Hokanson, G., Reetz, D., Saini-Eidukat, B., Schwert, D.P., Slator, B.M., and Tomac. S., 2006, Roles, Culture, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work on Planet Oit. Advanced Technology for Learning, v. 3(2), pp. 89-98. (expanded revision of CATE-05).
- Saini-Eidukat, B. and Michlovic, M.G., 2005, Material analysis of lithic flaking debris from 32RI775. Plains Anthropologist Memoir 37, v. 50, no. 196.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Beard, B., Bjerg, E. A., Gehrels, G., Gregori, D., Johnson, C., Migueles, N., and Vervoort, J.D. 2004. Rb-Sr and U-Pb age systematics of the Alessandrini Silicic Complex and related mylonites, Patagonia, Argentina. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 222.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Schwert, D.P., Slator, B.M. 2002. Geology Explorer: Virtual Geologic Mapping and Interpretation. Computers & Geosciences v. 28, no. 10, pp. 1167-1176. doi:10.1016/S0098-3004(02)00036-5
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Migueles, N., Gregori, D. A., Bjerg, E. A., Beard, B. L. and Johnson, C. M. 2002. The Alessandrini Complex: Early Jurassic plutonism in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Proc., XV Argentine Geological Congress, El Calafate, April, 2002.
- Bandli, B., and Saini-Eidukat, B. 2000. Nomarski DIC Microscopy and Structural State Analysis of Plagioclases from the Duluth Complex, Minnesota [abstr.]: Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, v. 46 part 1, p. 4-5.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Bjerg, E., Gregori, D., Beard, B.L. and Johnson, Clark M., 1999. Jurassic Granites in the northern portion of the Somoncur Massif, Rio Negro Province, Argentina. Proc. XIV Argentine Geological Congress, v. 2, p. 175-177, Salta, Sept. 19-24, 1999.
- Slator, B.M., Juell, P., McClean, P.E., Saini-Eidukat, B., Schwert, D.P., White, A.R., and Hill, C. 1999. Virtual environments for education: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, v. 22, p. 161-174.
- Saini-Eidukat, B. and Yahin, A., 1999. Web-phreeq: A WWW instructional tool for modeling the distribution of chemical species in water. Computers & Geosciences, v. 25, no.4, pp. 347-353.
- Saini-Eidukat, B. and Bernatchez, R., 1998. Preliminary ore mineralogy of the Herontrack silver-zinc-copper occurrence, Lumby Lake area, Ontario, Canada. Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, 44th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 1998, v. 44, part 1, p. 106-107.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Schwert, D.P., and Slator, B.M., 1998. Text-based implementation of the Geology Explorer, a multi-user role-playing virtual world to enhance learning of geological problem-solving. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 30, No. 7, October 1998.
- Slator, B.M., Schwert, D.P., Saini-Eidukat, B., et al., 1998. Planet Oit: A virtual environment and educational role-playing game to teach the Geosciences: Proceedings 31st Annual Small College Computing Symposium, Fargo, North Dakota.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Rudashevsky, N.S. and Polozov, A.G., 1998. Evidence for hibbingite-kempite solid solution. Mineralogical Magazine, v. 62(2), pp. 251-255.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., 1998. A WWW and spreadsheet based exercise in river flood frequency analysis. Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 46, p. 154-156.
- B. Saini-Eidukat, O.A.R. Thalhammer, M.J. Iljina and T.T. Alapieti, 1997. Siliceous, high-magnesian parental magma compositions of the PGE-rich Early Paleoproterozoic layered intrusion belt of northern Finland. Proceedings, 30th International Geological Congress, v. 9, pp. 177-197.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., and Weiblen, P.W., 1996. A new method of fossil preparation, using high-voltage electric pulses. Curator, 39: 139-144.
- Melcher, F., Raith, J., Prochaska, W., and Saini-Eidukat, B., 1996. The metamorphosed molybdenum-vein type deposit of the Alpeinerscharte, Tyrol (Austria) and its relation to Variscan granitoids. Mineralium Deposita, 31: 277-289.
- Rudashevsky, N.S., Burakov, B.E., Lupal, S.D., Thalhammer, O.A.R., and Saini-Eidukat, B., 1995. Liberation of accessory minerals from various rock types by electric pulse disintegration - method and applications: Transactions, Institution of Mining Metallurgy, v. 104, pp. C25-C29.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Kucha, H., and Keppler, H., 1994. Hibbingite, g-Fe2(OH)3Cl, a new mineral from the Duluth Complex, Minnesota with implications for oxidation of iron-bearing compounds and transport of metals, American Mineralogist, v. 79, p. 555-561.
- Saini-Eidukat, B., Marozas, D., Blake, R., and Adamson, N., 1993. Implications of rock mineralogy and texture on the feasibility of in situ leach mining of Mn-bearing iron formations of central Minnesota, USA. Applied Geochemistry, v.8, p. 37-49.
- Weiblen, P., Saini-Eidukat, B., and Miller, J.D., Jr., 1989. Duluth Complex and Associated Rocks of the Midcontinent Rift System. 28th International Geological Congress Field Trip Guidebook T345, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 43 pp.
- 1991: Ph.D. Geology, University of Minnesota
- 1984: B.S. Geology, University of Minnesota
- 1984: B.S. Geophysics, University of Minnesota
- 2016-2017: Klondex Mines, Ltd., Vein Mineral Paragenesis and Fate of Au During Core Drilling at the Fire Creek Mine.
- 2014-present: DHHS/NIH/UND: Subcontract to ND INBRE, supported by an Institutional Development Award (IDeA) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM103442.
- 2012: ND-EPSCoR/NDSU, New Faculty Startup Funding for Applied Spatial Analysis Position.
- 2010: Renovation for Climate Change & Environmental Quality Laboratory at North Dakota State University. P. Boudjouk (PI), B. Saini-Eidukat, A. Lewis, P. Oduor, and A. Ashworth. NSF EAR-0963486.
- 2010: Acquisition of a Benchtop XRF for Metals Research in the Environment. Saini-Eidukat (PI). Subaward from NIH grant P20 RR016741 from the NCRR.
- 2010: NIH/INBRE: Undergraduate Research: Characterization of Fibrous Zeolite in Western North Dakota. Subaward from NIH grant P20 RR016741 from the NCRR.
- 2008: ND-EPSCoR/NDSU, New Faculty Startup Funding for Surficial Geology Position.
- 2007: The Search for Rare Metals and Workshops on Mineral Deposits. 2006-2007 Fulbright Senior Scholar Program to Germany.
- 2006: North Dakota Dept. of Health: Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Upper Souris River TMDL Development Project. Wei Lin (PI), B. Saini-Eidukat, and Joseph Super.
- 2006: NSF-GEO, Pilot Project: Research on Serious Games for Geoscience Education. B. Slator (PI), L. Daniels, B. Saini-EIdukat, D. Schwert, and J. Terpstra. NSF GEO-0608082.
- 2005: ND-EPSCoR/NDSU, New Faculty Startup Funding for GIS Position.
- 2005: ND Dept. of Health, Upper Souris River TMDL Development Project Phase 1, (Co-PI, with Wei Lin and Joe Super).
- 2004: NSF-SBIR/STTR Phase I: Geology Explorer Uses in Earth Science, subcontract to WoWiWe Instructional Corporation.
- 2001: A Virtual Planet to Train Future Earth Scientists (Co-PI with Donald P. Schwert and B. M. Slator). U.S. Dept. of Education.
- 2000: Silicic Magmatism in Northern Patagonia: Constraints from the Somoncura Magmatic Belt, Argentina. NSF.
- 2000: Systems for Learning Science and Assessing Student Learning (Co-PI with Brian M. Slator, Alan R. White, Donald P. Schwert, and Phillip E. McClean). ITR - NSF. 5 years.
- 1998: Preliminary Isotope Geochemistry of Silicic Rocks from the El Cuy Region, Somoncura Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina. NDSU Grant-in-Aid and ND-EPSCoR-IIP.
- 1998: Travel Support to Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory at University of Wisconsin, Madison. ND-EPSCoR.
- 1998: Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy of Duluth Complex Plagioclase. ND-EPSCoR.
- 1998: Learning by Doing Physical Geology in a Virtual Laboratory/Virtual Field Trip Computer Environment (with D. Schwert and B. Slator). NSF.
- 1998: Planet Oit: a Virtual Laboratory for Physical Geology (with D. Schwert and B. Slator). NDSU Instructional Development Grant.
- 1997: Planning Visit to Argentina: Geologic Evolution of the Central Somoncura Massif, Rio Negro Province, Argentina. NSF.
- 1997: A Shared Developmental Environment for Science-Based Courseware (Co-PI, with P. McClean, D. Schwert, B. Slator, and P. Juell). NSF.
- 1996: "WWW Instructional Support at NDSU", NDSU Technology Fee Committee (Co-PI).
- 1996: "Development of WWW Instructional Support for NDSU Faculty", NDSU Planning, Priorities and Resources Committee (Co-PI).