Statewide Housing Assessment Resource Project
Statewide Housing Assessment Resource Project

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A household is considered to be cost-burdened if more than 30 percent of household income is going toward housing costs (gross rent or monthly owner costs).
In an attempt to capture a variety of characteristics that encompass the definition of disability, the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey identifies serious difficulty with four basic areas of functioning - hearing, vision, cognition, and ambulation. These functional limitations are supplemented by questions about difficulties with selected activities from the Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales, namely difficulty bathing and dressing, and difficulty performing errands such as shopping. Overall, the ACS attempts to capture six aspects of disability, which can be used together to create an overall disability measure, or independently to identify populations with specific disability types.
A family includes a householder and one or more other people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people are not included as part of the householder's family in census tabulations. Thus, the number of family households is equal to the number of families, but family households may include more members than do families. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may be comprised of a group of unrelated people or of one person living alone. Families are classified by type as either a "married-couple family" or "other family" according to the presence of a spouse. "Other family" is further broken out according to the sex of the householder. A married-couple family includes a family in which the householder and his or her spouse are enumerated as members of the same household. Other family: Male householder, no wife present includes a family with a male maintaining a household with no wife of the householder present. Other family: Female householder, no husband present includes a family with a female maintaining a household with no husband of the householder present. Non-family household includes a householder living alone or with non-relatives only.
Gross rent is the amount of the contract rent plus the estimated average monthly cost of utilities (electricity, gas, and water and sewer) and fuels (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.) if these are paid for by the renter (or paid for the renter by someone else). Gross rent is intended to eliminate differentials which result from varying practices with respect to the inclusion of utilities and fuels as part of the rental payment.
A household (also referred to as 'occupied housing units') includes all of the people who occupy a housing unit. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.) A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room occupied (or if vacant, intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other people in the building and that have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters. One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, the householder is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder. Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and non-family householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A non-family householder is a householder living alone or with non-relatives only.
Future housing demand was calculated for North Dakota households based on age of householder, household income (to align with various housing support programs), homebuyer household type, and tenure. Our approach to forecasting housing demand for the state was a two-staged process. In the first stage, we developed county and age-specific population projections for the years 2015, 2020, and 2025 and then determined the age-specific distribution of householders based on 2010 Census data. In the second stage, we forecast housing based on the characteristics of income, homebuyer type, and tenure. The stability of distributions were evaluated by cross-checking the age-specific proportions with 1990 and 2000 Census data. In general, the relationship between the number of persons in a specific age group and the proportion of householders in that age group remained fairly constant over time. We assumed, therefore, this relationship would hold throughout our projection period. We then applied the age-specific distribution of householders to our age-specific population projections to determine housing demand.

In addition to household demand by age of householder, we also forecasted households based on household income. This was accomplished through a three-step procedure. First, the distribution of household income by age of householder was calculated for the six broad income categories using data from the U.S. Census Bureau's 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). The income categories, based on median family income (MFI) using the 2010 ACS, are Extremely Low Income (0 to 30 percent MFI) = less than $20,000; Very Low Income (31 percent to 50 percent MFI) = $20,000 to $29,999; Low (51 percent to 80 percent MFI) = $30,000 to $49,999; Moderate Income (81 percent to 115 percent MFI) = $50,000 to $74,999; Upper Income (above 115 percent MFI) =$75,000 or more; and Tax Credit (51 percent to 60 percent MFI) = $30,000 to $39,999. These categories were selected to align with various housing support programs. Second, the usefulness of utilizing proportional assignment of income to householders by age for the purpose of forecasting was assessed by cross-checking the distributions found in 2010 against the corresponding age-specific income distributions found in the 2000 Census. The value of using proportional assignment to MFI is that it eliminates the need to project actual future income levels and associated inflation. Instead, the forecast focuses on changes in the distribution of households relative to MFI. Similar proportions of age-specific households were found in each income category related to MFI, thus it was assumed that these proportions would hold throughout the projection period. The third and final step was to apply the age- and income-specific proportions based on 2010 ACS data to the total projected number of households by age.

Demand for housing by type of homebuyer was projected as well. Modeling for this forecast was very similar to that used to project household income in that proportional allocation was used. Five types of homebuyers were classified based on historical profiles of these homebuyers: First-time homebuyer = less than 45 years with household income from $30,000 to $74,999; Low-income homebuyers = less than 65 years with household income less than $50,000; Moderate-income homebuyers = ages 25 to 64 with household income from $50,000 to $74,999; Upscale homebuyers = ages 25 to 64 with household income of $75,000 or more; and Elderly homebuyers = ages 65 or older.

Finally, projections of housing by tenure were calculated based on the assumption that historical patterns of homeownership are good predictors of future trends. Age-specific distributions of homeownership and rental-occupied housing were calculated for each geography (e.g. region, county, city, and reservation) based on the 2010 Census. The stability of these distributions was evaluated by comparing them to corresponding distributions for 2000. In general, the pattern of owner-occupied and rental-occupied units for each age category was very similar for the two time periods. Therefore, we assumed the age-specific proportions of owner- and renter-occupied units relative to total occupied housing units would hold throughout the projection period. We applied the 2010 age-specific distributions of owner- and renter-occupied housing units to our projections of total occupied housing units to make our forecast of housing by tenure.

In order to evaluate the relationship between future demand for housing and what housing might be available (i.e., supply), two housing supply forecasts were developed. The first model, Model 1 (Table 2.61), presents a scenario of what housing supply would be if the trends in housing construction (i.e., 2010 to 2011 for the state and most counties, various rates for cities; and 2000 to 2010 for reservation areas) were to continue unabated through the year 2025. This was accomplished by calculating the average annual change in housing over the past few years and applying that rate of change annually to the existing housing stock for each successive year until 2025. The purpose of this approach is to provide decision-makers a benchmark for evaluating the appropriateness of continuing the existing level of housing construction. One needs to keep in mind that this is a linear projection. Thus, if housing construction was in decline during the past few years, this model will assume that housing construction should continue to decline regardless of population projections.

The second housing supply forecast, Model 2 (see Table 2.63), projects future housing units based on the growth or decline in future households. Thus, this forecast predicts changes in housing supply based on shifts in an area's population profile. In particular, it relies on the projection of households and the historical relationship between households and available housing units. In brief, it assumes that the way the market historically responded to changes in the number of households, through the supply of new housing units, should be similar to how the market will respond in the future. Therefore, this forecast is based on the ratio of households (i.e., occupied housing units) to total housing units. The value of this model is to illustrate what will likely occur if the response to future housing demand follows the historical relationship between total housing units and occupied housing units as it adapts to population change. This model will be more sensitive to population change and serves as a juxtaposition to Model 1 showing the difference between what is likely to happen with housing stock if historical trends in building persist (i.e., Model 1) versus what that actual demand for housing will be given population change (i.e., Model 2).

A housing unit may be a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or, if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other individuals in the building and which have direct access from outside the building or through a common hall. For vacant units, the criteria of separateness and direct access are applied to the intended occupants whenever possible. If that information cannot be obtained, the criteria are applied to the previous occupants. Both occupied and vacant housing units are included in the housing unit inventory. Boats, recreational vehicles (RVs), vans, tents, and the like are housing units only if they are occupied as someone's usual place of residence. Vacant mobile homes are included provided they are intended for occupancy on the site where they stand. Vacant mobile homes on dealers' lots, at the factory, or in storage yards are excluded from the housing inventory. Also excluded from the housing inventory are quarters being used entirely for nonresidential purposes, such as a store or an office, or quarters used for the storage of business supplies or inventory, machinery, or agricultural products.
A unit has complete kitchen facilities when it has all of the following:
(1) a sink with piped water;
(2) a range, or cook top and oven; and
(3) a refrigerator.
All kitchen facilities must be located in the house, apartment, or mobile home, but they need not be in the same room. A housing unit having only a microwave or portable heating equipment, such as a hot plate or camping stove, should not be considered as having complete kitchen facilities. An ice box is not considered to be a refrigerator.
Fiscal Year 2010 Median Family Incomes (MFI) were calculated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These estimates were developed starting with the 2000 Census benchmark and including update factors calculated from 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data. For a detailed description of the methodology used in calculating these numbers, visit:
See Median Family Income (MFI) for Fiscal Year 2010 definition.
Migration is the movement of people into and out of a specific geography. Net migration is the difference between those moving into a specific geography and those moving out. For example, from 2000 to 2009, North Dakota had a net out-migration of 15,217 persons. This means that 15,217 more persons moved out of North Dakota than moved in. Migration is one of three components to population change, the other two being births and deaths.
"Mortgage" refers to all forms of debt where the property is pledged as security for repayment of the debt, including deeds of trust; trust deeds; contracts to purchase; land contracts; junior mortgages; and home equity loans. The category ''not mortgaged'' is comprised of housing units owned free and clear of debt.
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Refers to situations where data are not available or the calculation is not applicable.
Migration is the movement of people into and out of a specific geography. Net migration is the difference between those moving into a specific geography and those moving out. For example, between 2000 and 2003, North Dakota had a net out-migration of 13,288 persons. This means that 13,288 more persons moved out of North Dakota than moved in. Migration is one of three components to population change, the other two being births and deaths.
A housing unit is classified as occupied if it is the usual place of residence of the person or group of people living in it, or if the occupants are only temporarily absent; that is, away on vacation or a business trip. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters. Occupied rooms or suites of rooms in hotels, motels, and similar places are classified as housing units only when occupied by permanent residents; that is, people who consider the hotel as their usual place of residence or have no usual place of residence elsewhere. If any of the occupants in rooming or boarding houses, congregate housing, or continuing care facilities live separately from others in the building and have direct access, their quarters are classified as separate housing units. The living quarters occupied by staff personnel within any group quarters are separate housing units if they satisfy the housing unit criteria of separateness and direct access; otherwise, they are considered group quarters.
The number of occupants per room is obtained by dividing the number of people in each occupied housing unit by the number of rooms in the unit. The figures show the number of occupied housing units having the specified ratio of people per room. Although the Census Bureau has no official definition of crowded units, many users consider units with more than one occupant per room to be crowded.
Population refers to the total number of residents in the specified geography. Our general approach to forecasting population for the state was based on a combination of methods. First, employment projections of permanent workers in oil-impacted counties were translated into households using the ratio of change in employment from 2000 to 2010 and change in households during that same period. Census data were used in the calculations. Next, households were then translated into estimates of total residential population based on trends in persons per household, also using Census data. Since the impact of oil and gas development on employment differed markedly within this 16 county area, we combined the counties into three trade areas which reflect the economic base of the region. This allowed us to adapt the calculations to the uniqueness of each of the trade areas. Dickinson was the first trade area and included the counties of Billings, Dunn, Golden Valley, Hettinger, Slope, and Stark. Minot was the second trade area and included the counties of Bottineau, Burke, McHenry, Mountrail, Pierce, Renville, and Ward. Williston was the final trade area and included the counties of Divide, McKenzie, and Williams. A detailed explanation of this econometric approach can be found in Bangsund, Hodur, Rathge, & Olson (2012). We used the forecast of total population change for each of the 16 energy-impacted counties as a threshold and relied on a cohort component population projection model to develop age-specific population projections. We also used this cohort component population projection model for the remaining counties in the state. A standard cohort-component population projection model uses county-specific trends in fertility, mortality, and migration to project future population. In our model we used age-specific fertility rates from 2007 to 2009. We aggregated the counties into three types based on different trends in fertility rates, reservation counties, urban counties, and rural counties. Mortality rates were based on age-specific death rates, by gender, from 2004 to 2006. Migration rates were based on county- and age-specific migration patterns from 2006 to 2009. However, we adapted these migration rates to current trends for 2009 through 2011 using cohort-specific trend line data from a) births, b) school enrollments, c) age-specific workforce data, and d) Medicare/Social Security data.

Population projections are mathematical calculations that illustrate what the population will be in the future if specific assumptions persist throughout the projection period. Although information depicting North Dakota's resident population is relatively accurate, the ability to forecast substantial changes in any socio-economic or demographic process which may alter current population trends is tenuous at best. Therefore, it is wise to utilize these projections with caution. They should not be viewed as the sole element in planning or decision-making, rather as only one tool in the process.

The Census Bureau uses the federal government's official poverty definition. The Social Security Administration (SSA) developed the original poverty definition in 1964, which federal interagency committees subsequently revised in 1969 and 1980. The Office of Management and Budget's (OMB's) Directive 14 prescribes this definition as the official poverty measure for federal agencies to use in their statistical work.

Derivation of the Current Poverty Measure

In order to determine a person's poverty status, one compares the person's total family income in the last 12 months with the poverty threshold appropriate for that person's family size and composition (see example below). If the total income of that person's family is less than the threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered "below the poverty level", together with every member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the person's own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold. The total number of people below the poverty level is the sum of people in families and the number of unrelated individuals with incomes in the last 12 months below the poverty threshold.

Since the American Community Survey (ACS) is a continuous survey, people respond throughout the year. Because the income questions specify a period covering the last 12 months, the appropriate poverty thresholds are determined by multiplying the base-year poverty thresholds (1982) by the average of the monthly inflation factors for the 12 months preceding the data collection.

For example, consider a family of three with one child under 18 years of age, interviewed in July 2010 and reporting a total family income of $14,000 for the last 12 months (July 2009 to June 2010). The base year (1982) threshold for such a family is $7,765, while the average of the 12 inflation factors is 2.24574. Multiplying $7,765 by 2.24574 determines the appropriate poverty threshold for this family type, which is $17,438. Comparing the family's income of $14,000 with the poverty threshold shows that the family and all people in the family are considered to have been in poverty. The only difference for determining poverty status for unrelated individuals is that the person's individual total income is compared with the threshold rather than the family's income.

Poverty status was determined for all people except institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. These groups also were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating poverty rates.

Complete plumbing facilities include:
(1) hot and cold piped water
(2) a flush toilet, and
(3) a bathtub or shower. All three facilities must be located inside the house, apartment, or mobile home, but not necessarily in the same room. Housing units are classified as lacking complete plumbing facilities when any of the three facilities is not present.
The Center for Social Research at North Dakota State University, for the purposes of the North Dakota Statewide Housing Needs Assessment study, prepared a series of projections for population, housing supply, and housing demand. The projections were calculated for the following years; 2015, 2020, and 2025. For Population Projections, see Population. For Housing Supply Projections, see Housing Supply. For Housing Demand Projections, see Housing Demand.
The concept of race, as used by the Census Bureau, reflects self-identification by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify. These categories are socio-political constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. Furthermore, the race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.

The racial classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the October 30, 1997, Federal Register Notice entitled, "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity," issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). These standards govern the categories used to collect and present federal data on race and ethnicity. The OMB requires five minimum categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) for race. The race categories are described below with a sixth category, "Some other race," added with OMB approval. In addition to the five race groups, the OMB also states that respondents should be offered the option of selecting one or more races.

If an individual did not provide a race response, the race or races of the householder or other household members were assigned using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if race was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then either the race or races of the householder, another natural-born child, or the spouse of the householder were assigned. If race was not reported for anyone in the household, the race or races of a householder in a previously processed household were assigned.

White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.
Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African American, or Negro," or provide written entries such as African American, Afro-American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.
American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. It includes people who classified themselves as described below.
American Indian. This category includes people who indicated their race as ''American Indian,'' entered the name of an Indian tribe, or reported such entries as Canadian Indian, French American Indian, or Spanish American Indian.
Alaska Native. This category includes written responses of Eskimos, Aleuts, and Alaska Indians as well as entries such as Arctic Slope, Inupiat, Yupik, Alutiiq, Egegik, and Pribilovian.
Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes "Asian Indian", "Chinese", "Filipino", "Korean", "Japanese", "Vietnamese", and "Other Asian".
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian", "Guamanian or Chamorro", "Samoan", and "Other Pacific Islander".
Some other race. This category includes all other responses not included in the "White", "Black or African American", "American Indian or Alaska Native", "Asian", and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" race categories described above. Respondents providing write-in entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) in the "Some other race" write-in space are included in this category.
Two or more races. People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. "Two or more races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
1. White
2. Black or African American
3. American Indian and Alaska Native
4. Asian
5. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
6. Some other race
There are 57 possible combinations involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as two or more races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses.

All occupied housing units are classified as either owner occupied or renter occupied. A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. All occupied housing units that are not owner occupied, whether they are rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as renter occupied. Units not paying cash rent are generally provided free by friends or relatives or in exchange for services, such as resident manager, caretaker, minister, or tenant farmer. Housing units on military bases also are classified in the ''No cash rent'' category. "Rented for cash rent" includes units in continuing care, sometimes called life care arrangements. These arrangements usually involve a contract between one or more individuals and a service provider guaranteeing the individual shelter, usually a house or apartment, and services, such as meals or transportation to shopping or recreation.
The data on units in structure include both occupied and vacant housing units. A structure is a separate building that either has open spaces on all sides or is separated from other structures by dividing walls that extend from ground to roof. In determining the number of units in a structure, all housing units, both occupied and vacant, are counted. Stores and office space are excluded. The statistics are presented for the number of housing units in structures of specified type and size, not for the number of residential buildings.
1-unit, detached. This is a 1-unit structure detached from any other house; that is, with open space on all four sides. Such structures are considered detached even if they have an adjoining shed or garage. A 1-family house that contains a business is considered detached as long as the building has open space on all four sides. Mobile homes to which one or more permanent rooms have been added or built also are included.
1-unit, attached. This is a 1-unit structure that has one or more walls extending from ground to roof separating it from adjoining structures. In row houses (sometimes called townhouses), double houses, or houses attached to nonresidential structures, each house is a separate, attached structure if the dividing or common wall goes from ground to roof.
2 or more units. These are units in structures containing 2 or more housing units, further categorized as units in structures with 2, 3 or 4, 5 to 9, 10 to 19, 20 to 49, and 50 or more units.
Mobile home. Both occupied and vacant mobile homes to which no permanent rooms have been added are counted in this category. Mobile homes used only for business purposes or for extra sleeping space and mobile homes for sale on a dealer's lot, at the factory, or in storage are not counted in the housing inventory. In 1990, the category was "mobile home or trailer".
Boat, RV, van, etc. This category is for any living quarters occupied as a housing unit that does not fit in the previous categories. Examples that fit in this category are houseboats, railroad cars, campers, and vans.
Vacancy status and other characteristics of vacant units were determined by information from landlords, owners, neighbors, rental agents, and others. Vacant units are subdivided according to their housing market classification as follows:
For rent. These are vacant units offered "for rent", and vacant units offered either "for rent" or "for sale".
For sale only. These are vacant units offered "for sale only", including units in cooperatives and condominium projects if the individual units are offered "for sale only". If units are offered either "for rent" or "for sale", they are included in the "for rent" classification.
Rented or sold, not occupied. If any money rent has been paid or agreed upon but the new renter has not moved in as of the date of enumeration, or if the unit has recently been sold but the new owner has not yet moved in, the vacant unit is classified as "rented or sold, not occupied".
For seasonal, recreational, or occasional use. These are vacant units used or intended for use only in certain seasons, for weekends, or other occasional use throughout the year. Seasonal units include those used for summer or winter sports or recreation, such as beach cottages and hunting cabins. Seasonal units also may include quarters for such workers as herders and loggers. Interval ownership units, sometimes called shared-ownership or time-sharing condominiums, also are included in this category.
For migrant workers. These include vacant units intended for occupancy by migrant workers employed in farm work during the crop season. (Work in a cannery, a freezer plant, or a food-processing plant is not farm work).
Other vacant. If a vacant unit does not fall into any of the categories specified above, it is classified as "other vacant". For example, this category includes units held for occupancy by a caretaker or janitor, and units held for personal reasons of the owner.
A housing unit is vacant if no one is living in it at the time of enumeration, unless its occupants are only temporarily absent. Units temporarily occupied at the time of enumeration entirely by people who have a usual residence elsewhere are also classified as vacant. New units not yet occupied are classified as vacant housing units if construction has reached a point where all exterior windows and doors are installed and final usable floors are in place. Vacant units are excluded from the housing inventory if they are open to the elements; that is, the roof, walls, windows, and/or doors no longer protect the interior from the elements. Also excluded are vacant units with a sign that they are condemned or they are to be demolished.
Value is the respondent's estimate of how much the property (house and lot, mobile home and lot, or condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale. If the house or mobile home was owned or being bought, but the land on which it sits was not, the respondent was asked to estimate the combined value of the house or mobile home and the land. For vacant units, value was the price asked for the property. Value was tabulated separately for all owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale housing units, owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale mobile homes, and specified owner-occupied and specified vacant-for-sale housing units. The median divides the value distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value of the property (house and lot, mobile home and lot, or condominium unit) and one-half above the median. Specified owner-occupied housing units include only 1-family houses on less than 10 acres without a business or medical office on the property. The data for "specified units" exclude mobile homes, houses with a business or medical office, houses on 10 or more acres, and housing units in multi-unit buildings.
The data on year structure built apply to both occupied and vacant housing units. Year structure built refers to when the building was first constructed, not when it was remodeled, added to, or converted. The data relate to the number of units built during the specified periods that were still in existence at the time of enumeration.