|Diagnosis: f/hw both with multiple branched radial
sector vein (Rs), termed homoneurous venation; meta- tibiae without
Diversity: Worldwide about 500 spp. in 50 genera; U.S. 18 spp. in
2 genera; in North Dakota only a single species has been recorded.
Checklist numbers: 18- 36
Biology: Males of many species form mating swarms around a single
female. Others have 'Yo-Yo' like courting flights. Females may lay up to 30,000 eggs which are broadcast in flight.
Larvae are root feeders and borers, earlier instars may be fungivores.
Ferguson, Douglas C.
1979. A new ghost moth from the southern Appalachian mountains (Hepialidae).
J. Lep. Soc. 33(3): 192-196.
Forbes, William T. M. 1923.
Hepialidae, pp. 66-69 in Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring
states. Part I. Primitive forms, Microlepidoptera, Pyraloids, Bombyces.
Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 68: 729 pp.
Holland, William Jacob.
1903. Hepialidae, pp 443- 444 in The Moth Book. Doubleday, Page
& Co., New York. 479 pp.
Kristensen, Neils P. 1999.
Chapter 5. The Homoneurous glossata, pp. 51- 69 in Kristensen,
Neils P. ed. 1999. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. Part 35, Vol. 1 in
Handbook of Zoology. Maximilian Fischer ed. Walter de Gryter, New
York. 491 pp.
Scoble, Malcom J. 1992.
Chapter 9. Primitive Lepidoptera, pp. 192-212 in The Lepidoptera:
form, function, and diversity. Oxford Univ. press. 1982. 404 pp.