Moths of North Dakota


Family Pyralidae: Pyralid snout moths

Diagnosis: Proboscis scaled at base; fw with Rs4 stalked with Rs2+3; hw with Sc+R and Rs closely approximate or united beyond discal cell and sharply divergent before outer margin; tympana (ears) at base of abdomen ventrally, not easily visible in anterio-lateral view, praecinctorium absent.

Diversity: Worldwide five subfamilies and at least 6,150 species; North America with at least 565 species in five subfamilies; 42 species have been recorded from North Dakota.

Checklist numbers: 5510- 6075.

Biology: Some leaf tiers and rollers, majority are borers in stems, seeds, buds, or flowers, some are wood borers in the cambium layer, others feed on combs in bee hives or on dried plant materials. Many economically important species: Indian meal moth, Clover hay-worm, Zimmerman pine moth, Sunflower head moth, etc.


moth image

moth image

moth image

Further reading:

Forbes, William T. M. Family 33. Pyralidae, pp. 523- 639 in, Ibid. 1923. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part I. Primitive forms, Microlepidoptera, Pyraloids, Bombyces. Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 68: 729 pp.

Goodson, R. L. and H. H. Neunzig. 1993. Taxonomic revision of the genera Homoeosoma Curtis and Patogonia Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) in America north of Mexico. North Carolina Agric. Res. Service. Tech. Bull. 303: 105 pp.

Heinrich, Carl. 1956. American moths of the subfamily Phycitinae. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus.  207: 1- 581.

Munroe, Eugene and M. Alma Solis. The Pyraloidea, pp. 233- 256 in Kristensen, Neils P. ed. 1999. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. Part 35, Vol. 1 in Handbook of Zoology. Maximilian Fischer ed. Walter de Gryter, New York. 491 pp.

Mutuura, Akira. 1959. Canadian species of Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Can. Entomol. 91: 65- 72.

__________. 1982. American species of Dioryctria (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) VI. A new species of Dioryctria from eastern Canada and northeastern United States. Can. Entomol. 114: 1069- 1076.

Mutuura, Akira and Eugene Munroe. 1969. American species of the zimmermani group. Can. Entomol. 101: 1009- 1023.

__________. 1979. American species of Dioryctria (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) V. Three new cone feeding species from the southeastern United States. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 14: 290- 304.

Neunzig, Herbert H. 1986. Fascicle 15.2 Pyralioidea, Pyralidae (part) in Dominick et al. The moths of America north of Mexico. E. W. Classey Ltd. London. 88 pp.

_________. 1988. A taxonomic study of the genus Salebriaria (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) in America north of Mexico. North Carolina State Univ. Res. Serv. Tech. Bull. 287: 95 pp.

__________. 1990. Fascicle 15.3 Pyralioidea, Pyralidae (part) in Dominick et al. The moths of America north of Mexico. E. W. Classey Ltd. London. 164 pp.

Rennels, R. G. 1960. The Zimmerman pine moth. An 8-year study of its natural history in Illinois coniferous plantations. Univer. Ill. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 660: 39 pp.

Schaffer, Jay C. 1968. A revision of the Peoriinae and Anerastiinae (auctorum) of America north of Mexico (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 280. 124 pp.

Scoble, Malcom J. 1992. The Lower Ditrysia, Chapter 11, pp. 225- 289 in The Lepidoptera: form, function, and diversity. Oxford Univ. press. 1982. 404 pp.

Solis, M. Alma. 1993. A phylogenetic analysis and reclassification of the genera of the Pococera complex (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Epipaschiinae). J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 10(1): 1- 83.

Solis, M. Alma. and C. Mitter. 1992. Review and preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the subfamilies of the Pyralidae (sensu stricto) (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea). Syst. Entomol. 17: 79-99.



Last updated: 03/27/02

Gerald M. Fauske
Research Specialist
202 Hultz Hall
Fargo, ND 58105

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