Little Badlands North Dakota

Bernhardt Saini-Eidukat
North Dakota State University

Research 1

Almost every project involves undergraduate students. Projects include / have included

Precambrian Basement of North Dakota

With Tim Nesheim of the North Dakota Geological Survey, geochemical and petrological investigation of deeply buried Precambrian rocks of the Trans-Hudson Orogeny.

Remediation of brine impacted soils in western North Dakota

With Tom DeSutter of NDSU Soil Science and graduate student Dustin Anderson, investigation of the effectiveness of electrokinetic stimulation of brine impacted soils for remediation.

Fate, transport, and remediation of metals in the environment

Environmental dust associated with oil development in western North Dakota

Particulate matter (PM) concentrations and dust composition both outdoors and indoors. The goal is to provide science based information to be used by stakeholders to adapt management practices to mitigate fugitive dust emission in western North Dakota.


Erionite, (Na2,K2,Ca)2 [Al4Si14O36]-15(H2O), is a fiber-like mineral of the zeolite group with potential health implications. Graduate student Jason Triplett investigated its occurrence in the Killdeer Mountains of western North Dakota. Saini-Eidukat and Triplett, 2014; Saini-Eidukat 2019 presentation

Germanium-rich mineralization, northern Mexico

Many rare metals play a nearly invisible but vital role in modern society. These "high-tech metals," e.g., germanium, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, tellurium and thallium, often exhibit unusual semiconductor properties, and thus are used for the production of electronic devices, coatings, fiber optics, polymerisation catalysts, and infrared sensors. They share common geochemical and economic features such as: low abundance in the average crust, lack of significant enrichment in ore deposits, low production capacities and high production costs.

The Tres Marias Mine in Chihuahua state, Mexico, has unusual germanium concentration. Work on ore genesis and mineralogy with the the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Dr. Frank Melcher at the University of Leoben, Austria, Jörg Göttlicher and Ralph Steininger at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and others. Cook et al. 2009; Saini-Eidukat et al. 2009; Saini-Eidukat et al. 2016; Ostertag-Henning et al. 2011.


Hibbingite, g-Fe2(OH)3Cl, a mineral discovered in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA, with implications for oxidation of iron-bearing compounds and transport of metals. Saini-Eidukat et al. 1994; Saini-Eidukat et al. 1998; Dahlberg and Saini-Eidukat 1991.

Platinum group mineralization and mafic systems

The Duluth Complex

28th Intl Geological Congress Guidebook: Duluth Complex and Associated Rocks of the Midcontinent Rift System Weiblen, P.W. et al. 1989; Contrasts between platinum group element contents and biotite compositions of Duluth Complex troctolitic and anorthositic series rocks Saini-Eidukat et al. 1990.


Controls on PGE mineralization in the early paleoproterozoic Kemi-Koillismaa-Oulanka mafic intrusion belt, Fennoscandian Shield Saini-Eidukat et al. 1993; Siliceous, high-magnesian parental magma compositions of the PGE-rich Early Paleoproterozoic Layered Intrusion Belt of Northern Finland. Proc., 30th Intl. Geol. Congr. Saini-Eidukat et al., 1997.

Interactive Virtual Worlds for Geology

As part of the multi-disciplinary World Wide Web Instructional Committee (WWWIC) at NDSU (Brian Slator†, Computer Science), research on pedagogy which emphasizes active rather than passive learning in the contexts of interactive, multi-user, role-playing virtual worlds hosted on the internet. This multi-year project to study science learning in authentic, immersive, virtual environments involved 1) simulated environments for teaching science topics, each framed according to a theoretical approach, role-based learning, 2) an innovative, integrated, distributed software platform for developing and hosting virtual environments, 3) empirical studies using an innovative protocol, scenario-based assessment, for measuring student learning in virtual worlds, and 4) a graduate-level summer school course for in-service teachers who were trained to use virtual environments in their classrooms. This work produced a large, controlled study on the impact of the above methods on student learning. Slator et al 2011; Brandt et al., 2006; Slator et al., 2005; McClean et al. 2001; Slator et al. 1999

The Geologic example of this approach is the Geology Explorer Planet Oit, where students "learn by doing" the fundamentals of geology, the scientific method, and the strategies of deductive problem solving. This could be called “Virtual Geologic Investigation.” As part of this, we created a Virtual Geologic Mapping Environment that included automated computer assessment and tutoring of a student's geologic map. Saini-Eidukat et al. 2002; Slator et al 2003.

Landslide Scarps, Pololu Valley, Hawaii, NDSU student field trip