Best if printed in landscape.
Agencies Involved with Food Safety
complex challenge of assuring safe food has led to numerous federal and state government agencies having a role in U.S. food safety matters. This
page provides an overview of the role of various agencies. The discussion begins by addressing federal agencies.
Do These U.S. Agencies Regulate?
6,100 meat and poultry processors
50,000 food establishments
- more than 1 million food vending locations
more than 70,000 labeled food products
- FDA describes itself as annually regulating $417 billion worth of domestic food and $49 billion in imported food (this does not include the food regulated by the USDA).
- The U.S. food industry includes more than 136,000 registered domestic food facilities (including more than 44,000 U.S. food manufacturers and processors and approximately 113,000 U.S. food warehouses, including storage tanks and grain elevators).
- The industry also includes more than 2 million farms, roughly 935,000 restaurants and institutional food service establishments, and 114,000 supermarkets, grocery stores, and other food outlets.
- There are approximately 189,000 registered foreign facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold food consumed by Americans.
- Source: Food and Drug Administration. "Food Protection Plan --
An integrated strategy for protecting the nation's food supply." Department of Health and Human Services, November 2007.
of U.S. food law is based on federal law, even though many states
also have addressed issues relating to food safety. The number of
agencies involved in food safety research, regulation and education adds
further complexity, but it also illustrates the breadth of issues involved
in assuring a safe food supply.
federal agencies are granted their authority from Congress; federal
agencies can do no more to regulate food safety than Congress authorizes
them to do. Thus food safety issues often take on a political appearance
as Congress works to define the role of government in addressing these
basis for federal government involvement in many of food issues lies
in the U.S. Constitution, more specifically the "interstate
commerce" clause that states Congress has the authority to regulate
interstate commerce, that is, business that occurs across state lines.
- "Section 8. The Congress shall have power to ... regulate commerce ... among the ...states"
that occurs entirely within a state cannot be regulated by the federal
government; those activities are for the states to regulate. However
much of our modern economy involves products or services that cross
at least one state line sometime during the manufacture and sale
of the product. Thus the majority of items in our economy, including
most of our food products, involves interstate commerce and is subject
to federal authority. Federal statutory law (e.g., 21
U.S.C. §331(a)) explicitly states that it is regulating only
those food items that involve interstate commerce; but the reality
is that nearly all food involves interstate commerce. As a consequence, the federal
government has authority to regulate nearly all food produced or
consumed in the United States.
- Federal law preempts
state law; again this is based in the U.S. Constitution.
If there is a
conflict between federal law and state law, the federal law prevails;
that is, federal
law is supreme.
- "Article VI. ...This Constitution, and the laws of the United States ... shall be the supreme law of the land"
However, Congress addressing an issue does not prevent
a state from also addressing the issue; both Congress and state legislatures
can address the same issues. If there is a difference between the
two laws, the federal law will prevail or preempt the state law. In
- Congress recognizes that a state may have a particular
issue that requires special attention. In those situations, a common
practice is that the federal government sets a minimum standard and then
allows states to impose additional standards as necessary to protect
the state's special or unique need.
- Congress sometimes encourages this type of a relationship by providing
financial resources to states that take an active role in administering
a federal program or direction, e.g. USDA meat inspection program.
are situations, however, where Congress will not allow a state to
impose additional requirements.
federal food safety agencies
safety concerns frequently focus on the processing sector of the industry;
it is primarily since the mid-1990s that discussions about food safety
have broaden to encompass "farm to table." Despite the
added breadth, the emphasis for food safety is still on processing and
final preparation of food items (but do not overlook the recent (e.g. 2006) surge in concerns about food safety at the commodity production level). Accordingly, this introduction
to agencies involved with food safety begins with an overview of agencies
responsible for regulating the processing sector of the industry.
and Drug Administration (FDA) of the Department of Health and Human
- FDA primarily
(but not entirely) focuses on the processing of food products; that
and History of FDA and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
role includes "seeing that products are made right and labeled
truthfully." FDA inspects facilities, collects and
analyzes samples of products, and checks product labels. FDA
relies on scientific expertise in fulfilling its mission.
major FDA mission is to protect the safety and wholesomeness of
food. The agency's scientists test samples to see if any substances,
such as pesticide residues, are present in unacceptable amounts.
If contaminants are identified, FDA takes corrective action. FDA
also sets labeling standards to help consumers know what is in
the foods they buy.
nation's food supply is protected in yet another way as FDA sees
that medicated feeds and other drugs given to animals raised for
food are not threatening to the consumer's health."
- FDA responds
to violations by encouraging firms "to voluntarily correct
the problem or to recall a faulty product from the market. A recall
is generally the fastest and most effective way to protect the
public from an unsafe product. When a company can't or won't
correct a public health problem with one of its products voluntarily,
FDA has legal sanctions it can bring to bear. The agency can go
to court to force a company to stop selling a product and to have
items already produced seized and destroyed. When warranted, criminal
penalties--including prison sentences--are sought against manufacturers
is the primary (lead) agency responsible for regulating food that
moves in interstate commerce (except meat, poultry and egg products,
those are regulated by USDA); any food that moves among states is
considered "an interstate movement" and subject to federal
addresses the safety of ingredients used in formulated foods
example, FDA has identified ingredients that are Generally Recognized
as Safe (GRAS)
requires food manufacturers to follow "Good Manufacturing Practices"
is authorized to access the manufacturer's records; e.g., records
pertaining to infant formula, certain low-acid canned and acidified
food processing records, and interstate shipments.
regulates food packaging and labeling
does not preapprove labels for food products; instead it focuses
on whether the label in use complies with the legal mandates.
- A Century of Ensuring Safe Foods and Cosmetics
Center for Food Safety
and Applied Nutrition; Food an Drug Administration, Department
of Health and Human Services
in conjunction with the Agency's field staff, is responsible for
promoting and protecting the public's health by ensuring that
the nation's food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and honestly
- A site that may be of interest: Food Protection Plan 2007 by the Department of Health and Human Services
Food and Drug Administration.
- This plan includes proposal for legislation during the Bush administration. Recognize that an agency's recommendation for legislation is not always enacted by Congress.
Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
- "The Food
Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in
the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the
nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe,
wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged."
History -- provides an excellent overview, including an overview
of the agency's current philosophy.
Responsible for administering the laws and regulations associated
with meat, poultry and eggs
Fact Sheets on a range of topics
inspects the operations of plants processing meat and poultry products
as the plants are being operated; these
plants cannot operate without a federal inspector or federally-approved
inspector on site.
FSIS inspects the animal before slaughter and the product after slaughter
Regulatory programs address labeling, ingredients, and regulatory
FSIS, under its current name since 1981, has been protecting public
health since 1906, when the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) signaled
the real beginning of domestic inspection of meat and meat food
products in the United States. The Act began a system of continuous,
daily organoleptic (sight, smell, touch) inspection in slaughterhouses
to detect unsanitary conditions and adulterated products. Poultry
inspection began in 1926 on a voluntary basis, and in 1957, Congress
passed the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA), which established
mandatory, continuous, daily inspection of poultry products.
The 1967 Wholesome Meat Act and the 1968 Wholesome Poultry Products
Act amended the FMIA and PPIA, extending Federal requirements to
imported products and to state meat and poultry inspection programs.
These Acts ensure uniformity in regulation of products shipped interstate,
intrastate, and in foreign commerce.
The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 required USDA to ensure
that egg products are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled. In
1995, responsibility for egg products inspection was transferred
from USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service to FSIS.
The next major change to meat and poultry inspection occurred when
FSIS published the landmark Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems rule on July 25, 1996. Implementation
of HACCP was phased in and completed in January 2000. Under HACCP,
all slaughter and processing plants are required to adopt a system
of process controls to prevent food safety hazards.
Also, the HACCP rule clarifies the respective roles of industry
and government in ensuring food safety and, therefore, makes better
use of government resources in addressing food safety risks. Industry
is accountable for producing safe food. Government is responsible
for setting appropriate food safety standards, maintaining vigorous
inspection to ensure that those standards are met, and maintaining
a strong enforcement program to deal with plants that do not meet
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the Department of Health and Human Services
mission of [Centers
for Disease Control] CDC's Food Safety Office is to lead
CDC's food safety programs to prevent illness, disability and
death due to domestic and imported foodborne diseases. We collaborate
with and support other CDC organizations with focus on attainment
of food safety program plans, goals and objectives. We work in
partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA), state and local health departments, and other
public and private organizations to strengthen regulations and
policies for prevention of foodborne diseases." Taken
Food Safety Office
- Although not directly regulating food processing businesses, the CDC impacts the food industry through its role of preventing food-borne illnesses and its involvement when a food safety problem arises. For example, the FoodNet project is a collaborative effort among the CDC, ten states, USDA and FDA consisting of "active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States."
Protection Agency (EPA)
introduction to this section states that concerns about food safety
continues to emphasize issues pertaining to food processing and final
preparation. However, this brief overview of the EPA's role in
food safety is one example of concerns that ag producers need to address.
It may also be an indication of how the concept of "farm to table"
may evolve to include the production sector of the industry.
the Food and Drug Administration regulates most aspects of food production
and consumption in the United States, the EPA is responsible for regulating
the use of pesticides on food. If improperly used, pesticides can
cause serious health problems, including birth defects, nerve damage,
cancer, and unique health risks to children. The EPA, in cooperation
with the states, carefully regulates pesticides to ensure that their
use does not compromise food safety. In particular, the Federal pesticide
program is designed to ensure that pesticides can be used without
posing harm to the most vulnerable members of society, children and
Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996
Residue on Food -- this web site has information about "pesticide
Federal Agencies Impacting Food Safety
introduction to the previous section states that food safety concerns
still primarily address processing and final preparation. In this
section, other agencies that impact food safety are introduced, including
agencies with responsibilities to the production sector of the food industry.
For those agencies, their food safety role is just beginning to evolve
and will likely continue to be refined in the future; their mission in
the past has not directly focused on food safety concerns. If (or
"as") their food safety responsibilities are revised, their
traditional missions are not likely to be eliminated. Thus an understanding
of their traditional role may suggest how food safety concerns could be
incorporated into their future missions.
- Other USDA agencies
- Agriculture Marketing Service
AMS administers the Pesticide
AMS develops grades and standards for meat, poultry, eggs, dairy
products, fruits and vegetables (pre-harvest).
Note that the grades and standards are not regulations, thereby allowing USDA and the industry to update the grades and standars by following a procedure other than promulgating a regulation.
of these standards have existed for many years and address
quality characteristics but not the safety of the product.
Although this may change in the future, it may be a slow process.
One example of this possible refinement is the Fresh
Produce Audit Verification Program. Note the reference
to FDA, FSIS, "Good Agricultural Practices" and "Good Handling
1991, the USDA was charged with designing and implementing a program
to collect data on pesticide residues in food. Responsibility
for this program was given to the USDA AMS which began operating
the Pesticide Data Program in May 1991. The data produced by PDP
are reported in an annual summary each year."
"EPA uses PDP data to prepare realistic pesticide dietary exposure assessments as part of its ongoing effort to implement the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act."
"PDP concentrates its efforts in providing better pesticide residue data on foods most consumed by children."
"PDP is a Federal-State partnership. Program operations are carried out with the support of 12 States: California, Colorado, Florida, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York, Ohio, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin."
- AMS administers the Microbiological
Fiscal Year 2001, the USDA was charged with implementing a program
to collect information regarding the incidence, number, and
species of important foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms
on domestic and imported fresh fruits and vegetables. USDA's
AMS was appointed to undertake the creation and implementation
of such a program, currently known as the Microbiological Data
Program (MDP). MDP began collecting and analyzing samples in
"MDP was primarily designed to provide data on microbial presence in order to establish a microbial baseline to assess the risks of contamination, if any, in the domestic food supply."
- AMS purchases
surpluses and other foods used in food assistance programs.
Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Bill) requires
country of origin labeling; that is, any
retailer engaged in the business of selling beef, lamb, pork, fish,
fresh fruits and fresh vegetables, and peanuts at retail (except
restaurant, cafeteria, lunch room, food stand, saloon, tavern, bar,
lounge, or other similar facility operated as an enterprise engaged
in the business of selling food to the public) shall inform consumers,
at the final point of sale, of the country of origin of the commodity.
This includes muscle
cuts of beef, lamb, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, and ground
pork; farm-raised fish; wild fish; fresh fruits and vegetables;
This law has not been without controversy. Its implementation has been delayed but its scope has also been expanded.
USDA Issues Final Rule on Mandatory Country of Origina Labeling; Jan. 12, 2009
7 CFR Parts 60 and 65;
Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of
Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat,
Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish,
Perishable Agricultural Commodities,
Peanuts, Pecans, Ginseng, and Macadamia
Nuts; Final Rule found at Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 10 / Thursday, January 15, 2009
The regulation begins on page 45 of the pdf; the previous pages summarize public comments on the proposed regulation and the agency's response. These pages also include agency explanation of the regulation.
Note that numerous sections of the regulation are "reserved;" this suggestions the regulation will be refined as time passes. Bottom line -- this is not the end of AMS promulgating regulations to implement COOL.
- AMS administers the
CFR Part 205.
program establishes national standards for the production and handling
of organically produced products, including a National List of substances
approved for and prohibited from use in organic production and handling."
National Organic Standards require all agricultural products sold,
labeled or represented as organic in the United States be certified
by a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) accredited certifying
CFR § 205.400 General requirements for certification (as an organic producer).
CFR § 205.501 General requirements for accreditation (as a certifying agent).
Certifying agents are employed to certify producers because USDA does not have enough staff to certify organic producers.
A North Dakota example of a certifying agent.
In a subsequent discussion on the expanding role of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), a similarity may become obvious; that is, agricultural producers can decide whether to be certified as following GAP and the certification will be done by private certifying agents, rather than by government.
- "The Federal
Grain Inspection Service of USDA's Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards
Administration provides inspection, weighing, and related services
on grains, pulses, oilseeds, and processed and graded commodities." See FGIS overview at http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/GIPSA/webapp?area=home&subject=grpi&topic=landing
- "GIPSA's Federal
Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) establishes the Official Standards
for Grain, which are used each and every day by sellers and buyers
to communicate the type and quality of grain bought and sold. FGIS
also establishes standard testing methodologies to accurately and
consistently measure grain quality. Finally, the program provides
for the impartial application of these grades and standards through
a network of Federal, State, and private inspection agencies known
as the official system."
United States Standards for grain, rice, beans and peas; also see 7 CFR 810
- The standards were initially intended to
protect/inform buyers and sellers; they were not intended to address food safety concerns. However, there is a relationship; for example, a moldy grain may form a toxic that would
be present in the baked product and dangerous to for human consumption
which would fit the definition of being adulterated. Even though
the primary purpose of the law may not be food safety concerns,
there is an interaction between grain standards and the safety of the final food product.
- Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service (APHIS) - includes: Plant protection and Quarantine; Biotechnology
Regulation; (primarily pre-harvest issues)
- "The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works to improve foreign market access for U.S. products, build new markets, improve the competitive position of U.S. agriculture in the global marketplace, and provide food aid and technical assistance to foreign countries."
Food and Nutrition Service
Administers school lunch and breakfast programs
Administers Food Stamp program
Administers Women, Infant
and Children Program
Provides recipes and education materials to improve nutrition
- Although not directly food safety, the program focuses on nutrition, which relates closely to the purpose of many labeling requirements.
"Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) regulates the manufacture
and distribution of food additives and drugs that will be given
to animals. These include animals from which human foods are derived,
as well as food additives and drugs for pet (or companion) animals."
FTC acts to ensure that markets operate efficiently to benefit
consumers. The FTC's twin missions of competition and consumer
protection serve a common aim: to enhance consumer welfare. The
Commission's competition mission promotes free and open competitive
markets, bringing consumers lower prices, innovation, and choice
among products and services. The Commission's consumer protection
mission fosters the exchange of accurate, non-deceptive information,
allowing consumers to make informed choices in their purchases.
Thus, these missions complement each other - accurate information
in the marketplace facilitates fair and robust competition - and
maximize benefits for consumers.
and substantiated health benefit claims in advertising can be
an important source of information for consumers. For that reason,
combating deceptive health claims, both online and off, continues
to be a major focus of the FTC's positive agenda."
of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Department of Justice
of alcohol beverage products are protected by several functions unique
to ATF. The ATF National Laboratory Center is the premier tester of
new products coming onto the market, as well as the facility that
determines whether any products currently on the market pose a health
risk to consumers. To ensure alcohol beverage labels do not contain
misleading information and adhere to regulatory mandates, ATF examines
all label applications for approval."
Marine Fisheries Service
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) oversees
fisheries management in the United States, and through the 1946
Agricultural Marketing Act, provides a voluntary inspection service to the industry. The NOAA Seafood Inspection
Program offers a variety of professional inspection services which
assure compliance with all applicable food regulations." http://seafood.nmfs.noaa.gov/
uniformity in U.S. weights and measures laws, regulations, and
standards to achieve equity between buyers and sellers in the
marketplace and thereby: enhance consumer confidence in the marketplace,
enable U.S. businesses to compete fairly at home and abroad, and
strengthen the U.S. economy."
Trade Administration -- "help your U.S. businesses participate
fully in the growing global marketplace"
about the nation's people and economy"
Technical Information Service "serves our nation as the largest central resource for government-funded
scientific, technical, engineering, and business related information
available today. Here you will find information on more than 600,000
information products covering over 350 subject areas from over 200
Safety and Health Administration -- OSHA's mission is to assure
the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing
standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing
partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace
safety and health.
of Labor Statistics
agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor
economics and statistics ... [it] collects, processes, analyzes,
and disseminates essential statistical data to the American public,
the U.S. Congress, other Federal agencies, State and local governments,
business, and labor ... [A]lso serves as a statistical resource
to the Department of Labor.
of state and local governments
At the beginning
of the 20th century, state and local governments generally addressed
food issues. The U.S. federal government enacted its first food law
in 1906 and has revised it numerous times since then. The involvement of the federal
government began to supplant the regulatory role of state and local
food laws but did not totally replace them. Thus, each level of
government remains involved in regulating food safety, but much of the
direction or leadership is currently coming from the federal government.
- States remain
involved in regulating food safety because they assumed this role
before the federal government became involved, they are physically
closer to the industry, and the federal government does not have
the staff necessary to solely administer the programs.
between state and federal agencies responsible for food safety can be
described as collaborative and supportive.
law preempts but federal law addresses only food in "interstate commerce."
regulations reflect federal minimum standards.
some situations, federal agencies provide suggestions/recommendations
for the state to consider (e.g., Food Code); in other situations,
law mandates what a state does.
involves cooperation with federal agencies.
-- INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS -- Federal and State cooperation.
Secretary shall, whenever he determines that it would effectuate the
purposes of the Act, authorize the Administrator to cooperate with
appropriate State and other governmental agencies in carrying out
any provisions of the Egg Products Inspection Act and these regulations.
In carrying out the provisions of the Act and the regulations, the
Secretary may conduct such examinations, investigations, and inspections
as he determines practicable through any officer or employee of any
such agency commissioned by him for such purpose. The Secretary shall
reimburse the States and other agencies for the services rendered
by them in such cooperative programs as agreed to in the cooperative
agreements as signed by the Administrator and the duly authorized
agent of the State or other agency."
9 CFR 590.13
- In some situation,
the state can choose whether
it will enforce the regulations or rely on the federal government
to enforce the regulations (e.g., meat inspection, described below).
The federal government sometimes provides funding to assist states
administer a regulatory program.
State agriculture and health departments often have a leadership role
in food safety; examples:
The state departments interact with the federal agencies such as FDA,
USDA, EPA, etc.
of Understanding (MOU) between the state and the appropriate federal
agency is the basis for federally certified state programs.
example, Minnesota administers a USDA-approved meat inspection service;
North Dakota and Wisconsin rely on USDA to provide meat inspection
service in their states.
- "State Meat
and Poultry Inspection (MPI) Programs ... operate under a cooperative
agreement with FSIS. Under the agreement, a State's program must enforce
requirements "at least equal to" those imposed under the Federal Meat
Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act. Establishments
have the option to apply for Federal (including MPI programs)
or State inspection. However, product produced under State inspection
(non-MPI program) is limited to intrastate commerce."
taken from Requirements
for State Programs
currently operating MPI programs
of states that] have given up their meat or poultry inspection programs,
or both. USDA assumed the inspection function of these plants in addition
to plants already under USDA inspection. State inspected plants would
normally qualify for federal inspection due to the "equal to" requirement
for state inspection programs. All plants under Federal inspection (including MPI programs) are eligible to sell in interstate
commerce." taken from Listing
of States Without Inspection Programs
Some state agencies have powers/authorities that federal agencies do
not, such as authority to demand the firm's records about GMP, HACCP,
and processing times and procedures, or impose larger penalties.
Enforcement actions often are based on local findings or the result
A local health department that is authorized by the department to
enforce this part may make inspections, take samples, make laboratory
examinations, impose and remove embargoes, hold informal hearings,
certify facts to the district attorney, and institute proceedings
for the forfeiture, condemnation, and destruction of food found
to be adulterated or misbranded. The action shall be instituted
in the name of the city, county, city and county, or district of
which the local health department is a part, and shall conform to
the requirements of this part and the regulations adopted by the
department pursuant to this part." California HEALTH
AND SAFETY CODE SECTION 111015-111065
often falls upon the states; federal agencies do not have a large
number of inspectors
to coordinate state and local enforcement to achieve efficiency
for government and the food firms
CFR 100.2 State Enforcement
following paragraphs are an excerpt from: Healthy People 2010 Focus
Area Data Progress Review; Focus Area 10: Food Safety; Challenges, Barriers,
Strategies and Opportunities (http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/hp2010.html). Note
the distinctions, as well as the collaboration, between these two agencies
with major food safety responsibilities.
and FSIS implemented Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
systems regulations for seafood (1997), meat and poultry (1998), and
juice products (2002). HACCP is an internationally recognized, scientific
approach to producing safer food by anticipating how biological, chemical,
or physical hazards are most likely to occur and by installing appropriate
measures to prevent them from occurring.
Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or
Holding Human Food (CGMP) regulations are general regulations that
apply to all foods FDA regulates. In addition, there are specific
CGMP regulations that apply to specific food categories.
enforces regulations through inspection and sampling.
samples are samples collected when there is no prior knowledge or
evidence that a specific food shipment contains pathogens, illegal
pesticides, or other chemical residues.
samples are taken as follow-up to the finding of pathogens or illegal
residues or when other evidence, such as foodborne illness, indicates
that a problem may exist. Federal, State and local agencies cooperate
in traceback investigations and collect compliance samples following
foodborne disease outbreaks.
Regulatory programs for retail, milk, and shellfish involve a cooperative
effort among FDA, States, and the industry to regulate production or
harvesting of these foods.
such as FDA's Guidance for Industry: Guide to Minimize Microbial
Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (also known
as "Good Agricultural Practices" or "GAPs," http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/prodguid.html),
the FDA Food Code (for retail level establishments http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodcode.html)
as well as specific technical assistance have been provided to producers
(growers), processors, the States, and other countries.
- In 1999, 2373
federally inspected and 170 state inspected meat and poultry plants
implemented HACCP. In 2000, HACCP was implemented in over 3400 federally
inspected and 2300 state inspected plants. FSIS recognized that both
small and very small plants would need additional guidance and assistance
that the large plants that implemented HACCP in 1998 did not require.
To meet their needs, several outreach programs have been established
and implemented. All the information, materials, guidance, and outreach
efforts of FSIS are provided to federal and state plants at no charge.
International Food and Food Safety Standards
-- will they preempt domestic standards?