A doctorate degree is a terminal degree that requires a dedicated commitment of 3-6 years. PhD students work under the supervision of a graduate faculty mentor to develop novel research and progress to become independent scientists capable of teaching and communicating science to experts and the greater community. The PhD culminates in a dissertation and dissertation defense. Primary research publications are expected as part of this degree. Students who complete a PhD will be competitive for academic or industrial careers or may choose to apply their understanding of science and science communication to other career paths such as public health, laboratory safety, science communication, or science policy.